Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16047

Search results for: analytical method

16047 Groundwater Seepage Estimation into Amirkabir Tunnel Using Analytical Methods and DEM and SGR Method

Authors: Hadi Farhadian, Homayoon Katibeh


In this paper, groundwater seepage into Amirkabir tunnel has been estimated using analytical and numerical methods for 14 different sections of the tunnel. Site Groundwater Rating (SGR) method also has been performed for qualitative and quantitative classification of the tunnel sections. The obtained results of above-mentioned methods were compared together. The study shows reasonable accordance with results of the all methods unless for two sections of tunnel. In these two sections there are some significant discrepancies between numerical and analytical results mainly originated from model geometry and high overburden. SGR and the analytical and numerical calculations, confirm the high concentration of seepage inflow in fault zones. Maximum seepage flow into tunnel has been estimated 0.425 lit/sec/m using analytical method and 0.628 lit/sec/m using numerical method occurred in crashed zone. Based on SGR method, six sections of 14 sections in Amirkabir tunnel axis are found to be in "No Risk" class that is supported by the analytical and numerical seepage value of less than 0.04 lit/sec/m.

Keywords: water Seepage, Amirkabir Tunnel, analytical method, DEM, SGR

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16046 Analytical Solution of Blassius Equation Using the Kourosh Method

Authors: Mohammad Reza Shahnazari, Reza Kazemi, Ali Saberi


Most of the engineering problems are in nonlinear forms. Nonlinear boundary layer problems defined in infinite intervals contain specific complexities, especially in boundary layer condition conformance. As an example of these nonlinear complex problems, the well-known Blasius equation can be mentioned, which itself is one of the classic boundary layer problems. No analytical solution has been proposed yet for the Blasius equation due to its complexity. In this paper, an analytical method, namely the Kourosh method, based on the singularity perturbation method and the Liao homotopy analysis is utilized to solve the Blasius problem. In this method, an inner solution is developed in the [0,1] interval to expedite the solution convergence. The magnitude of the f ˝(0), as an essential quantity for determining the physical parameters, is directly calculated from the solution of the boundary condition problem. The advantages of this solution are that it does not need any numerical solution, it has a closed form and that its validation is shown in the entire [0,∞] interval. Furthermore, all of the desirable parameters could be extracted through a series of simple analytical operations from the final solution. This solution also satisfies the continuity conditions, which is one of the main contributions of this paper in comparison with most of the other proposed analytical solutions available in the literature. Comparison with numerical solutions reveals that the proposed method is highly accurate and convenient for application.

Keywords: Blasius equation, boundary layer, Kourosh method, analytical solution

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16045 An Improved Tie Force Method for Progressive Collapse Resistance Design of Precast Concrete Cross Wall Structures

Authors: M. Tohidi, J. Yang, C. Baniotopoulos


Progressive collapse of buildings typically occurs when abnormal loading conditions cause local damages, which leads to a chain reaction of failure and ultimately catastrophic collapse. The tie force (TF) method is one of the main design approaches for progressive collapse. As the TF method is a simplified method, further investigations on the reliability of the method is necessary. This study aims to develop an improved TF method to design the cross wall structures for progressive collapse. To this end, the pullout behavior of strands in grout was firstly analyzed; and then, by considering the tie force-slip relationship in the friction stage together with the catenary action mechanism, a comprehensive analytical method was developed. The reliability of this approach is verified by the experimental results of concrete block pullout tests and full scale floor-to-floor joints tests undertaken by Portland Cement Association (PCA). Discrepancies in the tie force between the analytical results and codified specifications have suggested the deficiency of TF method, hence an improved model based on the analytical results has been proposed to address this concern.

Keywords: cross wall, progressive collapse, ties force method, catenary, analytical

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16044 Application of Analytical Method for Placement of DG Unit for Loss Reduction in Distribution Systems

Authors: G. V. Siva Krishna Rao, B. Srinivasa Rao


The main aim of the paper is to implement a technique using distributed generation in distribution systems to reduce the distribution system losses and to improve voltage profiles. The fuzzy logic technique is used to select the proper location of DG and an analytical method is proposed to calculate the size of DG unit at any power factor. The optimal sizes of DG units are compared with optimal sizes obtained using the genetic algorithm. The suggested method is programmed under Matlab software and is tested on IEEE 33 bus system and the results are presented.

Keywords: DG Units, sizing of DG units, analytical methods, optimum size

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16043 A Semi-Analytical Method for Analysis of the Axially Symmetric Problem on Indentation of a Hot Circular Punch into an Arbitrarily Nonhomogeneous Halfspace

Authors: S. Aizikovich, L. Krenev, Y. Tokovyy, Y. C. Wang


An approximate analytical-numerical solution to the axisymmetric problem on thermo-mechanical indentation of a flat cylindrical punch into an arbitrarily non-homogeneous elastic half-space is constructed by making use of the bilateral asymptotic method. The key point of this method lies in evaluation of the ker¬nels in the obtained integral equations by making use of a numerical technique. Once the structure of the kernel is defined, it then is approximated by an analytical expression of special kind so that the solution of the integral equation can be achieved analytically. This fact allows for construction of the solution in an analytical form, which is convenient for analysis of the mechanical effects concerned with arbitrarily presumed non-homogeneity of the material.

Keywords: contact problem, circular punch, arbitrarily-nonhomogeneous halfspace

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16042 Comparison of Finite-Element and IEC Methods for Cable Thermal Analysis under Various Operating Environments

Authors: M. S. Baazzim, M. S. Al-Saud, M. A. El-Kady


In this paper, steady-state ampacity (current carrying capacity) evaluation of underground power cable system by using analytical and numerical methods for different conditions (depth of cable, spacing between phases, soil thermal resistivity, ambient temperature, wind speed), for two system voltage level were used 132 and 380 kV. The analytical method or traditional method that was used is based on the thermal analysis method developed by Neher-McGrath and further enhanced by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and published in standard IEC 60287. The numerical method that was used is finite element method and it was recourse commercial software based on finite element method.

Keywords: cable ampacity, finite element method, underground cable, thermal rating

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16041 Analytical Solution for Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical Analysis of Unsaturated Porous Media Using AG Method

Authors: Davood Yazdani Cherati, Hussein Hashemi Senejani


In this paper, a convenient analytical solution for a system of coupled differential equations, derived from thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis of three-phase porous media such as unsaturated soils is developed. This kind of analysis can be used in various fields such as geothermal energy systems and seepage of leachate from buried municipal and domestic waste in geomaterials. Initially, a system of coupled differential equations, including energy, mass, and momentum conservation equations is considered, and an analytical method called AGM is employed to solve the problem. The method is straightforward and comprehensible and can be used to solve various nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). Results indicate the accuracy of the applied method for solving nonlinear partial differential equations.

Keywords: AGM, analytical solution, porous media, thermo-hydro-mechanical, unsaturated soils

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16040 Step Method for Solving Nonlinear Two Delays Differential Equation in Parkinson’s Disease

Authors: H. N. Agiza, M. A. Sohaly, M. A. Elfouly


Parkinson's disease (PD) is a heterogeneous disorder with common age of onset, symptoms, and progression levels. In this paper we will solve analytically the PD model as a non-linear delay differential equation using the steps method. The step method transforms a system of delay differential equations (DDEs) into systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). On some numerical examples, the analytical solution will be difficult. So we will approximate the analytical solution using Picard method and Taylor method to ODEs.

Keywords: Parkinson's disease, step method, delay differential equation, two delays

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16039 Finding the Elastic Field in an Arbitrary Anisotropic Media by Implementing Accurate Generalized Gaussian Quadrature Solution

Authors: Hossein Kabir, Amir Hossein Hassanpour Mati-Kolaie


In the current study, the elastic field in an anisotropic elastic media is determined by implementing a general semi-analytical method. In this specific methodology, the displacement field is computed as a sum of finite functions with unknown coefficients. These aforementioned functions satisfy exactly both the homogeneous and inhomogeneous boundary conditions in the proposed media. It is worth mentioning that the unknown coefficients are determined by implementing the principle of minimum potential energy. The numerical integration is implemented by employing the Generalized Gaussian Quadrature solution. Furthermore, with the aid of the calculated unknown coefficients, the displacement field, as well as the other parameters of the elastic field, are obtainable as well. Finally, the comparison of the previous analytical method with the current semi-analytical method proposes the efficacy of the present methodology.

Keywords: anisotropic elastic media, semi-analytical method, elastic field, generalized gaussian quadrature solution

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16038 An Analytical Method for Solving General Riccati Equation

Authors: Y. Pala, M. O. Ertas


In this paper, the general Riccati equation is analytically solved by a new transformation. By the method developed, looking at the transformed equation, whether or not an explicit solution can be obtained is readily determined. Since the present method does not require a proper solution for the general solution, it is especially suitable for equations whose proper solutions cannot be seen at first glance. Since the transformed second order linear equation obtained by the present transformation has the simplest form that it can have, it is immediately seen whether or not the original equation can be solved analytically. The present method is exemplified by several examples.

Keywords: Riccati equation, analytical solution, proper solution, nonlinear

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16037 Method Development and Validation for Quantification of Active Content and Impurities of Clodinafop Propargyl and Its Enantiomeric Separation by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

Authors: Kamlesh Vishwakarma, Bipul Behari Saha, Sunilkumar Sing, Abhishek Mishra, Sreenivas Rao


A rapid, sensitive and inexpensive method has been developed for complete analysis of Clodinafop Propargyl. Clodinafop Propargyl enantiomers were separated on chiral column, Chiral Pak AS-H (250 mm. 4.6mm x 5µm) with mobile phase n-hexane: IPA (96:4) at flow rate 1.5 ml/min. The effluent was monitored by UV detector at 230 nm. Clodinafop Propagyl content and impurity quantification was done with reverse phase HPLC. The present study describes a HPLC method using simple mobile phase for the quantification of Clodinafop Propargyl and its impurities. The method was validated and found to be accurate, precise, convenient and effective. Moreover, the lower solvent consumption along with short analytical run time led to a cost effective analytical method.

Keywords: Clodinafop Propargyl, method, validation, HPLC-UV

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16036 Comparing Numerical Accuracy of Solutions of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) Using Taylor's Series Method, Euler's Method and Runge-Kutta (RK) Method

Authors: Palwinder Singh, Munish Sandhir, Tejinder Singh


The ordinary differential equations (ODE) represent a natural framework for mathematical modeling of many real-life situations in the field of engineering, control systems, physics, chemistry and astronomy etc. Such type of differential equations can be solved by analytical methods or by numerical methods. If the solution is calculated using analytical methods, it is done through calculus theories, and thus requires a longer time to solve. In this paper, we compare the numerical accuracy of the solutions given by the three main types of one-step initial value solvers: Taylor’s Series Method, Euler’s Method and Runge-Kutta Fourth Order Method (RK4). The comparison of accuracy is obtained through comparing the solutions of ordinary differential equation given by these three methods. Furthermore, to verify the accuracy; we compare these numerical solutions with the exact solutions.

Keywords: Ordinary differential equations (ODE), Taylor’s Series Method, Euler’s Method, Runge-Kutta Fourth Order Method

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
16035 Vernier Motor for Power Steering Applications

Authors: Andrej Kačenka, Jana Kertzscher


This paper concerns the initial design of the permanent magnet Vernier machine (PMVM) with an outer rotor and surface-mounted permanent magnets for power steering (PS) applications. In the beginning, an analytical approach was employed for calculating the initial dimensions and parameters of the machine. The analytical approach is intrinsically limited due to several assumptions and simplified hypotheses. The study is carried out by means of numerical analysis, and the performance of the Vernier motor is evaluated with the finite element method in order to validate the analytical approach.

Keywords: vernier machine, permanent magnet synchronous machine, power steering, outer rotor, finite element method

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16034 A Multi-Family Offline SPE LC-MS/MS Analytical Method for Anionic, Cationic and Non-ionic Surfactants in Surface Water

Authors: Laure Wiest, Barbara Giroud, Azziz Assoumani, Francois Lestremau, Emmanuelle Vulliet


Due to their production at high tonnages and their extensive use, surfactants are contaminants among those determined at the highest concentrations in wastewater. However, analytical methods and data regarding their occurrence in river water are scarce and concern only a few families, mainly anionic surfactants. The objective of this study was to develop an analytical method to extract and analyze a wide variety of surfactants in a minimum of steps, with a sensitivity compatible with the detection of ultra-traces in surface waters. 27 substances, from 12 families of surfactants, anionic, cationic and non-ionic were selected for method optimization. Different retention mechanisms for the extraction by solid phase extraction (SPE) were tested and compared in order to improve their detection by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The best results were finally obtained with a C18 grafted silica LC column and a polymer cartridge with hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB), and the method developed allows the extraction of the three types of surfactants with satisfactory recoveries. The final analytical method comprised only one extraction and two LC injections. It was validated and applied for the quantification of surfactants in 36 river samples. The method's limits of quantification (LQ), intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were evaluated, and good performances were obtained for the 27 substances. As these compounds have many areas of application, contaminations of instrument and method blanks were observed and considered for the determination of LQ. Nevertheless, with LQ between 15 and 485 ng/L, and accuracy of over 80%, this method was suitable for monitoring surfactants in surface waters. Application on French river samples revealed the presence of anionic, cationic and non-ionic surfactants with median concentrations ranging from 24 ng/L for octylphenol ethoxylates (OPEO) to 4.6 µg/L for linear alkylbenzenesulfonates (LAS). The analytical method developed in this work will therefore be useful for future monitoring of surfactants in waters. Moreover, this method, which shows good performances for anionic, non-ionic and cationic surfactants, may be easily adapted to other surfactants.

Keywords: anionic surfactant, cationic surfactant, LC-MS/MS, non-ionic surfactant, SPE, surface water

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16033 Investigate and Solving Analytic of Nonlinear Differential at Vibrations (Earthquake)and Beam-Column, by New Approach “AGM”

Authors: Mohammadreza Akbari, Pooya Soleimani Besheli, Reza Khalili, Sara Akbari


In this study, we investigate building structures nonlinear behavior also solving analytic of nonlinear differential at vibrations. As we know most of engineering systems behavior in practical are non- linear process (especial at structural) and analytical solving (no numerical) these problems are complex, difficult and sometimes impossible (of course at form of analytical solving). In this symposium, we are going to exposure one method in engineering, that can solve sets of nonlinear differential equations with high accuracy and simple solution and so this issue will emerge after comparing the achieved solutions by Numerical Method (Runge-Kutte 4th) and exact solutions. Finally, we can proof AGM method could be created huge evolution for researcher and student (engineering and basic science) in whole over the world, because of AGM coding system, so by using this software, we can analytical solve all complicated linear and nonlinear differential equations, with help of that there is no difficulty for solving nonlinear differential equations.

Keywords: new method AGM, vibrations, beam-column, angular frequency, energy dissipated, critical load

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16032 Numerical Method for Heat Transfer Problem in a Block Having an Interface

Authors: Beghdadi Lotfi, Bouziane Abdelhafid


A finite volume method for quadrilaterals unstructured mesh is developed to predict the two dimensional steady-state solutions of conduction equation. In this scheme, based on the integration around the polygonal control volume, the derivatives of conduction equation must be converted into closed line integrals using same formulation of the Stokes theorem. To valid the accuracy of the method two numerical experiments s are used: conduction in a regular block (with known analytical solution) and conduction in a rotated block (case with curved boundaries).The numerical results show good agreement with analytical results. To demonstrate the accuracy of the method, the absolute and root-mean square errors versus the grid size are examined quantitatively.

Keywords: Stokes theorem, unstructured grid, heat transfer, complex geometry

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16031 Contribution to the Analytical Study of Barrier Surface Waves: Decomposition of the Solution

Authors: T. Zitoun, M. Bouhadef


When a partially or completely immersed solid moves in a liquid such as water, it undergoes a force called hydrodynamic drag. Reducing this force has always been the objective of hydrodynamic engineers to make water slide better on submerged bodies. This paper deals with the examination of the different terms composing the analytical solution of the flow over an obstacle embedded at the bottom of a hydraulic channel. We have chosen to use a linear method to study a two-dimensional flow over an obstacle, in order to understand the evolution of the drag. We set the following assumptions: incompressible inviscid fluid, irrotational flow, low obstacle height compared to the water height. Those assumptions allow overcoming the difficulties associated with modelling these waves. We will mathematically formulate the equations that allow the determination of the stream function, and then the free surface equation. A similar method is used to determine the exact analytical solution for an obstacle in the shape of a sinusoidal arch.

Keywords: analytical solution, free-surface wave, hydraulic channel, inviscid fluid

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16030 A Modified Decoupled Semi-Analytical Approach Based On SBFEM for Solving 2D Elastodynamic Problems

Authors: M. Fakharian, M. I. Khodakarami


In this paper, a new trend for improvement in semi-analytical method based on scale boundaries in order to solve the 2D elastodynamic problems is provided. In this regard, only the boundaries of the problem domain discretization are by specific sub-parametric elements. Mapping functions are uses as a class of higher-order Lagrange polynomials, special shape functions, Gauss-Lobatto -Legendre numerical integration, and the integral form of the weighted residual method, the matrix is diagonal coefficients in the equations of elastodynamic issues. Differences between study conducted and prior research in this paper is in geometry production procedure of the interpolation function and integration of the different is selected. Validity and accuracy of the present method are fully demonstrated through two benchmark problems which are successfully modeled using a few numbers of DOFs. The numerical results agree very well with the analytical solutions and the results from other numerical methods.

Keywords: 2D elastodynamic problems, lagrange polynomials, G-L-Lquadrature, decoupled SBFEM

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16029 Integrations of Students' Learning Achievements and Their Analytical Thinking Abilities with the Problem-Based Learning and the Concept Mapping Instructional Methods on Gene and Chromosome Issue at the 12th Grade Level

Authors: Waraporn Thaimit, Yuwadee Insamran, Natchanok Jansawang


Focusing on Analytical Thinking and Learning Achievement are the critical component of visual thinking that gives one the ability to solve problems quickly and effectively that allows to complex problems into components, and the result had been achieved or acquired form of the subject students of which resulted in changes within the individual as a result of activity in learning. The aims of this study are to administer on comparisons between students’ analytical thinking abilities and their learning achievements sample size consisted of 80 students who sat at the 12th grade level in 2 classes from Chaturaphak Phiman Ratchadaphisek School, the 40-student experimental group with the Problem-Based Learning (PBL) and 40-student controlling group with the Concept Mapping Instructional (CMI) methods were designed. Research instruments composed with the 5-lesson instructional plans to be assessed with the pretest and posttest techniques on each instructional method. Students’ responses of their analytical thinking abilities were assessed with the Analytical Thinking Tests and students’ learning achievements were tested of the Learning Achievement Tests. Statistically significant differences with the paired t-test and F-test (Two-way MANCOVA) between post- and pre-tests of the whole students in two chemistry classes were found. Associations between student learning outcomes in each instructional method and their analytical thinking abilities to their learning achievements also were found (ρ < .05). The use of two instructional methods for this study is revealed that the students perceive their abilities to be highly learning achievement in chemistry classes with the PBL group ought to higher than the CMI group. Suggestions that analytical thinking ability involves the process of gathering relevant information and identifying key issues related to the learning achievement information.

Keywords: comparisons, students learning achievements, analytical thinking abilities, the problem-based learning method, the concept mapping instructional method, gene and chromosome issue, chemistry classes

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
16028 Parameter Estimation of Induction Motors by PSO Algorithm

Authors: A. Mohammadi, S. Asghari, M. Aien, M. Rashidinejad


After emergent of alternative current networks and their popularity, asynchronous motors became more widespread than other kinds of industrial motors. In order to control and run these motors efficiently, an accurate estimation of motor parameters is needed. There are different methods to obtain these parameters such as rotor locked test, no load test, DC test, analytical methods, and so on. The most common drawback of these methods is their inaccuracy in estimation of some motor parameters. In order to remove this concern, a novel method for parameter estimation of induction motors using particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed. In the proposed method, transient state of motor is used for parameter estimation. Comparison of the simulation results purtuined to the PSO algorithm with other available methods justifies the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: induction motor, motor parameter estimation, PSO algorithm, analytical method

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16027 Analysis and Simulation of TM Fields in Waveguides with Arbitrary Cross-Section Shapes by Means of Evolutionary Equations of Time-Domain Electromagnetic Theory

Authors: Ömer Aktaş, Olga A. Suvorova, Oleg Tretyakov


The boundary value problem on non-canonical and arbitrary shaped contour is solved with a numerically effective method called Analytical Regularization Method (ARM) to calculate propagation parameters. As a result of regularization, the equation of first kind is reduced to the infinite system of the linear algebraic equations of the second kind in the space of L2. This equation can be solved numerically for desired accuracy by using truncation method. The parameters as cut-off wavenumber and cut-off frequency are used in waveguide evolutionary equations of electromagnetic theory in time-domain to illustrate the real-valued TM fields with lossy and lossless media.

Keywords: analytical regularization method, electromagnetic theory evolutionary equations of time-domain, TM Field

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16026 Current Situation and Need in Learning Management for Developing the Analytical Thinking of Teachers in Basic Education of Thailand

Authors: S. Art-in


This research was a survey research. The objective of this study was to study current situation and need in learning management for developing the analytical thinking of teachers in basic education of Thailand. The target group consisted of 400 teachers teaching in basic education level. They were selected by multi-stage random sampling. The instrument used in this study was the questionnaire asking current situation and need in learning management for developing the analytical thinking, 5 level rating scale. Data were analyzed by calculating the frequency, mean, standard deviation, percentage and content analysis. The research found that: 1) For current situation, the teachers provided learning management for developing analytical thinking, in overall, in “high” level. The issue with lowest level of practice: the teachers had competency in designing and establishing the learning management plan for developing the students’ analytical thinking. Considering each aspect it was found that: 1.1) the teacher aspect; the issue with lowest level of practice was: the teachers had competency in designing and establishing the learning management plan for developing the students’ analytical thinking, and 1.2) the learning management aspect for developing the students’ analytical thinking, the issue with lowest level of practice was: the learning activities provided opportunity for students to evaluate their analytical thinking process in each learning session. 2) The teachers showed their need in learning management for developing the analytical thinking, in overall, in “the highest” level. The issue with highest level of the need was: to obtain knowledge and competency in model, technique, and method for learning management or steps of learning management for developing the students’ analytical thinking. Considering each aspect it was found that: 2.1) teacher aspect; the issue with highest level of the need was: to obtain knowledge and comprehension in model, technique, and method for learning management or steps of learning management for developing the students’ analytical thinking, and 2.2) learning management aspect for developing the analytical thinking, the issue with highest level of need consisted of the determination of learning activities as problem situation, and the opportunity for students to comprehend the problem situation as well as practice their analytical thinking in order to find the answer.

Keywords: current situation and need, learning management, analytical thinking, teachers in basic education level, Thailand

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16025 Novel Technique for calculating Surface Potential Gradient of Overhead Line Conductors

Authors: Sudip Sudhir Godbole


In transmission line surface potential gradient is a critical design parameter for planning overhead line, as it determines the level of corona loss (CL), radio interference (RI) and audible noise (AN).With increase of transmission line voltage level bulk power transfer is possible, using bundle conductor configuration used, it is more complex to find accurate surface stress in bundle configuration. The majority of existing models for surface gradient calculations are based on analytical methods which restrict their application in simulating complex surface geometry. This paper proposes a novel technique which utilizes both analytical and numerical procedure to predict the surface gradient. One of 400 kV transmission line configurations has been selected as an example to compare the results for different methods. The different strand shapes are a key variable in determining.

Keywords: surface gradient, Maxwell potential coefficient method, market and Mengele’s method, successive images method, charge simulation method, finite element method

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16024 Error Amount in Viscoelasticity Analysis Depending on Time Step Size and Method used in ANSYS

Authors: A. Fettahoglu


Theory of viscoelasticity is used by many researchers to represent behavior of many materials such as pavements on roads or bridges. Several researches used analytical methods and rheology to predict the material behaviors of simple models. Today, more complex engineering structures are analyzed using Finite Element Method, in which material behavior is embedded by means of three dimensional viscoelastic material laws. As a result, structures of unordinary geometry and domain like pavements of bridges can be analyzed by means of Finite Element Method and three dimensional viscoelastic equations. In the scope of this study, rheological models embedded in ANSYS, namely, generalized Maxwell elements and Prony series, which are two methods used by ANSYS to represent viscoelastic material behavior, are presented explicitly. Subsequently, a practical problem, which has an analytical solution given in literature, is used to verify the applicability of viscoelasticity tool embedded in ANSYS. Finally, amount of error in the results of ANSYS is compared with the analytical results to indicate the influence of used method and time step size.

Keywords: generalized Maxwell model, finite element method, prony series, time step size, viscoelasticity

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16023 Thermal Analysis of Induction Machine Stator

Authors: Andrej Kačenka, Jana Kertzscher


The thermal analysis is of equal importance as the electromagnetic one during the design process of electrical machines. This paper introduces a thermal modeling method for the prediction of the temperature in an induction machine stator with three-phase winding connected in a series using a lumped-parameter thermal model. The parameters of the model are calculated based on an analytical approach and experiments performed on test bench. The analytical approach study is carried out by means of numerical modeling and verified by the finite element method. For validating the numerical model, experimental results are presented and compared with the simulated ones.

Keywords: lumped thermal model, thermal analysis, numerical analysis, finite element method, induction machine

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16022 Analytical Formulae for Parameters Involved in Side Slopes of Embankments Stability

Authors: Abdulrahman Abdulrahman, Abir Abdulrahman


The stability of slopes of earthen embankments is usually examined by Swedish slip circle method or the slices method. The factor of safety against sliding using Fellenius procedure depends upon the angle formed by the arc of sliding at the center ψ and the radius of the slip circle r. The values of both mentioned parameters ψ and r aren't precisely predicted because they are measured from the drawing. In this paper, analytical formulae were derived for finding the exact values of both ψ and r. Also this paper presents the different conditions of intersections the slip circle with the body of an earthen dam and the coordinate of intersection points. Numerical examples are chosen for demonstration the proposed solution

Keywords: earthen dams stability, , earthen embankments stability, , Fellenius method, hydraulic structures, , side slopes stability, , slices method, Swedish slip circle

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
16021 Analytical Solution for Multi-Segmented Toroidal Shells under Uniform Pressure

Authors: Nosakhare Enoma, Alphose Zingoni


The requirements for various toroidal shell forms are increasing due to new applications, available storage space and the consideration of appearance. Because of the complexity of some of these structural forms, the finite element method is nowadays mainly used for their analysis, even for simple static studies. This paper presents an easy-to-use analytical algorithm for pressurized multi-segmented toroidal shells of revolution. The membrane solution, which acts as a particular solution of the bending-theory equations, is developed based on membrane theory of shells, and a general approach is formulated for quantifying discontinuity effects at the shell junctions using the well-known Geckeler’s approximation. On superimposing these effects, and applying the ensuing solution to the problem of the pressurized toroid with four segments, closed-form stress results are obtained for the entire toroid. A numerical example is carried out using the developed method. The analytical results obtained show excellent agreement with those from the finite element method, indicating that the proposed method can be also used for complementing and verifying FEM results, and providing insights on other related problems.

Keywords: bending theory of shells, membrane hypothesis, pressurized toroid, segmented toroidal vessel, shell analysis

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16020 Development and Validation of a Green Analytical Method for the Analysis of Daptomycin Injectable by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)

Authors: Eliane G. Tótoli, Hérida Regina N. Salgado


Daptomycin is an important antimicrobial agent used in clinical practice nowadays, since it is very active against some Gram-positive bacteria that are particularly challenges for the medicine, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE). The importance of environmental preservation has receiving special attention since last years. Considering the evident need to protect the natural environment and the introduction of strict quality requirements regarding analytical procedures used in pharmaceutical analysis, the industries must seek environmentally friendly alternatives in relation to the analytical methods and other processes that they follow in their routine. In view of these factors, green analytical chemistry is prevalent and encouraged nowadays. In this context, infrared spectroscopy stands out. This is a method that does not use organic solvents and, although it is formally accepted for the identification of individual compounds, also allows the quantitation of substances. Considering that there are few green analytical methods described in literature for the analysis of daptomycin, the aim of this work was the development and validation of a green analytical method for the quantification of this drug in lyophilized powder for injectable solution, by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Method: Translucent potassium bromide pellets containing predetermined amounts of the drug were prepared and subjected to spectrophotometric analysis in the mid-infrared region. After obtaining the infrared spectrum and with the assistance of the IR Solution software, quantitative analysis was carried out in the spectral region between 1575 and 1700 cm-1, related to a carbonyl band of the daptomycin molecule, and this band had its height analyzed in terms of absorbance. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines regarding linearity, precision (repeatability and intermediate precision), accuracy and robustness. Results and discussion: The method showed to be linear (r = 0.9999), precise (RSD% < 2.0), accurate and robust, over a concentration range from 0.2 to 0.6 mg/pellet. In addition, this technique does not use organic solvents, which is one great advantage over the most common analytical methods. This fact contributes to minimize the generation of organic solvent waste by the industry and thereby reduces the impact of its activities on the environment. Conclusion: The validated method proved to be adequate to quantify daptomycin in lyophilized powder for injectable solution and can be used for its routine analysis in quality control. In addition, the proposed method is environmentally friendly, which is in line with the global trend.

Keywords: daptomycin, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, green analytical chemistry, quality control, spectrometry in IR region

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16019 Effects of Magnetization Patterns on Characteristics of Permanent Magnet Linear Synchronous Generator for Wave Energy Converter Applications

Authors: Sung-Won Seo, Jang-Young Choi


The rare earth magnets used in synchronous generators offer many advantages, including high efficiency, greatly reduced the size, and weight. The permanent magnet linear synchronous generator (PMLSG) allows for direct drive without the need for a mechanical device. Therefore, the PMLSG is well suited to translational applications, such as wave energy converters and free piston energy converters. This manuscript compares the effects of different magnetization patterns on the characteristics of double-sided PMLSGs in slotless stator structures. The Halbach array has a higher flux density in air-gap than the Vertical array, and the advantages of its performance and efficiency are widely known. To verify the advantage of Halbach array, we apply a finite element method (FEM) and analytical method. In general, a FEM and an analytical method are used in the electromagnetic analysis for determining model characteristics, and the FEM is preferable to magnetic field analysis. However, the FEM is often slow and inflexible. On the other hand, the analytical method requires little time and produces accurate analysis of the magnetic field. Therefore, the flux density in air-gap and the Back-EMF can be obtained by FEM. In addition, the results from the analytical method correspond well with the FEM results. The model of the Halbach array reveals less copper loss than the model of the Vertical array, because of the Halbach array’s high output power density. The model of the Vertical array is lower core loss than the model of Halbach array, because of the lower flux density in air-gap. Therefore, the current density in the Vertical model is higher for identical power output. The completed manuscript will include the magnetic field characteristics and structural features of both models, comparing various results, and specific comparative analysis will be presented for the determination of the best model for application in a wave energy converting system.

Keywords: wave energy converter, permanent magnet linear synchronous generator, finite element method, analytical method

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16018 Comparison of Analytical Method and Software for Analysis of Flat Slab Subjected to Various Parametric Loadings

Authors: Hema V. Vanar, R. K. Soni, N. D. Shah


Slabs supported directly on columns without beams are known as Flat slabs. Flat slabs are highly versatile elements widely used in construction, providing minimum depth, fast construction and allowing flexible column grids. The main objective of this thesis is comparison of analytical method and soft ware for analysis of flat slab subjected to various parametric loadings. Study presents analysis of flat slab is performed under different types of gravity.

Keywords: fat slab, parametric load, analysis, software

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