Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1202

Search results for: fixed

1202 Investigation on Behavior of Fixed-Ended Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams

Authors: Y. Heyrani Birak, R. Hizaji, J. Shahkarami


Reinforced Concrete (RC) deep beams are special structural elements because of their geometry and behavior under loads. For example, assumption of strain- stress distribution is not linear in the cross section. These types of beams may have simple supports or fixed supports. A lot of research works have been conducted on simply supported deep beams, but little study has been done in the fixed-end RC deep beams behavior. Recently, using of fixed-ended deep beams has been widely increased in structures. In this study, the behavior of fixed-ended deep beams is investigated, and the important parameters in capacity of this type of beams are mentioned.

Keywords: deep beam, capacity, reinforced concrete, fixed-ended

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
1201 A New Fixed Point Theorem for Almost θ-Contraction

Authors: Hichem Ramoul


In this work, we introduce a new type of contractive maps and we establish a new fixed point theorem for the class of almost θ-contractions (more general than the class of almost contractions) in a complete generalized metric space. The major novelty of our work is to prove a new fixed point result by weakening some hypotheses imposed on the function θ which will change completely the classical technique used in the literature review to prove fixed point theorems for almost θ-contractions in a complete generalized metric space.

Keywords: almost contraction, almost θ-contraction, fixed point, generalized metric space

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
1200 [Keynote Talk]: Existence of Random Fixed Point Theorem for Contractive Mappings

Authors: D. S. Palimkar


Random fixed point theory has received much attention in recent years, and it is needed for the study of various classes of random equations. The study of random fixed point theorems was initiated by the Prague school of probabilistic in the 1950s. The existence and uniqueness of fixed points for the self-maps of a metric space by altering distances between the points with the use of a control function is an interesting aspect in the classical fixed point theory. In a new category of fixed point problems for a single self-map with the help of a control function that alters the distance between two points in a metric space which they called an altering distance function. In this paper, we prove the results of existence of random common fixed point and its uniqueness for a pair of random mappings under weakly contractive condition for generalizing alter distance function in polish spaces using Random Common Fixed Point Theorem for Generalized Weakly Contractions.

Keywords: Polish space, random common fixed point theorem, weakly contractive mapping, altering function

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
1199 Measurements of Radial Velocity in Fixed Fluidized Bed for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Using LDV

Authors: Xiaolai Zhang, Haitao Zhang, Qiwen Sun, Weixin Qian, Weiyong Ying


High temperature Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process use fixed fluidized bed as a reactor. In order to understand the flow behavior in the fluidized bed better, the research of how the radial velocity affect the entire flow field is necessary. Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) was used to study the radial velocity distribution along the diameter direction of the cross-section of the particle in a fixed fluidized bed. The velocity in the cross-section is fluctuating within a small range. The direction of the speed is a random phenomenon. In addition to r/R is 1, the axial velocity are more than 6 times of the radial velocity, the radial velocity has little impact on the axial velocity in a fixed fluidized bed.

Keywords: Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, Fixed fluidized bed, LDV, Velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
1198 Neural Network in Fixed Time for Collision Detection between Two Convex Polyhedra

Authors: M. Khouil, N. Saber, M. Mestari


In this paper, a different architecture of a collision detection neural network (DCNN) is developed. This network, which has been particularly reviewed, has enabled us to solve with a new approach the problem of collision detection between two convex polyhedra in a fixed time (O (1) time). We used two types of neurons, linear and threshold logic, which simplified the actual implementation of all the networks proposed. The study of the collision detection is divided into two sections, the collision between a point and a polyhedron and then the collision between two convex polyhedra. The aim of this research is to determine through the AMAXNET network a mini maximum point in a fixed time, which allows us to detect the presence of a potential collision.

Keywords: collision identification, fixed time, convex polyhedra, neural network, AMAXNET

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
1197 Failure Mechanism in Fixed-Ended Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams under Cyclic Load

Authors: A. Aarabzadeh, R. Hizaji


Reinforced Concrete (RC) deep beams are a special type of beams due to their geometry, boundary conditions, and behavior compared to ordinary shallow beams. For example, assumption of a linear strain-stress distribution in the cross section is not valid. Little study has been dedicated to fixed-end RC deep beams. Also, most experimental studies are carried out on simply supported deep beams. Regarding recent tendency for application of deep beams, possibility of using fixed-ended deep beams has been widely increased in structures. Therefore, it seems necessary to investigate the aforementioned structural element in more details. In addition to experimental investigation of a concrete deep beam under cyclic load, different failure mechanisms of fixed-ended deep beams under this type of loading have been evaluated in the present study. The results show that failure mechanisms of deep beams under cyclic loads are quite different from monotonic loads.

Keywords: deep beam, cyclic load, reinforced concrete, fixed-ended

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
1196 Fixed Point Iteration of a Damped and Unforced Duffing's Equation

Authors: Paschal A. Ochang, Emmanuel C. Oji


The Duffing’s Equation is a second order system that is very important because they are fundamental to the behaviour of higher order systems and they have applications in almost all fields of science and engineering. In the biological area, it is useful in plant stem dependence and natural frequency and model of the Brain Crash Analysis (BCA). In Engineering, it is useful in the study of Damping indoor construction and Traffic lights and to the meteorologist it is used in the prediction of weather conditions. However, most Problems in real life that occur are non-linear in nature and may not have analytical solutions except approximations or simulations, so trying to find an exact explicit solution may in general be complicated and sometimes impossible. Therefore we aim to find out if it is possible to obtain one analytical fixed point to the non-linear ordinary equation using fixed point analytical method. We started by exposing the scope of the Duffing’s equation and other related works on it. With a major focus on the fixed point and fixed point iterative scheme, we tried different iterative schemes on the Duffing’s Equation. We were able to identify that one can only see the fixed points to a Damped Duffing’s Equation and not to the Undamped Duffing’s Equation. This is because the cubic nonlinearity term is the determining factor to the Duffing’s Equation. We finally came to the results where we identified the stability of an equation that is damped, forced and second order in nature. Generally, in this research, we approximate the solution of Duffing’s Equation by converting it to a system of First and Second Order Ordinary Differential Equation and using Fixed Point Iterative approach. This approach shows that for different versions of Duffing’s Equations (damped), we find fixed points, therefore the order of computations and running time of applied software in all fields using the Duffing’s equation will be reduced.

Keywords: damping, Duffing's equation, fixed point analysis, second order differential, stability analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
1195 Tuning of Fixed Wing Micro Aerial Vehicles Using Tethered Setup

Authors: Shoeb Ahmed Adeel, Vivek Paul, K. Prajwal, Michael Fenelon


Techniques have been used to tether and stabilize a multi-rotor MAV but carrying out the same process to a fixed wing MAV is a novel method which can be utilized in order to reduce damage occurring to the fixed wing MAVs while conducting flight test trials and PID tuning. A few sensors and on board controller is required to carry out this experiment in horizontal and vertical plane of the vehicle. Here we will be discussing issues such as sensitivity of the air vehicle, endurance and external load of the string acting on the vehicle.

Keywords: MAV, PID tuning, tethered flight, UAV

Procedia PDF Downloads 464
1194 Effect of Chemical Additive on Fixed Abrasive Polishing of LBO Crystal with Non-Water Based Slurry

Authors: Jun Li, Wenze Wang, Zhanggui Hu, Yongwei Zhu, Dunwen Zuo


Non-water based fixed abrasive polishing was adopted to manufacture LBO crystal for nano precision surface quality because of its deliquescent. Ethyl alcohol was selected as the non-water based slurry solvent and ethanediamine, lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide were add in the slurry as a chemical additive, respectively. Effect of different additives with non-water based slurry on material removal rate, surface topography, microscopic appearances and surface roughness were investigated in fixed abrasive polishing of LBO crystal. The results show the best surface quality of LBO crystal with surface roughness Sa 8.2 nm and small damages was obtained by non-water based slurry with lactic acid. Non-water based fixed abrasive polishing can achieve nano precision surface quality of LBO crystal with high material removal.

Keywords: non-water based slurry, LBO crystal, fixed abrasive polishing, surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
1193 A General Iterative Nonlinear Programming Method to Synthesize Heat Exchanger Network

Authors: Rupu Yang, Cong Toan Tran, Assaad Zoughaib


The work provides an iterative nonlinear programming method to synthesize a heat exchanger network by manipulating the trade-offs between the heat load of process heat exchangers (HEs) and utilities. We consider for the synthesis problem two cases, the first one without fixed cost for HEs, and the second one with fixed cost. For the no fixed cost problem, the nonlinear programming (NLP) model with all the potential HEs is optimized to obtain the global optimum. For the case with fixed cost, the NLP model is iterated through adding/removing HEs. The method was applied in five case studies and illustrated quite well effectiveness. Among which, the approach reaches the lowest TAC (2,904,026$/year) compared with the best record for the famous Aromatic plants problem. It also locates a slightly better design than records in literature for a 10 streams case without fixed cost with only 1/9 computational time. Moreover, compared to the traditional mixed-integer nonlinear programming approach, the iterative NLP method opens a possibility to consider constraints (such as controllability or dynamic performances) that require knowing the structure of the network to be calculated.

Keywords: heat exchanger network, synthesis, NLP, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
1192 On Tarski’s Type Theorems for L-Fuzzy Isotone and L-Fuzzy Relatively Isotone Maps on L-Complete Propelattices

Authors: František Včelař, Zuzana Pátíková


Recently a new type of very general relational structures, the so called (L-)complete propelattices, was introduced. These significantly generalize complete lattices and completely lattice L-ordered sets, because they do not assume the technically very strong property of transitivity. For these structures also the main part of the original Tarski’s fixed point theorem holds for (L-fuzzy) isotone maps, i.e., the part which concerns the existence of fixed points and the structure of their set. In this paper, fundamental properties of (L-)complete propelattices are recalled and the so called L-fuzzy relatively isotone maps are introduced. For these maps it is proved that they also have fixed points in L-complete propelattices, even if their set does not have to be of an awaited analogous structure of a complete propelattice.

Keywords: fixed point, L-complete propelattice, L-fuzzy (relatively) isotone map, residuated lattice, transitivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
1191 Heat Transfer Characteristics of Aluminum Foam Heat Sinks Subject to an Impinging Jet

Authors: So-Ra Jeon, Chan Byon


This study investigates the heat transfer characteristics of aluminum foam heat sink and pin fin heat sink subjected to an impinging air jet under a fixed pumping power condition as well as fixed flow rate condition. The effects of dimensionless pumping power or the Reynolds number and the impinging distance ratio on the Nusselt number are considered. The result shows that the effect of the impinging distance on the Nusselt number is negligible under a fixed pumping power condition, while the Nusselt number increases with decreasing the impinging distance under a fixed pumping power condition. A correlation for the pressure drop is obtained as a function of the flow rate and the impinging distance ratio. And correlations for the stagnation Nusselt number of the impinging jet are developed as a function of the pumping power. The aluminum foam heat sinks did not show higher thermal performance compared to a conventional pin fin heat sink under a fixed pumping power condition.

Keywords: aluminum foam, heat sinks, impinging jet, pumping power

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
1190 Continuous Fixed Bed Reactor Application for Decolourization of Textile Effluent by Adsorption on NaOH Treated Eggshell

Authors: M. Chafi, S. Akazdam, C. Asrir, L. Sebbahi, B. Gourich, N. Barka, M. Essahli


Fixed bed adsorption has become a frequently used industrial application in wastewater treatment processes. Various low cost adsorbents have been studied for their applicability in treatment of different types of effluents. In this work, the intention of the study was to explore the efficacy and feasibility for azo dye, Acid Orange 7 (AO7) adsorption onto fixed bed column of NaOH Treated eggshell (TES). The effect of various parameters like flow rate, initial dye concentration, and bed height were exploited in this study. The studies confirmed that the breakthrough curves were dependent on flow rate, initial dye concentration solution of AO7 and bed depth. The Thomas, Yoon–Nelson, and Adams and Bohart models were analysed to evaluate the column adsorption performance. The adsorption capacity, rate constant and correlation coefficient associated to each model for column adsorption was calculated and mentioned. The column experimental data were fitted well with Thomas model with coefficients of correlation R2 ≥0.93 at different conditions but the Yoon–Nelson, BDST and Bohart–Adams model (R2=0.911), predicted poor performance of fixed-bed column. The (TES) was shown to be suitable adsorbent for adsorption of AO7 using fixed-bed adsorption column.

Keywords: adsorption models, acid orange 7, bed depth, breakthrough, dye adsorption, fixed-bed column, treated eggshell

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
1189 Fixed-Bed Column Studies of Green Malachite Removal by Use of Alginate-Encapsulated Aluminium Pillared Clay

Authors: Lazhar mouloud, Chemat Zoubida, Ouhoumna Faiza


The main objective of this study, concerns the modeling of breakthrough curves obtained in the adsorption column of malachite green into alginate-encapsulated aluminium pillared clay in fixed bed according to various operating parameters such as the initial concentration, the feed rate and the height fixed bed, applying mathematical models namely: the model of Bohart and Adams, Wolborska, Bed Depth Service Time, Clark and Yoon-Nelson. These models allow us to express the different parameters controlling the performance of the dynamic adsorption system. The results have shown that all models were found suitable for describing the whole or a definite part of the dynamic behavior of the column with respect to the flow rate, the inlet dye concentration and the height of fixed bed.

Keywords: adsorption column, malachite green, pillared clays, alginate, modeling, mathematic models, encapsulation.

Procedia PDF Downloads 430
1188 Approximating Fixed Points by a Two-Step Iterative Algorithm

Authors: Safeer Hussain Khan


In this paper, we introduce a two-step iterative algorithm to prove a strong convergence result for approximating common fixed points of three contractive-like operators. Our algorithm basically generalizes an existing algorithm..Our iterative algorithm also contains two famous iterative algorithms: Mann iterative algorithm and Ishikawa iterative algorithm. Thus our result generalizes the corresponding results proved for the above three iterative algorithms to a class of more general operators. At the end, we remark that nothing prevents us to extend our result to the case of the iterative algorithm with error terms.

Keywords: contractive-like operator, iterative algorithm, fixed point, strong convergence

Procedia PDF Downloads 455
1187 Research on Ice Fixed-Abrasive Polishing Mechanism and Technology for High-Definition Display Panel Glass

Authors: Y. L. Sun, L. Shao, Y. Zhao, H. X. Zhou, W. Z. Lu, J. Li, D. W. Zuo


This study introduces an ice fixed-abrasive polishing (IFAP) technology. Using silica solution IFAP pad and Al2O3 IFAP pad, orthogonal tests were performed on polishing high-definition display panel glass, respectively. The results show that the polishing efficiency and effect polished with silica solution IFAP pad are better than those polished with Al2O3 IFAP pad. The optimized silica solution IFAP parameters are: polishing pressure 0.1MPa, polishing time 40min, table velocity 80r/min, and the ratio of accelerator and slurry 1:10. Finally, the IFAP mechanism was studied and it suggests by complicated analysis that IFAP is comprehensive effect of mechanical removal and microchemical reaction, combined with fixed abrasive polishing and free abrasive polishing.

Keywords: ice fixed-abrasive polishing, high-definition display panel glass, material removal rate, surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
1186 A Survey on Fixed Point Iterations in Modular Function Spaces and an Application to Ode

Authors: Hudson Akewe


This research presents complementary results with wider applications on convergence and rate of convergence of classical fixed point theory in Banach spaces to the world of the theory of fixed points of mappings defined in classes of spaces of measurable functions, known in the literature as modular function spaces. The study gives a comprehensive survey of various iterative fixed point results for the classes of multivalued ρ-contractive-like, ρ-quasi-contractive-like, ρ-quasi-contractive, ρ-Zamfirescu and ρ-contraction mappings in the framework of modular function spaces. An example is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the implicit-type iterative schemes to the system of ordinary differential equations. Furthermore, numerical examples are given to show the rate of convergence of the various explicit Kirk-type and implicit Kirk-type iterative schemes under consideration. Our results complement the results obtained on normed and metric spaces in the literature. Also, our methods of proof serve as a guide to obtain several similar improved results for nonexpansive, pseudo-contractive, and accretive type mappings.

Keywords: implicit Kirk-type iterative schemes, multivalued mappings, convergence results, fixed point

Procedia PDF Downloads 13
1185 Analysis of Chatterjea Type F-Contraction in F-Metric Space and Application

Authors: Awais Asif


This article investigates fixed point theorems of Chatterjea type F-contraction in the setting of F-metric space. We relax the conditions of F-contraction and define modified F-contraction for two mappings. The study provides fixed point results for both single-valued and multivalued mappings. The results are further extended to common fixed point theorems for two mappings. Moreover, to discuss the applicability of our results, an application is provided, which shows the role of our results in finding the solution to functional equations in dynamic programming. Our results generalize and extend the existing results in the literature.

Keywords: Chatterjea type F-contraction, F-cauchy sequence, F-convergent, multi valued mappings

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
1184 Model Reference Adaptive Control and LQR Control for Quadrotor with Parametric Uncertainties

Authors: Alia Abdul Ghaffar, Tom Richardson


A model reference adaptive control and a fixed gain LQR control were implemented in the height controller of a quadrotor that has parametric uncertainties due to the act of picking up an object of unknown dimension and mass. It is shown that an adaptive control, unlike a fixed gain control, is capable of ensuring a stable tracking performance under such condition, although adaptive control suffers from several limitations. The combination of both adaptive and fixed gain control in the controller architecture results in an enhanced tracking performance in the presence of parametric uncertainties.

Keywords: UAV, quadrotor, robotic arm augmentation, model reference adaptive control, LQR control

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
1183 Common Fixed Point Results and Stability of a Modified Jungck Iterative Scheme

Authors: Hudson Akewe


In this study, we introduce a modified Jungck (Dual Jungck) iterative scheme and use the scheme to approximate the unique common fixed point of a pair of generalized contractive-like operators in a Banach space. The iterative scheme is also shown to be stable with respect to the maps (S,T). An example is taken to justify the convergence of the scheme. Our result is a generalization and improvement of several results in the literature on single map T.

Keywords: generalized contractive-like operators, modified Jungck iterative scheme, stability results, weakly compatible maps, unique common fixed point

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
1182 Nadler's Fixed Point Theorem on Partial Metric Spaces and its Application to a Homotopy Result

Authors: Hemant Kumar Pathak


In 1994, Matthews (S.G. Matthews, Partial metric topology, in: Proc. 8th Summer Conference on General Topology and Applications, in: Ann. New York Acad. Sci., vol. 728, 1994, pp. 183-197) introduced the concept of a partial metric as a part of the study of denotational semantics of data flow networks. He gave a modified version of the Banach contraction principle, more suitable in this context. In fact, (complete) partial metric spaces constitute a suitable framework to model several distinguished examples of the theory of computation and also to model metric spaces via domain theory. In this paper, we introduce the concept of almost partial Hausdorff metric. We prove a fixed point theorem for multi-valued mappings on partial metric space using the concept of almost partial Hausdorff metric and prove an analogous to the well-known Nadler’s fixed point theorem. In the sequel, we derive a homotopy result as an application of our main result.

Keywords: fixed point, partial metric space, homotopy, physical sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
1181 Fin Efficiency of Helical Fin with Fixed Fin Tip Temperature Boundary Condition

Authors: Richard G. Carranza, Juan Ospina


The fin efficiency for a helical fin with a fixed fin tip (or arbitrary) temperature boundary condition is presented. Firstly, the temperature profile throughout the fin is determined via an energy balance around the fin itself. Secondly, the fin efficiency is formulated by integrating across the entire surface of the helical fin. An analytical expression for the fin efficiency is presented and compared with the literature for accuracy.

Keywords: efficiency, fin, heat, helical, transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
1180 The Impact of Information and Communication Technology on Bilateral Trade in Goods

Authors: Christina Tay


This paper investigates the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on bilateral trade in goods. Empirical analysis is performed on the United States and 34 partnering countries from 2000 to 2013. Our econometric model fits the data well, explaining 52% of the variation in trade flows for goods trade, 53.2% of the variation in trade flows for goods export and 48% of the variation in trade flows for goods import. For every 10% increase in fixed broadband Internet subscribers per 100 people increases, goods trade by 7.9% and for every 5% increase in fixed broadband Internet subscribers per 100 people, goods export increases by 11%. For every 1% increase in fixed telephone line penetration per 100 people, goods trade increases by 26.3%, goods export increases by 24.4% and goods import increases by 24.8%. For every 1% increase in mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions, goods trade decreases by 29.6% and goods export decreases by 27.1%, whilst for every 0.01% increase in mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions, goods import decreases by 34.3%. For every 1% increase in the percentage of population who used the Internet from any location in the last 12 months Internet, goods trade increases by 32.5%, goods export increases by 38.9%, goods import increases by 33%. All our trade determinants as well as our ICT variables have significances on goods exports for the US. We can also draw from our study that the US relies more rather heavily on ICT for its goods export compared to goods import.

Keywords: bilateral trade, fixed broadband, fixed telephone, goods trade, information and communicative technologies, Internet, mobile-cellular phone

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
1179 Analysis of Fixed Beamforming Algorithms for Smart Antenna Systems

Authors: Muhammad Umair Shahid, Abdul Rehman, Mudassir Mukhtar, Muhammad Nauman


The smart antenna is the prominent technology that has become known in recent years to meet the growing demands of wireless communications. In an overcrowded atmosphere, its application is growing gradually. A methodical evaluation of the performance of Fixed Beamforming algorithms for smart antennas such as Multiple Sidelobe Canceller (MSC), Maximum Signal-to-interference ratio (MSIR) and minimum variance (MVDR) has been comprehensively presented in this paper. Simulation results show that beamforming is helpful in providing optimized response towards desired directions. MVDR beamformer provides the most optimal solution.

Keywords: fixed weight beamforming, array pattern, signal to interference ratio, power efficiency, element spacing, array elements, optimum weight vector

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
1178 Explicit Iterative Scheme for Approximating a Common Solution of Generalized Mixed Equilibrium Problem and Fixed Point Problem for a Nonexpansive Semigroup in Hilbert Space

Authors: Mohammad Farid


In this paper, we introduce and study an explicit iterative method based on hybrid extragradient method to approximate a common solution of generalized mixed equilibrium problem and fixed point problem for a nonexpansive semigroup in Hilbert space. Further, we prove that the sequence generated by the proposed iterative scheme converge strongly to the common solution of generalized mixed equilibrium problem and fixed point problem for a nonexpansive semigroup. This common solution is the unique solution of a variational inequality problem and is the optimality condition for a minimization problem. The results presented in this paper are the supplement, extension and generalization of the previously known results in this area.

Keywords: generalized mixed equilibrium problem, fixed-point problem, nonexpansive semigroup, variational inequality problem, iterative algorithms, hybrid extragradient method

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
1177 Investigation of the Properties of Biochar Obtained by Dry and Wet Torrefaction in a Fixed and in a Fluidized Bed

Authors: Natalia Muratova, Dmitry Klimov, Rafail Isemin, Sergey Kuzmin, Aleksandr Mikhalev, Oleg Milovanov


We investigated the processing of poultry litter into biochar using dry torrefaction methods (DT) in a fixed and fluidized bed of quartz sand blown with nitrogen, as well as wet torrefaction (WT) in a fluidized bed in a medium of water steam at a temperature of 300 °C. Torrefaction technology affects the duration of the heat treatment process and the characteristics of the biochar: the process of separating CO₂, CO, H₂ and CH₄ from a portion of fresh poultry litter during torrefaction in a fixed bed is completed after 2400 seconds, but in a fluidized bed — after 480 seconds. During WT in a fluidized bed of quartz sand, this process ends in 840 seconds after loading a portion of fresh litter, but in a fluidized bed of litter particles previously subjected to torrefaction, the process ends in 350 - 450 seconds. In terms of the ratio between (H/C) and (O/C), the litter obtained after DT and WT treatment corresponds to lignite. WT in a fluidized bed allows one to obtain biochar, in which the specific pore area is two times larger than the specific pore area of biochar obtained after DT in a fluidized bed. Biochar, obtained as a result of the poultry litter treatment in a fluidized bed using DT or WT method, is recommended to be used not only as a biofuel but also as an adsorbent or the soil fertilizer.

Keywords: biochar, poultry litter, dry and wet torrefaction, fixed bed, fluidized bed

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
1176 Using the Simple Fixed Rate Approach to Solve Economic Lot Scheduling Problem under the Basic Period Approach

Authors: Yu-Jen Chang, Yun Chen, Hei-Lam Wong


The Economic Lot Scheduling Problem (ELSP) is a valuable mathematical model that can support decision-makers to make scheduling decisions. The basic period approach is effective for solving the ELSP. The assumption for applying the basic period approach is that a product must use its maximum production rate to be produced. However, a product can lower its production rate to reduce the average total cost when a facility has extra idle time. The past researches discussed how a product adjusts its production rate under the common cycle approach. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have addressed how a product lowers its production rate under the basic period approach. This research is the first paper to discuss this topic. The research develops a simple fixed rate approach that adjusts the production rate of a product under the basic period approach to solve the ELSP. Our numerical example shows our approach can find a better solution than the traditional basic period approach. Our mathematical model that applies the fixed rate approach under the basic period approach can serve as a reference for other related researches.

Keywords: economic lot, basic period, genetic algorithm, fixed rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 483
1175 CFD Study on the Effect of Primary Air on Combustion of Simulated MSW Process in the Fixed Bed

Authors: Rui Sun, Tamer M. Ismail, Xiaohan Ren, M. Abd El-Salam


Incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) is one of the key scopes in the global clean energy strategy. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was established. In order to reveal these features of the combustion process in a fixed porous bed of MSW. Transporting equations and process rate equations of the waste bed were modeled and set up to describe the incineration process, according to the local thermal conditions and waste property characters. Gas phase turbulence was modeled using k-ε turbulent model and the particle phase was modeled using the kinetic theory of granular flow. The heterogeneous reaction rates were determined using Arrhenius eddy dissipation and the Arrhenius-diffusion reaction rates. The effects of primary air flow rate and temperature in the burning process of simulated MSW are investigated experimentally and numerically. The simulation results in bed are accordant with experimental data well. The model provides detailed information on burning processes in the fixed bed, which is otherwise very difficult to obtain by conventional experimental techniques.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, waste incineration, municipal solid waste (MSW), fixed bed, primary air

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
1174 Aerodynamic Design and Optimization of Vertical Take-Off and Landing Type Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: Enes Gunaltili, Burak Dam


The airplane history started with the Wright brothers' aircraft and improved day by day. With the help of this advancements, big aircrafts replace with small and unmanned air vehicles, so in this study we design this type of air vehicles. First of all, aircrafts mainly divided into two main parts in our day as a rotary and fixed wing aircrafts. The fixed wing aircraft generally use for transport, cargo, military and etc. The rotary wing aircrafts use for same area but there are some superiorities from each other. The rotary wing aircraft can take off vertically from the ground, and it can use restricted area. On the other hand, rotary wing aircrafts generally can fly lower range than fixed wing aircraft. There are one kind of aircraft consist of this two types specifications. It is named as VTOL (vertical take-off and landing) type aircraft. VTOLs are able to takeoff and land vertically and fly horizontally. The VTOL aircrafts generally can fly higher range from the rotary wings but can fly lower range from the fixed wing aircraft but it gives beneficial range between them. There are many other advantages of VTOL aircraft from the rotary and fixed wing aircraft. Because of that, VTOLs began to use for generally military, cargo, search, rescue and mapping areas. Within this framework, this study answers the question that how can we design VTOL as a small unmanned aircraft systems for search and rescue application for benefiting the advantages of fixed wing and rotary wing aircrafts by eliminating the disadvantages of them. To answer that question and design VTOL aircraft, multidisciplinary design optimizations (MDO), some theoretical terminologies, formulations, simulations and modelling systems based on CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) is used in same time as design methodology to determine design parameters and steps. As a conclusion, based on tests and simulations depend on design steps, suggestions on how the VTOL aircraft designed and advantages, disadvantages, and observations for design parameters are listed, then VTOL is designed and presented with the design parameters, advantages, and usage areas.

Keywords: airplane, rotary, fixed, VTOL, CFD

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
1173 Simulation and Experimentation of Solar Thermal Collector for Air Heating System Using Dynamic Ribs

Authors: Nishitha Chowdary, Prabhav Dwivedi


Solar radiation (or insolation) is responsible for 174 petawatts (PW) of energy reaching the Earth's atmosphere. About one-third of this is reflected in space. Solar energy is by far the most abundant source of energy on Earth. In this study to use solar energy to the fullest in a solar air heater, An analysis of a solar air heater duct roughened with fixed cylindrical ribs in 3-D has been done using CFD. These fixed cylindrical ribs have a uniform circular cross-section and are placed in transverse in-line and staggered arrangements. The orientation of ribs has been fixed and is perpendicular to the in-flow direction. Cylindrical ribs are arranged periodically with fixed pitch; therefore, one pitch length is only considered in the present study. Validation has been done with smooth as well as with roughened duct and is matched perfectly with the developed correlations. Geometric parameters, namely rib height (e), ranges from 1 to 2 mm and pitch ranges from 10 to 40 mm are used in the present investigation. Thermo-hydraulic performance parameters in terms of average Nusselt number and friction factor have been extracted for Reynolds number ranging 5000—18000 to optimize the performance of roughened duct.

Keywords: cylindrical ribs, solar air heater, thermo-hydraulic performance factor, roughened duct

Procedia PDF Downloads 62