Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 559

Search results for: intangible assets

559 Intangible Capital and Stock Prices: A Study of Jordanian Companies

Authors: Almoutassem Bellah Nasser

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This paper is aimed at calculating the intangible assets of Jordanian economy. This effort is a response to the demand from corporations for these services which reflects a perceived gap in internal and external financial reporting on intangible investments. The main conclusion of the paper is to suggest that the way forward to a standardized, more comparable approach to measuring intangible capital is to employ CIV method of valuation. Published macroeconomic data traditionally exclude most intangible investment from measured GDP. This situation is beginning to change as some attempts have been made to measure the amount of intangible assets. It was found that intangible assets account for $164.20 million in all the listed companies of Jordan. All this money does not appear on the balance sheets of these companies and hence requires special attention of policy makers for better utilization.

Keywords: intangible capital, stock prices, Amman Stock Exchange

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558 The Study of Intangible Assets at Various Firm States

Authors: Gulnara Galeeva, Yulia Kasperskaya

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The study deals with the relevant problem related to the formation of the efficient investment portfolio of an enterprise. The structure of the investment portfolio is connected to the degree of influence of intangible assets on the enterprise’s income. This determines the importance of research on the content of intangible assets. However, intangible assets studies do not take into consideration how the enterprise state can affect the content and the importance of intangible assets for the enterprise`s income. This affects accurateness of the calculations. In order to study this problem, the research was divided into several stages. In the first stage, intangible assets were classified based on their synergies as the underlying intangibles and the additional intangibles. In the second stage, this classification was applied. It showed that the lifecycle model and the theory of abrupt development of the enterprise, that are taken into account while designing investment projects, constitute limit cases of a more general theory of bifurcations. The research identified that the qualitative content of intangible assets significant depends on how close the enterprise is to being in crisis. In the third stage, the author developed and applied the Wide Pairwise Comparison Matrix method. This allowed to establish that using the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean value of the elements of the vector of priority of intangible assets makes it possible to estimate the probability of a full-blown crisis of the enterprise. The author has identified a criterion, which allows making fundamental decisions on investment feasibility. The study also developed an additional rapid method of assessing the enterprise overall status based on using the questionnaire survey with its Director. The questionnaire consists only of two questions. The research specifically focused on the fundamental role of stochastic resonance in the emergence of bifurcation (crisis) in the economic development of the enterprise. The synergetic approach made it possible to describe the mechanism of the crisis start in details and also to identify a range of universal ways of overcoming the crisis. It was outlined that the structure of intangible assets transforms into a more organized state with the strengthened synchronization of all processes as a result of the impact of the sporadic (white) noise. Obtained results offer managers and business owners a simple and an affordable method of investment portfolio optimization, which takes into account how close the enterprise is to a state of a full-blown crisis.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, bifurcation, investment portfolio, intangible assets, wide matrix

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557 Innovative Small and Medium Sized Firms: Intangible Investment and Financial Constraints - a Literature Review.

Authors: Eliane Abdo

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Small and medium sized firms “SMEs” play essential role in the countries’ economic development mainly in terms of production, employment and equitable distribution of income. For innovative SMEs, the investment in the human capital and in research and development are crucial to survive in a competitive environment. In this paper we perform a literature review to underline the financing difficulties and constraints which innovative SMEs face while investing in intangible assets: not only when defining amount of the investments but also while choosing its financing methods. Literature review revealed that in order to finance their intangible assets, SMEs rely in first on their internal financing: the availability of internal cash flows can then determine their investment’s decision. Moreover SMEs face difficulties to finance their intangibles by financial debts due to the uncertainty of future cash flow and the absence of physical guarantees; they will therefore go for the issuance of new shares as a second choice, since innovative companies have high opportunity of growth that attract new shareholders.

Keywords: small and medium sized firms, capital structure, intangible investment, financial constraints

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556 Corporate Governance of Intellectual Capital: The Impact of Intellectual Capital Reporting

Authors: Cesar Julio Recalde

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Background: The role of intangible assets in today´s society is undeniable and continuously growing. More than 80% of corporate market is related to intellectual capital(IC). However, corporate governance principles and practices seem strongly based and oriented towards tangible assets. The impact of intangible assets on corporate governance might require prevention and adaptative actions. Adherence to voluntary mechanisms of intellectual capital reporting (ICR) seems to be a gateway towards adapting corporate governance to intangible assets influence and a conceptual cornerstone. The impact of adherence to intellectual capital reporting on corporate governance and performance needs to be evaluated. Purposes: This work has a sequential two folded purpose: (1) exploring the influences exerted by IC on corporate governance theory and practice, and within that context (2) analyzing the impact of adherence to voluntary mechanisms of ICR on corporate governance. Design and summary: This work employs the theory of the firm and agency theory in order to conceptually explore the effects of each dimension of IC on key corporate governance issues, namely property rights and control by shareholders and residual claims by stakeholders, fiduciary duties of management and the board, opportunistic behavior and transparency. A comprehensive IC taxonomy and map is presented. Within the resulting context, internal and external impact of ICR on corporate governance and performance is conceptually analyzed. IRC constraint and barriers are identified. Intellectual liabilities are presented within the context of IRC. Finally, IRC regulatory framework is surveyed. Findings: Relevant conclusions were rendered on the influence of intellectual capital on corporate governance. Sufficient evidence of a positive impact of IRC on corporate governance and performance was found. Additionally, it was found that IRC exerts a leveraging effect on IC itself. Intellectual liabilities are insufficiently researched and seem to have a relevant importance on IC measuring. IRC regulatory framework was found to be insufficiently developed to capture the essence of intangible assets and to meet corporate governance challenges facing IC. Originality: This work develops a progressive approach to conceptually analyze the mutual influences between IC and corporate governance. An epistemic ideogram represents the intersection of analyzed theories. An IC map is presented. The relatively new topic of intellectual liabilities is conceptually analyzed in the context of IRC. Social liabilities and client liabilities are presented.

Keywords: corporate governance, intellectual capital, intellectual capital reporting, intellectual assets, intellectual liabilities, voluntary mechanisms, regulatory framework

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555 The Role of Human Capital, Structural Capital, and Relation Capital towards Company Performance Using Partial Least Square

Authors: Novawiguna Kemalasari, Ahmad Badawi Saluy

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Recent economic developments are more dependent on the value created by intangible assets than tangible company's assets. Intangible assets in question is intellectual capital that is recognized as the basis of individual, organizational, and general competition in the 21st century. The rapid global economy and technological innovations that have led to tough competition in the business world, make IC creation, management, measurement, and evaluation an important indicator in improving company performance that will affect the value of the company in the future. This study aims to determine the strong influence of intellectual capital on corporate performance, and how the influence of human capital on structural capital and relation capital. By distributing questionnaires to 100 employees of banking companies in Jakarta with middle and upper positions. Approach method used is Partial Least Square (PLS) Based on research that has been done, it can be concluded that human capital has influence on relation capital and structural capital. Similarly, the influence on the performance of the company turned out to human capital and relation capital has a significant influence, but structural capital has a non-significant effect on company performance.

Keywords: human capital, structural capital, relation capital, corporate performance

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554 The Structure of the Intangible Capital

Authors: Kolesnikova Julia, Fakhrutdinova Elena, Zagidullina Venera, Kamasheva Anastasia

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The article deals with the structure of intangible capital. A significant share of intangible capital is associated with a person as such and can be considered as human capital, which in turn also has a complex structure, including intellectual, social, organizational, client, reputational capital. We have allocated a separate category of intangible capital - unidentifiable capital, including a variety of synergistic interaction effects, etc. the structure of intangible capital. A significant share of intangible capital is associated with a person as such and can be considered as human capital, which in turn also has a complex structure, including intellectual, social, organizational, client, reputational capital. We have allocated unidentifiable capital as a separate category of intangible capital, including a variety of synergistic interaction effects and other.

Keywords: intangible capital, intangible property, object of intangible property, reputation capital

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553 The Influence of Intellectual Capital Disclosures on Market Capitalization Growth

Authors: Nyoman Wijana, Chandra Arha

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Disclosures of Intellectual Capital (IC) is a presentation of corporate information assets that are not recorded in the financial statements. This disclosures is very helpful because it provides inform corporate assets are intangible. In the new economic era, the company's intangible assets will determine company's competitive advantage. This study aimed to examine the effect of IC disclosures on market capitalization growth. Observational studies conducted over ten years in 2002-2011. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect for last ten years. One hundred samples of the company's largest market capitalization in 2011 traced back to last ten years. Data that used, are in 2011, 2008, 2005, and 2002 Method that’s used for acquiring the data is content analysis. The analytical method used is Ordinanary Least Square (OLS) and analysis tools are e views 7 This software using Pooled Least Square estimation parameters are specifically designed for panel data. The results of testing analysis showed inconsistent expression levels affect the growth of the market capitalization in each year of observation. The results of this study are expected to motivate the public company in Indonesia to do more voluntary IC disclosures and encourage regulators to make regulations in a comprehensive manner so that all categories of the IC must be disclosed by the company.

Keywords: IC disclosures, market capitalization growth, analytical method, OLS

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552 Multi-Faceted Growth in Creative Industries

Authors: Sanja Pfeifer, Nataša Šarlija, Marina Jeger, Ana Bilandžić

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The purpose of this study is to explore the different facets of growth among micro, small and medium-sized firms in Croatia and to analyze the differences between models designed for all micro, small and medium-sized firms and those in creative industries. Three growth prediction models were designed and tested using the growth of sales, employment and assets of the company as dependent variables. The key drivers of sales growth are: prudent use of cash, industry affiliation and higher share of intangible assets. Growth of assets depends on retained profits, internal and external sources of financing, as well as industry affiliation. Growth in employment is closely related to sources of financing, in particular, debt and it occurs less frequently than growth in sales and assets. The findings confirm the assumption that growth strategies of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in creative industries have specific differences in comparison to SMEs in general. Interestingly, only 2.2% of growing enterprises achieve growth in employment, assets and sales simultaneously.

Keywords: creative industries, growth prediction model, growth determinants, growth measures

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551 Formation of the Investment Portfolio of Intangible Assets with a Wide Pairwise Comparison Matrix Application

Authors: Gulnara Galeeva

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The Analytic Hierarchy Process is widely used in the economic and financial studies, including the formation of investment portfolios. In this study, a generalized method of obtaining a vector of priorities for the case with separate pairwise comparisons of the expert opinion being presented as a set of several equal evaluations on a ratio scale is examined. The author claims that this method allows solving an important and up-to-date problem of excluding vagueness and ambiguity of the expert opinion in the decision making theory. The study describes the authentic wide pairwise comparison matrix. Its application in the formation of the efficient investment portfolio of intangible assets of a small business enterprise with limited funding is considered. The proposed method has been successfully approbated on the practical example of a functioning dental clinic. The result of the study confirms that the wide pairwise comparison matrix can be used as a simple and reliable method for forming the enterprise investment policy. Moreover, a comparison between the method based on the wide pairwise comparison matrix and the classical analytic hierarchy process was conducted. The results of the comparative analysis confirm the correctness of the method based on the wide matrix. The application of a wide pairwise comparison matrix also allows to widely use the statistical methods of experimental data processing for obtaining the vector of priorities. A new method is available for simple users. Its application gives about the same accuracy result as that of the classical hierarchy process. Financial directors of small and medium business enterprises get an opportunity to solve the problem of companies’ investments without resorting to services of analytical agencies specializing in such studies.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, decision processes, investment portfolio, intangible assets

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550 Cost Benefit Analysis and Adjustments of Corporate Social Responsibility in the Airline Industry

Authors: Roman Asatryan

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The decision-making processes in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) among firms in general and airlines in particular have to do with the benefits that accrue through those investments. The crux of the matter is not whether to invest in CSR or not, but rather, how firms can quantify the benefits derived from such investments. This paper analyzes the cost benefit adjustment strategies for firms in the airline industry in their CSR strategy adoption and implementation. The adjustment strategies identified will enable firms in the airline industry to have a basis for determining the worth of such CSR investments. This paper discusses the cost and benefit analysis model in order to understand the ways airlines can reduce costs and increase returns on CSR, or balance the cost and benefits. The analysis from this study points to the fact that economic concepts especially the CBA are useful, though they are not without challenges. The challenge arises when it is problematic to express the real impact of the externality in monetary terms. The use of rational maximization of the gains may seem to be a rather optimistic goal mainly because of environmental variability, perceptual uncertainty, and imperfect knowledge about the potential externality. This paper concludes that the CBA model gives a basic understanding of the motivations for investing in intangible assets like CSR. Consequently, it sets the tone for formulating relevant hypothesis in empirical studies in investment in CSR in particular and other intangible assets in business operations.

Keywords: cost-benefit analysis, corporate social responsibility, airline industry

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549 Intangible Cultural Heritage as a Strategic Place Branding Tool

Authors: L. Ozoliņa

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Place branding as a strategic marketing tool is applied in Latvia since 2000. The main objective of the study is to find unique connecting aspects of the intangible cultural heritage elements on the development of sustainable place branding. The study is based on in-depth semi-structured interviews with Latvian place branding experts and content analysis of Latvia's place brand identities. The study indicates place branding as an internal co-creational and educational process of all involved stakeholders of the place and highlights a critical view on the local place branding practices on the notability of the in-depth research of the intangible cultural heritage.

Keywords: belonging, identity, intangible cultural heritage, narrative, self-image, place branding

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548 The Protection of Assets in the Crisis Management Processes

Authors: Jiri Barta

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This paper deals with the prevention and management of emergencies. It focuses on the protection of assets of the critical infrastructure entities that are important to preventing, preparing for and management of emergencies and crisis situations. The paper defines assets and specifies their use and place in the process of crisis management and planning. Critical assets that are protected from the negative effects of emergency or crisis situation we can use in crisis management and response. This basic rule applies mainly to the substantial assets used in the protection of critical infrastructure processes.

Keywords: asset, continuity, critical infrastructure, crisis management process

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547 Features Valuation of Intellectual Capital in the Organization

Authors: H. M. Avanesyan

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Economists have been discussing the importance of intangible assets for the success of organization for many years. The term intellectual capital was popularized in the 1990s by Thomas Stewart. “Intellectual capital is the knowledge, applied experience, enterprise processes and technology customer relationship and professional skills which are valuable assets to an organization.” Human capital – includes employee brainpower, competence, skills, experience and knowledge. Customer capital – includes relations and networks with partners, suppliers, distributors, and customers. The objective of the article is to assess one of the key components of organizational culture – organizational values. The focus of the survey was on assessing how intellectual capital presented in these values of the organization. In the conclusion section the article refers to underestimation of intellectual capital by the organization management and the various possible negative effects of the latter.

Keywords: human capital, intellectual capital, organizational culture, management, social identity, organization

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546 Theoretical Framework for Value Creation in Project Oriented Companies

Authors: Mariusz Hofman

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The paper ‘Theoretical framework for value creation in Project-Oriented Companies’ is designed to determine, how organisations create value and whether this allows them to achieve market success. An assumption has been made that there are two routes to achieving this value. The first one is to create intangible assets (i.e. the resources of human, structural and relational capital), while the other one is to create added value (understood as the surplus of revenue over costs). It has also been assumed that the combination of the achieved added value and unique intangible assets translates to the success of a project-oriented company. The purpose of the paper is to present hypothetical and deductive model which describing the modus operandi of such companies and approach to model operationalisation. All the latent variables included in the model are theoretical constructs with observational indicators (measures). The existence of a latent variable (construct) and also submodels will be confirmed based on a covariance matrix which in turn is based on empirical data, being a set of observational indicators (measures). This will be achieved with a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Due to this statistical procedure, it will be verified whether the matrix arising from the adopted theoretical model differs statistically from the empirical matrix of covariance arising from the system of equations. The fit of the model with the empirical data will be evaluated using χ2, RMSEA and CFI (Comparative Fit Index). How well the theoretical model fits the empirical data is assessed through a number of indicators. If the theoretical conjectures are confirmed, an interesting development path can be defined for project-oriented companies. This will let such organisations perform efficiently in the face of the growing competition and pressure on innovation.

Keywords: value creation, project-oriented company, structural equation modelling

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545 Assets Misappropriation in the Malaysian Public and Private Sectors

Authors: I. K. Norziaton, M. D. Ridhuan, A. N. Nur Adura

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Assets misappropriation is becoming a major concern in organizations. Over the years, the Malaysian Auditor General has reported high occurrences of assets misappropriation at the federal, state and even local governments. It is surprising that assets misappropriation is not the only major concern in the public sector but it has also indicates a common sight in private sector. The current situation is rather disconcerting because employees are accountable to perform their jobs at the interest of the organizations. Various researches in the past has found that the incidence of assets misappropriation occurs when employees used the official vehicles, internet connection, computers, stationery and facilities for personal and family benefits. The issue of assets misappropriation has continue to be a major concern for organizations and its impact on the reputation and financial health can be enormous. Even though the issue seems to be trivial, yet, if it is left untreated, the symptoms will become an incurable disease that it will cause major leakages to the organizations. Hence, this paper highlights the common practices of assets misappropriation in public and private sectors. It also discusses why the acts of assets misappropriation occurs. Using the data through questionnaire survey, a total of 250 questionnaires were distributed to the private and public sectors employees. However 173 (69.2%) were returned and usable. This paper concludes that it is vital to promote awareness to the public and private sectors employees on issues of assets misappropriation. Assets misappropriation could have been avoided provided that the officers in charge are more vigilant, competent and practice high level of integrity in discharging their responsibilities towards the organizations.

Keywords: assets misappropriation, fraud, public sector, private sector

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544 Dimensions of Guest Experience in Themed Hotels

Authors: Katalin Juhasz-Dora

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Several studies have shown that physical environments, milieu, atmosphere and service space play a significant role in the consumer experience. In the case of themed servicescapes, different tangible assets (design, decoration, facilities, amenities), intangible assets (service, activities) contribute to the luxury guest experience. This current study summarizes the literature related to the guest experience in the case of luxury hotels. Based on the results of a case study, additional dimensions of guest experience are explored. The research findings contribute to the extension of literature by providing a conceptual framework in specific themed luxury hotels. Understanding the elements of themed servicescape and dimensions of guest experience play a significant role in consumer behavior. Implications for management and future research directions are presented.

Keywords: atmosphere, guest experience, luxury service, themed hotel

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543 Some Issues of Measurement of Impairment of Non-Financial Assets in the Public Sector

Authors: Mariam Vardiashvili

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The economic value of the asset impairment process is quite large. Impairment reflects the reduction of future economic benefits or service potentials itemized in the asset. The assets owned by public sector entities bring economic benefits or are used for delivery of the free-of-charge services. Consequently, they are classified as cash-generating and non-cash-generating assets. IPSAS 21 - Impairment of non-cash-generating assets, and IPSAS 26 - Impairment of cash-generating assets, have been designed considering this specificity.  When measuring impairment of assets, it is important to select the relevant methods. For measurement of the impaired Non-Cash-Generating Assets, IPSAS 21 recommends three methods: Depreciated Replacement Cost Approach, Restoration Cost Approach, and  Service Units Approach. Impairment of Value in Use of Cash-Generating Assets (according to IPSAS 26) is measured by discounted value of the money sources to be received in future. Value in use of the cash-generating asserts (as per IPSAS 26) is measured by the discounted value of the money sources to be received in the future. The article provides classification of the assets in the public sector  as non-cash-generating assets and cash-generating assets and, deals also with the factors which should be considered when evaluating  impairment of assets. An essence of impairment of the non-financial assets and the methods of measurement thereof evaluation are formulated according to IPSAS 21 and IPSAS 26. The main emphasis is put on different methods of measurement of the value in use of the impaired Cash-Generating Assets and Non-Cash-Generation Assets and the methods of their selection. The traditional and the expected cash flow approaches for calculation of the discounted value are reviewed. The article also discusses the issues of recognition of impairment loss and its reflection in the financial reporting. The article concludes that despite a functional purpose of the impaired asset, whichever method is used for measuring the asset, presentation of realistic information regarding the value of the assets should be ensured in the financial reporting. In the theoretical development of the issue, the methods of scientific abstraction, analysis and synthesis were used. The research was carried out with a systemic approach. The research process uses international standards of accounting, theoretical researches and publications of Georgian and foreign scientists.

Keywords: cash-generating assets, non-cash-generating assets, recoverable (usable restorative) value, value of use

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542 Measurement of Intellectual Capital in an Algerian Company

Authors: S. Brahmi, S. Aitouche, M. D. Mouss

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Every modern company should measure the value of its intellectual capital and to report to complement the traditional annual balance sheets. The purpose of this work is to measure the intellectual capital in an Algerian company (or production system) using the Weightless Wealth Tool Kit (WWTK). The results of the measurement of intellectual capital are supplemented by traditional financial ratios. The measurement was applied to the National Company of Wells Services (ENSP) in Hassi Messaoud city, in the south of Algeria. We calculated the intellectual capital (intangible resources) of the ENSP to help the organization to better capitalize on its potential of workers and their know-how. The intangible value of the ENSP is evaluated at 16,936,173,345 DA in 2015.

Keywords: financial valuation, intangible capital, intellectual capital, intellectual capital measurement

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541 The Making of a Community: Perception versus Reality of Neighborhood Resources

Authors: Kirstie Smith

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This paper elucidates the value of neighborhood perception as it contributes to the advancement of well-being for individuals and families within a neighborhood. Through in-depth interviews with city residents, this paper examines the degree to which key stakeholders’ (residents) evaluate their neighborhood and perception of resources and identify, access, and utilize local assets existing in the community. Additionally, the research objective included conducting a community inventory that qualified the community assets and resources of lower-income neighborhoods of a medium-sized industrial city. Analysis of the community’s assets was compared with the interview results to allow for a better understanding of the community’s condition. Community mapping revealed the key informants’ reflections of assets were somewhat validated. In each neighborhood, there were more assets mapped than reported in the interviews. Another chief supposition drawn from this study was the identification of key development partners and social networks that offer the potential to facilitate locally-driven community development. Overall, the participants provided invaluable local knowledge of the perception of neighborhood assets, the well-being of residents, the condition of the community, and suggestions for responding to the challenges of the entire community in order to mobilize the present assets and networks.

Keywords: community mapping, family, resource allocation, social networks

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540 Banks' Financial Performance in Pakistan from 2012-2015

Authors: Saima Akbar

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The global financial crisis severely and adversely impacted the Pakistanis’ financial setups with far-reaching consequences for its victims. This study aimed to analyze the various determinants of the banks’ financial performance in Pakistan. The stepwise multiple regression analysis and pre-post analysis were carried out in this regard by using SPSS ver 22. The study found that the assets quality is the most influential determinant of return over assets followed by bank size and solvency. Advances, liquidity, investments, and size have positive while poor assets quality and deposits have a negative impact on the return over assets. The comparison of the pre-crisis and post-crisis coefficient values of the independent variables revealed that the global financial crisis had exerted a significant impact on the relative ability of the financial performance determinants to explain variations in return over assets.

Keywords: pre-crisis, post-crisis, coefficient values, determinants

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539 'Enjoying the Czech Traditions with All Sences!': Tourism Product Promotion

Authors: Tomas Seidl

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'Enjoy the Czech traditions with all sences!' is the main communication headline of one of the major current marketing project representing the intangible cultural heritage of the Czech Republic to its visitors. The project CZ.1.06/4.1.00/12.08915 and CZ.1.06/4.1.00/12.08916 which is solved in the period 2013-2015 is co-financed form the EU financial sources from the Integrated Operational Programme. The primary goal of the project was to analyze the dislocation and potential of the intangible cultural heritage in the Czech Republic. Further goal was to prepare a useful regionalization. An as solution based on the outcomes the creative and media strategy was created and prepared. The processor – CzechTourism expect the following web and mobile application development and successful marketing campaign in 2015.

Keywords: traditions, intangible cultural heritage, Czech Republic, CzechTourism, digital performance

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538 Studying the Influence of the Intellectual Assets on Strategy Implementation: Case Study, Modiran Ideh Pardaz Company

Authors: Farzam Chakherlouy, Amirmehdi Dokhanchi

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Nowadays organizations have to identify, evaluate and manage intangible assets which enable them to provide maximum requirements to achieve their goals and strategies. Organizations also have to try to promote and improve these kinds of assets continuously. It seems necessary to implement developed strategies in today’s competitive world where all the organizations and companies spend great amounts of expenses for developing their own strategies. In fact, after determining strategies to be implemented, the management process is not completed and it will not have any effect on the success and existence of the organization until these strategies are implemented. The objective of this article is to define the intellectual capital and it components and studying the impact of intellectual capital on the implementation of strategy based upon the Bozbura model. Three dimensions of human capital, relational capital, and the structural capital. According to the test’s results, the correlation between the intellectual capital and three components of strategic implementation (leadership, human resource management, and culture) has not been approved yet. According to results of Friedman’s test in relation with the intellectual capital, the maximum inadequacy of this company is in the field of human capital (with an average of 3.59) and the minimum inadequacy is in the field of the relational capital (customer) with an average of 2.83. Besides, according to Friedman test in relation with implementation of the strategy, the maximum inadequacy relates to the culture of the organization and the corporate control with averages of 2.60 and 3.45 respectively. In addition, they demonstrate a good performance in scopes of human resources management and financial resources management strategies.

Keywords: Bozbura model, intellectual capital, strategic management, implementation of strategy, Modiran Ideh Pardaz company

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537 Geo Spatial Database for Railway Assets Management

Authors: Muhammad Umar

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Safety and Assets management is considering a backbone of every department. GIS in the Railway become very important to Manage Assets and Security through Digital Maps and Web based GIS Maps. It provides a complete frame of work to the organization for the management of assets. Pakistan Railway is the most common and safest mode of traveling in Pakistan. Due to ever-increasing demand of transporting huge amount of information generated from various sources and this information must be accurate. This creates problems for Passengers and Administration that causes finical and time loss. GIS Solve this problem by Digital Maps & Database. It provides you a real time Spatial and Statistical analysis that helps you to communicate and exchange the information in a sophisticated way to the users. GIS Based Web system provides a facility to different end user to make query at a time as per requirements. This GIS System provides an advancement in an organization for a complete Monitoring, Safety and Decision System for tracks, Stations and Junctions that further use for the Analysis of different areas i.e. analysis of tracks, junctions and Stations in case of reconstruction, Rescue for rail accidents and Natural disasters .This Research work helps to reduce the financial loss and reduce human mistakes helps you provide a complete security and Management system of assets.

Keywords: Geographical Information System (GIS) for assets management, geo spatial database, railway assets management, Pakistan

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536 Determinant Elements for Useful Life in Airports

Authors: Marcelo Müller Beuren, José Luis Duarte Ribeiro

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Studies point that Brazilian large airports are not managing their assets efficiently. Therefore, organizations seek improvements to raise their asset’s productivity. Hence, identification of assets useful life in airports becomes an important subject, since its accuracy leads to better maintenance plans and technological substitution, contribution to airport services management. However, current useful life prediction models do not converge in terms of determinant elements used, as they are particular to the studied situation. For that reason, the main objective of this paper is to identify the determinant elements for a useful life of major assets in airports. With that purpose, a case study was held in the key airport of the south of Brazil trough historical data analysis and specialist interview. This paper concluded that most of the assets useful life are determined by technical elements, maintenance cost, and operational costs, while few presented influence of technological obsolescence. As a highlight, it was possible to identify the determinant elements to be considered by a model which objective is to identify the useful life of airport’s major assets.

Keywords: airports, asset management, asset useful life

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535 Degradation Model for UK Railway Drainage System

Authors: Yiqi Wu, Simon Tait, Andrew Nichols

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Management of UK railway drainage assets is challenging due to the large amounts of historical assets with long asset life cycles. A major concern for asset managers is to maintain the required performance economically and efficiently while complying with the relevant regulation and legislation. As the majority of the drainage assets are buried underground and are often difficult or costly to examine, it is important for asset managers to understand and model the degradation process in order to foresee the upcoming reduction in asset performance and conduct proactive maintenance accordingly. In this research, a Markov chain approach is used to model the deterioration process of rail drainage assets. The study is based on historical condition scores and characteristics of drainage assets across the whole railway network in England, Scotland, and Wales. The model is used to examine the effect of various characteristics on the probabilities of degradation, for example, the regional difference in probabilities of degradation, and how material and shape can influence the deterioration process for chambers, channels, and pipes.

Keywords: deterioration, degradation, markov models, probability, railway drainage

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534 Creativity in Industrial Design as an Instrument for the Achievement of the Proper and Necessary Balance between Intuition and Reason, Design and Science

Authors: Juan Carlos Quiñones

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Time has passed since the industrial design has put murder on a mass-production basis. The industrial design applies methods from different disciplines with a strategic approach, to place humans at the centers of the design process and to deliver solutions that are meaningful and desirable for users and for the market. This analysis summarizes some of the discussions that occurred in the 6th International Forum of Design as a Process, June 2016, Valencia. The aims of this conference were finding new linkages between systems and design interactions in order to define the social consequences. Through knowledge management we are able to transform the intangible aspect by using design as a transforming function capable of converting intangible knowledge into tangible solutions (i.e. products and services demanded by society). Industrial designers use knowledge consciously as a starting point for the ideation of the product. The handling of the intangible becomes more and more relevant over time as different methods emerge for knowledge extraction and subsequent organization. The different methodologies applied to the industrial design discipline and the evolution of the same discipline methods underpin the cultural and scientific background knowledge as a starting point of thought as a response to the needs; the whole thing coming through the instrument of creativity for the achievement of the proper and necessary balance between intuition and reason, design and science.

Keywords: creative process, creativity, industrial design, intangible

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533 Intellectual Capital as Resource Based Business Strategy

Authors: Vidya Nimkar Tayade

Abstract:

Introduction: Intellectual capital of an organization is a key factor to success. Many companies invest a huge amount in their Research and development activities. Any innovation is helpful not only to that particular company but also to many other companies, industry and mankind as a whole. Companies undertake innovative changes for increasing their capital profitability and indirectly increase in pay packages of their employees. The quality of human capital can also improve due to such positive changes. Employees become more skilled and experienced due to such innovations and inventions. For increasing intangible capital, the author has referred to a couple of books and referred case studies to come to a conclusion. Different charts and tables are also referred to by the author. Case studies are more important because they are proven and established techniques. They enable students to apply theoretical concepts in real-world situations. It gives solutions to an open-ended problem with multiple potential solutions. There are three different strategies for undertaking intellectual capital increase. They are: Research push strategy/ Technology pushed approach, Market pull strategy/ approach and Open innovation strategy/approach. Research push strategy, In this strategy, research is undertaken and innovation is achieved on its own. After invention inventor company protects such invention and finds buyers for such invention. In this way, the invention is pushed into the market. In this method, research and development are undertaken first and the outcome of this research is commercialized. Market pull strategy, In this strategy, commercial opportunities are identified first and our research is concentrated in that particular area. For solving a particular problem, research is undertaken. It becomes easier to commercialize this type of invention. Because what is the problem is identified first and in that direction, research and development activities are carried on. Open invention strategy, In this type of research, more than one company enters into an agreement of research. The benefits of the outcome of this research will be shared by both companies. Internal and external ideas and technologies are involved. These ideas are coordinated and then they are commercialized. Due to globalization, people from the outside company are also invited to undertake research and development activities. Remuneration of employees of both the companies can increase and the benefit of commercialization of such invention is also shared by both the companies. Conclusion: In modern days, not only can tangible assets be commercialized, but also intangible assets can also be commercialized. The benefits of such an invention can be shared by more than one company. Competition can become more meaningful. Pay packages of employees can improve. It Is a need for time to adopt such strategies to benefit employees, competitors, stakeholders.

Keywords: innovation, protection, management, commercialization

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532 The Essence and Attribution of Intellectual Property Rights Generated in the Digitization of Intangible Cultural Heritage

Authors: Jiarong Zhang

Abstract:

Digitizing intangible cultural heritage is a complex and comprehensive process from which sorts of intellectual property rights may be generated. Digitizing may be a repacking process of cultural heritage, which creates copyrights; recording folk songs and indigenous performances can create 'related rights'. At the same time, digitizing intangible cultural heritage may infringe the intellectual property rights of others unintentionally. Recording religious rituals of indigenous communities without authorization can violate the moral right of the ceremony participants of the community; making digital copies of rock paintings may infringe the right of reproduction. In addition, several parties are involved in the digitization process: indigenous peoples, museums, and archives can be holders of cultural heritage; companies and research institutions can be technology providers; internet platforms can be promoters and sellers; the public and groups above can be beneficiaries. When diverse intellectual property rights versus various parties, problems and disputes can arise easily. What are the types of intellectual property rights generated in the digitization process? What is the essence of these rights? Who should these rights belong to? How to use intellectual property to protect the digitalization of cultural heritage? How to avoid infringing on the intellectual property rights of others? While the digitization has been regarded as an effective approach to preserve intangible cultural heritage, related intellectual property issues have not received the attention and full discussion. Thus, parties involving in the digitization process may face intellectual property infringement lawsuits. The article will explore those problems from the intersection perspective of intellectual property law and cultural heritage. From a comparative approach, the paper will analysis related legal documents and cases, and shed some lights of those questions listed. The findings show, although there are no intellectual property laws targeting the cultural heritage in most countries, the involved stakeholders can seek protection from existing intellectual property rights following the suggestions of the article. The research will contribute to the digitization of intangible cultural heritage from a legal and policy aspect.

Keywords: copyright, digitization, intangible cultural heritage, intellectual property, Internet platforms

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531 Performance Management of Tangible Assets within the Balanced Scorecard and Interactive Business Decision Tools

Authors: Raymond K. Jonkers

Abstract:

The present study investigated approaches and techniques to enhance strategic management governance and decision making within the framework of a performance-based balanced scorecard. The review of best practices from strategic, program, process, and systems engineering management provided for a holistic approach toward effective outcome-based capability management. One technique, based on factorial experimental design methods, was used to develop an empirical model. This model predicted the degree of capability effectiveness and is dependent on controlled system input variables and their weightings. These variables represent business performance measures, captured within a strategic balanced scorecard. The weighting of these measures enhances the ability to quantify causal relationships within balanced scorecard strategy maps. The focus in this study was on the performance of tangible assets within the scorecard rather than the traditional approach of assessing performance of intangible assets such as knowledge and technology. Tangible assets are represented in this study as physical systems, which may be thought of as being aboard a ship or within a production facility. The measures assigned to these systems include project funding for upgrades against demand, system certifications achieved against those required, preventive maintenance to corrective maintenance ratios, and material support personnel capacity against that required for supporting respective systems. The resultant scorecard is viewed as complimentary to the traditional balanced scorecard for program and performance management. The benefits from these scorecards are realized through the quantified state of operational capabilities or outcomes. These capabilities are also weighted in terms of priority for each distinct system measure and aggregated and visualized in terms of overall state of capabilities achieved. This study proposes the use of interactive controls within the scorecard as a technique to enhance development of alternative solutions in decision making. These interactive controls include those for assigning capability priorities and for adjusting system performance measures, thus providing for what-if scenarios and options in strategic decision-making. In this holistic approach to capability management, several cross functional processes were highlighted as relevant amongst the different management disciplines. In terms of assessing an organization’s ability to adopt this approach, consideration was given to the P3M3 management maturity model.

Keywords: management, systems, performance, scorecard

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530 Condition Assessment of State-Owned Immovable Assets in South Africa

Authors: Collen Maseloane, Chris Cloete

Abstract:

The study investigated the status of building condition assessments of state-owned immovable assets in South Africa. A stratified random sample of 200 (out of 372) personnel was drawn from the eight rele-vant business units of the Department of Public Works (DPW). A questionnaire comprising open-ended questions was distributed to the sampled participants and a total of 139 completed questionnaires were received. A significant number of state asset properties were found to be in poor condition owing to the asset managers’ inability to access automated information on the conditions of assets. It is recommended that the immovable asset register of the Department requires constant enhancement to update information on the condition of each state-owned immovable asset under its custodianship. Implementation of the proposals should contribute to the maintenance of the value of state assets in South Africa.

Keywords: building condition assessment, immovable asset register, life cycle asset management, public works, South Africa

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