Search results for: digitization
81 An Application-Driven Procedure for Optimal Signal Digitization of Automotive-Grade Ultrasonic Sensors
Authors: Mohamed Shawki Elamir, Heinrich Gotzig, Raoul Zoellner, Patrick Maeder
Abstract:In this work, a methodology is presented for identifying the optimal digitization parameters for the analog signal of ultrasonic sensors. These digitization parameters are the resolution of the analog to digital conversion and the sampling rate. This is accomplished through the derivation of characteristic curves based on Fano inequality and the calculation of the mutual information content over a given dataset. The mutual information is calculated between the examples in the dataset and the corresponding variation in the feature that needs to be estimated. The optimal parameters are identified in a manner that ensures optimal estimation performance while preventing inefficiency in using unnecessarily powerful analog to digital converters.
Keywords: analog to digital conversion, digitization, sampling rate, ultrasonicProcedia PDF Downloads 134
80 Examination of Readiness of Teachers in the Use of Information-Communication Technologies in the Classroom
Authors: Nikolina Ribarić
Abstract:This paper compares the readiness of chemistry teachers to use information and communication technologies in chemistry in 2018. and 2021. A survey conducted in 2018 on a sample of teachers showed that most teachers occasionally use visualization and digitization tools in chemistry teaching (65%) but feel that they are not educated enough to use them (56%). Also, most teachers do not have adequate equipment in their schools and are not able to use ICT in teaching or digital tools for visualization and digitization of content (44%). None of the teachers find the use of digitization and visualization tools useless. Furthermore, a survey conducted in 2021 shows that most teachers occasionally use visualization and digitization tools in chemistry teaching (83%). Also, the research shows that some teachers still do not have adequate equipment in their schools and are not able to use ICT in chemistry teaching or digital tools for visualization and digitization of content (14%). Advances in the use of ICT in chemistry teaching are linked to pandemic conditions and the obligation to conduct online teaching. The share of 14% of teachers who still do not have adequate equipment to use digital tools in teaching is worrying.
Keywords: chemistry, digital content, e-learning, ICT, visualizationProcedia PDF Downloads 88
79 Theorizing Digital Transformation, Digitization and Digitalization in Africa Emerging Research in Digital Business: A Critical Review of the Current Scholarship
Authors: Ayanda Magida
Abstract:The paper aims to provide a critical review of the current state-of-the-art literature on emerging digital business theories. They are specifically focusing on the emergent theories on digital transformation, digitization, and digitalization and their importance in the global south. Digital business is an emergent field that cuts across the different existing disciplines. The paper is threefold- to provide the conceptual and theoretical definition of the DT, digitization and digitization. There is a growing need to provide some of the differences between digitalization, digitization and digital transformation from a theoretical and conceptual basis. These tend to be confused and often use interchangeably the second aim is to focus on the emerging theories on digital transformation and digital business. Finally, the paper provides some critical review of the importance of scholarship in the field from the global south. The systematic review of the literature was conducted through the different research databases to provide some of the major theories in the field of digital business and critically argue for the global south stance. Much of the research on the development and adoption of digital technologies, specifically digital transformation, has been done in the west and developed countries. There is thus a dearth of research conducted in developing countries and the global south.
Keywords: digital transformation, digitization, digital business, digitalizationProcedia PDF Downloads 178
78 Digitization and Economic Growth in Africa: The Role of Financial Sector Development
Authors: Abdul Ganiyu Iddrisu, Bei Chen
Abstract:Digitization is the process of transforming analog material into digital form, especially for storage and use in a computer. Significant development of information and communication technology (ICT) over the past years has encouraged many researchers to investigate its contribution to promoting economic growth and reducing poverty. Yet the compelling empirical evidence on the effects of digitization on economic growth remains weak, particularly in Africa. This is because extant studies that explicitly evaluate digitization and economic growth nexus are mostly reports and desk reviews. This points out an empirical knowledge gap in the literature. Hypothetically, digitization influences financial sector development which in turn influences economic growth. Digitization has changed the financial sector and its operating environment. Obstacles to access to financing, for instance, physical distance, minimum balance requirements, and low-income flows, among others can be circumvented. Savings have increased, micro-savers have opened bank accounts, and banks are now able to price short-term loans. This has the potential to develop the financial sector. However, empirical evidence on the digitization-financial development nexus is dearth. On the other hand, a number of studies maintained that financial sector development greatly influences growth of economies. We, therefore, argue that financial sector development is one of the transmission mechanisms through which digitization affects economic growth. Employing macro-country-level data from African countries and using fixed effects, random effects and Hausman-Taylor estimation approaches, this paper contributes to the literature by analysing economic growth in Africa, focusing on the role of digitization and financial sector development. First, we assess how digitization influences financial sector development in Africa. From an economic policy perspective, it is important to identify digitization determinants of financial sector development so that action can be taken to reduce the economic shocks associated with financial sector distortions. This nexus is rarely examined empirically in the literature. Secondly, we examine the effect of domestic credit to the private sector and stock market capitalization as a percentage of GDP as used to proxy for financial sector development on economic growth. Digitization is represented by the volume of digital/ICT equipment imported and GDP growth is used to proxy economic growth. Finally, we examine the effect of digitization on economic growth in the light of financial sector development. The following key results were found; first, digitalization propels financial sector development in Africa. Second, financial sector development enhances economic growth. Finally, contrary to our expectation, the results also indicate that digitalization conditioned on financial sector development tends to reduce economic growth in Africa. However, results of the net effects suggest that digitalization, overall, improve economic growth in Africa. We, therefore, conclude that, digitalization in Africa does not only develop the financial sector but unconditionally contributes the growth of the continent’s economies.
Keywords: digitalization, financial sector development, Africa, economic growthProcedia PDF Downloads 65
77 An Era of Arts: Examining Intersection of Technology and Museums
Authors: Vivian Li
Abstract:With the rapid development of technology, virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) are becoming increasingly prominent in our lives. Museums have led the way in digitization, offering their collections to the wider public through the open internet, which is dramatically changing our experience of art. Technology is also being implemented into our physical art-viewing experience, enabling museums to capture historical sites while creating a more immersive experience for patrons. This study takes a qualitative approach, examining secondary sources and synthesizing information from interviews with field professionals to answer the question: to what extent is the contemporary perception of art transformed by the digitization of art museums? The findings establish that museums are becoming increasingly open with their collections, utilizing digitization to spread their intellectual content to people worldwide and to diversify their audiences. The use of VR and AR is also enabling museums to preserve and showcase historical artifacts and sites in a more interactive and user-focused way. Technology is also crafting new forms of art and art museums. Ultimately, the intersection of technology and museums is not changing the definition of art but rather offering new modes for the public to experience and learn about arts and history.
Keywords: art, augmented reality, digitization, museums, technology, virtual realityProcedia PDF Downloads 61
76 Digitalization, Economic Growth and Financial Sector Development in Africa
Authors: Abdul Ganiyu Iddrisu
Abstract:Digitization is the process of transforming analog material into digital form, especially for storage and use in a computer. Significant development of information and communication technology (ICT) over the past years has encouraged many researchers to investigate its contribution to promoting economic growth, and reducing poverty. Yet compelling empirical evidence on the effects of digitization on economic growth remains weak, particularly in Africa. This is because extant studies that explicitly evaluate digitization and economic growth nexus are mostly reports and desk reviews. This points out an empirical knowledge gap in the literature. Hypothetically, digitization influences financial sector development which in turn influences economic growth. Digitization has changed the financial sector and its operating environment. Obstacles to access to financing, for instance, physical distance, minimum balance requirements, low-income flows among others can be circumvented. Savings have increased, micro-savers have opened bank accounts, and banks are now able to price short-term loans. This has the potential to develop the financial sector, however, empirical evidence on digitization-financial development nexus is dearth. On the other hand, a number of studies maintained that financial sector development greatly influences growth of economies. We therefore argue that financial sector development is one of the transmission mechanisms through which digitization affects economic growth. Employing macro-country-level data from African countries and using fixed effects, random effects and Hausman-Taylor estimation approaches, this paper contributes to the literature by analysing economic growth in Africa focusing on the role of digitization, and financial sector development. First, we assess how digitization influence financial sector development in Africa. From an economic policy perspective, it is important to identify digitization determinants of financial sector development so that action can be taken to reduce the economic shocks associated with financial sector distortions. This nexus is rarely examined empirically in the literature. Secondly, we examine the effect of domestic credit to private sector and stock market capitalization as a percentage of GDP as used to proxy for financial sector development on 2 economic growth. Digitization is represented by the volume of digital/ICT equipment imported and GDP growth is used to proxy economic growth. Finally, we examine the effect of digitization on economic growth in the light of financial sector development. The following key results were found; first, digitalization propels financial sector development in Africa. Second, financial sector development enhances economic growth. Finally, contrary to our expectation, the results also indicate that digitalization conditioned on financial sector development tends to reduce economic growth in Africa. However, results of the net effects suggest that digitalization, overall, improves economic growth in Africa. We, therefore, conclude that, digitalization in Africa does not only develop the financial sector but unconditionally contributes the growth of the continent’s economies.
Keywords: digitalization, economic growth, financial sector development, AfricaProcedia PDF Downloads 45
75 Digital Preservation in Nigeria Universities Libraries: A Comparison between University of Nigeria Nsukka and Ahmadu Bello University Zaria
Authors: Suleiman Musa, Shuaibu Sidi Safiyanu
Abstract:This study examined the digital preservation in Nigeria university libraries. A comparison between the university of Nigeria Nsukka (UNN) and Ahmadu Bello University Zaria (ABU, Zaria). The study utilized primary source of data obtained from two selected institution librarians. Finding revealed varying results in terms of skills acquired by librarians before and after digitization of the two institutions. The study reports that journals publication, text book, CD-ROMS, conference papers and proceedings, theses, dissertations and seminar papers are among the information resources available for digitization. The study further documents that copyright issue, power failure, and unavailability of needed materials are among the challenges facing the digitization of library of the institution. On the basis of the finding, the study concluded that digitization of library enhances efficiency in organization and retrieval of information services. The study therefore recommended that software should be upgraded with backup, training of the librarians on digital process, installation of antivirus and enhancement of technical collaboration between the library and MIS.
Keywords: digitalization, preservation, libraries, comparisonProcedia PDF Downloads 267
74 The Essence and Attribution of Intellectual Property Rights Generated in the Digitization of Intangible Cultural Heritage
Authors: Jiarong Zhang
Abstract:Digitizing intangible cultural heritage is a complex and comprehensive process from which sorts of intellectual property rights may be generated. Digitizing may be a repacking process of cultural heritage, which creates copyrights; recording folk songs and indigenous performances can create 'related rights'. At the same time, digitizing intangible cultural heritage may infringe the intellectual property rights of others unintentionally. Recording religious rituals of indigenous communities without authorization can violate the moral right of the ceremony participants of the community; making digital copies of rock paintings may infringe the right of reproduction. In addition, several parties are involved in the digitization process: indigenous peoples, museums, and archives can be holders of cultural heritage; companies and research institutions can be technology providers; internet platforms can be promoters and sellers; the public and groups above can be beneficiaries. When diverse intellectual property rights versus various parties, problems and disputes can arise easily. What are the types of intellectual property rights generated in the digitization process? What is the essence of these rights? Who should these rights belong to? How to use intellectual property to protect the digitalization of cultural heritage? How to avoid infringing on the intellectual property rights of others? While the digitization has been regarded as an effective approach to preserve intangible cultural heritage, related intellectual property issues have not received the attention and full discussion. Thus, parties involving in the digitization process may face intellectual property infringement lawsuits. The article will explore those problems from the intersection perspective of intellectual property law and cultural heritage. From a comparative approach, the paper will analysis related legal documents and cases, and shed some lights of those questions listed. The findings show, although there are no intellectual property laws targeting the cultural heritage in most countries, the involved stakeholders can seek protection from existing intellectual property rights following the suggestions of the article. The research will contribute to the digitization of intangible cultural heritage from a legal and policy aspect.
Keywords: copyright, digitization, intangible cultural heritage, intellectual property, Internet platformsProcedia PDF Downloads 79
73 Conceptualizing the Knowledge to Manage and Utilize Data Assets in the Context of Digitization: Case Studies of Multinational Industrial Enterprises
Authors: Martin Böhmer, Agatha Dabrowski, Boris Otto
Abstract:The trend of digitization significantly changes the role of data for enterprises. Data turn from an enabler to an intangible organizational asset that requires management and qualifies as a tradeable good. The idea of a networked economy has gained momentum in the data domain as collaborative approaches for data management emerge. Traditional organizational knowledge consequently needs to be extended by comprehensive knowledge about data. The knowledge about data is vital for organizations to ensure that data quality requirements are met and data can be effectively utilized and sovereignly governed. As this specific knowledge has been paid little attention to so far by academics, the aim of the research presented in this paper is to conceptualize it by proposing a “data knowledge model”. Relevant model entities have been identified based on a design science research (DSR) approach that iteratively integrates insights of various industry case studies and literature research.
Keywords: data management, digitization, industry 4.0, knowledge engineering, metamodelProcedia PDF Downloads 289
72 Mastering Digitization: A Quality-Adapted Digital Transformation Model
Authors: Franziska Schaefer, Marlene Kuhn, Heiner Otten
Abstract:In the very near future, digitization will be the main challenge a company has to master to survive in a highly competitive market. Developing the right transformation strategy by considering all relevant aspects determines the success or failure of a company. Especially the digital focus on the customer plays a key role in creating sustainable competitive advantages, also leading to new tasks within the quality management. Therefore, quality management needs to be particularly addressed to support the upcoming digital change. In this paper, we present an analysis of existing digital transformation approaches and derive a transformation strategy from a quality management perspective. We identify and classify different transformation dimensions and assess their relevance to quality management tasks, resulting in a quality-adapted digital transformation model. Furthermore, we introduce applicable and customized quality management methods to support the presented digital transformation tasks. With our developed model we provide a digital transformation guideline from a quality perspective to master future disruptive changes.
Keywords: digital transformation, digitization, quality management, strategyProcedia PDF Downloads 404
71 Digitization of European SMEs in Tourism and Hospitality: The Case of Greek Hoteliers
Authors: Joanna K. Konstantinou
Abstract:The aim of this study is to explore the need of small and medium-sized businesses in tourism and hospitality industry to adopt technology and enhance their degree of digitalization, along with the main benefits enjoyed by technology and the main challenges that hinder its adoption. Within a hermeneutic phenomenological perspective, semi-structured interviews were conducted with three hotel owners and the focus was to identify the main reasons of adoption of technology, enablers and barriers. The findings were grouped with the goal of identifying typology of business practices in using and adopting technology.
Keywords: digitization, SMEs, tourism and hospitality, challenges, benefitsProcedia PDF Downloads 195
70 Corporate Digital Responsibility in Construction Engineering-Construction 4.0: Ethical Guidelines for Digitization and Artificial Intelligence
Authors: Weber-Lewerenz Bianca
Abstract:Digitization is developing fast and has become a powerful tool for digital planning, construction, and operations. Its transformation bears high potentials for companies, is critical for success, and thus, requires responsible handling. This study provides an assessment of calls made in the sustainable development goals by the United Nations (SDGs), White Papers on AI by international institutions, EU-Commission and German Government requesting for the consideration and protection of values and fundamental rights, the careful demarcation between machine (artificial) and human intelligence and the careful use of such technologies. The study discusses digitization and the impacts of artificial intelligence (AI) in construction engineering from an ethical perspective by generating data via conducting case studies and interviewing experts as part of the qualitative method. This research evaluates critically opportunities and risks revolving around corporate digital responsibility (CDR) in the construction industry. To the author's knowledge, no study has set out to investigate how CDR in construction could be conceptualized, especially in relation to the digitization and AI, to mitigate digital transformation both in large, medium-sized, and small companies. No study addressed the key research question: Where can CDR be allocated, how shall its adequate ethical framework be designed to support digital innovations in order to make full use of the potentials of digitization and AI? Now is the right timing for constructive approaches and apply ethics-by-design in order to develop and implement a safe and efficient AI. This represents the first study in construction engineering applying a holistic, interdisciplinary, inclusive approach to provide guidelines for orientation, examine benefits of AI and define ethical principles as the key driver for success, resources-cost-time efficiency, and sustainability using digital technologies and AI in construction engineering to enhance digital transformation. Innovative corporate organizations starting new business models are more likely to succeed than those dominated by conservative, traditional attitudes.
Keywords: construction engineering, digitization, digital transformation, artificial intelligence, ethics, corporate digital responsibility, digital innovationProcedia PDF Downloads 136
69 The Platform for Digitization of Georgian Documents
Authors: Erekle Magradze, Davit Soselia, Levan Shughliashvili, Irakli Koberidze, Shota Tsiskaridze, Victor Kakhniashvili, Tamar Chaghiashvili
Abstract:Since the beginning of active publishing activity in Georgia, voluminous printed material has been accumulated, the digitization of which is an important task. Digitized materials will be available to the audience, and it will be possible to find text in them and conduct various factual research. Digitizing scanned documents means scanning documents, extracting text from the scanned documents, and processing the text into a corresponding language model to detect inaccuracies and grammatical errors. Implementing these stages requires a unified, scalable, and automated platform, where the digital service developed for each stage will perform the task assigned to it; at the same time, it will be possible to develop these services dynamically so that there is no interruption in the work of the platform.
Keywords: NLP, OCR, BERT, Kubernetes, transformersProcedia PDF Downloads 62
68 A Case Study of the Digital Translation of the Lucy Lloyd and Wilhelm Bleek |Xam and !Kun Notebooks into The Digital Bleek and Lloyd
Authors: F. Saptouw
Abstract:This paper will examine the digitization process of the |Xam and !Kun notebooks, authored by Lucy Lloyd, Dorothea Bleek and Wilhelm Bleek, and their collaborators |a!kunta, ||kabbo, ≠kasin, Dia!kwain, !kweiten ta ||ken, |han≠kass'o, !nanni, Tamme, |uma, and Da during the 19th century. Detail will be provided about the status of the archive, the creation of the digital archive and selected research projects linked to the archive. The Digital Bleek and Lloyd project is an example of institutional collaboration by the University of Cape Town, University of South Africa, Iziko South African Museum, the National Library of South Africa and the Western Cape Provincial Archives and Records Service. The contemporary value of the archive will be discussed in relation to its current manifestation as a collection of archival and digital objects, each with its own set of properties and archival risk factors. This tension between the two ways to access the archive will be interrogated to shed light on the slippages between the digital object and the archival object. The primary argument is that the process of digitization generates an ontological shift in the status of the archival object. The secondary argument is an engagement with practices to curate the encounters with these ontologically shifted objects and how to relate to each as a contemporary viewer. In conclusion this paper will argue for regarding these archival objects according to the interpretive framework utilized to engage secular relics.
Keywords: archive, curatorship, digitization, museum practiceProcedia PDF Downloads 88
67 Impact of Digitization and Diversification in Reducing Volatility in Art Markets
Authors: Nishi Malhotra
Abstract:Art has developed as a mode of investment and saving. Art and culture of any nation is the source of foreign direct investment (FDI) generation and growth development. Several intermediaries and skill-building organizations thrive on at and culture for their earnings. Indian art market has grown to Rs. 2000 Crores. Art establishment houses access to privileged information is the main reason for arbitrariness and volatility in the market. The commercialization of art and development of the markets with refinement in the taste of the customers have led to the development of art as an investment avenue. Investors keen on investing in these products can do so, and earnings from art are taxable too, like any other capital asset. This research paper is aimed at exploring the role of art and culture as an investment avenue in India and reasons for increasing volatilities in the art market. Based on an extensive literature review and secondary research, a benchmarking study has been conducted to capture the growth of the art as an investment avenue. These studies indicate that during the financial crisis of 2008-10, the art emerged as an alternative investment avenue. The paper aims at discussing the financial engineering of various art funds and instruments. Based on secondary data available from Sotheby’s, Christies, Bonham, there is a positive correlation between strategic diversification and increasing return in the Art market. Similarly, digitization has led to disintermediation in the art markets and also helped to increase the market base. The data clearly enumerates the growing interest of the Indian investor towards art as an investment option. Much like any other broad asset class, art market too thrives on excess returns provided by diversification. Many financial intermediaries and art funds have emerged, to offer valuable investment planning advisory to a genuine investor. This paper clearly highlights the increasing returns of strategic diversification and its impact on reducing volatility in the art markets. Moreover, with coming up of e-auctions and websites, investors are able to analyse art more objectively. Digitization and commercialization of art have definitely helped in reducing volatility in world art markets.
Keywords: art, investment avenue, diversification, digitizationProcedia PDF Downloads 65
66 Mapping the Digital Landscape: An Analysis of Party Differences between Conventional and Digital Policy Positions
Authors: Daniel Schwarz, Jan Fivaz, Alessia Neuroni
Abstract:Although digitization is a buzzword in almost every election campaign, the political parties leave voters largely in the dark about their specific positions on digital issues. In the run-up to the 2019 elections in Switzerland, the ‘Digitization Monitor’ project (DMP) was launched in order to change this situation. Within the framework of the DMP, all 4,736 candidates were surveyed about their digital policy positions and values. The DMP is designed as a digital policy supplement to the existing ‘smartvote’ voting advice application. This enabled a direct comparison of the digital policy attitudes according to the DMP with the topics of the ‘smartvote’ questionnaire which are comprehensive in content but mainly related to conventional policy areas. This paper’s main research goal is to analyze and visualize possible differences between conventional and digital policy areas in terms of response patterns between and within political parties. The analysis is based on dimensionality reduction methods (multidimensional scaling and principal component analysis) for the visualization of inter-party differences, and on standard deviation as a measure of variation for the evaluation of intra-party unity. The results reveal that digital issues show a lower degree of inter-party polarization compared to conventional policy areas. Thus, the parties have more common ground in issues on digitization than in conventional policy areas. In contrast, the study reveals a mixed picture regarding intra-party unity. Homogeneous parties show a lower degree of unity in digitization issues whereas parties with heterogeneous positions in conventional areas have more united positions in digital areas. All things considered, the findings are encouraging as less polarized conditions apply to the debate on digital development compared to conventional politics. For the future, it would be desirable if in further countries similar projects to the DMP could emerge to broaden the basis for conclusions.
Keywords: comparison of political issue dimensions, digital awareness of candidates, digital policy space, party positions on digital issuesProcedia PDF Downloads 113
65 Using Action Research to Digitize Theses and Journal Articles at the Main Library, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman
Authors: Nabhan H. N. Al-Harrasi
Abstract:Action Research (AR) plays an important role in improving the problematical situation. It is a process that enhances thinking and practise and bridges the gap between abstract and concrete thinking. Nowadays, AR as a methodology is wildly used to implement projects based on understanding the needs of owners, considering the organizational culture, meeting the requirements, encouraging partnership, representing different viewpoints, and building the project. This research describes the whole processes of digitizing Post-graduate theses and all articles published in 6 Journals at Sultan Qaboos University. AR implemented to respond to the university needs to enhance accessibilities to its information resources and make them available through the national repository. In order to prepare the action plan, the library administration met to discuss several points related to the proposed project, the most important of which are: • Providing digitalization devices. • Locating a specific part of the Library as a Digitization Unit. • Choosing a team. • Defining tasks. • Implementing the proposed project and evaluating the whole processes.
Keywords: action research, digitization, Theses, Journal articles, open access, OmanProcedia PDF Downloads 110
64 Electronic Libraries and the Emergence of New Technology Paradigms
Authors: A. Basheer Ahamadhu, Kiran Kaur, Zainab Ajab Mohideen, Sukmawati Muhammad, Noor Azlinda Wan Jan
Abstract:Library management facing favorable conditions and unexpected challenges in the century of information technology. They were having been under pressure to meet their duties to meet the information needs of customers. An information technology has brought big changes to the traditional methods of library work. Libraries need to evaluate, measuring effect information technology to them. This would equip them with the knowledge to make effective information technology to enhance their services. Recognizing the importance of development an electronic library, this research investigated their willingness to change from the traditional library based on the level of automation for the digital library initiatives, review both of the problems associated with digital library and public and terms to be considered for future growth. The main components have been inspected, such as grip library, demographic automations and digitization projects, digital library related to budgetary problems, the thought leader in the electronic library practices library, and the situation viewed for future growth. Libraries have run several digitization projects, at the level of institutions and countries but still needs more efforts in order to bring it to higher levels.
Keywords: academic library, electronic library, information technology, information commons, web pages libraryProcedia PDF Downloads 391
63 Digitization and Morphometric Characterization of Botanical Collection of Indian Arid Zones as Informatics Initiatives Addressing Conservation Issues in Climate Change Scenario
Authors: Dipankar Saha, J. P. Singh, C. B. Pandey
Abstract:Indian Thar desert being the seventh largest in the world is the main hot sand desert occupies nearly 385,000km2 and about 9% of the area of the country harbours several species likely the flora of 682 species (63 introduced species) belonging to 352 genera and 87 families. The degree of endemism of plant species in the Thar desert is 6.4 percent, which is relatively higher than the degree of endemism in the Sahara desert which is very significant for the conservationist to envisage. The advent and development of computer technology for digitization and data base management coupled with the rapidly increasing importance of biodiversity conservation resulted in the invention of biodiversity informatics as discipline of basic sciences with multiple applications. Aichi Target 19 as an outcome of Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD) specifically mandates the development of an advanced and shared biodiversity knowledge base. Information on species distributions in space is the crux of effective management of biodiversity in the rapidly changing world. The efficiency of biodiversity management is being increased rapidly by various stakeholders like researchers, policymakers, and funding agencies with the knowledge and application of biodiversity informatics. Herbarium specimens being a vital repository for biodiversity conservation especially in climate change scenario the digitization process usually aims to improve access and to preserve delicate specimens and in doing so creating large sets of images as a part of the existing repository as arid plant information facility for long-term future usage. As the leaf characters are important for describing taxa and distinguishing between them and they can be measured from herbarium specimens as well. As a part of this activity, laminar characterization (leaves being the most important characters in assessing climate change impact) initially resulted in classification of more than thousands collections belonging to ten families like Acanthaceae, Aizoaceae, Amaranthaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Anacardeaceae, Apocynaceae, Asteraceae, Aristolochiaceae, Berseraceae and Bignoniaceae etc. Taxonomic diversity indices has also been worked out being one of the important domain of biodiversity informatics approaches. The digitization process also encompasses workflows which incorporate automated systems to enable us to expand and speed up the digitisation process. The digitisation workflows used to be on a modular system which has the potential to be scaled up. As they are being developed with a geo-referencing tool and additional quality control elements and finally placing specimen images and data into a fully searchable, web-accessible database. Our effort in this paper is to elucidate the role of BIs, present effort of database development of the existing botanical collection of institute repository. This effort is expected to be considered as a part of various global initiatives having an effective biodiversity information facility. This will enable access to plant biodiversity data that are fit-for-use by scientists and decision makers working on biodiversity conservation and sustainable development in the region and iso-climatic situation of the world.
Keywords: biodiversity informatics, climate change, digitization, herbarium, laminar characters, web accessible interfaceProcedia PDF Downloads 162
62 Systematic Mapping Study of Digitization and Analysis of Manufacturing Data
Authors: R. Clancy, M. Ahern, D. O’Sullivan, K. Bruton
Abstract:The manufacturing industry is currently undergoing a digital transformation as part of the mega-trend Industry 4.0. As part of this phase of the industrial revolution, traditional manufacturing processes are being combined with digital technologies to achieve smarter and more efficient production. To successfully digitally transform a manufacturing facility, the processes must first be digitized. This is the conversion of information from an analogue format to a digital format. The objective of this study was to explore the research area of digitizing manufacturing data as part of the worldwide paradigm, Industry 4.0. The formal methodology of a systematic mapping study was utilized to capture a representative sample of the research area and assess its current state. Specific research questions were defined to assess the key benefits and limitations associated with the digitization of manufacturing data. Research papers were classified according to the type of research and type of contribution to the research area. Upon analyzing 54 papers identified in this area, it was noted that 23 of the papers originated in Germany. This is an unsurprising finding as Industry 4.0 is originally a German strategy with supporting strong policy instruments being utilized in Germany to support its implementation. It was also found that the Fraunhofer Institute for Mechatronic Systems Design, in collaboration with the University of Paderborn in Germany, was the most frequent contributing Institution of the research papers with three papers published. The literature suggested future research directions and highlighted one specific gap in the area. There exists an unresolved gap between the data science experts and the manufacturing process experts in the industry. The data analytics expertise is not useful unless the manufacturing process information is utilized. A legitimate understanding of the data is crucial to perform accurate analytics and gain true, valuable insights into the manufacturing process. There lies a gap between the manufacturing operations and the information technology/data analytics departments within enterprises, which was borne out by the results of many of the case studies reviewed as part of this work. To test the concept of this gap existing, the researcher initiated an industrial case study in which they embedded themselves between the subject matter expert of the manufacturing process and the data scientist. Of the papers resulting from the systematic mapping study, 12 of the papers contributed a framework, another 12 of the papers were based on a case study, and 11 of the papers focused on theory. However, there were only three papers that contributed a methodology. This provides further evidence for the need for an industry-focused methodology for digitizing and analyzing manufacturing data, which will be developed in future research.
Keywords: analytics, digitization, industry 4.0, manufacturingProcedia PDF Downloads 55
61 Digitizing Masterpieces in Italian Museums: Techniques, Challenges and Consequences from Giotto to Caravaggio
Authors: Ginevra Addis
Abstract:The possibility of reproducing physical artifacts in a digital format is one of the opportunities offered by the technological advancements in information and communication most frequently promoted by museums. Indeed, the study and conservation of our cultural heritage have seen significant advancement due to the three-dimensional acquisition and modeling technology. A variety of laser scanning systems has been developed, based either on optical triangulation or on time-of-flight measurement, capable of producing digital 3D images of complex structures with high resolution and accuracy. It is necessary, however, to explore the challenges and opportunities that this practice brings within museums. The purpose of this paper is to understand what change is introduced by digital techniques in those museums that are hosting digital masterpieces. The methodology used will investigate three distinguished Italian exhibitions, related to the territory of Milan, trying to analyze the following issues about museum practices: 1) how digitizing art masterpieces increases the number of visitors; 2) what the need that calls for the digitization of artworks; 3) which techniques are most used; 4) what the setting is; 5) the consequences of a non-publication of hard copies of catalogues; 6) envision of these practices in the future. Findings will show how interconnection plays an important role in rebuilding a collection spread all over the world. Secondly how digital artwork duplication and extension of reality entail new forms of accessibility. Thirdly, that collection and preservation through digitization of images have both a social and educational mission. Fourthly, that convergence of the properties of different media (such as web, radio) is key to encourage people to get actively involved in digital exhibitions. The present analysis will suggest further research that should create museum models and interaction spaces that act as catalysts for innovation.
Keywords: digital masterpieces, education, interconnection, Italian museums, preservationProcedia PDF Downloads 106
60 Power System Cyber Security Risk in the Era of Digital Transformation
Authors: Rafat Rob, Khaled Alotaibi, Dana Nour, Abdullah Albadrani, Abdulmohsen Mulhim
Abstract:Power systems digitization solutions provides a comprehensive smart, cohesive, interconnected network, extensive connectivity between digital assets, physical power plants, and resources to form digital economies. However, digitization has exposed the classical air gapped power plants to the rapid spread of cyber threats and attacks in the process delaying and forcing many organizations to rethink their cyber security policies and standards before they can augment their operation the new advanced digital devices. Cyber Security requirements for power systems (and industry control systems therein) demand a new approach, unique methodology, and design process that is completely different to Cyber Security measures designed for the IT systems. In practice, Cyber Security strategy, as applied to power systems, tends to be closely aligned to those measures applied for IT system purposes. The differentiator for Cyber Security in terms of power systems are the physical assets and applications used, alongside the ever-growing rate of expansion within the industry controls sector (in comparison to the relatively saturated growth observed for corporate IT systems). These factors increase the magnitude of the cyber security risk within such systems. The introduction of smart devices and sensors along the grid initiate vulnerable entry points to the systems. Every installed Smart Meter is a target; the way these devices communicate with each other may instigate a Denial of Service (DoS) and Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack. Attacking one sensor or meter has the potential to propagate itself throughout the power grid reaching the IT network, where it may manifest itself as a malware infiltration.
Keywords: supply chain, cybersecurity, maturity model, risk, smart gridProcedia PDF Downloads 14
59 An Assessment of Drainage Network System in Nigeria Urban Areas using Geographical Information Systems: A Case Study of Bida, Niger State
Authors: Yusuf Hussaini Atulukwu, Daramola Japheth, Tabitit S. Tabiti, Daramola Elizabeth Lara
Abstract:In view of the recent limitations faced by the township concerning poorly constructed and in some cases non - existence of drainage facilities that resulted into incessant flooding in some parts of the community poses threat to life,property and the environment. The research seeks to address this issue by showing the spatial distribution of drainage network in Bida Urban using Geographic information System techniques. Relevant features were extracted from existing Bida based Map using un-screen digitization and x, y, z, data of existing drainages were acquired using handheld Global Positioning System (GPS). These data were uploaded into ArcGIS 9.2, software, and stored in the relational database structure that was used to produce the spatial data drainage network of the township. The result revealed that about 40 % of the drainages are blocked with sand and refuse, 35 % water-logged as a result of building across erosion channels and dilapidated bridges as a result of lack of drainage along major roads. The study thus concluded that drainage network systems in Bida community are not in good working condition and urgent measures must be initiated in order to avoid future disasters especially with the raining season setting in. Based on the above findings, the study therefore recommends that people within the locality should avoid dumping municipal waste within the drainage path while sand blocked or weed blocked drains should be clear by the authority concerned. In the same vein the authority should ensured that contract of drainage construction be awarded to professionals and all the natural drainages caused by erosion should be addressed to avoid future disasters.
Keywords: drainage network, spatial, digitization, relational database, wasteProcedia PDF Downloads 273
58 Big Data Analytics and Public Policy: A Study in Rural India
Authors: Vasantha Gouri Prathapagiri
Abstract:Innovations in ICT sector facilitate qualitative life style for citizens across the globe. Countries that facilitate usage of new techniques in ICT, i.e., big data analytics find it easier to fulfil the needs of their citizens. Big data is characterised by its volume, variety, and speed. Analytics involves its processing in a cost effective way in order to draw conclusion for their useful application. Big data also involves into the field of machine learning, artificial intelligence all leading to accuracy in data presentation useful for public policy making. Hence using data analytics in public policy making is a proper way to march towards all round development of any country. The data driven insights can help the government to take important strategic decisions with regard to socio-economic development of her country. Developed nations like UK and USA are already far ahead on the path of digitization with the support of Big Data analytics. India is a huge country and is currently on the path of massive digitization being realised through Digital India Mission. Internet connection per household is on the rise every year. This transforms into a massive data set that has the potential to improvise the public services delivery system into an effective service mechanism for Indian citizens. In fact, when compared to developed nations, this capacity is being underutilized in India. This is particularly true for administrative system in rural areas. The present paper focuses on the need for big data analytics adaptation in Indian rural administration and its contribution towards development of the country on a faster pace. Results of the research focussed on the need for increasing awareness and serious capacity building of the government personnel working for rural development with regard to big data analytics and its utility for development of the country. Multiple public policies are framed and implemented for rural development yet the results are not as effective as they should be. Big data has a major role to play in this context as can assist in improving both policy making and implementation aiming at all round development of the country.
Keywords: Digital India Mission, public service delivery system, public policy, Indian administrationProcedia PDF Downloads 90
57 A Good Start for Digital Transformation of the Companies: A Literature and Experience-Based Predefined Roadmap
Authors: Batuhan Kocaoglu
Abstract:Nowadays digital transformation is a hot topic both in service and production business. For the companies who want to stay alive in the following years, they should change how they do their business. Industry leaders started to improve their ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) like backbone technologies to digital advances such as analytics, mobility, sensor-embedded smart devices, AI (Artificial Intelligence) and more. Selecting the appropriate technology for the related business problem also is a hot topic. Besides this, to operate in the modern environment and fulfill rapidly changing customer expectations, a digital transformation of the business is required and change the way the business runs, affect how they do their business. Even the digital transformation term is trendy the literature is limited and covers just the philosophy instead of a solid implementation plan. Current studies urge firms to start their digital transformation, but few tell us how to do. The huge investments scare companies with blur definitions and concepts. The aim of this paper to solidify the steps of the digital transformation and offer a roadmap for the companies and academicians. The proposed roadmap is developed based upon insights from the literature review, semi-structured interviews, and expert views to explore and identify crucial steps. We introduced our roadmap in the form of 8 main steps: Awareness; Planning; Operations; Implementation; Go-live; Optimization; Autonomation; Business Transformation; including a total of 11 sub-steps with examples. This study also emphasizes four dimensions of the digital transformation mainly: Readiness assessment; Building organizational infrastructure; Building technical infrastructure; Maturity assessment. Finally, roadmap corresponds the steps with three main terms used in digital transformation literacy as Digitization; Digitalization; and Digital Transformation. The resulted model shows that 'business process' and 'organizational issues' should be resolved before technology decisions and 'digitization'. Companies can start their journey with the solid steps, using the proposed roadmap to increase the success of their project implementation. Our roadmap is also adaptable for relevant Industry 4.0 and enterprise application projects. This roadmap will be useful for companies to persuade their top management for investments. Our results can be used as a baseline for further researches related to readiness assessment and maturity assessment studies.
Keywords: digital transformation, digital business, ERP, roadmapProcedia PDF Downloads 92
56 Application Research of Stilbene Crystal for the Measurement of Accelerator Neutron Sources
Authors: Zhao Kuo, Chen Liang, Zhang Zhongbing, Ruan Jinlu. He Shiyi, Xu Mengxuan
Abstract:Stilbene, C₁₄H₁₂, is well known as one of the most useful organic scintillators for pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique for its good scintillation properties. An on-line acquisition system and an off-line acquisition system were developed with several CAMAC standard plug-ins, NIM plug-ins, neutron/γ discriminating plug-in named 2160A and a digital oscilloscope with high sampling rate respectively for which stilbene crystals and photomultiplier tube detectors (PMT) as detector for accelerator neutron sources measurement carried out in China Institute of Atomic Energy. Pulse amplitude spectrums and charge amplitude spectrums were real-time recorded after good neutron/γ discrimination whose best PSD figure-of-merits (FoMs) are 1.756 for D-D accelerator neutron source and 1.393 for D-T accelerator neutron source. The probability of neutron events in total events was 80%, and neutron detection efficiency was 5.21% for D-D accelerator neutron sources, which were 50% and 1.44% for D-T accelerator neutron sources after subtracting the background of scattering observed by the on-line acquisition system. Pulse waveform signals were acquired by the off-line acquisition system randomly while the on-line acquisition system working. The PSD FoMs obtained by the off-line acquisition system were 2.158 for D-D accelerator neutron sources and 1.802 for D-T accelerator neutron sources after waveform digitization off-line processing named charge integration method for just 1000 pulses. In addition, the probabilities of neutron events in total events obtained by the off-line acquisition system matched very well with the probabilities of the on-line acquisition system. The pulse information recorded by the off-line acquisition system could be repetitively used to adjust the parameters or methods of PSD research and obtain neutron charge amplitude spectrums or pulse amplitude spectrums after digital analysis with a limited number of pulses. The off-line acquisition system showed equivalent or better measurement effects compared with the online system with a limited number of pulses which indicated a feasible method based on stilbene crystals detectors for the measurement of prompt neutrons neutron sources like prompt accelerator neutron sources emit a number of neutrons in a short time.
Keywords: stilbene crystal, accelerator neutron source, neutron / γ discrimination, figure-of-merits, CAMAC, waveform digitizationProcedia PDF Downloads 113
55 Consumer Based Online Authenticity: An Exploratory Approach: Case of Terroir Product of Souss Massa Region, Morocco
Authors: Fatima Ezzahra Ouboutaib, Abdellatif Aitheda, Soumiya Mekkaoui
Abstract:Marketing research is starting to focus on authenticity to position an offer, especially local products. However, its use remains more problematic with the internet for cooperatives. This paper investigates how digitalization impacts the satisfaction of the quest for authenticity. On the theoretical level, it explains authenticity in online and offline contexts in the postmodernism era. Then, an exploratory qualitative study tries to understand the contribution of digitization to the satisfaction of the search for authenticity. Therefore, cooperatives selling terroir products on the Internet are advised to keep also direct contact which tends to show a traditional manner of production to enhance customers’ perception of terroir product authenticity.
Keywords: authenticity, terroir product, online authenticity, postmodernismProcedia PDF Downloads 73
54 Partnering with Stakeholders to Secure Digitization of Water
Authors: Sindhu Govardhan, Kenneth G. Crowther
Abstract:Modernization of the water sector is leading to increased connectivity and integration of emerging technologies with traditional ones leading to new security risks. The convergence of Information Technology (IT) with Operation Technology (OT) results in solutions that are spread across larger geographic areas, increasingly consists of interconnected Internet of Things (IoT) devices and software, rely on integration of legacy with modern technologies, use of complex supply chain components leading to complex architectures and communication paths. The result is that these emergent technologies and architectures are owned and operated by multiple parties, there are new exposures for threat actors to exploit, and traditional cybersecurity controls are inadequate. Our approach is to explicitly identify and draw data flows that cross trust boundaries between owners and operators of various aspects of these emerging and interconnected technologies. On these data flows, we layer potential attack vectors to create a frame of reference for evaluating possible risks against connected technologies. Finally, we identify where existing controls, mitigations, and other remediations exist across industry partners (e.g., suppliers, product vendors, integrators, water utilities, and regulators). From these, we are able to understand potential gaps in security, the roles in the supply chain that are most likely to effectively remediate those security gaps, and test cases to evaluate and strengthen security across these partners. This constitutes a “shared responsibility” solution that recognizes that security is multi-layered and requires collaboration to be successful. This shared responsibility security framework improves visibility, understanding, and control across the entire supply chain, particularly for those water utilities that are accountable for safe and continuous operations. From applying this approach, we need security concepts from both traditional IT security, which has developed sophisticated methods for protecting the confidentiality and integrity of data, and OT security, which has developed sophisticated methods for ensuring safety, reliability and continuous availability of control systems. The combination of the shared responsibility model, where security is layered across industry partners and convergence principles from both IT and OT security, results in a novel concept of security that will be necessary to protect the connected technologies emerging across the water industry. This presentation describes details for the implementation of this methodology and provides examples of shared responsibility and converged security requirements.
Keywords: digitization, cyber security, shared responsibility, IoT, IT, OT convergence, cloud, control systemsProcedia PDF Downloads 8
53 Towards Automated Remanufacturing of Marine and Offshore Engineering Components
Authors: Aprilia, Wei Liang Keith Nguyen, Shu Beng Tor, Gerald Gim Lee Seet, Chee Kai Chua
Abstract:Automated remanufacturing process is of great interest in today’s marine and offshore industry. Most of the current remanufacturing processes are carried out manually and hence they are error prone, labour-intensive and costly. In this paper, a conceptual framework for automated remanufacturing is presented. This framework involves the integration of 3D non-contact digitization, adaptive surface reconstruction, additive manufacturing and machining operation. Each operation is operated and interconnected automatically as one system. The feasibility of adaptive surface reconstruction on marine and offshore engineering components is also discussed. Several engineering components were evaluated and the results showed that this proposed system is feasible. Conclusions are drawn and further research work is discussed.
Keywords: adaptive surface reconstruction, automated remanufacturing, automatic repair, reverse engineeringProcedia PDF Downloads 262
52 Differentiation of Customer Types by Stereotypical Characteristics for Modular and Conventional Construction Methods
Authors: Peter Schnell, Phillip Haag
Abstract:In the course of the structural transformation of the construction industry, the integration of industrialization and digitization has led to the development of construction methods with an increased degree of prefabrication, such as system or modular construction. Compared to conventional construction, these innovative construction methods are characterized by modified structural and procedural properties and expand the range of construction services. Faced with the supply side, it is possible to identify construction-specific customer types with different characteristics and certain preferences as far as the choice of construction method is concerned. The basis for this finding was qualitative expert interviews. By evaluating the stereotypical customer needs, a corresponding segmentation of the demand side can be made along with the basic orientation and decision behavior. This demarcation supports the target- and needs-oriented customer approach and contributes to cooperative and successful project management.
Keywords: differentiation of customer types, modular construction methods, conventional construction methods, stereotypical customer typesProcedia PDF Downloads 43