Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2683

Search results for: carbon–fibre polyamide 12

2683 A Biomimetic Uncemented Hip Resurfacing Versus Various Biomaterials Hip Resurfacing Implants

Authors: Karima Chergui, Hichem Amrani, Hammoudi Mazouz, Fatiha Mezaache


Cemented femoral resurfacings have experienced a revival for younger and more active patients. Future developments have shown that the uncemented version eliminates failures related to cementing implants. A three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) simulation was carried out in order to exploit a new resurfacing prothesis design named MARMEL, proposed by a recent study with Co–Cr–Mo material, for comparing a hip uncemented resurfacing with a novel carbon fiber/polyamide 12 (CF/PA12) composite to other hip resurfacing implants with various bio materials. From FE analysis, the von Mises stress range for the Composite hip resurfacing was much lower than that in the other hip resurfacing implants used in this comparison. These outcomes showed that the biomimetic hip resurfacing had the potential to reduce stress shielding and prevent from bone fracture compared to conventional hip resurfacing implants.

Keywords: biomechanics, carbon–fibre polyamide 12, finite element analysis, hip resurfacing

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
2682 Mechanical Properties of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites Consisting of Recycled Carbon Fibres and Polyamide 6 Fibres

Authors: Mir Mohammad Badrul Hasan, Anwar Abdkader, Chokri Cherif


With the increasing demand and use of carbon fibre reinforced composites (CFRC), disposal of the carbon fibres (CF) and end of life composite parts is gaining tremendous importance on the issue especially of sustainability. Furthermore, a number of processes (e. g. pyrolysis, solvolysis, etc.) are available currently to obtain recycled CF (rCF) from end-of-life CFRC. Since the CF waste or rCF are neither allowed to be thermally degraded nor landfilled (EU Directive 1999/31/EC), profitable recycling and re-use concepts are urgently necessary. Currently, the market for materials based on rCF mainly consists of random mats (nonwoven) made from short fibres. The strengths of composites that can be achieved from injection-molded components and from nonwovens are between 200-404 MPa and are characterized by low performance and suitable for non-structural applications such as in aircraft and vehicle interiors. On the contrary, spinning rCF to yarn constructions offers good potential for higher CFRC material properties due to high fibre orientation and compaction of rCF. However, no investigation is reported till yet on the direct comparison of the mechanical properties of thermoplastic CFRC manufactured from virgin CF filament yarn and spun yarns from staple rCF. There is a lack of understanding on the level of performance of the composites that can be achieved from hybrid yarns consisting of rCF and PA6 fibres. In this drop back, extensive research works are being carried out at the Textile Machinery and High-Performance Material Technology (ITM) on the development of new thermoplastic CFRC from hybrid yarns consisting of rCF. For this purpose, a process chain is developed at the ITM starting from fibre preparation to hybrid yarns manufacturing consisting of staple rCF by mixing with thermoplastic fibres. The objective is to apply such hybrid yarns for the manufacturing of load bearing textile reinforced thermoplastic CFRCs. In this paper, the development of innovative multi-component core-sheath hybrid yarn structures consisting of staple rCF and polyamide 6 (PA 6) on a DREF-3000 friction spinning machine is reported. Furthermore, Unidirectional (UD) CFRCs are manufactured from the developed hybrid yarns, and the mechanical properties of the composites such as tensile and flexural properties are analyzed. The results show that the UD composite manufactured from the developed hybrid yarns consisting of staple rCF possesses approximately 80% of the tensile strength and E-module to those produced from virgin CF filament yarn. The results show a huge potential of the DREF-3000 friction spinning process to develop composites from rCF for high-performance applications.

Keywords: recycled carbon fibres, hybrid yarn, friction spinning, thermoplastic composite

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
2681 Modelling of Exothermic Reactions during Carbon Fibre Manufacturing and Coupling to Surrounding Airflow

Authors: Musa Akdere, Gunnar Seide, Thomas Gries


Carbon fibres are fibrous materials with a carbon atom amount of more than 90%. They combine excellent mechanicals properties with a very low density. Thus carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) are very often used in lightweight design and construction. The precursor material is usually polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based and wet-spun. During the production of carbon fibre, the precursor has to be stabilized thermally to withstand the high temperatures of up to 1500 °C which occur during carbonization. Even though carbon fibre has been used since the late 1970s in aerospace application, there is still no general method available to find the optimal production parameters and the trial-and-error approach is most often the only resolution. To have a much better insight into the process the chemical reactions during stabilization have to be analyzed particularly. Therefore, a model of the chemical reactions (cyclization, dehydration, and oxidation) based on the research of Dunham and Edie has been developed. With the presented model, it is possible to perform a complete simulation of the fibre undergoing all zones of stabilization. The fiber bundle is modeled as several circular fibers with a layer of air in-between. Two thermal mechanisms are considered to be the most important: the exothermic reactions inside the fiber and the convective heat transfer between the fiber and the air. The exothermic reactions inside the fibers are modeled as a heat source. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements have been performed to estimate the amount of heat of the reactions. To shorten the required time of a simulation, the number of fibers is decreased by similitude theory. Experiments were conducted to validate the simulation results of the fibre temperature during stabilization. The experiments for the validation were conducted on a pilot scale stabilization oven. To measure the fibre bundle temperature, a new measuring method is developed. The comparison of the results shows that the developed simulation model gives good approximations for the temperature profile of the fibre bundle during the stabilization process.

Keywords: carbon fibre, coupled simulation, exothermic reactions, fibre-air-interface

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
2680 Effect of Different Types of Nano/Micro Fillers on the Interfacial Shear Properties of Polyamide 6 with De-Sized Carbon Fiber

Authors: Mohamed H. Gabr, Kiyoshi Uzawa


The current study aims to investigate the effect of fillers with different geometries and sizes on the interfacial shear properties of PA6 composites with de-sized carbon fiber. The fillers which have been investigated are namely; nano-layer silicates (nanoclay), sub-micro aluminum titanium (ALTi) particles, and multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT). By means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), epoxide group which defined as a sizing agent, has been removed. Sizing removal can reduce the acid parameter of carbon fibers surface promoting bonding strength at the fiber/matrix interface which is a desirable property for the carbon fiber composites. Microdroplet test showed that the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) has been enhanced with the addition of 10wt% ALTi by about 23% comparing with neat PA6. However, with including other types of fillers into PA6, the results did not show enhancement of IFSS.

Keywords: sub-micro particles, nano-composites, interfacial shear strength, polyamide 6

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
2679 Analysis of the Torque Required for Mixing LDPE with Natural Fibre and DCP

Authors: A. E. Delgado, W. Aperador


This study evaluated the incidence of concentrated natural fibre, as well as the effects of adding a crosslinking agent on the torque when those components are mixed with low density polyethylene (LDPE). The natural fibre has a particle size of between 0.8-1.2mm and a moisture content of 0.17%. An internal mixer was used to measure the torque required to mix the polymer with the fibre. The effect of the fibre content and crosslinking agent on the torque was also determined. A change was observed in the morphology of the mixes using SEM differential scanning microscopy.

Keywords: WPC, DCP, LDPE, natural fibre, torque

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
2678 Laser Welding of Titanium Alloy Ti64 to Polyamide 6.6: Effects of Welding Parameters on Temperature Profile Evolution

Authors: A. Al-Sayyad, P. Lama, J. Bardon, P. Hirchenhahn, L. Houssiau, P. Plapper


Composite metal–polymer materials, in particular titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) to polyamide (PA6.6), fabricated by laser joining, have gained cogent interest among industries and researchers concerned with aerospace and biomedical applications. This work adopts infrared (IR) thermography technique to investigate effects of laser parameters used in the welding process on the three-dimensional temperature profile at the rear-side of titanium, at the region to be welded with polyamide. Cross sectional analysis of welded joints showed correlations between the morphology of titanium and polyamide at the weld zone with the corresponding temperature profile. In particular, spatial temperature profile was found to be correlated with the laser beam energy density, titanium molten pool width and depth, and polyamide heat affected zone depth.

Keywords: laser welding, metals to polymers joining, process monitoring, temperature profile, thermography

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
2677 Hydrothermal Aging Behavior of Continuous Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polyamide 6 Composites

Authors: Jifeng Zhang , Yongpeng Lei


Continuous carbon fiber reinforced polyamide 6 (CF/PA6) composites are potential for application in the automotive industry due to their high specific strength and stiffness. However, PA6 resin is sensitive to the moisture in the hydrothermal environment and CF/PA6 composites might undergo several physical and chemical changes, such as plasticization, swelling, and hydrolysis, which induces a reduction of mechanical properties. So far, little research has been reported on the assessment of the effects of hydrothermal aging on the mechanical properties of continuous CF/PA6 composite. This study deals with the effects of hydrothermal aging on moisture absorption and mechanical properties of polyamide 6 (PA6) and polyamide 6 reinforced with continuous carbon fibers composites (CF/PA6) by immersion in distilled water at 30 ℃, 50 ℃, 70 ℃, and 90 ℃. Degradation of mechanical performance has been monitored, depending on the water absorption content and the aging temperature. The experimental results reveal that under the same aging condition, the PA6 resin absorbs more water than the CF/PA6 composite, while the water diffusion coefficient of CF/PA6 composite is higher than that of PA6 resin because of interfacial diffusion channel. In mechanical properties degradation process, an exponential reduction in tensile strength and elastic modulus are observed in PA6 resin as aging temperature and water absorption content increases. The degradation trend of flexural properties of CF/PA6 is the same as that of tensile properties of PA6 resin. Moreover, the water content plays a decisive role in mechanical degradation compared with aging temperature. In contrast, hydrothermal environment has mild effect on the tensile properties of CF/PA6 composites. The elongation at breakage of PA6 resin and CF/PA6 reaches the highest value when their water content reaches 6% and 4%, respectively. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were also used to explain the mechanism of mechanical properties alteration. After exposed to the hydrothermal environment, the Tg (glass transition temperature) of samples decreases dramatically with water content increase. This reduction can be ascribed to the plasticization effect of water. For the unaged specimens, the fibers surface is coated with resin and the main fracture mode is fiber breakage, indicating that a good adhesion between fiber and matrix. However, with absorbed water content increasing, the fracture mode transforms to fiber pullout. Finally, based on Arrhenius methodology, a predictive model with relate to the temperature and water content has been presented to estimate the retention of mechanical properties for PA6 and CF/PA6.

Keywords: continuous carbon fiber reinforced polyamide 6 composite, hydrothermal aging, Arrhenius methodology, interface

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2676 Influence of Random Fibre Packing on the Compressive Strength of Fibre Reinforced Plastic

Authors: Y. Wang, S. Zhang, X. Chen


The longitudinal compressive strength of fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) possess a large stochastic variability, which limits efficient application of composite structures. This study aims to address how the random fibre packing affects the uncertainty of FRP compressive strength. An novel approach is proposed to generate random fibre packing status by a combination of Latin hypercube sampling and random sequential expansion. 3D nonlinear finite element model is built which incorporates both the matrix plasticity and fibre geometrical instability. The matrix is modeled by isotropic ideal elasto-plastic solid elements, and the fibres are modeled by linear-elastic rebar elements. Composite with a series of different nominal fibre volume fractions are studied. Premature fibre waviness at different magnitude and direction is introduced in the finite element model. Compressive tests on uni-directional CFRP (carbon fibre reinforced plastic) are conducted following the ASTM D6641. By a comparison of 3D FE models and compressive tests, it is clearly shown that the stochastic variation of compressive strength is partly caused by the random fibre packing, and normal or lognormal distribution tends to be a good fit the probabilistic compressive strength. Furthermore, it is also observed that different random fibre packing could trigger two different fibre micro-buckling modes while subjected to longitudinal compression: out-of-plane buckling and twisted buckling. The out-of-plane buckling mode results much larger compressive strength, and this is the major reason why the random fibre packing results a large uncertainty in the FRP compressive strength. This study would contribute to new approaches to the quality control of FRP considering higher compressive strength or lower uncertainty.

Keywords: compressive strength, FRP, micro-buckling, random fibre packing

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
2675 Delamination Fracture Toughness Benefits of Inter-Woven Plies in Composite Laminates Produced through Automated Fibre Placement

Authors: Jayden Levy, Garth M. K. Pearce


An automated fibre placement method has been developed to build through-thickness reinforcement into carbon fibre reinforced plastic laminates during their production, with the goal of increasing delamination fracture toughness while circumventing the additional costs and defects imposed by post-layup stitching and z-pinning. Termed ‘inter-weaving’, the method uses custom placement sequences of thermoset prepreg tows to distribute regular fibre link regions in traditionally clean ply interfaces. Inter-weaving’s impact on mode I delamination fracture toughness was evaluated experimentally through double cantilever beam tests (ASTM standard D5528-13) on [±15°]9 laminates made from Park Electrochemical Corp. E-752-LT 1/4” carbon fibre prepreg tape. Unwoven and inter-woven automated fibre placement samples were compared to those of traditional laminates produced from standard uni-directional plies of the same material system. Unwoven automated fibre placement laminates were found to suffer a mostly constant 3.5% decrease in mode I delamination fracture toughness compared to flat uni-directional plies. Inter-weaving caused significant local fracture toughness increases (up to 50%), though these were offset by a matching overall reduction. These positive and negative behaviours of inter-woven laminates were respectively found to be caused by fibre breakage and matrix deformation at inter-weave sites, and the 3D layering of inter-woven ply interfaces providing numerous paths of least resistance for crack propagation.

Keywords: AFP, automated fibre placement, delamination, fracture toughness, inter-weaving

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
2674 Behaviour of Hybrid Steel Fibre Reinforced High Strength Concrete

Authors: Emdad K. Z. Balanji, M. Neaz Sheikh, Muhammad N. S. Hadi


This paper presents results of an experimental investigation on the behaviour of Hybrid Steel Fibre Reinforced High Strength Concrete (HSFR-HSC) cylinder specimens (150 mm x 300 mm) under uniaxial compression. Three different combinations of HSFR-HSC specimens and reference specimens without steel fibres were prepared. The first combination of HSFR-HSC included 1.5% Micro Steel (MS) fibre and 1% Deformed Steel (DS) fibre. The second combination included 1.5% MS fibre and 1.5% Hooked-end Steel (HS) fibre. The third combination included 1% DS fibre and 1.5% HS fibre. The experimental results showed that the addition of hybrid steel fibres improved the ductility of high strength concrete. The combination of MS fibre and HS fibre in high strength concrete mixes showed best stress-strain behaviour compared to the other combinations and the reference specimens.

Keywords: high strength concrete, micro steel fibre (MS), deformed steel fibre (DS), hooked-end steel fibre (HS), hybrid steel fibre

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2673 Design of Composite Joints from Carbon Fibre for Automotive Parts

Authors: G. Hemath Kumar, H. Mohit, K. Karthick


One of the most important issues in the composite technology is the repairing of parts of aircraft structures which is manufactured from composite materials. In such applications and also for joining various composite parts together, they are fastened together either using adhesives or mechanical fasteners. The tensile strength of these joints was carried out using Universal Testing Machine (UTM). A parametric study was also conducted to compare the performance of the hybrid joint with varying adherent thickness, adhesive thickness and overlap length. The composition of the material is combination of epoxy resin and carbon fibre under the method of reinforcement. To utilize the full potential of composite materials as structural elements, the strength and stress distribution of these joints must be understood. The study of tensile strength in the members involved under various design conditions and various joints were took place.

Keywords: carbon fiber, FRP composite, MMC, automotive

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2672 Experimentation and Analysis of Reinforced Basalt and Carbon Fibres Composite Laminate Mechanical Properties

Authors: Vara Prasad Vemu


The aim of the present work is to investigate the mechanical properties and water absorption capacity of carbon and basalt fibers mixed with matrix epoxy. At present, there is demand for nature friendly products. Basalt reinforced composites developed recently, and these mineral amorphous fibres are a valid alternative to carbon fibres for their lower cost and to glass fibres for their strength. The present paper describes briefly on basalt and carbon fibres (uni-directional) which are used as reinforcement materials for composites. The matrix epoxy (LY 556-HY 951) is taken into account to assess its influence on the evaluated parameters. In order to use reinforced composites for structural applications, it is necessary to perform a mechanical characterization. With this aim experiments like tensile strength, flexural strength, hardness and water absorption are performed. Later the mechanical properties obtained from experiments are compared with ANSYS software results.

Keywords: carbon fibre, basalt fibre, uni-directional, reinforcement, mechanical tests, water absorption test, ANSYS

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
2671 Synthesis and Performance of Polyamide Forward Osmosis Membrane for Natural Organic Matter (NOM) Removal

Authors: M. N. Abu Seman, L. M. Kei, M. A. Yusoff


Forward Osmosis (FO) polyamide thin-film composite membranes have been prepared by inter facial polymerization using commercial UF polyethersulfone as membrane support. Different inter facial polymerization times (10s, 30s and 60s) in the organic solution containing trimesoyl chloride (TMC) at constant m-phenylenediamine (MPD) concentration (2% w/v) were studied. The synthesized polyamide membranes then tested for treatment of natural organic matter (NOM) and compared to commercial Cellulose TriAcetate (CTA) membrane. It was found that membrane prepared with higher reaction time (30 s and 60 s) exhibited better membrane performance (flux and humic acid removal) over commercial CTA membrane.

Keywords: cellulose triacetate, forward osmosis, humic acid, polyamide

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2670 Effect of Surface Treatment on Physico-Mechanical Properties of Sisal Fiber-Unsaturated Polyester Composites

Authors: A. H. Birniwa, A. A. Salisu, M. Y. Yakasai, A. Sabo, K. Aujara, A. Isma’il


Sisal fibre was extracted from Sisal leaves by enzymatic retting method. A portion of the fibre was subjected to treatment with alkali, benzoyl chloride and silane compounds. Sisal fibre composites were fabricated using unsaturated polyester resin, by hand lay-up technique using both the treated and untreated fibre. Tensile, flexural and water absorption tests were conducted and evaluated on the composites. The results obtained were found to increase in the treated fibre compared to untreated fibre. Surface morphology of the fibre was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the result obtained showed variation in the morphology of the treated and untreated fibre. FT-IR results showed inclusion of benzoyl and silane groups on the fibre surface. The fibre chemical modification improves its adhesion to the matrix, mechanical properties of the composites were also found to improve.

Keywords: composite, flexural strength, matrix, sisal fibre

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
2669 Laser Additive Manufacturing of Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Polyamide 12 Composites

Authors: Kun Zhou


Additive manufacturing has emerged as a disruptive technology that is capable of manufacturing products with complex geometries through an accumulation of material feedstock in a layer-by-layer fashion. Laser additive manufacturing such as selective laser sintering has excellent printing resolution, high printing speed and robust part strength, and has led to a widespread adoption in the aerospace, automotive and biomedical industries. This talk highlights and discusses the recent work we have undertaken in the development of carbon nanotube-reinforced polyamide 12 (CNT/PA12) composites printed using laser additive manufacturing. Numerical modelling studies have been conducted to simulate various processes within laser additive manufacturing of CNT/PA12 composites, and extensive experimental work has been carried out to investigate the mechanical and functional properties of the printed parts. The results from these studies grant a deeper understanding of the intricate mechanisms occurring within each process and enables an accurate optimization of process parameters for the CNT/PA12 and other polymer composites.

Keywords: CNT/PA12 composites, laser additive manufacturing, process parameter optimization, numerical modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
2668 Mechanical Properties of Sugar Palm Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastic Polyurethane Composites

Authors: Dandi Bachtiar, Mohammed Ausama Abbas, Januar Parlaungan Siregar, Mohd Ruzaimi Bin Mat Rejab


Short sugar palm fibre and thermoplastic polyurethane were combined to produce new composites by using the extrude method. Two techniques used to prepare a new composite material, firstly, extrusion of the base material with short fibre, secondly hot pressing them. The size of sugar palm fibre was fixed at 250µm. Different weight percent (10 wt%, 20 wt% and 30 wt%) were used in order to optimise preparation process. The optimization of process depended on the characterization mechanical properties such as impact, tensile, and flexural of the new (TPU/SPF) composite material. The results proved that best tensile and impact properties of weight additive fibre applied 10 wt%. There was an increasing trend recorded of flexural properties during increased the fibre loading. Meanwhile, the maximum tensile strength was 14.0 MPa at 10 wt% of the fibre. Moreover, there was no significant effect for additions more than 30 wt% of the fibre.

Keywords: composites, natural fibre, polyurethane, sugar palm

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2667 Adhesion Problematic for Novel Non-Crimp Fabric and Surface Modification of Carbon-Fibres Using Oxy-Fluorination

Authors: Iris Käppler, Paul Matthäi, Chokri Cherif


In the scope of application of technical textiles, Non-Crimp Fabrics are increasingly used. In general, NCF exhibit excellent load bearing properties, but caused by the manufacturing process, there are some remaining disadvantages which have to be reduced. Regarding to this, a novel technique of processing NCF was developed substituting the binding-thread by an adhesive. This stitch-free method requires new manufacturing concept as well as new basic methods to prove adhesion of glue at fibres and textiles. To improve adhesion properties and the wettability of carbon-fibres by the adhesive, oxyfluorination was used. The modification of carbon-fibres by oxyfluorination was investigated via scanning electron microscope, X-ray photo electron spectroscopy and single fibre tensiometry. Special tensile tests were developed to determine the maximum force required for detachment.

Keywords: non-crimp fabric, adhesive, stitch-free, high-performance fibre

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2666 Studying the Effect of Nanoclays on the Mechanical Properties of Polypropylene/Polyamide Nanocomposites

Authors: Benalia Kouini, Aicha Serier


Nanocomposites based on polypropylene/polyamide 66 (PP/PA66) nanoblends containing organophilic montmorillonite (OMMT) and maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (PP-g-MAH) were prepared by melt compounding method followed by injection molding. Two different types of nanoclays were used in this work. DELLITE LVF is the untreated nanoclay and DELLITE 67G is the treated one. The morphology of the nanocomposites was studied using the XR diffraction (XRD). The results indicate that the incorporation of treated nanoclay has a significant effect on the impact strength of PP/PA66 nanocomposites. Furthermore, it was found that XRD results revealed the intercalation, exfoliation of nanaclays of nanocomposites.

Keywords: nNanoclay, Nanocomposites, Polypropylene, Polyamide, melt processing, mechanical properties.

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
2665 Mechanical Properties of Fibre Reinforced High Performance Concrete

Authors: Laura Dembovska, Diana Bajare, Vitalijs Lusis, Genadijs Sahmenko, Aleksandrs Korjakins


This study focused on the mechanical properties of the fibre reinforced High Performance Concrete. The most important benefits of addition of fibres to the concrete mix are the hindrance of the development of microcracks, the delay of the propagation of microcracks to macroscopic cracks and the better ductility after microcracks have been occurred. This work presents an extensive comparative experimental study on six different types of fibres (alkali resistant glass, polyvinyl alcohol fibres, polypropylene fibres and carbon fibres) with the same binding High Performance Concrete matrix. The purpose was to assess the influence of the type of fibre on the mechanical properties of Fibre Reinforced High Performance Concrete. Therefore, in this study three main objectives have been chosen: 1) analyze the structure of the bulk cementitious matrix, 2) determine the influence of fibres and distribution in the matrix on the mechanical properties of fibre reinforced High Performance Concrete and 3) characterize the microstructure of the fibre-matrix interface. Acknowledgement: This study was partially funded by European Regional Development Fund project Nr. “A New Concept for Sustainable and Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings” and COST Action TU1404 Conference grants project.

Keywords: high performance concrete, fibres, mechanical properties, microstructure

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2664 The Simulation of Superfine Animal Fibre Fractionation: The Strength Variation of Fibre

Authors: Sepehr Moradi


This study investigates the contribution of individual Australian Superfine Merino Wool (ASFW) and Inner Mongolia Cashmere (IMC) fibres strength behaviour to the breaking force variation (CVBF) and minimum fibre diameter (CVₘFD) induced by actual single fibre lengths and the combination of length and diameter groups. Mid-side samples were selected for the ASFW (n = 919) and IMC (n = 691) since it is assumed to represent the average of the whole fleece. The average (LₘFD) varied for ASFW and IMC by 36.6 % and 33.3 % from shortest to longest actual single fibre length and -21.2 % and -21.7 % between longest-coarsest and shortest-finest groups, respectively. The tensile properties of single animal fibres were characterised using Single Fibre Analyser (SIFAN 4). After normalising for diversity in fibre diameter at the position of breakage, the parameters, which explain the strength behaviour within actual fibre lengths and combination of length-diameter groups, were the Intrinsic Fibre Strength (IFS) (MPa), Min IFS (MPa), Max IFS (MPa) and Breaking force (BF) (cN). The average strength of single fibres varied extensively within actual length groups and within a combination of length-diameter groups. IFS ranged for ASFW and IMC from 419 to 355 MPa (-15.2 % range) and 353 to 319 (-9.6 % range) and BF from 2.2 to 3.6 (63.6 % range) and 3.2 to 5.3 cN (65.6 % range) from shortest to longest groups, respectively. Single fibre properties showed no differences within actual length groups and within a combination of length-diameter groups, or was there a strong interaction between the strength of single fibre (P > 0.05) within remaining and removing length-diameter groups. Longer-coarser fibre fractionation had a significant effect on BF and IFS and all of the length groups showed a considerable variance in single fibre strength that is accounted for by diversity in the diameter variation along the fibre. There are many concepts for the improvement of the stress-strain properties of animal fibres as a means of raising a single fibre strength by simultaneous changes in fibre length and diameter. Fibre fractionation over a given length directly for single fibre strength or using the variation traits of fibre diameter is an important process used to increase the strength of the single fibre.

Keywords: single animal fibre fractionation, actual length groups, strength variation, length-diameter groups, diameter variation along fibre

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2663 Physico-Mechanical Properties of Chemically Modified Sisal Fibre Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composites

Authors: A. A. Salisu, M. Y. Yakasai, K. M. Aujara


Sisal leaves were subjected to enzymatic retting method to extract the sisal fibre. A portion of the fibre was pretreated with alkali (NaOH), and further treated with benzoyl chloride and silane treatment reagents. Both the treated and untreated Sisal fibre composites were used to fabricate the composite by hand lay-up technique using unsaturated polyester resin. Tensile, flexural, water absorption, density, thickness swelling and chemical resistant tests were conducted and evaluated on the composites. Results obtained for all the parameters showed an increase in the treated fibre compared to untreated fibre. FT-IR spectra results ascertained the inclusion of benzoyl and silane groups on the fibre surface. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) result obtained showed variation in the morphology of the treated and untreated fibre. Chemical modification was found to improve adhesion of the fibre to the matrix, as well as physico-mechanical properties of the composites.

Keywords: chemical resistance, density test, polymer matrix sisal fibre, thickness swelling

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2662 Mechanical Properties of Kenaf Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Authors: C. Tezara, H. Y. Lim, M. H. Yazdi, J. W. Lim, J. P. Siregar


Natural fibre has become an element in human lives. A lot of researchers have conducted research about natural fibre reinforced polymer. Malaysian government has spent a lot of money on the research funding for researchers and academician especially research on kenaf fibre due to exclusion of tobacco from AFTA (Asean Free Trade Area) list. This work is to investigate the mechanical properties of kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composite where short kenaf fibre was applied and the mechanical properties of 5%, 10% and 15% wt. of kenaf fibre were added into the mixture of epoxy resin. Hand lay-up process was selected in the fabrication of the specimen for testing. The tensile, flexural and impact test were conducted following ASTM D3039, ASTM D790 and ASTM D256 accordingly. From the experiment result, the effect of different fiber loading of the specimen on its mechanical properties would be analyzed and compared in the result and discussion.

Keywords: Kenaf fibre, epoxy, composite, fibre

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2661 Gas Separation by Water-Swollen Membrane

Authors: Lenka Morávková, Zuzana Sedláková, Jiří Vejražka, Věra Jandová, Pavel Izák


The need to minimize the costs of biogas upgrading leads to a continuous search for new and more effective membrane materials. The improvement of biogas combustion efficiency is connected with polar gases removal from a feed stream. One of the possibilities is the use of water–swollen polyamide layer of thin film composite reverse osmosis membrane for simultaneous carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide removal. Transport properties and basic characteristics of a thin film composite membrane were compared in the term of appropriate water-swollen membrane choice for biogas upgrading. SEM analysis showed that the surface of the best performing composites changed significantly upon swelling by water. The surface changes were found to be a proof that the selective skin polyamide layer was swollen well. Further, the presence of a sufficient number of associative centers, namely amido groups, inside the upper layer of the hydrophilic thin composite membrane can play an important role in the polar gas separation from a non-polar gas. The next key factor is a high porosity of the membrane support.

Keywords: biogas upgrading, carbon dioxide separation, hydrogen sulphide separation, water-swollen membrane

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
2660 Hysteresis Behaviour of Mass Concrete Mixed with Plastic Fibre under Compression

Authors: A. A. Okeola, T. I. Sijuade


Unreinforced concrete is a comparatively brittle substance when exposed to tensile stresses, the required tensile strength is provided by the introduction of steel which is used as reinforcement. The strength of concrete may be improved tremendously by the addition of fibre. This study focused on investigating the compressive strength of mass concrete mixed with different percentage of plastic fibre. Twelve samples of concrete cubes with varied percentage of plastic fibre at 7, 14 and 28 days of water submerged curing were tested under compression loading. The result shows that the compressive strength of plastic fibre reinforced concrete increased with rise in curing age. The strength increases for all percentage dosage of fibre used for the concrete. The density of the Plastic Fibre Reinforced Concrete (PFRC) also increases with curing age, which implies that during curing, concrete absorbs water which aids its hydration. The least compressive strength obtained with the introduction of plastic fibre is more than the targeted 20 N/mm2 recommended for construction work showing that PFRC can be used where significant loading is expected.

Keywords: compressive strength, concrete, curing, density, plastic fibre

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2659 An Innovation and Development System for a New Hybrid Composite Technology in Aerospace Industry

Authors: M. Fette, J. P. Wulfsberg, A. Herrmann, R. H. Ladstaetter


Present and future lightweight design represents an important key to successful implementation of energy-saving, fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly means of transport in the aerospace and automotive industry. In this context the use of carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) which are distinguished by their outstanding mechanical properties at relatively low weight, promise significant improvements. Due to the reduction of the total mass, with the resulting lowered fuel or energy consumption and CO2 emissions during the operational phase, commercial aircraft and future vehicles will increasingly be made of CFRP. An auspicious technology for the efficient and economic production of high performance thermoset composites and hybrid structures for future lightweight applications is the combination of carbon fibre sheet moulding compound (SMC), tailored continuous carbon fibre reinforcements and metallic components in a one-shot pressing and curing process. This paper deals with a new hybrid composite technology for aerospace industries, which was developed with the help of a universal innovation and development system. This system supports the management of idea generation, the methodical development of innovative technologies and the achievement of the industrial readiness of these technologies.

Keywords: development system, hybrid composite, innovation system, prepreg, sheet moulding compound

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2658 Analysis of Sound Absorption Coefficient

Authors: Zakiul Fuady, Ismail AB, Fauzi, Zulfian


This research was conducted to analyze the absorption coefficients of sound at several types of materials as well as its combinations. The aim of this research was to find the value of sound absorption coefficients on the materials and its combinations. The materials used in this research were gypsum panel, gypsum-fibre palm, fibre palm-gypsum, and foamed concrete-fibre palm. The test was conducted by using a method of reverberation chamber based on the ISO 354-1985 with the types of the sound source: white noise and pink noise at the frequency of 125 Hz - 8000 Hz. Based on the test results of white noise, it was found that the panel of gypsum-fibre palm has α = 0.93 at low frequency; the panel of fibre palm has α = 0.97 at a medium frequency; and the panel of foamed concrete-fibre palm has α = 0.89 at high frequency. Further, for the sound source of pink noise, it was found that the panel of gypsum-fibre palm has α = 0.99 at low level; the panel of fibre palm-gypsum has α = 0.86 at medium level; and the panel of fibre palm-gypsum has α = 0.64 at high level. The fibre palm panel could absorb the sounds well since this material has bigger airspace (pore) than the foamed concrete and gypsum. Consequently, when the sounds wave enters to this material it will be trapped in the space. The panel of fibre palm affected an increasing of sound absorption coefficient value at the combination materials when the panel of fibre palm was placed under another panel. However, the absorption coefficient values of both fibre palm and fibre palm-gypsum panels are about the same.

Keywords: coefficient of sound absorption, pink noise, white noise, palm

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2657 Characterization of Carbon/Polyamide 6,6 (C/PA66) Composite Material for Dry and Wet Conditions

Authors: Tariq Bashir, Muhammad Waseem Tahir, Ulf Stigh, Behnaz Baghaie, Mikael Skrifvars


Absorption of moisture may cause many problems in a composite material, such as delamination, degradation of the strength and increase in the weight. For small coupons, the increase in weight may be negligible, however, for large structures increase in weight due to moisture absorption may be quite significant. Polyamides (PA6, PA66) absorb more moisture as compared to other thermoplastics. There are many parameters which affect the moisture absorption of the composite material for example temperature, pressure, type of matrix and fibers, thickness of the material and relative humidity (RH) etc. So, it is utmost important to investigate the impact of moisture on PA66 based composites which can be done by characterizing the mechanical properties of composite materials both for dry and wet conditions. In this study, laminates of C/PA66 composite are manufactured by first heating the commingled material in conventional oven at a temperature of 220 °C followed by pressing in a manual hot press for 20 minutes with preheated platen at 220 °C. To observe the moisture absorption of the composite, coupons of the material were placed in a climate chamber at five different conditions 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% RH for 24 hours. Five specimens were used for each condition. These coupons were weighed before placing in the climate chamber and just after removing from the chamber to observe the moisture absorption of the material. The mechanical characterization such as tensile strength, flexural modulus, impact strength and DMTA of C/PA66 material are performed at 0, 50 and 100 % RH. The work is going on for the testing of the material and results will be presented in full paper.

Keywords: Carbon/Polyamide 66 composites, structural composites, mechanical characterizations, wet and dry conditions

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2656 Different Processing Methods to Obtain a Carbon Composite Element for Cycling

Authors: Maria Fonseca, Ana Branco, Joao Graca, Rui Mendes, Pedro Mimoso


The present work is focused on the production of a carbon composite element for cycling through different techniques, namely, blow-molding and high-pressure resin transfer injection (HP-RTM). The main objective of this work is to compare both processes to produce carbon composite elements for the cycling industry. It is well known that the carbon composite components for cycling are produced mainly through blow-molding; however, this technique depends strongly on manual labour, resulting in a time-consuming production process. Comparatively, HP-RTM offers a more automated process which should lead to higher production rates. Nevertheless, a comparison of the elements produced through both techniques must be done, in order to assess if the final products comply with the required standards of the industry. The main difference between said techniques lies in the used material. Blow-moulding uses carbon prepreg (carbon fibres pre-impregnated with a resin system), and the material is laid up by hand, piece by piece, on a mould or on a hard male. After that, the material is cured at a high temperature. On the other hand, in the HP-RTM technique, dry carbon fibres are placed on a mould, and then resin is injected at high pressure. After some research regarding the best material systems (prepregs and braids) and suppliers, an element was designed (similar to a handlebar) to be constructed. The next step was to perform FEM simulations in order to determine what the best layup of the composite material was. The simulations were done for the prepreg material, and the obtained layup was transposed to the braids. The selected material was a prepreg with T700 carbon fibre (24K) and an epoxy resin system, for the blow-molding technique. For HP-RTM, carbon fibre elastic UD tubes and ± 45º braids were used, with both 3K and 6K filaments per tow, and the resin system was an epoxy as well. After the simulations for the prepreg material, the optimized layup was: [45°, -45°,45°, -45°,0°,0°]. For HP-RTM, the transposed layup was [ ± 45° (6k); 0° (6k); partial ± 45° (6k); partial ± 45° (6k); ± 45° (3k); ± 45° (3k)]. The mechanical tests showed that both elements can withstand the maximum load (in this case, 1000 N); however, the one produced through blow-molding can support higher loads (≈1300N against 1100N from HP-RTM). In what concerns to the fibre volume fraction (FVF), the HP-RTM element has a slightly higher value ( > 61% compared to 59% of the blow-molding technique). The optical microscopy has shown that both elements have a low void content. In conclusion, the elements produced using HP-RTM can compare to the ones produced through blow-molding, both in mechanical testing and in the visual aspect. Nevertheless, there is still space for improvement in the HP-RTM elements since the layup of the braids, and UD tubes could be optimized.

Keywords: HP-RTM, carbon composites, cycling, FEM

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2655 Development of an Elastic Functionally Graded Interphase Model for the Micromechanics Response of Composites

Authors: Trevor Sabiston, Mohsen Mohammadi, Mohammed Cherkaoui, Kaan Inal


A new micromechanics framework is developed for long fibre reinforced composites using a single fibre surrounded by a functionally graded interphase and matrix as a representative unit cell. The unit cell is formulated to represent any number of aligned fibres by a single fibre. Using this model the elastic response of long fibre composites is predicted in all directions. The model is calibrated to experimental results and shows very good agreement in the elastic regime. The differences between the proposed model and existing models are discussed.

Keywords: computational mechanics, functionally graded interphase, long fibre composites, micromechanics

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2654 Creep Behaviour of Heterogeneous Timber-UHPFRC Beams Assembled by Bonding: Experimental and Analytical Investigation

Authors: K. Kong, E. Ferrier, L. Michel


The purpose of this research was to investigate the creep behaviour of the heterogeneous Timber-UHPFRC beams. New developments have been done to further improve the structural performance, such as strengthening of the timber (glulam) beam by bonding composite material combine with an ultra-high performance fibre reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) internally reinforced with or without carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) bars. However, in the design of wooden structures, in addition to the criteria of strengthening and stiffness, deformability due to the creep of wood, especially in horizontal elements, is also a design criterion. Glulam, UHPFRC and CFRP may be an interesting composite mix to respond to the issue of creep behaviour of composite structures made of different materials with different rheological properties. In this paper, we describe an experimental and analytical investigation of the creep performance of the glulam-UHPFRC-CFRP beams assembled by bonding. The experimental investigations creep behaviour was conducted for different environments: in- and outside under constant loading for approximately a year. The measured results are compared with numerical ones obtained by an analytical model. This model was developed to predict the creep response of the glulam-UHPFRC-CFRP beams based on the creep characteristics of the individual components. The results show that heterogeneous glulam-UHPFRC beams provide an improvement in both the strengthening and stiffness, and can also effectively reduce the creep deflection of wooden beams.

Keywords: carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) bars, creep behaviour, glulam, ultra-high performance fibre reinforced concrete (UHPFRC)

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