Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 40

Search results for: neutrality

40 Net Neutrality and Asymmetric Platform Competition

Authors: Romain Lestage, Marc Bourreau

Abstract:

In this paper we analyze the interplay between access to the last-mile network and net neutrality in the market for Internet access. We consider two Internet Service Providers (ISPs), which act as platforms between Internet users and Content Providers (CPs). One of the ISPs is vertically integrated and provides access to its last-mile network to the other (non-integrated) ISP. We show that a lower access price increases the integrated ISP's incentives to charge CPs positive termination fees (i.e., to deviate from net neutrality), and decreases the non-integrated ISP's incentives to charge positive termination fees.

Keywords: net neutrality, access regulation, internet access, two-sided markets

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39 A Brief Exploration on the Green Urban Design for Carbon Neutrality

Authors: Gaoyuan Wang, Tian Chen

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China’s emission peak and carbon neutrality strategies lead to the transformation of development patterns and call for new green urban design thinking. This paper begins by revealing the evolution of green urban design thinking during the periods of carbon enlightenment, carbon dependency, and carbon decoupling from the perspective of the energy transition. Combined with the current energy situation, national strengths, and technological trends, the emergence of green urban design towards carbon neutrality becomes inevitable. Based on the preliminary analysis of its connotation, the characteristics of the new type of green urban design are generalized as low-carbon orientation, carbon-related objects, carbon-reduction means, and carbon-control patterns. Its theory is briefly clarified in terms of the human-earth synergism, quality-energy interconnection, and form-flow interpromotion. Then, its mechanism is analyzed combined with the core tasks of carbon neutrality, and the scope of design issues is defined, including carbon flow mapping, carbon source regulation, carbon sink construction, and carbon emission management. Finally, a multi-scale spatial response system is proposed across the region, city, cluster, and neighborhood level. The discussion aims to provide support for the innovation of green urban design theories and methods in the context of peak neutrality.

Keywords: carbon neutrality, green urban design, energy transition, theoretical exploration

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38 The Reliability of Management Earnings Forecasts in IPO Prospectuses: A Study of Managers’ Forecasting Preferences

Authors: Maha Hammami, Olfa Benouda Sioud

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This study investigates the reliability of management earnings forecasts with reference to these two ingredients: verifiability and neutrality. Specifically, we examine the biasedness (or accuracy) of management earnings forecasts and company specific characteristics that can be associated with accuracy. Based on sample of 102 IPO prospectuses published for admission on NYSE Euronext Paris from 2002 to 2010, we found that these forecasts are on average optimistic and two of the five test variables, earnings variability and financial leverage are significant in explaining ex post bias. Acknowledging the possibility that the bias is the result of the managers’ forecasting behavior, we then examine whether managers decide to under-predict, over-predict or forecast accurately for self-serving purposes. Explicitly, we examine the role of financial distress, operating performance, ownership by insiders and the economy state in influencing managers’ forecasting preferences. We find that managers of distressed firms seem to over-predict future earnings. We also find that when managers are given more stock options, they tend to under-predict future earnings. Finally, we conclude that the management earnings forecasts are affected by an intentional bias due to managers’ forecasting preferences.

Keywords: intentional bias, management earnings forecasts, neutrality, verifiability

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37 The Double Standard: Ethical Issues and Gender Discrimination in Traditional Western Ethics

Authors: Merina Islam

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The feminists have identified the traditional western ethical theories as basically male centered. Feminists are committed to develop a critique showing how the traditional western ethics together with traditional philosophy, irrespective of the claim for gender neutrality, all throughout remained gender-biased. This exclusion of women’s experiences from the moral discourse is justified on the ground that women cannot be moral agents, since they are not rational. By way of entailment, we are thus led to the position that virtues of traditional ethics, so viewed, can nothing but rational and hence male. The ears of traditional Western ethicists have been attuned to male rather than female ethical voices. Right from the Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Aquinas, Rousseau, Kant, Hegel and even philosophers like Freud, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche and many others the dualism between reason-passion or mind and body started gaining prominence. These, according to them, have either intentionally excluded women or else have used certain male moral experience as the standard for all moral experiences, thereby resulting once again in exclusion of women’s experiences. Men are identified with rationality and hence contrasted with women whose sphere is believed to be that of emotion and feeling. This act of exclusion of women’s experience from moral discourse has given birth to a tradition that emphasizes reason over emotion, universal over the particular, and justice over caring. That patriarchy’s use of gender distinctions in the realm of Ethics has resulted in gender discriminations is an undeniable fact. Hence women’s moral agency is said to have often been denied, not simply by the act of exclusion of women from moral debate or sheer ignorance of their contributions, but through philosophical claims to the effect that women lack moral reason. Traditional or mainstream ethics cannot justify its claim for universality, objectivity and gender neutrality the standards from which were drawn the legitimacy of the various moral maxims or principles of it. Right from the Platonic and Aristotelian period the dualism between reason-passion or mind and body started gaining prominence. Men are identified with rationality and hence contrasted with women whose sphere is believed to be that of emotion and feeling. Through the Association of the masculine values with reason (the feminine with irrational), was created the standard prototype of moral virtues The feminists’ critique of the traditional mainstream Ethics is based on this charge that because of its inherent gender bias, in the name of gender distinctions, Ethics has so far been justifying discriminations. In this paper, attempt would make upon the gender biased-ness of traditional ethics. But Feminists are committed to develop a critique showing how the traditional ethics together with traditional philosophy, irrespective of the claim for gender neutrality, all throughout remained gender-biased. We would try to show to what extent traditional ethics is male centered and consequentially fails to justify its claims for universality and gender neutrality.

Keywords: ethics, gender, male-centered, traditional

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36 Net Regularity and Its Ethical Implications on Internet Stake Holders

Authors: Nourhan Elshenawi

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Net Neutrality (NN) is the principle of treating all online data the same without any prioritization of some over others. A research gap in current scholarship about “violations of NN” and the subsequent ethical concerns paves the way for the following research question: To what extent violations of NN entail ethical concerns and implications for Internet stakeholders? To answer this question, NR is examined using the two major action-based ethical theories, Kantian and Utilitarian, across the relevant Internet stakeholders. First some necessary IT background is provided that shapes how the Internet works and who the key stakeholders are. Following the IT background, the relationship between the stakeholders, users, Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and content providers is discussed and illustrated. Then some violations of NN that are currently occurring is covered, without attracting any attention from the general public from an ethical perspective, as a new term Net Regularity (NR). Afterwards, the current scholarship on NN and its violations are discussed, that are mainly from an economic and sociopolitical perspectives to highlight the lack of ethical discussions on the issue. Before moving on to the ethical analysis however, websites are presented as digital entities that are affected by NR and their happiness is measured using functionalism. The analysis concludes that NR is prone to an unethical treatment of Internet stakeholders in the perspective of both theories. Finally, the current Digital Divide in the world is presented to be able to better illustrate the implications of NR. The implications present the new Internet divide that will take place between individuals within society. Through answering the research question using ethical analysis, it attempts to shed some light on the issue of NR and what kind of society it would lead to. NR would not just lead to a divided society, but divided individuals that are separated by something greater than distance, the Internet.

Keywords: digital divide, digital entities, digital ontology, internet ethics, internet law, net neutrality, internet service providers, websites as beings

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35 Interpreting Ecclesiastical Heritage: Meaning Making and Contentious Conversations

Authors: Alexis Thouki

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In our post-Christian societies, ecclesiastical heritage acquired a new extrovert profile aiming to reach out an increasingly diverse audience. In this context, the various motivations, interests, personalities and cultural exchanges, found in the ‘post-modern pilgrimage’, bequeath a hybrid and multidimensional character to religious tourism education. In consequence, churches have acquired the challenging role of enriching visitors cultural and spiritual capital. Despite this promising diversification to relate, reveal and provoke constructive discourses, due to the various ‘conflicting interests’, practitioners attempt to tame the rich in symbolism and meanings religious environment through ‘neutral interpretations’. This paper aims to present the results of an ongoing developing strategy related to the presentation of contentious meanings in English churches. The paper will explore some of the underlying issues related to the capacity of ‘neutrality’ to spark, downplay or eliminate contentious conversations relating to the cultural, religious, and social dimension of Christian cultural heritage thematology. In an effort to understand this issue, the paper examines the concept of neutrality and what it stands for, executing a discourse analysis in the semantic context in which the theological lexicon is interwoven with the cultural and social meanings of sacred sites. Following that, the paper examines whether the preferable interpretive strategies meet the post-modern interpretative framework which is marked by polysemy and critical active engagement. The ultimate aim of the paper is to investigate the hypothesis that the preferable neutral strategies, managing the ‘conflicting’ demands of worshippers and visitors, result in the uneven treatment of both, the religious and historical spirit of the place.

Keywords: contentious dialogue, interpretation, meaning making, religious tourism

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34 A Theoretical Hypothesis on Ferris Wheel Model of University Social Responsibility

Authors: Le Kang

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According to the nature of the university, as a free and responsible academic community, USR is based on a different foundation —academic responsibility, so the Pyramid and the IC Model of CSR could not fully explain the most distinguished feature of USR. This paper sought to put forward a new model— Ferris Wheel Model, to illustrate the nature of USR and the process of achievement. The Ferris Wheel Model of USR shows the university creates a balanced, fairness and neutrality systemic structure to afford social responsibilities; that makes the organization could obtain a synergistic effect to achieve more extensive interests of stakeholders and wider social responsibilities.

Keywords: USR, achievement model, ferris wheel model, social responsibilities

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33 Debate, Discontent and National Identity in a Secular State

Authors: Man Bahadur Shahu

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The secularism is a controversial, debatable and misinterpreted issue since its endorsement in the 2007 constitution in Nepal. The unprecedented acts have been seen favoring and disfavoring against the secularism within the public domain—which creates the fallacies and suspicions in the rationalization and modernization process. This paper highlights three important points: first, the secularization suddenly ruptures the silence and institutional decline of religion within the state. Second, state effort on secularism simultaneously fosters the state neutrality and state separation from religious institutions that amplify the recognition of all religious groups through the equal treatment in their festivity, rituals, and practices. Third, no state would completely secular because of their deep-rooted mindset and disposition with their own religious faiths and beliefs that largely enhance intergroup conflict, dispute, riot and turbulence in post-secular period in the name of proselytizing and conversion.

Keywords: conflict, proselytizing, religion, secular

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32 Analysis of BSF Layer N-Gaas/P-Gaas/P+-Gaas Solar Cell

Authors: Abderrahmane Hemmani, Hamid Khachab, Dennai Benmoussa, Hassane Benslimane, Abderrachid Helmaoui

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Back surface field GaAs with n -p-p+ structures are found to have better characteristics than the conventional solar cells. A theory, based on the transport of both minority carriers under the charge neutrality condition, has been developed in the present paper which explains behavior of the back surface field solar cells. That is reported with an efficiency of 25,05% (Jsc=33.5mA/cm2, Vco=0.87v and fill factor 86% under AM1.5 global conditions). We present the effect of technological parameters of the p+ layer on the conversion efficiency on the solar cell. Good agreement is achieved between our results and the simulation results given the variation of the equivalent recombination velocity to p+ layer as a function of BSF thickness and BSF doping.

Keywords: back surface field, GaAs, solar cell, technological parameters

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31 The Ordinary Way of the Appeal in Penalty Part

Authors: Abdelkadir Elhaouari

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The priciest thing in human life since his birth is his freedom, basing on this idea, the conflict exists till now, the fight against oppression, injustice, tyranny and slavery, searching for freedom and political resistances, and this makes the freedom is deeply related to the defense for its existence all over years. This project attempts using any way to preserve this freedom, and building and maintaining bases and rules to organize this life. Appeal is a one of the most important method that human uses to protect his freedom, and we will mention in this thesis our attempt to clarify this aspect to the individual. We can say that the law does not know just one color or one logic, and is not based on one rule to be taken by heart, but the law is neutrality, the diversity, abstraction and diligence diversity. The penal law is a valued law and it deserves to be studied and searched more… so that to attempt to master it. Our thesis is just a brief explanation of an important point in this law, where we attempt to clarify and simplify the image to the normal person, so that he can preserve his rights, and we hope that we had succeeded to choose the right topic for that.

Keywords: appeal, penalization, judgement, criminal

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30 Killing Journalists in the Iraqi Kurdistan

Authors: Karwan Karim

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The powerlessness of the journalists' syndicate in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq has been divided against the journalists' case like all the other syndicates that exist in Iraqi Kurdistan on two parties, like Kurdistan Democratic Party and Patriotic Union of Kurdistan; this syndicate could not prove its neutrality. It was created under the shadow of these two parties. This has created problems for neutral journalists, the Iraqi Kurdistan Journalists Syndicate should have supported all journalists completely and had a positive role in their cases and supported the freedom of journalists in Iraqi Kurdistan, and avoided from threat, fear, and terror by the ruling parties, so far many journalists have been assassinated and have not been accused in a court and have not played any positive role in the cases of journalists only issued a statement. They couldn't settle the case of assassinating journalists in the international court. This syndicate has become a slave of the ruling parties under the party and role only as an illusion. This syndicate has been created and worked for the PUK party. Neutral journalists do not find any syndicate to be able to complain about the violence against journalists.

Keywords: Kurdistan, Ranya, Iraq, journalist

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29 The End Is Just the Beginning: The Importance of Project Post-Implementation Reviews

Authors: Catalin-Teodor Dogaru, Ana-Maria Dogaru

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Success means different things to different people. For us, project managers, it becomes even harder to find a definition. Many factors have to be included in the evaluation. Moreover, literature is not very helpful, lacking consensus and neutrality. Post-implementation reviews (PIR) can be an efficient tool in evaluating how things worked on a certain project. Despite the visible progress, PIR is not a very detailed subject yet and there is not a common understanding in this matter. This may be the reason that some organizations include it in the projects’ lifecycle and some do not. Through this paper, we point out the reasons why all project managers should pay proper attention to this important step and to the elements, which can be assessed, beside the already famous triple constraints: cost, budget, and time. It is essential to take notice that PIR is not a checklist. It brings the edge in eliminating subjectivity and judging projects based on actual proof. Based on our experience, our success indicator model, presented in this paper, contributes to the success of the project! In the same time, it increases trust among customers who will perceive success more objectively.

Keywords: project, post implementation, review, success, indicators

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28 The Politicization of Foreign Aid and Its Effect on Afghanistan, 2001-2016

Authors: Narender Banwala

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The study critically evaluates that the politics of foreign aid and its effect on Afghanistan. The study argues that dynamics of foreign aid to Afghanistan are not driven solely by the Afghan political, social, and economic realities but much more by the ephemeral political goals of international donor countries. The objective of this paper is to find out the political reality of foreign aid given to Afghanistan in a post 9/11 era. The study analyses the gap between the donor countries' interests and the Afghan government's priorities in aid coordination and management. The aid given to Afghanistan has been accompanied by the political interests of the major powers and therefore violated the core principles of humanitarianism, i.e., humanity, impartiality, neutrality, and independence. This research attempts to explain the areas which are of high priority, extremely vulnerable, and have been a neglected part since 2001. The study focuses on how as a result of politicization, foreign aid could not yield the expected results even after prolong presence of international donors in Afghanistan. Methodologically, the study includes both qualitative and quantitative data, which are collected by interviews with government officials and other government documents.

Keywords: Afganistan, aid, politics, security

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27 SME Credit Financing, Financial Development and Economic Growth: A VAR Approach to the Nigerian Economy

Authors: A. Bolaji Adesoye, Alimi Olorunfemi

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This paper examines the impact of small and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) credit financing and financial market development and their shocks on the output growth of Nigeria. The study estimated a VAR model for Nigeria using 1970-2013 annual data series. Unit root tests and cointegration are carried out. The study also explores IRFs and FEVDs in a system that includes output, commercial bank loan to SMEs, domestic credit to private sector by banks, money supply, lending rate and investment. Findings suggest that shocks in commercial bank credit to SMEs has a major impact on the output changes of Nigeria. Money supply shocks also have a sizeable impact on output growth variations amidst other financial instruments. Lastly, neutrality of investment does not hold in Nigeria as it also has impact on output fluctuations.

Keywords: SMEs financing, financial development, investment, output, Nigeria

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26 Translation, War and Humanitarian Action: A Case Study of the Kindertransporte to Switzerland

Authors: Lisa Mockli, Chelsea Sambells

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By combining the methodologies of history and translation studies, this study will explore the interplay between humanitarian action, politics, and translation within the advertising for a lesser-known Swiss child evacuation project of some 60.000 Belgium and French children to Switzerland for three month periods from 1940 to 1945. Inspired by Descriptive-Explanatory Translation Studies, this project compares Swiss speeches published between May and September 1942 (the termination of the evacuations). Radio broadcasts, leaflets and newspapers will triangulate the data. First, linguistic and content-related differences will be identified and described. Second, based on findings from the Swiss Federal Archives, the evidence from the comparative textual analysis will then be evaluated in order to explore how the speeches were modified, for what purpose, and which key issues were raised during their modification. By exploring these questions, this paper provides new insights into (I) Switzerland’s understanding of Swiss neutrality and humanitarianism during the Second World War, (II) the role of children in war and (III) the role of translation in shaping political discourse and humanitarian action. Moreover, this interdisciplinary approach also demonstrates how scholarly collaboration may help to make some elements of humanitarian action more self-reflexive and effective.

Keywords: children, history, humanitarianism, politics, translation

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25 Secularism and Political Inclusion: Turkey in the 2000s

Authors: Edgar Sar

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For more than a decade, secularism’s compatibility with religion has been called into question. Particularly, secular states’ exclusionary practices were raised to prove that secularism is not necessary for democracy. Meanwhile, with the debut of Turkey’s Justice and Development Party (AKP) in 2002, Turkish state’s approach to religion has gradually changed. It is argued in that presentation that this change has led Turkey to a process of de-secularization, which refers to a considerable regress in state’s inclusionary and pluralist credentials. In this regard, this study both reflects on the relationship between secularism and democracy within the context of Turkish experience and analyses the consequences of the process of de-secularization of state in Turkey. To analyze Turkish state’s changing approach to religion and measure the de-secularization of the state, the connection between state and religion will be examined in three levels: ends, institutions, and law and policies. The presentation will indicate that Turkish state’s connection with religion in all three levels significantly weakened its secular credentials, which at the same time risked state’s commitment to neutrality, freedom of conscience and equality. In this regard, the change in Turkish state’s approach to religion throughout the 2000s, which this study refers to as the process of the de-secularization of the state, also brought about a process of de-democratization for Turkey.

Keywords: AKP, political inclusion, secularism, Turkey

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24 Financial Information and Collective Bargaining: Conflicting or Complementing

Authors: Humayun Murshed, Shibly Abdullah

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The research conducted in early seventies apparently assumed the existence of a universal decision model for union negotiators and furthermore tended to regard financial information as a ‘neutral’ input into a rational decision-making process. However, research in the eighties began to question the neutrality of financial information as an input in collective bargaining rather viewing it as a potentially effective means for controlling the labour force. Furthermore, this later research also started challenging the simplistic assumptions relating particularly to union objectives which have underpinned the earlier search for universal union decision models. Despite the above developments there seems to be a dearth of studies in developing countries concerning the use of financial information in collective bargaining. This paper seeks to begin to remedy this deficiency. Utilising a case study approach based on two enterprises, one in the public sector and the other a multinational, the universal decision model is rejected and it is argued that the decision whether or not to use financial information is a contingent one and such a contingency is largely defined by the context and environment in which both union and management negotiators work. An attempt is also made to identify the factors constraining as well as promoting the use of financial information in collective bargaining, these being regarded as unique to the organizations within which the case studies are conducted.

Keywords: collective bargaining, developing countries, disclosures, financial information

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23 The Impact of Bequest Taxation on Human Capital Accumulation

Authors: Maciej Dudek, Robert Kruszewski, Janusz Kudla, Konrad Walczyk

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In this paper, we study how taxation of bequests affects human capital formation in the long term and short term horizon. Our underlying model is an overlapping generation model (OLG) with some degree of altruism on the part of the ancestors' generation towards their descendants. We ask the question in three separate frameworks. First, we study a simple one-sector model where a proxy of human capital is wage income. It the steady-state -for CRRA utility function and human capital produced with non-decreasing returns -the taxation of bequests is neutral to the accumulation of human capital. In the second framework, neutrality applies to the growth rates of human capital, physical capital, and consumption. In this case, taxation increases the level of bequests, leading to a lower value of current consumption. Finally in we consider two periods model instead of infinite horizon model as long as the tax revenue is at least partially rebated back to the public, the fraction of human capital engaged in the process of formation of human capital increases with the tax rate on bequests. In other words, taxation of bequests is partially offset by an increase in human capital formation. Higher human capital allows the future generation to earn higher wages, and today's generation can find it optimal to endow the future generation with more human capital when taxation is imposed on physical capital transferred to the next generation.

Keywords: taxation, bequests, policy, human capital

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22 Retrofitting Cement Plants with Oxyfuel Technology for Carbon Capture

Authors: Peloriadi Konstantina, Fakis Dimitris, Grammelis Panagiotis

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Methods for carbon capture and storage (CCS) can play a key role in the reduction of industrial CO₂ emissions, especially in the cement industry, which accounts for 7% of global emissions. Cement industries around the world have committed to address this problem by reaching carbon neutrality by the year 2050. The aim of the work to be presented was to contribute to the decarbonization strategy by integrating the 1st generation oxyfuel technology in cement production plants. This technology has been shown to improve fuel efficiency while providing one of the most cost-effective solutions when compared to other capture methods. A validated simulation of the cement plant was thus used as a basis to develop an oxyfuel retrofitted cement process. The process model for the oxyfuel technology is developed on the ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering) PLUSTM simulation software. This process consists of an Air Separation Unit (ASU), an oxyfuel cement plant with coal and alternative solid fuel (ASF) as feedstock, and a carbon dioxide processing unit (CPU). A detailed description and analysis of the CPU will be presented, including the findings of a literature review and simulation results, regarding the effects of flue gas impurities during operation. Acknowledgment: This research has been conducted in the framework of the EU funded AC2OCEM project, which investigates first and the second generation oxyfuel concepts.

Keywords: oxyfuel technology, carbon capture and storage, CO₂ processing unit, cement, aspen plus

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21 Comparative Life Cycle Analysis of Selected Modular Timber Construction and Assembly Typologies

Authors: Benjamin Goldsmith, Felix Heisel

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The building industry must reduce its emissions in order to meet 2030 neutrality targets, and modular and/or offsite construction is seen as an alternative to conventional construction methods which could help achieve this goal. Modular construction has previously been shown to be less wasteful and has a lower global warming potential (GWP). While many studies have been conducted investigating the life cycle impacts of modular and conventional construction, few studies have compared different types of modular assembly and construction in order to determine which offer the greatest environmental benefits over their whole life cycle. This study seeks to investigate three different modular construction types -infill frame, core, and podium- in order to determine environmental impacts such as GWP as well as circularity indicators. The study will focus on the emissions of the production, construction, and end-of-life phases. The circularity of the various approaches will be taken into consideration in order to acknowledge the potential benefits of the ability to reuse and/or reclaim materials, products, and assemblies. The study will conduct hypothetical case studies for the three different modular construction types, and in doing so, control the parameters of location, climate, program, and client. By looking in-depth at the GWP of the beginning and end phases of various simulated modular buildings, it will be possible to make suggestions on which type of construction has the lowest global warming potential.

Keywords: modular construction, offsite construction, life cycle analysis, global warming potential, environmental impact, circular economy

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20 Development of Membrane Reactor for Auto Thermal Reforming of Dimethyl Ether for Hydrogen Production

Authors: Tie-Qing Zhang, Seunghun Jung, Young-Bae Kim

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This research is devoted to developing a membrane reactor to flexibly meet the hydrogen demand of onboard fuel cells, which is an important part of green energy development. Among many renewable chemical products, dimethyl ether (DME) has the advantages of low reaction temperature (400 °C in this study), high hydrogen atom content, low toxicity, and easy preparation. Autothermal reforming, on the other hand, has a high hydrogen recovery rate and exhibits thermal neutrality during the reaction process, so the additional heat source in the hydrogen production process can be omitted. Therefore, the DME auto thermal reforming process was adopted in this study. To control the temperature of the reaction catalyst bed and hydrogen production rate, a Model Predictive Control (MPC) scheme was designed. Taking the above two variables as the control objectives, stable operation of the reformer can be achieved by controlling the flow rates of DME, steam, and high-purity air in real-time. To prevent catalyst poisoning in the fuel cell, the hydrogen needs to be purified to reduce the carbon monoxide content to below 50 ppm. Therefore, a Pd-Ag hydrogen semi-permeable membrane with a thickness of 3-5 μm was inserted into the auto thermal reactor, and the permeation efficiency of hydrogen was improved by steam purging on the permeation side. Finally, hydrogen with a purity of 99.99 was obtained.

Keywords: hydrogen production, auto thermal reforming, membrane, fuel cell

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19 Impact of Changes of the Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting on the Indicators of the Financial Statement

Authors: Nadezhda Kvatashidze

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The International Accounting Standards Board updated the conceptual framework for financial reporting. The main reason behind it is to resolve the tasks of the accounting, which are caused by the market development and business-transactions of a new economic content. Also, the investors call for higher transparency of information and responsibility for the results in order to make a more accurate risk assessment and forecast. All these make it necessary to further develop the conceptual framework for financial reporting so that the users get useful information. The market development and certain shortcomings of the conceptual framework revealed in practice require its reconsideration and finding new solutions. Some issues and concepts, such as disclosure and supply of information, its qualitative characteristics, assessment, and measurement uncertainty had to be supplemented and perfected. The criteria of recognition of certain elements (assets and liabilities) of reporting had to be updated, too and all this is set out in the updated edition of the conceptual framework for financial reporting, a comprehensive collection of concepts underlying preparation of the financial statement. The main objective of conceptual framework revision is to improve financial reporting and development of clear concepts package. This will support International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) to set common “Approach & Reflection” for similar transactions on the basis of mutually accepted concepts. As a result, companies will be able to develop coherent accounting policies for those transactions or events that are occurred from particular deals to which no standard is used or when standard allows choice of accounting policy.

Keywords: conceptual framework, measurement basis, measurement uncertainty, neutrality, prudence, stewardship

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18 Comparing the Behaviour of the FRP and Steel Reinforced Shear Walls under Cyclic Seismic Loading in Aspect of the Energy Dissipation

Authors: H. Rahman, T. Donchev, D. Petkova

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Earthquakes claim thousands of lives around the world annually due to inadequate design of lateral load resisting systems particularly shear walls. Additionally, corrosion of the steel reinforcement in concrete structures is one of the main challenges in construction industry. Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) reinforcement can be used as an alternative to traditional steel reinforcement. FRP has several excellent mechanical properties than steel such as high resistance to corrosion, high tensile strength and light self-weight; additionally, it has electromagnetic neutrality advantageous to the structures where it is important such as hospitals, some laboratories and telecommunications. This paper is about results of experimental research and it is incorporating experimental testing of two medium-scale concrete shear wall samples; one reinforced with Basalt FRP (BFRP) bar and one reinforced with steel bars as a control sample. The samples are tested under quasi-static-cyclic loading following modified ATC-24 protocol standard seismic loading. The results of both samples are compared to allow a judgement about performance of BFRP reinforced against steel reinforced concrete shear walls. The results of the conducted researches show a promising momentum toward utilisation of the BFRP as an alternative to traditional steel reinforcement with the aim of improving durability with suitable energy dissipation in the reinforced concrete shear walls.  

Keywords: shear walls, internal fibre reinforced polymer reinforcement, cyclic loading, energy dissipation, seismic behaviour

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17 Time and Cost Prediction Models for Language Classification Over a Large Corpus on Spark

Authors: Jairson Barbosa Rodrigues, Paulo Romero Martins Maciel, Germano Crispim Vasconcelos

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This paper presents an investigation of the performance impacts regarding the variation of five factors (input data size, node number, cores, memory, and disks) when applying a distributed implementation of Naïve Bayes for text classification of a large Corpus on the Spark big data processing framework. Problem: The algorithm's performance depends on multiple factors, and knowing before-hand the effects of each factor becomes especially critical as hardware is priced by time slice in cloud environments. Objectives: To explain the functional relationship between factors and performance and to develop linear predictor models for time and cost. Methods: the solid statistical principles of Design of Experiments (DoE), particularly the randomized two-level fractional factorial design with replications. This research involved 48 real clusters with different hardware arrangements. The metrics were analyzed using linear models for screening, ranking, and measurement of each factor's impact. Results: Our findings include prediction models and show some non-intuitive results about the small influence of cores and the neutrality of memory and disks on total execution time, and the non-significant impact of data input scale on costs, although notably impacts the execution time.

Keywords: big data, design of experiments, distributed machine learning, natural language processing, spark

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16 Success Factors for Innovations in SME Networks

Authors: J. Gochermann

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Due to complex markets and products, and increasing need to innovate, cooperation between small and medium size enterprises arose during the last decades, which are not prior driven by process optimization or sales enhancement. Especially small and medium sized enterprises (SME) collaborate increasingly in innovation and knowledge networks to enhance their knowledge and innovation potential, and to find strategic partners for product and market development. These networks are characterized by dual objectives, the superordinate goal of the total network, and the specific objectives of the network members, which can cause target conflicts. Moreover, most SMEs do not have structured innovation processes and they are not accustomed to collaborate in complex innovation projects in an open network structure. On the other hand, SMEs have suitable characteristics for promising networking. They are flexible and spontaneous, they have flat hierarchies, and the acting people are not anonymous. These characteristics indeed distinguish them from bigger concerns. Investigation of German SME networks have been done to identify success factors for SME innovation networks. The fundamental network principles, donation-return and confidence, could be confirmed and identified as basic success factors. Further factors are voluntariness, adequate number of network members, quality of communication, neutrality and competence of the network management, as well as reliability and obligingness of the network services. Innovation and knowledge networks with an appreciable number of members from science and technology institutions need also active sense-making to bring different disciplines into successful collaboration. It has also been investigated, whether and how the involvement in an innovation network impacts the innovation structure and culture inside the member companies. The degree of reaction grows with time and intensity of commitment.

Keywords: innovation and knowledge networks, SME, success factors, innovation structure and culture

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15 Clinical Supervisors Experience of Supervising Nursing Students from a Higher Education Institution

Authors: J. Magerman, P. Martin

Abstract:

Nursing students' clinical abilities is highly dependent on the quality of the clinical experience obtained while placed in the clinical environment. The clinical environment has amongst other, key role players which include the clinical supervisor. The primary role of the clinical supervisor is to guide nursing students to become the best practice nursing professionals. However, globally literature alludes to the failure of educating institutions to deliver competent nursing professionals to meet the needs of patients and deliver quality patient care. At the participating university, this may be due to various factors such as large student numbers and social and environmental challenges experienced by clinical supervisors. The aim of this study was to explore and describe the lived experiences of clinical supervisors who supervise nursing students at a higher education institution. The study employed a qualitative research approach utilizing a descriptive phenomenological design. Purposive sampling was used to select participants, who supervised first and second year nursing studnets at the higher education institution under study. TH esample comprised of eight clinical supervisors who supervise first and secon year nursing studnets at teh institution under study. Data was collected by means of in-depht interviews. Data was analysed using Collaizzi's seven steps method of qualitative analysis. Five major themes identified , focussed on the experiences regarding time a sa constraint to job productivity, the impact of teh organisational culture on the fluidity of support, interpersonal relationships a sa dynamic communication process, impact on the self, and limited resources. Trustworthiness of the data was ensured by means of applying Guba's model of truth value, applicability, consistency and neutrality. Reflexivity was also used by the researcher to further enhance trustworthiness.

Keywords: clinical supervision, clinical supervisors, nursing students, clinical placements

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14 Comparing Energy Labelling of Buildings in Spain

Authors: Carolina Aparicio-Fernández, Alejandro Vilar Abad, Mar Cañada Soriano, Jose-Luis Vivancos

Abstract:

The building sector is responsible for 40% of the total energy consumption in the European Union (EU). Thus, implementation of strategies for quantifying and reducing buildings energy consumption is indispensable for reaching the EU’s carbon neutrality and energy efficiency goals. Each Member State has transposed the European Directives according to its own peculiarities: existing technical legislation, constructive solutions, climatic zones, etc. Therefore, in accordance with the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive, Member States have developed different Energy Performance Certificate schemes, using proposed energy simulation software-tool for each national or regional area. Energy Performance Certificates provide a powerful and comprehensive information to predict, analyze and improve the energy demand of new and existing buildings. Energy simulation software and databases allow a better understanding of the current constructive reality of the European building stock. However, Energy Performance Certificates still have to face several issues to consider them as a reliable and global source of information since different calculation tools are used that do not allow the connection between them. In this document, TRNSYS (TRaNsient System Simulation program) software is used to calculate the energy demand of a building, and it is compared with the energy labeling obtained with Spanish Official software-tools. We demonstrate the possibility of using not official software-tools to calculate the Energy Performance Certificate. Thus, this approach could be used throughout the EU and compare the results in all possible cases proposed by the EU Member States. To implement the simulations, an isolated single-family house with different construction solutions is considered. The results are obtained for every climatic zone of the Spanish Technical Building Code.

Keywords: energy demand, energy performance certificate EPBD, trnsys, buildings

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13 The Role of the Federal Supreme Court in Preventing the Exercise of the Right to Self-Determination

Authors: Shaho Ghafur Ahmed

Abstract:

The right to self-determination of peoples is a fundamental human right recognized by the principles of international law. It could be embodied in the internal level in the form of federalism. Most federal constitutions prevented the secession of constituent entities, while some remained silent, as the case of Iraq, and rare instances of them recognize it. But, after the failure of federalism, these entities seek to separate whenever the opportunity arises. In several cases, they have resort to peaceful methods in some others they resort to force. The constitutional Supreme Court, which guaranty the unity and integrity of the State, often prevent these attempts. After not a commitment of federalism in Iraq, which has been founded since 2004, the Kurdistan region, as the only federated entity, has conducted a unilateral referendum on 25 September 2017 for its independence. The Iraqi government refused it. The Iraqi Federal Supreme Court, through interpreting the constitutional provisions, decided that this referendum and it’s purposes, which was the independence of the region, was unconstitutional. Subsequently, the Iraqi government used forces and blockaded the region so as to force it to turn off this process. So, in this paper, the right to self-determination of the peoples in federated entities and its obstacles will be discussed through the comparative legal basis and analyzing the decisions of the Federal Constitutional Courts. We will compare the role that the Supreme Court of Canada played regarding the referendum that operated in Quebec in 1995, in which it refused only the unilaterally attempts for the independence of this province. While, in the case of the Kurdistan region, the Iraqi Federal Supreme Court has definitively refused this right. No measures were taken by this Court to protect the region from the Iraqi government reactions. This decision led to the questioning of the neutrality of this Court. So, from the point of view of the Kurdistan region, this Court became a political instrument to prevent it to be independent in the international community, in the absence of a clear constitutional provision, through an abstract and an incomplete interpretation of federal constitutional provisions.

Keywords: right of self-determination, federal supreme court, supremacy of federal constitution

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12 Genderqueerness in Polish: A Survey-Based Study of Linguistic Strategies Employed by Genderqueer Speakers of Polish

Authors: Szymon Misiek

Abstract:

The genderqueer (or gender non-binary, both terms referring to those individuals who are identified as neither men nor women) community has been gaining greater visibility over the last few years. This includes legal recognition, representation in popular media, and inclusion of non-binary perspectives in research on transgender issues. Another important aspect of visibility is language. Gender-neutrality, often associated with genderqueer people, is relatively easy to achieve in natural-gender languages such as English. This can be observed in the growing popularity of the 'singular they' pronoun (used specifically with reference to genderqueer individuals) or the gender-neutral title 'Mx.' (as an alternative to 'Ms./Mr.'). 'Singular they' seems to have become a certain standard in the genderqueer community. Grammatical-gender languages, such as Polish, provide for a greater challenge to genderqueer speakers. In Polish, every noun is inherently gendered, while verbs, adjectives, and pronouns inflect for gender. Those who do not wish to settle for using only either masculine or feminine forms (which some genderqueer Polish speakers do choose) have to somehow mix the two, attempt to avoid gendered forms altogether, or turn to non-standard forms, such as neuter (not used for people in standard Polish), plurals (vaguely akin to English 'singular they'), or neologisms (such as verb forms using the '-u-' affix). The following paper presents the results of a survey conducted among genderqueer speakers of Polish regarding their choice of linguistic strategies. As no definitive standard such as 'singular they' has (yet) emerged, it rather seeks to emphasize the diversity of chosen strategies and their relation to a person's specific identity as well as the context an exchange takes place. The findings of the study may offer an insight into how heavily gendered languages deal with non-normatively gendered experiences, and to what extent English influences this process (e.g., the majority of genderqueer poles choose English terms to label their identity), as well as help design good practices aimed at achieving gender-equality in speech.

Keywords: genderqueer, grammatical gender in Polish, non-binary, transgender

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11 Portrayal of Pak-US Relations in Perspective of Bin Laden Killing by the Leading American and British Newspapers: A Content Analysis of the Guardian, the Telegraph, Washington Post and the New York Times

Authors: Shahzad Ali

Abstract:

This article expounds the coverage of Pak-US relations in the context of Osama Bin Laden killing in four selected leading newspapers of UK and the US viz The Telegraph, The Guardian, The New York Times and The Washington Post during the specific time period of three months, i.e., April-June, 2011. The study is scrutinized on the basis of Operation Neptune Spear. The research study is theoretically linked with the propaganda model of Herman and Chomsky and the Shoemaker and Reeve‘s theory of content effect, specifically the impact of foreign policy as a driving instrument influencing the nature and treatment of the coverage of Pak-US relations. The relations between Pakistan and USA are of great importance in the context of Bin Laden. The Pak-US relations were less aggravated and hostile in pre OBL period but post OBL period worsened these relations. It is also interesting to mention that the policies of these newspapers were dependent on the foreign policy of their countries. It was explored that the news coverage was found favorable as and when the relations Pakistan and the US or UK were cordial and smooth. And it turned into negative and unfavorable when the relations were in strain and deteriorating and endorsed various studies that the Western mainstream media tried to be more nationalistic in projecting official stance while covering foreign coverage instead of adhering to universal cannon of journalism, i.e., objectivity, fairness, and neutrality, etc. Overall 219 news items of these four selected newspapers regarding Pak-US relations in the context of pre and post OBL’s killing operation were undertaken for analysis. The ratio of negative slants was found higher as compared to the positive and neutral slants. Besides, the ratio of news items with unfavorable frames was found higher in post OBL operation in comparison of pre-era of the coverage related to Pak-US relations in the leading British and American newspapers.

Keywords: Osama Bin Laden, Pakistan, USA, UK, relations, Guardian, Washington Post, Telegraph, New York Times, Operation Neptune Spear

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