Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 444

Search results for: plates

444 Behavior of Laminated Plates under Mechanical Loading

Authors: Mahmoudi Noureddine

Abstract:

In this study the use of two variable refined plate theories of laminated composite plates to static response of laminated plates. The plate theory accounts for parabolic distribution of the transverse shear strains, and satisfies the zero traction boundary conditions on the surfaces of the plate without using shear correction factor. The validity of the present theory is demonstrated by comparison with solutions available in the literature and finite element method. The result is presented for the static response of simply supported rectangular plates under uniform sinusoidal mechanical loadings.

Keywords: bending, composite, laminate, plates, fem

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
443 Buckling Analysis of Laminated Composite Plates with Central Holes

Authors: Pratyasha Patnaik, A. V. Asha

Abstract:

Laminated composite plates are made up of plates consisting of layers bonded together and made up of materials chemically different from each other but combined macroscopically. These have an application in aircrafts, railway coaches, bridges etc. because they are easy to handle, have got improved properties and the cost of their fabrication is low. But their failure can lead to catastrophic disasters. And generally, the failure of these structures is due to the combined effect of excessive stresses on it and buckling. Hence, the buckling behavior of these kinds of plates should be analyzed properly. Holes are provided either at the center or elsewhere in the laminar plates for the purpose of pipes for electric cables or other purposes. Due to the presence of holes in the plates, the stress concentration is near to the holes and the stiffness of the plates is reduced. In this study, the effect of a cut-out, its shape, different boundary conditions, length/thickness ratio, stacking sequence, and ply orientation has been studied. The analysis was carried out with laminated composite plates with circular, square and triangular cut-outs. Results show the effect of different cut-out shapes, boundary conditions, the orientation of layers and length/thickness ratio of the buckling load

Keywords: buckling, composite plates, cut-out, stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
442 Approaches to Vibration Analysis of Thick Plates Subjected to Different Supports, Loadings and Boundary Conditions: A Literature Review

Authors: Fazl E. Ahad, Shi Dongyan, Anees Ur Rehman

Abstract:

Plates are one of the most important structural components used in many industries like aerospace, marine and various other engineering fields and thus motivate designers and engineers to study the vibrational characteristics of these structures. This paper is a review of existing literature on vibration analysis of plates. Focus has been kept on prominent studies related to isotropic plates based on Mindlin plate theory; however few citations on orthotropic plates and higher order shear deformation theories have also been included. All citations are in English language. This review is aimed to provide contemporarily relevant survey of papers on vibrational characteristics of thick plates and will be useful for scientists, designers and researchers to locate important and relevant literature/research quickly.

Keywords: mindlin plates, vibrations, arbitrary boundary conditions, mode shapes, natural frequency

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
441 Natural Convection between Two Parallel Wavy Plates

Authors: Si Abdallah Mayouf

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In this work, the effects of the wavy surface on free convection heat transfer boundary layer flow between two parallel wavy plates have been studied numerically. The two plates are considered at a constant temperature. The equations and the boundary conditions are discretized by the finite difference scheme and solved numerically using the Gauss-Seidel algorithm. The important parameters in this problem are the amplitude of the wavy surfaces and the distance between the two wavy plates. Results are presented as velocity profiles, temperature profiles and local Nusselt number according to the important parameters.

Keywords: free convection, wavy surface, parallel plates, fluid dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
440 Analysis of Plates with Varying Rigidities Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Karan Modi, Rajesh Kumar, Jyoti Katiyar, Shreya Thusoo

Abstract:

This paper presents Finite Element Method (FEM) for analyzing the internal responses generated in thin rectangular plates with various edge conditions and rigidity conditions. Comparison has been made between the FEM (ANSYS software) results for displacement, stresses and moments generated with and without the consideration of hole in plate and different aspect ratios. In the end comparison for responses in plain and composite square plates has been studied.

Keywords: ANSYS, finite element method, plates, static analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
439 Failure Mechanism of Slip-Critical Connections on Curved Surface

Authors: Bae Doobyong, Yoo Jaejun, Park Ilgyu, Choi Seowon, Oh Chang Kook

Abstract:

Variation of slip coefficient in slip-critical connections of curved plates. This paper presents the results of analytical investigations of slip coefficients in slip-critical bolted connections of curved plates. It may depend on the contact stress distribution at interface and the flexibility of spliced plate. Non-linear FEM analyses have been made to simulate the behavior of bolted connections of curved plates with various radiuses of curvature and thicknesses.

Keywords: slip coefficient, curved plates, slip-critical bolted connection, radius of curvature

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
438 An Analytical Method for Bending Rectangular Plates with All Edges Clamped Supported

Authors: Yang Zhong, Heng Liu

Abstract:

The decoupling method and the modified Naiver method are combined for accurate bending analysis of rectangular thick plates with all edges clamped supported. The basic governing equations for Mindlin plates are first decoupled into independent partial differential equations which can be solved separately. Using modified Navier method, the analytic solution of rectangular thick plate with all edges clamped supported is then derived. The solution method used in this paper leave out the complicated derivation for calculating coefficients and obtain the solution to problems directly. Numerical comparisons show the correctness and accuracy of the results at last.

Keywords: Mindlin plates, decoupling method, modified Navier method, bending rectangular plates

Procedia PDF Downloads 446
437 Study on Buckling and Yielding Behaviors of Low Yield Point Steel Plates

Authors: David Boyajian, Tadeh Zirakian

Abstract:

Stability and performance of steel plates are characterized by geometrical buckling and material yielding. In this paper, the geometrical buckling and material yielding behaviors of low yield point (LYP) steel plates are studied from the point of view of their application in steel plate shear wall (SPSW) systems. Use of LYP steel facilitates the design and application of web plates with improved buckling and energy absorption capacities in SPSW systems. LYP steel infill plates may yield first and then undergo inelastic buckling. Hence, accurate determination of the limiting plate thickness corresponding to simultaneous buckling and yielding can be effective in seismic design of such lateral force-resisting and energy dissipating systems. The limiting thicknesses of plates with different loading and support conditions are determined theoretically and verified through detailed numerical simulations. Effects of use of LYP steel and plate aspect ratio parameter on the limiting plate thickness are investigated as well. In addition, detailed studies are performed on determination of the limiting web-plate thickness in code-designed SPSWs. Some practical recommendations are accordingly provided for efficient seismic design of SPSW systems with LYP steel infill plates.

Keywords: buckling, low yield point steel, plates, steel plate shear walls, yielding

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
436 A Closed-Form Solution and Comparison for a One-Dimensional Orthorhombic Quasicrystal and Crystal Plate

Authors: Arpit Bhardwaj, Koushik Roy

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The work includes derivation of the exact-closed form solution for simply supported quasicrystal and crystal plates by using propagator matrix method under surface loading and free vibration. As a numerical example a quasicrystal and a crystal plate are considered, and after investigation, the variation of displacement and stress fields along the thickness of these two plates are presented. Further, it includes analyzing the displacement and stress fields for two plates having two different stacking arrangement, i.e., QuasiCrystal/Crystal/QuasiCrystal and Crystal/QuasiCrystal/Crystal and comparing their results. This will not only tell us the change in the behavior of displacement and stress fields in two different materials but also how these get changed after trying their different combinations. For the free vibration case, Crystal and Quasicrystal plates along with their different stacking arrangements are considered, and displacements are plotted in all directions for different Mode Shapes.

Keywords: free vibration, multilayered plates, surface loading, quasicrystals

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
435 Dynamics of Understanding Earthquake Precursors-A Review

Authors: Sarada Nivedita Bhuyan

Abstract:

Earthquake is the sudden, rapid movement of the earth’s crust and is the natural means of releasing stress. Tectonic plates play a major role for earthquakes as tectonic plates are the crust of the planet. The boundary lines of tectonic plates are usually known as fault lines. To understand an earthquake before its occurrence, different types of earthquake precursors are studied by different researchers. Surface temperature, strange cloud cover, earth’s electric field, geomagnetic phenomena, ground water level, active faults, ionospheric anomalies, tectonic movements are taken as parameters for earthquake study by different researchers. In this paper we tried to gather complete and helpful information of earthquake precursors which have been studied until now.

Keywords: earthquake precursors, earthquake, tectonic plates, fault

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
434 Buckling Behavior of FGM Plates Using a Simplified Shear Deformation Theory

Authors: Mokhtar Bouazza

Abstract:

In this paper, the simplified theory will be used to predict the thermoelastic buckling behavior of rectangular functionally graded plates. The material properties of the functionally graded plates are assumed to vary continuously through the thickness, according to a simple power law distribution of the volume fraction of the constituents. The simplified theory is used to obtain the buckling of the plate under different types of thermal loads. The thermal loads are assumed to be uniform, linear, and non-linear distribution through the thickness. Additional numerical results are presented for FGM plates that show the effects of various parameters on thermal buckling response.

Keywords: buckling, functionally graded, plate, simplified higher-order deformation theory, thermal loading

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
433 Laser Welding Technique Effect for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Application

Authors: Chih-Chia Lin, Ching-Ying Huang, Cheng-Hong Liu, Wen-Lin Wang

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A complete fuel cell stack comprises several single cells with end plates, bipolar plates, gaskets and membrane electrode assembly (MEA) components. Electrons generated from cells are conducted through bipolar plates. The amount of cells' components increases as the stack voltage increases, complicating the fuel cell assembly process and mass production. Stack assembly error influence cell performance. PEM fuel cell stack importing laser welding technique could eliminate transverse deformation between bipolar plates to promote stress uniformity of cell components as bipolar plates and MEA. Simultaneously, bipolar plates were melted together using laser welding to decrease interface resistance. A series of experiments as through-plan and in-plan resistance measurement test was conducted to observe the laser welding effect. The result showed that the through-plane resistance with laser welding was a drop of 97.5-97.6% when the contact pressure was about 1MPa to 3 MPa, and the in-plane resistance was not significantly different for laser welding.

Keywords: PEM fuel cell, laser welding, through-plan, in-plan, resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
432 Body Armours in Amazonian Fish

Authors: Fernando G. Torres, Donna M. Ebenstein, Monica Merino

Abstract:

Most fish are covered by a protective external armour. The characteristics of these armours depend on the individual elements that form them, such as scales, scutes or dermal plates. In this work, we assess the properties of two different types of protective elements: scales from A. gigas and dermal plates from P. pardalis. A. Gigas and P. Pardalis are two Amazonian fish with a rather prehistoric aspect. They have large scales and dermal plates that form two different types of protective body armours. Although both scales and dermal plates are formed by collagen and hydroxyapatite, their structures display remarkable differences. The structure and composition of the samples were assessed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Morphology studies were carried out using a Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Nanoindentation tests were performed to measure the reduced moduli in A. gigas scales and P. pardalis plates. The similarities and differences between scales and dermal plates are discussed based on the experimental results. Both protective armours are designed to be lightweight, flexible and tough. A. Gigas scales are are light laminated composites, while P. pardalis dermal plates show a sandwich like structure with dense outer layers and a porous inner matrix. It seems that the armour of P. pardalis is more suited for a bottom-dwelling fish and allows for protection against predators. The scales from A. Gigas are more adapted to give protection to a swimming fish. The information obtained from these studies is also important for the development of bioinspired nanocomposites, with potential applications in the biomedical field.

Keywords: pterygoplichthys pardalis, dermal plates arapaima gigas, fish scales

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
431 A Computational Diagnostics for Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma

Authors: Zainab D. Abd Ali, Thamir H. Khalaf

Abstract:

In this paper, the characteristics of electric discharge in gap between two (parallel-plate) dielectric plates are studies, the gap filled with Argon gas in atm pressure at ambient temperature, the thickness of gap typically less than 1 mm and dielectric may be up 10 cm in diameter. One of dielectric plates a sinusoidal voltage is applied with Rf frequency, the other plates is electrically grounded. The simulation in this work depending on Boltzmann equation solver in first few moments, fluid model and plasma chemistry, in one dimensional modeling. This modeling have insight into characteristics of Dielectric Barrier Discharge through studying properties of breakdown of gas, electric field, electric potential, and calculating electron density, mean electron energy, electron current density ,ion current density, total plasma current density. The investigation also include: 1. The influence of change in thickness of gap between two plates if we doubled or reduced gap to half. 2. The effect of thickness of dielectric plates. 3. The influence of change in type and properties of dielectric material (gass, silicon, Teflon).

Keywords: computational diagnostics, Boltzmann equation, electric discharge, electron density

Procedia PDF Downloads 663
430 The Condition Testing of Damaged Plates Using Acoustic Features and Machine Learning

Authors: Kyle Saltmarsh

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Acoustic testing possesses many benefits due to its non-destructive nature and practicality. There hence exists many scenarios in which using acoustic testing for condition testing shows powerful feasibility. A wealth of information is contained within the acoustic and vibration characteristics of structures, allowing the development meaningful features for the classification of their respective condition. In this paper, methods, results, and discussions are presented on the use of non-destructive acoustic testing coupled with acoustic feature extraction and machine learning techniques for the condition testing of manufactured circular steel plates subjected to varied levels of damage.

Keywords: plates, deformation, acoustic features, machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
429 Thermal Postbuckling of First Order Shear Deformable Functionally Graded Plates

Authors: Merbouha Barka, K. H. Benrahou, A. Fakrar, A. Tounsi, E. A. Adda Bedia

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This paper presents an analytical investigation on the buckling and postbuckling behaviors of thick functionally graded plates subjected to thermal load .Material properties are assumed to be temperature dependent, and graded in the thickness direction according to a simple power law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of constituents. The formulations are based on first order shear deformation plate theory taking into account Von Karman nonlinearity and initial geometrical imperfection. By applying Galerkin method, closed-form relations of postbuckling equilibrium paths for simply supported plates are determined. Analysis is carried out to show the effects of material and geometrical properties, in-plane boundary restraint, and imperfection on the buckling and postbuckling loading capacity of the plates.

Keywords: functionally graded materials, postbuckling, first order shear deformation theory, imperfection

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
428 Structural Performance of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Steel Plates: Experimental Study

Authors: Mazin Mohammed S. Sarhan

Abstract:

This study presents the performance of concrete beams reinforced with steel plates as a technique of reinforcement. Three reinforced concrete beams with the dimensions of 200 mm x 300 mm x 4000 mm (width x height x length, respectively) were experimentally investigated under flexural loading. The deformed steel bars were used as the main reinforcement for the first beam. A steel plate placed horizontally was used as the main reinforcement for the second beam. The bond between the steel plate and the surrounding concrete was enhanced by using steel bolts (with a diameter of 20 mm and length of 100 mm) welded to the steel plate at a regular distance of 200 mm. A pair of steel plates placed vertically was used as the main reinforcement for the third beam. The bond between the pair steel plates and the surrounding concrete was enhanced by using 4 equal steel angles (with the dimensions of 75 mm x 75 mm and the thickness of 8 mm) for each vertical steel plate. Two steel angles were welded at each end of the steel plate. The outcomes revealed that the bending stiffness of the beams reinforced with steel plates was higher than that reinforced with deformed steel bars. Also, the flexural ductile behavior of the second beam was much higher than the rest beams.

Keywords: concrete beam, deflection, ductility, plate

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
427 Application Research on Large Profiled Statues of Steel-Concrete Composite Shear Wall

Authors: Zhao Cai-qi, Ma Jun

Abstract:

Twin steel plates-concrete composite shear walls are composed of a pair of steel plate layers and a concrete layer sandwiched between them, which have the characteristics of both reinforced concrete shear walls and steel plate shear walls. Twin steel plates-composite shear walls contain very high ultimate bearing capacity and ductility, which have great potential to be applied in the super high-rise buildings and special structures. In this paper, we analyzed the basic characteristics and stress mechanism of the twin steel plates-composite shear walls. Specifically, we analyzed the effects of the steel plate thickness, wall thickness and concrete strength on the bearing capacity of the twin steel plates-composite shear walls. The analysis results indicate that:(1)the initial shear stiffness and ultimate shear-carrying capacity is not significantly affected by the thickness of concrete wall but by the class of concrete,(2)both factors significantly impact the shear distribution of the shear walls in ultimate shear-carrying capacity. The technique of twin steel plates-composite shear walls has been successfully applied in the construction of a 88-meter Huge Statue of Buddha located in Hunan Province, China. The analysis results and engineering experiences showed that the twin steel plates-composite shear walls have great potential for future research and applications.

Keywords: twin steel plates-concrete composite shear wall, huge statue of Buddha, shear capacity, initial lateral stiffness, overturning moment bearing

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
426 Health of Riveted Joints with Active and Passive Structural Health Monitoring Techniques

Authors: Javad Yarmahmoudi, Alireza Mirzaee

Abstract:

Many active and passive structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques have been developed for detection of the defects of plates. Generally, riveted joints hold the plates together and their failure may create accidents. In this study, well known active and passive methods were modified for the evaluation of the health of the riveted joints between the plates. The active method generated Lamb waves and monitored their propagation by using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) disks. The signal was analyzed by using the wavelet transformations. The passive method used the Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors and evaluated the spectral characteristics of the signals by using Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT). The results indicated that the existing methods designed for the evaluation of the health of individual plates may be used for inspection of riveted joints with software modifications.

Keywords: structural health monitoring, SHM, active SHM, passive SHM, fiber bragg grating sensor, lead zirconate titanate, PZT

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
425 The Effects of SCMs on the Mechanical Properties and Durability of Fibre Cement Plates

Authors: Ceren Ince, Berkay Zafer Erdem, Shahram Derogar, Nabi Yuzer

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Fibre cement plates, often used in construction, generally are made using quartz as an inert material, cement as a binder and cellulose as a fibre. This paper first of all investigates the mechanical properties and durability of fibre cement plates when quartz is both partly and fully replaced with diatomite. Diatomite does not only have lower density compared to quartz but also has high pozzolanic activity. The main objective of this paper is the investigation of the effects of supplementary cementing materials (SCMs) on the short and long term mechanical properties and durability characteristics of fibre cement plates prepared using diatomite. Supplementary cementing materials such as ground granulated blast furnace slug (GGBS) and fly ash (FA) are used in this study. 10, 20, 30 and 40% of GGBS and FA are used as partial replacement materials to cement. Short and long term mechanical properties such as compressive and flexural strengths as well as capillary absorption, sorptivity characteristics and mass were investigated. Consistency and setting time at each replacement levels of SCMs were also recorded. The effects of using supplementary cementing materials on the carbonation and sulphate resistance of fibre cement plates were then experimented. The results, first of all, show that the use of diatomite as a full or partial replacement to quartz resulted in a systematic decrease in total mass of the fibre cement plates. The reduction of mass was largely due to the lower density and finer particle size of diatomite compared to quartz. The use of diatomite did not only reduce the mass of these plates but also increased the compressive strength significantly as a result of its high pozzolanic activity. The replacement levels of both GGBS and FA resulted in a systematic decrease in short term compressive strength with increasing replacement levels. This was essentially expected as the total heat of hydration is much lower in GGBS and FA than that of cement. Long term results however, indicated that the compressive strength of fibre cement plates prepared using both GGBS and FA increases with time and hence the compressive strength of plates prepared using SCMs is either equivalent or more than the compressive strength of plates prepared using cement alone. Durability characteristics of fibre cement plates prepared using SCMs were enhanced significantly. Measurements of capillary absorption and sopritivty characteristics were also indicated that the plates prepared using SCMs has much lower permeability compared to plates prepared cement alone. Much higher resistance to carbonation and sulphate attach were observed with plates prepared using SCMs. The results presented in this paper show that the use of SCMs does not only support the production of more sustainable construction materials but also enhances the mechanical properties and durability characteristics of fibre cement plates.

Keywords: diatomite, fibre, strength, supplementary cementing material

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
424 Application of the Extended Kantorovich Method to Size-Dependent Vibrational Analysis of Fully Clamped Rectangular Micro-Plates

Authors: Amir R. Askari, Masoud Tahani

Abstract:

The objective of the present paper is to investigate the effect of size on the vibrational behavior of fully clamped rectangular micro-plates based on the modified couple stress theory (MCST). To this end, a size-dependent Kirchhoff plate model is considered and the equation of motion which accounts for the effect of residual and couple stress components is derived using the Hamilton's principle. The eigenvalue problem associated with the free vibrations of fully clamped micro-plates is extracted and solved analytically using the extended Kantorovich method (EKM). The present findings are compared and validated by available results in the literature and an excellent agreement between them is observed. A parametric study is also conducted to show the significant effects of couple stress components on natural frequencies of fully clamped micro-plates. It is found that the ratio of MCST natural frequencies to those obtained by the classical theory (CT) only depends on the Poisson's ratio of the plate and is totally independent of plate's aspect ratio for cases with no residual stresses.

Keywords: vibrational analysis, modified couple stress theory, fully clamped rectangular micro-plates, extended Kantorovich method.

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
423 A Numerical Study on the Flow in a Pipe with Perforated Plates

Authors: Myeong Hee Jeong, Man Young Kim

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The use of perforated plate and tubes is common in applications such as vehicle exhaust silencers, attenuators in air moving ducts and duct linings in jet engines. Also, perforated plate flow conditioners designed to improve flow distribution upstream of an orifice plate flow meter typically have 50–60% free area but these generally employ a non-uniform distribution of holes of several sizes to encourage the formation of a fully developed pipe flow velocity distribution. In this study, therefore, numerical investigations on the flow characteristics with the various perforated plates have been performed and then compared to the case without a perforated plate. Three different models are adopted such as a flat perforated plate, a convex perforated plate in the direction of the inlet, and a convex perforated plate in the direction of the outlet. Simulation results show that the pressure drop with and without perforated plates are similar each other. However, it can be found that that the different shaped perforated plates influence the velocity contour, flow uniformity index, and location of the fully developed fluid flow. These results can be used as a practical guide to the best design of pipe with the perforated plate.

Keywords: perforated plate, flow uniformity, pipe turbulent flow, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics)

Procedia PDF Downloads 412
422 Modified Side Plate Design to Suppress Lateral Torsional Buckling of H-Beam for Seismic Application

Authors: Erwin, Cheng-Cheng Chen, Charles J. Salim

Abstract:

One of the method to solve the lateral torsional buckling (LTB) problem is by using side plates to increased the buckling resistance of the beam. Some modifications in designing the side plates are made in this study to simplify the construction in the field and reduce the cost. At certain region, side plates are not added: (1) At the beam end to preserve some spaces for bolt installation, but the beam is strengthened by adding cover plate at both flanges and (2) at the middle span of the beam where the moment is smaller. Three small scale full span beam specimens are tested under cyclic loading to investigate the LTB resistant and the ductility of the proposed design method. Test results show that the LTB deformation can be effectively suppressed and very high ductility level can be achieved. Following the test, a finite element analysis (FEA) model is established and is verified using the test results. An intensive parametric study is conducted using the established FEA model. The analysis reveals that the length of side plates is the most important parameter determining the performance of the beam and the required side plates length is determined by some parameters which are (1) beam depth to flange width ratio, (2) beam slenderness ratio (3) strength and thickness of the side plates, (4) compactness of beam web and flange, and (5) beam yield strength. At the end of the paper, a design formula to calculate the required side plate length is suggested.

Keywords: cover plate, earthquake resistant design, lateral torsional buckling, side plate, steel structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
421 Parametric Study on the Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Continuous Beams Flexurally Strengthened with FRP Plates

Authors: Mohammed A. Sakr, Tarek M. Khalifa, Walid N. Mansour

Abstract:

External bonding of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) plates to reinforced concrete (RC) beams is an effective technique for flexural strengthening. This paper presents an analytical parametric study on the behavior of RC continuous beams flexurally strengthened with externally bonded FRP plates on the upper and lower fibers, conducted using simple uniaxial nonlinear finite element model (UNFEM). UNFEM is able to estimate the load-carrying capacity, different failure modes and the interfacial stresses of RC continuous beams flexurally strengthened with externally bonded FRP plates on the upper and lower fibers. The study investigated the effect of five key parameters on the behavior and moment redistribution of FRP-reinforced continuous beams. The investigated parameters were the length of the FRP plate, the width and the thickness of the FRP plate, the ratio between the area of the FRP plate to the concrete area, the cohesive shear strength of the adhesive layer, and the concrete compressive strength. The investigation resulted in a number of important conclusions reflecting the effects of the studied parameters on the behavior of RC continuous beams flexurally strengthened with externally bonded FRP plates.

Keywords: continuous beams, parametric study, finite element, fiber reinforced polymer

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
420 Analysis of Slip Flow Heat Transfer between Asymmetrically Heated Parallel Plates

Authors: Hari Mohan Kushwaha, Santosh Kumar Sahu

Abstract:

In the present study, analysis of heat transfer is carried out in the slip flow region for the fluid flowing between two parallel plates by employing the asymmetric heat fluxes at surface of the plates. The flow is assumed to be hydrodynamically and thermally fully developed for the analysis. The second order velocity slip and viscous dissipation effects are considered for the analysis. Closed form expressions are obtained for the Nusselt number as a function of Knudsen number and modified Brinkman number. The limiting condition of the present prediction for Kn = 0, Kn2 = 0, and Brq1 = 0 is considered and found to agree well with other analytical results.

Keywords: Knudsen number, modified Brinkman number, slip flow, velocity slip

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
419 Nonlinear Vibration of FGM Plates Subjected to Acoustic Load in Thermal Environment Using Finite Element Modal Reduction Method

Authors: Hassan Parandvar, Mehrdad Farid

Abstract:

In this paper, a finite element modeling is presented for large amplitude vibration of functionally graded material (FGM) plates subjected to combined random pressure and thermal load. The material properties of the plates are assumed to vary continuously in the thickness direction by a simple power law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents. The material properties depend on the temperature whose distribution along the thickness can be expressed explicitly. The von Karman large deflection strain displacement and extended Hamilton's principle are used to obtain the governing system of equations of motion in structural node degrees of freedom (DOF) using finite element method. Three-node triangular Mindlin plate element with shear correction factor is used. The nonlinear equations of motion in structural degrees of freedom are reduced by using modal reduction method. The reduced equations of motion are solved numerically by 4th order Runge-Kutta scheme. In this study, the random pressure is generated using Monte Carlo method. The modeling is verified and the nonlinear dynamic response of FGM plates is studied for various values of volume fraction and sound pressure level under different thermal loads. Snap-through type behavior of FGM plates is studied too.

Keywords: nonlinear vibration, finite element method, functionally graded material (FGM) plates, snap-through, random vibration, thermal effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
418 Numerical Analysis of the Effects of Transpiration on Transient/Steady Natural Convection Flow of Reactive Viscous Fluid in a Vertical Channel Formed by Two Vertical Porous Plates

Authors: Ahmad K. Samaila, Basant K. Jha

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This study is devoted to investigate the effect of transpiration on transient as well as steady-state natural convection flow of a reactive viscous fluid in a vertical channel formed by two infinite vertical parallel porous plates. The Boussinesq assumption is applied and the nonlinear governing equations of energy and momentum are developed. The problem is solved numerically using implicit finite difference method and analytically for steady-state case using perturbation method. Solutions are presented in graphical form for fluid temperature, velocity, and skin-friction and wall heat transfer rate for various parametric values. It is found that velocity, temperature, rate of heat transfer as well as skin-friction are strongly affected by mass leakage through the porous plates.

Keywords: transpiration, reactive viscous fluid, porous plates, natural convection, suction/injection

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
417 Effect of Magnetic Field on Unsteady MHD Poiseuille Flow of a Third Grade Fluid Under Exponential Decaying Pressure Gradient with Ohmic Heating

Authors: O. W. Lawal, L. O. Ahmed, Y. K. Ali

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The unsteady MHD Poiseuille flow of a third grade fluid between two parallel horizontal nonconducting porous plates is studied with heat transfer. The two plates are fixed but maintained at different constant temperature with the Joule and viscous dissipation taken into consideration. The fluid motion is produced by a sudden uniform exponential decaying pressure gradient and external uniform magnetic field that is perpendicular to the plates. The momentum and energy equations governing the flow are solved numerically using Maple program. The effects of magnetic field and third grade fluid parameters on velocity and temperature profile are examined through several graphs.

Keywords: exponential decaying pressure gradient, MHD flow, Poiseuille flow, third grade fluid

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
416 The Dynamics of Unsteady Squeezing Flow between Parallel Plates (Two-Dimensional)

Authors: Jiya Mohammed, Ibrahim Ismail Giwa

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Unsteady squeezing flow of a viscous fluid between parallel plates is considered. The two plates are considered to be approaching each other symmetrically, causing the squeezing flow. Two-dimensional rectangular Cartesian coordinate is considered. The Navier-Stokes equation was reduced using similarity transformation to a single fourth order non-linear ordinary differential equation. The energy equation was transformed to a second order coupled differential equation. We obtained solution to the resulting ordinary differential equations via Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM). HPM deforms a differential problem into a set of problem that are easier to solve and it produces analytic approximate expression in the form of an infinite power series by using only sixth and fifth terms for the velocity and temperature respectively. The results reveal that the proposed method is very effective and simple. Comparisons among present and existing solutions were provided and it is shown that the proposed method is in good agreement with Variation of Parameter Method (VPM). The effects of appropriate dimensionless parameters on the velocity profiles and temperature field are demonstrated with the aid of comprehensive graphs and tables.

Keywords: coupled differential equation, Homotopy Perturbation Method, plates, squeezing flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
415 Effects of Bipolar Plate Coating Layer on Performance Degradation of High-Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

Authors: Chen-Yu Chen, Ping-Hsueh We, Wei-Mon Yan

Abstract:

Over the past few centuries, human requirements for energy have been met by burning fossil fuels. However, exploiting this resource has led to global warming and innumerable environmental issues. Thus, finding alternative solutions to the growing demands for energy has recently been driving the development of low-carbon and even zero-carbon energy sources. Wind power and solar energy are good options but they have the problem of unstable power output due to unpredictable weather conditions. To overcome this problem, a reliable and efficient energy storage sub-system is required in future distributed-power systems. Among all kinds of energy storage technologies, the fuel cell system with hydrogen storage is a promising option because it is suitable for large-scale and long-term energy storage. The high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) with metallic bipolar plates is a promising fuel cell system because an HT-PEMFC can tolerate a higher CO concentration and the utilization of metallic bipolar plates can reduce the cost of the fuel cell stack. However, the operating life of metallic bipolar plates is a critical issue because of the corrosion phenomenon. As a result, in this work, we try to apply different coating layer on the metal surface and to investigate the protection performance of the coating layers. The tested bipolar plates include uncoated SS304 bipolar plates, titanium nitride (TiN) coated SS304 bipolar plates and chromium nitride (CrN) coated SS304 bipolar plates. The results show that the TiN coated SS304 bipolar plate has the lowest contact resistance and through-plane resistance and has the best cell performance and operating life among all tested bipolar plates. The long-term in-situ fuel cell tests show that the HT-PEMFC with TiN coated SS304 bipolar plates has the lowest performance decay rate. The second lowest is CrN coated SS304 bipolar plate. The uncoated SS304 bipolar plate has the worst performance decay rate. The performance decay rates with TiN coated SS304, CrN coated SS304 and uncoated SS304 bipolar plates are 5.324×10⁻³ % h⁻¹, 4.513×10⁻² % h⁻¹ and 7.870×10⁻² % h⁻¹, respectively. In addition, the EIS results indicate that the uncoated SS304 bipolar plate has the highest growth rate of ohmic resistance. However, the ohmic resistance with the TiN coated SS304 bipolar plates only increases slightly with time. The growth rate of ohmic resistances with TiN coated SS304, CrN coated SS304 and SS304 bipolar plates are 2.85×10⁻³ h⁻¹, 3.56×10⁻³ h⁻¹, and 4.33×10⁻³ h⁻¹, respectively. On the other hand, the charge transfer resistances with these three bipolar plates all increase with time, but the growth rates are all similar. In addition, the effective catalyst surface areas with all bipolar plates do not change significantly with time. Thus, it is inferred that the major reason for the performance degradation is the elevated ohmic resistance with time, which is associated with the corrosion and oxidation phenomena on the surface of the stainless steel bipolar plates.

Keywords: coating layer, high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell, metallic bipolar plate, performance degradation

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