Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 140

Search results for: intangible

140 Intangible Capital and Stock Prices: A Study of Jordanian Companies

Authors: Almoutassem Bellah Nasser

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This paper is aimed at calculating the intangible assets of Jordanian economy. This effort is a response to the demand from corporations for these services which reflects a perceived gap in internal and external financial reporting on intangible investments. The main conclusion of the paper is to suggest that the way forward to a standardized, more comparable approach to measuring intangible capital is to employ CIV method of valuation. Published macroeconomic data traditionally exclude most intangible investment from measured GDP. This situation is beginning to change as some attempts have been made to measure the amount of intangible assets. It was found that intangible assets account for $164.20 million in all the listed companies of Jordan. All this money does not appear on the balance sheets of these companies and hence requires special attention of policy makers for better utilization.

Keywords: intangible capital, stock prices, Amman Stock Exchange

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139 The Structure of the Intangible Capital

Authors: Kolesnikova Julia, Fakhrutdinova Elena, Zagidullina Venera, Kamasheva Anastasia

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The article deals with the structure of intangible capital. A significant share of intangible capital is associated with a person as such and can be considered as human capital, which in turn also has a complex structure, including intellectual, social, organizational, client, reputational capital. We have allocated a separate category of intangible capital - unidentifiable capital, including a variety of synergistic interaction effects, etc. the structure of intangible capital. A significant share of intangible capital is associated with a person as such and can be considered as human capital, which in turn also has a complex structure, including intellectual, social, organizational, client, reputational capital. We have allocated unidentifiable capital as a separate category of intangible capital, including a variety of synergistic interaction effects and other.

Keywords: intangible capital, intangible property, object of intangible property, reputation capital

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138 Intangible Cultural Heritage as a Strategic Place Branding Tool

Authors: L. Ozoliņa

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Place branding as a strategic marketing tool is applied in Latvia since 2000. The main objective of the study is to find unique connecting aspects of the intangible cultural heritage elements on the development of sustainable place branding. The study is based on in-depth semi-structured interviews with Latvian place branding experts and content analysis of Latvia's place brand identities. The study indicates place branding as an internal co-creational and educational process of all involved stakeholders of the place and highlights a critical view on the local place branding practices on the notability of the in-depth research of the intangible cultural heritage.

Keywords: belonging, identity, intangible cultural heritage, narrative, self-image, place branding

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
137 Measurement of Intellectual Capital in an Algerian Company

Authors: S. Brahmi, S. Aitouche, M. D. Mouss

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Every modern company should measure the value of its intellectual capital and to report to complement the traditional annual balance sheets. The purpose of this work is to measure the intellectual capital in an Algerian company (or production system) using the Weightless Wealth Tool Kit (WWTK). The results of the measurement of intellectual capital are supplemented by traditional financial ratios. The measurement was applied to the National Company of Wells Services (ENSP) in Hassi Messaoud city, in the south of Algeria. We calculated the intellectual capital (intangible resources) of the ENSP to help the organization to better capitalize on its potential of workers and their know-how. The intangible value of the ENSP is evaluated at 16,936,173,345 DA in 2015.

Keywords: financial valuation, intangible capital, intellectual capital, intellectual capital measurement

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136 'Enjoying the Czech Traditions with All Sences!': Tourism Product Promotion

Authors: Tomas Seidl

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'Enjoy the Czech traditions with all sences!' is the main communication headline of one of the major current marketing project representing the intangible cultural heritage of the Czech Republic to its visitors. The project CZ.1.06/4.1.00/12.08915 and CZ.1.06/4.1.00/12.08916 which is solved in the period 2013-2015 is co-financed form the EU financial sources from the Integrated Operational Programme. The primary goal of the project was to analyze the dislocation and potential of the intangible cultural heritage in the Czech Republic. Further goal was to prepare a useful regionalization. An as solution based on the outcomes the creative and media strategy was created and prepared. The processor – CzechTourism expect the following web and mobile application development and successful marketing campaign in 2015.

Keywords: traditions, intangible cultural heritage, Czech Republic, CzechTourism, digital performance

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135 The Study of Intangible Assets at Various Firm States

Authors: Gulnara Galeeva, Yulia Kasperskaya

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The study deals with the relevant problem related to the formation of the efficient investment portfolio of an enterprise. The structure of the investment portfolio is connected to the degree of influence of intangible assets on the enterprise’s income. This determines the importance of research on the content of intangible assets. However, intangible assets studies do not take into consideration how the enterprise state can affect the content and the importance of intangible assets for the enterprise`s income. This affects accurateness of the calculations. In order to study this problem, the research was divided into several stages. In the first stage, intangible assets were classified based on their synergies as the underlying intangibles and the additional intangibles. In the second stage, this classification was applied. It showed that the lifecycle model and the theory of abrupt development of the enterprise, that are taken into account while designing investment projects, constitute limit cases of a more general theory of bifurcations. The research identified that the qualitative content of intangible assets significant depends on how close the enterprise is to being in crisis. In the third stage, the author developed and applied the Wide Pairwise Comparison Matrix method. This allowed to establish that using the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean value of the elements of the vector of priority of intangible assets makes it possible to estimate the probability of a full-blown crisis of the enterprise. The author has identified a criterion, which allows making fundamental decisions on investment feasibility. The study also developed an additional rapid method of assessing the enterprise overall status based on using the questionnaire survey with its Director. The questionnaire consists only of two questions. The research specifically focused on the fundamental role of stochastic resonance in the emergence of bifurcation (crisis) in the economic development of the enterprise. The synergetic approach made it possible to describe the mechanism of the crisis start in details and also to identify a range of universal ways of overcoming the crisis. It was outlined that the structure of intangible assets transforms into a more organized state with the strengthened synchronization of all processes as a result of the impact of the sporadic (white) noise. Obtained results offer managers and business owners a simple and an affordable method of investment portfolio optimization, which takes into account how close the enterprise is to a state of a full-blown crisis.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, bifurcation, investment portfolio, intangible assets, wide matrix

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134 Innovative Small and Medium Sized Firms: Intangible Investment and Financial Constraints - a Literature Review.

Authors: Eliane Abdo

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Small and medium sized firms “SMEs” play essential role in the countries’ economic development mainly in terms of production, employment and equitable distribution of income. For innovative SMEs, the investment in the human capital and in research and development are crucial to survive in a competitive environment. In this paper we perform a literature review to underline the financing difficulties and constraints which innovative SMEs face while investing in intangible assets: not only when defining amount of the investments but also while choosing its financing methods. Literature review revealed that in order to finance their intangible assets, SMEs rely in first on their internal financing: the availability of internal cash flows can then determine their investment’s decision. Moreover SMEs face difficulties to finance their intangibles by financial debts due to the uncertainty of future cash flow and the absence of physical guarantees; they will therefore go for the issuance of new shares as a second choice, since innovative companies have high opportunity of growth that attract new shareholders.

Keywords: small and medium sized firms, capital structure, intangible investment, financial constraints

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133 Creativity in Industrial Design as an Instrument for the Achievement of the Proper and Necessary Balance between Intuition and Reason, Design and Science

Authors: Juan Carlos Quiñones

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Time has passed since the industrial design has put murder on a mass-production basis. The industrial design applies methods from different disciplines with a strategic approach, to place humans at the centers of the design process and to deliver solutions that are meaningful and desirable for users and for the market. This analysis summarizes some of the discussions that occurred in the 6th International Forum of Design as a Process, June 2016, Valencia. The aims of this conference were finding new linkages between systems and design interactions in order to define the social consequences. Through knowledge management we are able to transform the intangible aspect by using design as a transforming function capable of converting intangible knowledge into tangible solutions (i.e. products and services demanded by society). Industrial designers use knowledge consciously as a starting point for the ideation of the product. The handling of the intangible becomes more and more relevant over time as different methods emerge for knowledge extraction and subsequent organization. The different methodologies applied to the industrial design discipline and the evolution of the same discipline methods underpin the cultural and scientific background knowledge as a starting point of thought as a response to the needs; the whole thing coming through the instrument of creativity for the achievement of the proper and necessary balance between intuition and reason, design and science.

Keywords: creative process, creativity, industrial design, intangible

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132 The Essence and Attribution of Intellectual Property Rights Generated in the Digitization of Intangible Cultural Heritage

Authors: Jiarong Zhang

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Digitizing intangible cultural heritage is a complex and comprehensive process from which sorts of intellectual property rights may be generated. Digitizing may be a repacking process of cultural heritage, which creates copyrights; recording folk songs and indigenous performances can create 'related rights'. At the same time, digitizing intangible cultural heritage may infringe the intellectual property rights of others unintentionally. Recording religious rituals of indigenous communities without authorization can violate the moral right of the ceremony participants of the community; making digital copies of rock paintings may infringe the right of reproduction. In addition, several parties are involved in the digitization process: indigenous peoples, museums, and archives can be holders of cultural heritage; companies and research institutions can be technology providers; internet platforms can be promoters and sellers; the public and groups above can be beneficiaries. When diverse intellectual property rights versus various parties, problems and disputes can arise easily. What are the types of intellectual property rights generated in the digitization process? What is the essence of these rights? Who should these rights belong to? How to use intellectual property to protect the digitalization of cultural heritage? How to avoid infringing on the intellectual property rights of others? While the digitization has been regarded as an effective approach to preserve intangible cultural heritage, related intellectual property issues have not received the attention and full discussion. Thus, parties involving in the digitization process may face intellectual property infringement lawsuits. The article will explore those problems from the intersection perspective of intellectual property law and cultural heritage. From a comparative approach, the paper will analysis related legal documents and cases, and shed some lights of those questions listed. The findings show, although there are no intellectual property laws targeting the cultural heritage in most countries, the involved stakeholders can seek protection from existing intellectual property rights following the suggestions of the article. The research will contribute to the digitization of intangible cultural heritage from a legal and policy aspect.

Keywords: copyright, digitization, intangible cultural heritage, intellectual property, Internet platforms

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131 Pahlevāni and Zoorkhāneh Rituals as Creative Cultural Product in Tourism; Case Study: Isfahan, Iran

Authors: Neda Torabi Farsani, Mohammad Mortazavi, Maryam Masaeli

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Nowadays intangible heritage as a creative product plays an important role in promoting tourism. The intangible heritage is transmitted from past generation to the present and future generation and constantly recreated by communities and groups in response to their environment, nature and history. In recent decade, intangible heritage especially Pahlevāni and Zoorkhāneh rituals as creative cultural product attract many tourists to a destination and they well-known as tourist attractions in Iran. The study was conducted in Isfahan city. This research has two major purposes: 1) to introduce Pahlevāni and Zoorkhāneh ritual as tourist attraction and, 2) to investigate the attitude of domestic tourists towards Pahlevāni and Zoorkhāneh ritual in Isfahan city. On the basis of the results of this study, it can be concluded that the domestic tourists are interested in gaining experience and increasing their knowledge in Pahlevāni and Zoorkhāneh ritual.

Keywords: Isfahan, Pahlevāni and Zoorkhāneh ritual, tourist attitude, Iran

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130 Traditional Management Systems and the Conservation of Cultural and Natural Heritage: Multiple Case Studies in Zimbabwe

Authors: Nyasha Agnes Gurira, Petronella Katekwe

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Traditional management systems (TMS) are a vital source of knowledge for conserving cultural and natural heritage. TMS’s are renowned for their ability to preserve both tangible and intangible manifestations of heritage. They are a construct of the intricate relationship that exists between heritage and host communities, where communities are recognized as owners of heritage and so, set up management mechanisms to ensure its adequate conservation. Multiple heritage condition surveys were conducted to assess the effectiveness of using TMS in the conservation of both natural and cultural heritage. Surveys were done at Nharira Hills, Mahwemasimike, Dzimbahwe, Manjowe Rock art sites and Norumedzo forest which are heritage places in Zimbabwe. It assessed the state of conservation of the five case studies and assessed the role that host communities play in the management of these heritage places. It was revealed that TMS’s are effective in the conservation of natural heritage, however in relation to heritage forms with cultural manifestations, there are major disparities. These range from differences in appreciation and perception of value within communities leading to vandalism, over emphasis in the conservation of the intangible element as opposed to the tangible. This leaves the tangible element at risk. Despite these issues, TMS are a reliable knowledge base which enables more holistic conservation approaches for cultural and natural heritage.

Keywords: communities, cultural intangible, tangible heritage, traditional management systems, natural

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129 Cultural Studies in the Immigration Movements: Memories and Social Collectives

Authors: María Eugenia Peltzer, María Estela Rodríguez

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This work presents an approach to the cultural aspects of the Immigrants as part of the Cultural Intangible Heritage of Argentina. The intangible cultural heritage consists of the manifestations, practices, uses, representations, expressions, knowledge, techniques and cultural spaces that communities and groups recognize as an integral part of their cultural heritage. This heritage generates feelings of identity and establishes links with the collective memory, as well as being transmitted and recreated over time according to its environment, its interaction with nature and its history contributing to promote respect for cultural diversity and Human creativity. The Immigrants brings together those who came from other lands and their descendants, thus maintaining their traditions through time and linking the members of each cultural group with a strong sense of belonging through a communicative and effective process.

Keywords: cultural, immigration, memories, social

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128 Exploring the Link between Intangible Capital and Urban Economic Development: The Case of Three UK Core Cities

Authors: Melissa Dickinson

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In the context of intense global competitiveness and urban transformations, today’s cities are faced with enormous challenges. There is increasing pressure among cities and regions to respond promptly and efficiently to fierce market progressions, to offer a competitive advantage, higher flexibility, and to be pro-active in creating future markets. Consequently, competition among cities and regions within the dynamics of a worldwide spatial economic system is growing fiercer, amplifying the importance of intangible capital in shaping the competitive and dynamic economic performance of organisations and firms. Accordingly, this study addresses how intangible capital influences urban economic development within an urban environment. Despite substantial research on the economic, and strategic determinants of urban economic development this multidimensional phenomenon remains to be one of the greatest challenges for economic geographers. The research provides a unique contribution, exploring intangible capital through the lenses of entrepreneurial capital and social-network capital. Drawing on business surveys and in-depth interviews with key stakeholders in the case of the three UK Core Cities Birmingham, Bristol and Cardiff. This paper critically considers how entrepreneurial capital and social-network capital is a crucial source of competitiveness and urban economic development. This paper deals with questions concerning the complexity of operationalizing ‘network capital’ in different urban settings and the challenges that reside in characterising its effects. The paper will highlight the role of institutions in facilitating urban economic development. Particular emphasis will be placed on exploring the roles formal and informal institutions have in delivering, supporting and nurturing entrepreneurial capital and social-network capital, to facilitate urban economic development. Discussions will then consider how institutions moderate and contribute to the economic development of urban areas, to provide implications in terms of future policy formulation in the context of large and medium sized cities.

Keywords: urban economic development, network capital, entrepreneurialism, institutions

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127 Preliminary Knowledge Extraction from Beethoven’s Sonatas: from Musical Referential Patterns to Emotional Normative Ratings

Authors: Christina Volioti, Sotiris Manitsaris, Eleni Katsouli, Vasiliki Tsekouropoulou, Leontios J. Hadjileontiadis

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The piano sonatas of Beethoven represent part of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. The aims of this research were to further explore this intangibility by placing emphasis on defining emotional normative ratings for the “Waldstein” (Op. 53) and “Tempest” (Op. 31) Sonatas of Beethoven. To this end, a musicological analysis was conducted on these particular sonatas and referential patterns in these works of Beethoven were defined. Appropriate interactive questionnaires were designed in order to create a statistical normative rating that describes the emotional status when an individual listens to these musical excerpts. Based on these ratings, it is possible for emotional annotations for these same referential patterns to be created and integrated into the music score.

Keywords: emotional annotations, intangible cultural heritage, musicological analysis, normative ratings

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126 Corporate Governance of Intellectual Capital: The Impact of Intellectual Capital Reporting

Authors: Cesar Julio Recalde

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Background: The role of intangible assets in today´s society is undeniable and continuously growing. More than 80% of corporate market is related to intellectual capital(IC). However, corporate governance principles and practices seem strongly based and oriented towards tangible assets. The impact of intangible assets on corporate governance might require prevention and adaptative actions. Adherence to voluntary mechanisms of intellectual capital reporting (ICR) seems to be a gateway towards adapting corporate governance to intangible assets influence and a conceptual cornerstone. The impact of adherence to intellectual capital reporting on corporate governance and performance needs to be evaluated. Purposes: This work has a sequential two folded purpose: (1) exploring the influences exerted by IC on corporate governance theory and practice, and within that context (2) analyzing the impact of adherence to voluntary mechanisms of ICR on corporate governance. Design and summary: This work employs the theory of the firm and agency theory in order to conceptually explore the effects of each dimension of IC on key corporate governance issues, namely property rights and control by shareholders and residual claims by stakeholders, fiduciary duties of management and the board, opportunistic behavior and transparency. A comprehensive IC taxonomy and map is presented. Within the resulting context, internal and external impact of ICR on corporate governance and performance is conceptually analyzed. IRC constraint and barriers are identified. Intellectual liabilities are presented within the context of IRC. Finally, IRC regulatory framework is surveyed. Findings: Relevant conclusions were rendered on the influence of intellectual capital on corporate governance. Sufficient evidence of a positive impact of IRC on corporate governance and performance was found. Additionally, it was found that IRC exerts a leveraging effect on IC itself. Intellectual liabilities are insufficiently researched and seem to have a relevant importance on IC measuring. IRC regulatory framework was found to be insufficiently developed to capture the essence of intangible assets and to meet corporate governance challenges facing IC. Originality: This work develops a progressive approach to conceptually analyze the mutual influences between IC and corporate governance. An epistemic ideogram represents the intersection of analyzed theories. An IC map is presented. The relatively new topic of intellectual liabilities is conceptually analyzed in the context of IRC. Social liabilities and client liabilities are presented.

Keywords: corporate governance, intellectual capital, intellectual capital reporting, intellectual assets, intellectual liabilities, voluntary mechanisms, regulatory framework

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125 A Meaning-Making Approach to Understand the Relationship between the Physical Built Environment of the Heritage Sites including the Intangible Values and the Design Development of the Public Open Spaces: Case Study Liverpool Pier Head

Authors: May Newisar, Richard Kingston, Philip Black

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Heritage-led regeneration developments have been considered as one of the cornerstones of the economic and social revival of historic towns and cities in the UK. However, this approach has proved its deficiency within the development of Liverpool World Heritage site. This is due to the conflict between sustaining the tangible and intangible values as well as achieving the aimed economic developments. Accordingly, the development of such areas is influenced by a top-down approach which considers heritage as consumable experience and urban regeneration as the economic development for it. This neglects the heritage sites characteristics and values as well as the design criteria for public open spaces that overlap with the heritage sites. Currently, knowledge regarding the relationship between the physical built environment of the heritage sites including the intangible values and the design development of the public open spaces is limited. Public open spaces have been studied from different perspectives such as increasing walkability, a source of social cohesion, provide a good quality of life as well as understanding users’ perception. While heritage sites have been discussed heavily on how to maintain the physical environment, understanding the courses of threats and how to be protected. In addition to users’ experiences and motivations of visiting such areas. Furthermore, new approaches tried to overcome the gap such as the historic urban landscape approach. This approach is focusing on the entire human environment with all its tangible and intangible qualities. However, this research aims to understand the relationship between the heritage sites and public open spaces and how the overlap of the design and development of both could be used as a quality to enhance the heritage sites and improve users’ experience. A meaning-making approach will be used in order to understand and articulate how the development of Liverpool World Heritage site and its value could influence and shape the design of public open space Pier Head in order to attract a different level of tourists to be used as a tool for economic development. Consequently, this will help in bridging the gap between the planning and conservation areas’ policies through an understanding of how flexible is the system in order to adopt alternative approaches for the design and development strategies for those areas.

Keywords: historic urban landscape, environmental psychology, urban governance, identity

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124 Formation of the Investment Portfolio of Intangible Assets with a Wide Pairwise Comparison Matrix Application

Authors: Gulnara Galeeva

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The Analytic Hierarchy Process is widely used in the economic and financial studies, including the formation of investment portfolios. In this study, a generalized method of obtaining a vector of priorities for the case with separate pairwise comparisons of the expert opinion being presented as a set of several equal evaluations on a ratio scale is examined. The author claims that this method allows solving an important and up-to-date problem of excluding vagueness and ambiguity of the expert opinion in the decision making theory. The study describes the authentic wide pairwise comparison matrix. Its application in the formation of the efficient investment portfolio of intangible assets of a small business enterprise with limited funding is considered. The proposed method has been successfully approbated on the practical example of a functioning dental clinic. The result of the study confirms that the wide pairwise comparison matrix can be used as a simple and reliable method for forming the enterprise investment policy. Moreover, a comparison between the method based on the wide pairwise comparison matrix and the classical analytic hierarchy process was conducted. The results of the comparative analysis confirm the correctness of the method based on the wide matrix. The application of a wide pairwise comparison matrix also allows to widely use the statistical methods of experimental data processing for obtaining the vector of priorities. A new method is available for simple users. Its application gives about the same accuracy result as that of the classical hierarchy process. Financial directors of small and medium business enterprises get an opportunity to solve the problem of companies’ investments without resorting to services of analytical agencies specializing in such studies.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, decision processes, investment portfolio, intangible assets

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123 The Role of Human Capital, Structural Capital, and Relation Capital towards Company Performance Using Partial Least Square

Authors: Novawiguna Kemalasari, Ahmad Badawi Saluy

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Recent economic developments are more dependent on the value created by intangible assets than tangible company's assets. Intangible assets in question is intellectual capital that is recognized as the basis of individual, organizational, and general competition in the 21st century. The rapid global economy and technological innovations that have led to tough competition in the business world, make IC creation, management, measurement, and evaluation an important indicator in improving company performance that will affect the value of the company in the future. This study aims to determine the strong influence of intellectual capital on corporate performance, and how the influence of human capital on structural capital and relation capital. By distributing questionnaires to 100 employees of banking companies in Jakarta with middle and upper positions. Approach method used is Partial Least Square (PLS) Based on research that has been done, it can be concluded that human capital has influence on relation capital and structural capital. Similarly, the influence on the performance of the company turned out to human capital and relation capital has a significant influence, but structural capital has a non-significant effect on company performance.

Keywords: human capital, structural capital, relation capital, corporate performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
122 Way to Successful Enterprise Resource Planning System Implementation in Developing Countries: Case of Public Sector Unit

Authors: Suraj Kumar Mukti

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Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system is a management tool to integrate all departments in an organization. It integrates business processes, manages resources efficiently and provides an appropriate decision support system to management. ERP system implementation is a typical and time taking process as well as money consuming process. Articles related to key success factors of ERP system implementation are available in the literature, but rare authors have focused on roadmap of successful ERP system implementation. Postponement is better if the organization is not ready to implement ERP system in better way; hence checking of organization’s preparation to adopt new system is an important prerequisite to ensure the success of ERP system implementation in an organization. Then comes what will be called as success of ERP system implementation. Benefits achieved by ERP system may be categorized into two categories; viz. tangible and intangible benefits. This research article presents a roadmap to ensure the success of ERP system implementation and benefits achieved through the new system as in success indicator. A case study is presented to evaluate the success and benefit achieved through the new system. The article gives a comprehensive approach to academicians and a roadmap to the organizations seeking to implement the ERP system.

Keywords: ERP system, decision support system, tangible, intangible

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121 Assessment of Artists’ Socioeconomic and Working Conditions: The Empirical Case of Lithuania

Authors: Rusne Kregzdaite, Erika Godlevska, Morta Vidunaite

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The main aim of this research is to explore existing methodologies for artists’ labour force and create artists’ socio-economic and creative conditions in an assessment model. Artists have dual aims in their creative working process: 1) income and 2) artistic self-expression. The valuation of their conditions takes into consideration both sides: the factors related to income and the satisfaction of the creative process and its result. The problem addressed in the study: tangible and intangible artists' criteria used for assessments creativity conditions. The proposed model includes objective factors (working time, income, etc.) and subjective factors (salary covering essential needs, self-satisfaction). Other intangible indicators are taken into account: the impact on the common culture, social values, and the possibility to receive awards, to represent the country in the international market. The empirical model consists of 59 separate indicators, grouped into eight categories. The deviation of each indicator from the general evaluation allows for identifying the strongest and the weakest components of artists’ conditions.

Keywords: artist conditions, artistic labour force, cultural policy, indicator, assessment model

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120 The Influence of Intellectual Capital Disclosures on Market Capitalization Growth

Authors: Nyoman Wijana, Chandra Arha

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Disclosures of Intellectual Capital (IC) is a presentation of corporate information assets that are not recorded in the financial statements. This disclosures is very helpful because it provides inform corporate assets are intangible. In the new economic era, the company's intangible assets will determine company's competitive advantage. This study aimed to examine the effect of IC disclosures on market capitalization growth. Observational studies conducted over ten years in 2002-2011. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect for last ten years. One hundred samples of the company's largest market capitalization in 2011 traced back to last ten years. Data that used, are in 2011, 2008, 2005, and 2002 Method that’s used for acquiring the data is content analysis. The analytical method used is Ordinanary Least Square (OLS) and analysis tools are e views 7 This software using Pooled Least Square estimation parameters are specifically designed for panel data. The results of testing analysis showed inconsistent expression levels affect the growth of the market capitalization in each year of observation. The results of this study are expected to motivate the public company in Indonesia to do more voluntary IC disclosures and encourage regulators to make regulations in a comprehensive manner so that all categories of the IC must be disclosed by the company.

Keywords: IC disclosures, market capitalization growth, analytical method, OLS

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119 Cost Benefit Analysis and Adjustments of Corporate Social Responsibility in the Airline Industry

Authors: Roman Asatryan

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The decision-making processes in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) among firms in general and airlines in particular have to do with the benefits that accrue through those investments. The crux of the matter is not whether to invest in CSR or not, but rather, how firms can quantify the benefits derived from such investments. This paper analyzes the cost benefit adjustment strategies for firms in the airline industry in their CSR strategy adoption and implementation. The adjustment strategies identified will enable firms in the airline industry to have a basis for determining the worth of such CSR investments. This paper discusses the cost and benefit analysis model in order to understand the ways airlines can reduce costs and increase returns on CSR, or balance the cost and benefits. The analysis from this study points to the fact that economic concepts especially the CBA are useful, though they are not without challenges. The challenge arises when it is problematic to express the real impact of the externality in monetary terms. The use of rational maximization of the gains may seem to be a rather optimistic goal mainly because of environmental variability, perceptual uncertainty, and imperfect knowledge about the potential externality. This paper concludes that the CBA model gives a basic understanding of the motivations for investing in intangible assets like CSR. Consequently, it sets the tone for formulating relevant hypothesis in empirical studies in investment in CSR in particular and other intangible assets in business operations.

Keywords: cost-benefit analysis, corporate social responsibility, airline industry

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118 The Folksongs of Jharkhand: An Intangible Cultural Heritage of Tribal India

Authors: Walter Beck

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Jharkhand is newly constituted 28th State in the eastern part of India which is known for the oldest settlement of the indigenous people. In the State of Jharkhand in which broadly three language family are found namely, Austric, Dravidian, and Indo-European. Ex-Mundari, kharia, Ho Santali come from the Austric Language family. Kurukh, Malto under Dravidian language family and Nagpuri Khorta etc. under Indo-European language family. There are 32 Indigenous Communities identified as Scheduled Tribe in the State of Jharkhand. Santhal, Munda, Kahria, Ho and Oraons are some of the major Tribe of the Jharkhand state. Jharkhand has a Rich Cultural heritage which includes Folk art, folklore, Folk Dance, Folk Music, Folk Songs for which diversity can been seen from place to place, season to season and all traditional Culture and practices. The languages as well as the songs are vulnerable to dominant culture and hence needed to be protected. The collection and documentation of these songs in their natural setting adds significant contribution to the conservation and propagation of the cultural elements. This paper reflects to bring out the Originality of the Collected Songs from remote areas of the plateau of Sothern Jharkhand as a rich intangible Cultural heritage of the Country. The research was done through participatory observation. In this research project more than 100 songs which were never documented before.

Keywords: cultural heritage, India, indigenous people, songs, languages

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
117 Pueblos Mágicos in Mexico: The Loss of Intangible Cultural Heritage and Cultural Tourism

Authors: Claudia Rodriguez-Espinosa, Erika Elizabeth Pérez Múzquiz

Abstract:

Since the creation of the “Pueblos Mágicos” program in 2001, a series of social and cultural events had directly affected the heritage conservation of the 121 registered localities until 2018, when the federal government terminated the program. Many studies have been carried out that seek to analyze from different perspectives and disciplines the consequences that these appointments have generated in the “Pueblos Mágicos.” Multidisciplinary groups such as the one headed by Carmen Valverde and Liliana López Levi, have brought together specialists from all over the Mexican Republic to create a set of diagnoses of most of these settlements, and although each one has unique specificities, there is a constant in most of them that has to do with the loss of cultural heritage and that is related to transculturality. There are several factors identified that have fostered a cultural loss, as a direct reflection of the economic crisis that prevails in Mexico. It is important to remember that the origin of this program had as its main objective to promote the growth and development of local economies since one of the conditions for entering the program is that they have less than 20,000 inhabitants. With this goal in mind, one of the first actions that many “Pueblos Mágicos” carried out was to improve or create an infrastructure to receive both national and foreign tourists since this was practically non-existent. Creating hotels, restaurants, cafes, training certified tour guides, among other actions, have led to one of the great problems they face: globalization. Although by itself it is not bad, its impact in many cases has been negative for heritage conservation. The entry into and contact with new cultures has led to the undervaluation of cultural traditions, their transformation and even their total loss. This work seeks to present specific cases of transformation and loss of cultural heritage, as well as to reflect on the problem and propose scenarios in which the negative effects can be reversed. For this text, 36 “Pueblos Mágicos” have been selected for study, based on those settlements that are cited in volumes I and IV (the first and last of the collection) of the series produced by the multidisciplinary group led by Carmen Valverde and Liliana López Levi (researchers from UNAM and UAM Xochimilco respectively) in the project supported by CONACyT entitled “Pueblos Mágicos. An interdisciplinary vision”, of which we are part. This sample is considered representative since it forms 30% of the total of 121 “Pueblos Mágicos” existing at that moment. With this information, the elements of its intangible heritage loss or transformation have been identified in every chapter based on the texts written by the participants of that project. Finally, this text shows an analysis of the effects that this federal program, as a public policy applied to 132 populations, has had on the conservation or transformation of the intangible cultural heritage of the “Pueblos Mágicos.” Transculturality, globalization, the creation of identities and the desire to increase the flow of tourists have impacted the changes that traditions (main intangible cultural heritage) have had in the 18 years that the federal program lasted.

Keywords: public policies, cultural tourism, heritage preservation, pueblos mágicos program

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116 Theoretical Framework for Value Creation in Project Oriented Companies

Authors: Mariusz Hofman

Abstract:

The paper ‘Theoretical framework for value creation in Project-Oriented Companies’ is designed to determine, how organisations create value and whether this allows them to achieve market success. An assumption has been made that there are two routes to achieving this value. The first one is to create intangible assets (i.e. the resources of human, structural and relational capital), while the other one is to create added value (understood as the surplus of revenue over costs). It has also been assumed that the combination of the achieved added value and unique intangible assets translates to the success of a project-oriented company. The purpose of the paper is to present hypothetical and deductive model which describing the modus operandi of such companies and approach to model operationalisation. All the latent variables included in the model are theoretical constructs with observational indicators (measures). The existence of a latent variable (construct) and also submodels will be confirmed based on a covariance matrix which in turn is based on empirical data, being a set of observational indicators (measures). This will be achieved with a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Due to this statistical procedure, it will be verified whether the matrix arising from the adopted theoretical model differs statistically from the empirical matrix of covariance arising from the system of equations. The fit of the model with the empirical data will be evaluated using χ2, RMSEA and CFI (Comparative Fit Index). How well the theoretical model fits the empirical data is assessed through a number of indicators. If the theoretical conjectures are confirmed, an interesting development path can be defined for project-oriented companies. This will let such organisations perform efficiently in the face of the growing competition and pressure on innovation.

Keywords: value creation, project-oriented company, structural equation modelling

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115 Analyzing the Investment Decision and Financing Method of the French Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

Authors: Eliane Abdo, Olivier Colot

Abstract:

SMEs are always considered as a national priority due to their contribution to job creation, innovation and growth. Once the start-up phase is crossed with encouraging results, the company enters the phase of growth. In order to improve its competitiveness, maintain and increase its market share, the company is in the necessity even the obligation to develop its tangible and intangible investments. SMEs are generally closed companies with special and critical financial situation, limited resources and difficulty to access the capital markets; their shareholders are always living in a conflict between their independence and their need to increase capital that leads to the entry of new shareholder. The capital structure was always considered the core of research in corporate finance; moreover, the financial crisis and its repercussions on the credit’s availability, especially for SMEs make SME financing a hot topic. On the other hand, financial theories do not provide answers to capital structure’s questions; they offer tools and mode of financing that are more accessible to larger companies. Yet, SME’s capital structure can’t be independent of their governance structure. The classic financial theory supposes independence between the investment decision and the financing decision. Thus, investment determines the volume of funding, but not the split between internal or external funds. In this context, we find interesting to study the hypothesis that SMEs respond positively to the financial theories applied to large firms and to check if they are constrained by conventional solutions used by large companies. In this context, this research focuses on the analysis of the resource’s structure of SME in parallel with their investments’ structure, in order to highlight a link between their assets and liabilities structure. We founded our conceptual model based on two main theoretical frameworks: the Pecking order theory, and the Trade Off theory taking into consideration the SME’s characteristics. Our data were generated from DIANE database. Five hypotheses were tested via a panel regression to understand the type of dependence between the financing methods of 3,244 French SMEs and the development of their investment over a period of 10 years (2007-2016). The results show dependence between equity and internal financing in case of intangible investments development. Moreover, this type of business is constraint to financial debts since the guarantees provided are not sufficient to meet the banks' requirements. However, for tangible investments development, SMEs count sequentially on internal financing, bank borrowing, and new shares issuance or hybrid financing. This is compliant to the Pecking Order Theory. We, therefore, conclude that unlisted SMEs incur more financial debts to finance their tangible investments more than their intangible. However, they always prefer internal financing as a first choice. This seems to be confirmed by the assumption that the profitability of the company is negatively related to the increase of the financial debt. Thus, the Pecking Order Theory predictions seem to be the most plausible. Consequently, SMEs primarily rely on self-financing and then go, into debt as a priority to finance their financial deficit.

Keywords: capital structure, investments, life cycle, pecking order theory, trade off theory

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114 The Revival of Cultural Heritage through Social Space Upliftment: Case Study of the Walled City of Ajmer, India

Authors: Vaishali Sharma

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The research is an attempt to hunt a scientific and objective method to transform Ajmer's traditional walled city into a living cultural heritage space, exploring urban management methods to elevate local economy and social space in relation to specific cultural-based initiatives. Ajmer is among the oldest and religiously diverse settlements in Rajasthan, that has seen superimposed developments through the eras. With numerous agencies operating towards the development of the town core of Ajmer, it becomes essential to structure development changes in tune with the transformations and the existing heritage. The study was radio-controlled by the subsequent analysis question: What is the way to overcome the genetic social and economic stress inside the communities and revive public life? In order to create necessary interventions at the neighbourhood level, fifteen neighbourhoods were identified. Each of those was analyzed relatively on three major dimensions: Heritage, Social and Local Economy. Each dimension was further broken down into multiple sub-aspects for an overall and exhaustive understanding. The average median values of the responses were used to develop a color-coded matrix to represent the scores in an exceedingly structured quantified manner, moreover, linking it to the spatial structure. Respondent perceptions on numerous dimensions were additionally recorded, so that the proposals are inclusive in nature. The goals are targeted at Ajmer's traditional walled towns, which will make it easier for the community to regulate the rapid transformations and commercialization occurring within the space. The study recommends the necessity for accrued support in methods and policies from the non-public sector, businesses as well as local stakeholders. An expansion, revitalization and maintenance of the major business and heritage corridors, for an increased local and visitor experience, can produce an impetus for promotion of the intangible heritage, to spur the local economic processes, conservation of heritage precincts and upward development.

Keywords: cultural heritage, economic revitalization, neighbourhoods in walled cities, social space, tangible and intangible heritage

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113 A Review of Applying Serious Games on Learning

Authors: Carlos Oliveira, Ulrick Pimentel

Abstract:

Digital games have conquered a growing space in the lives of children, adolescents and adults. In this perspective, the use of this resource has shown to be an important strategy that facilitates the learning process. This research is a literature review on the use of serious games in teaching, which shows the characteristics of these games, the benefits and possible harms that this resource can produce, in addition to the possible methods of evaluating the effectiveness of this resource in teaching. The results point out that Serious Games have significant potential as a tool for instruction. However, their effectiveness in terms of learning outcomes is still poorly studied, mainly due to the complexity involved in evaluating intangible measures.

Keywords: serious games, learning, application, literature review

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112 Knowledge Management at Spanish Higher Education Institutions

Authors: Yolanda Ramirez, Angel Tejada, Agustin Baidez

Abstract:

In the knowledge-based economy, intangible elements are considered essential in order to achieve competitive advantage in organizations. In this sense, the Balanced Scorecard is a very suitable tool to recognize value and manage intangibles because it translates an organization’s strategic objectives into a set of performance indicators from a financial, as well as customer perspective, internal process and learning and growth perspectives. The aim of this paper is to expose and justify the benefits that the Balanced Scorecard might have for identifying, measuring and managing intellectual capital at universities, by means of reviewing the most important Balanced Scorecard implementations at Spanish public universities.

Keywords: knowledge management, balanced scorecard, universities, Spain

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111 Detonating Culture, Statistic and Developmenet in Imo State of Nigeria

Authors: Ejikeme Ugiri

Abstract:

In an executive summary, UNESCO describes Framework for Cultural Statistics as a tool for organizing cultural statistics both nationally and internationally. This is based on conceptual foundation and a common understanding of culture that will enable the measurement of a wide range of cultural expressions. This means therefore that cultural expression in whatever guise has the potentiality of contributing reasonably to the development of a given society. The paper looked into the various tangible and intangible cultures in Imo State of Nigeria. Due to government’s insensitivity, there is need to remind ourselves of the need to pay adequate attention to the cultural heritage bequeathed to us by our forefathers for the sake of posterity. Documenting this information in written form therefore becomes imperative. The study concludes that culture if developed, could reasonably contribute to economic and social growth of the society.

Keywords: culture, detonation, development, statistics

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