Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3998

Search results for: ignition point

3998 The Effects of Wood Ash on Ignition Point of Wood

Authors: K. A. Ibe, J. I. Mbonu, G. K. Umukoro


The effects of wood ash on the ignition point of five common tropical woods in Nigeria were investigated. The ash and moisture contents of the wood saw dust from Mahogany (Khaya ivorensis), Opepe (Sarcocephalus latifolius), Abura (Hallealedermannii verdc), Rubber (Heavea brasilensis) and Poroporo (Sorghum bicolour) were determined using a furnace (Vecstar furnaces, model ECF2, serial no. f3077) and oven (Genlab laboratory oven, model MINO/040) respectively. The metal contents of the five wood sawdust ash samples were determined using a Perkin Elmer optima 3000 dv atomic absorption spectrometer while the ignition points were determined using Vecstar furnaces model ECF2. Poroporo had the highest ash content, 2.263 g while rubber had the least, 0.710 g. The results for the moisture content range from 2.971 g to 0.903 g. Magnesium metal had the highest concentration of all the metals, in all the wood ash samples; with mahogany ash having the highest concentration, 9.196 ppm while rubber ash had the least concentration of magnesium metal, 2.196 ppm. The ignition point results showed that the wood ashes from mahogany and opepe increased the ignition points of the test wood samples when coated on them while the ashes from poroporo, rubber and abura decreased the ignition points of the test wood samples when coated on them. However, Opepe saw dust ash decreased the ignition point in one of the test wood samples, suggesting that the metal content of the test wood sample was more than that of the Opepe saw dust ash. Therefore, Mahogany and Opepe saw dust ashes could be used in the surface treatment of wood to enhance their fire resistance or retardancy. However, the caution to be exercised in this application is that the metal content of the test wood samples should be evaluated as well.

Keywords: ash, fire, ignition point, retardant, wood saw dust

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
3997 Effect of External Radiative Heat Flux on Combustion Characteristics of Rigid Polyurethane Foam under Piloted-Ignition and Radiative Auto-Ignition Modes

Authors: Jia-Jia He, Lin Jiang, Jin-Hua Sun


Rigid polyurethane foam (RPU) has been extensively applied in building insulation system, yet with high flammability for being easily ignited by high temperature spark or radiative heat flux from other flaming materials or surrounding building facade. Using a cone calorimeter by Fire Testing Technology and thermal couple tree, this study systematically investigated the effect of radiative heat flux on the ignition time and characteristic temperature distribution during RPU combustion under different heat fluxes gradient (12, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 kW/m²) with spark ignition/ignition by radiation. The ignition time decreases proportionally with increase of external heat flux, meanwhile increasing the external heat flux raises the peak heat release rate and impresses on the vertical temperature distribution greatly. The critical ignition heat flux is found to be 15 and 25 kW/m² for spark ignition and radiative ignition, respectively. Based on previous experienced ignition formula, a methodology to predict ignition times in both modes has been developed theoretically. By analyzing the heat transfer mechanism around the sample surroundings, both radiation from cone calorimeter and convection flow are considered and calculated theoretically. The experimental ignition times agree well with the theoretical ones in both radiative and convective conditions; however, the observed critical ignition heat flux is higher than the calculated one under piloted-ignition mode because the heat loss process, especially in lower heat flux radiation, is not considered in this developed methodology.

Keywords: rigid polyurethane foam, cone calorimeter, ignition time, external heat flux

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
3996 The Verification Study of Computational Fluid Dynamics Model of the Aircraft Piston Engine

Authors: Lukasz Grabowski, Konrad Pietrykowski, Michal Bialy


This paper presents the results of the research to verify the combustion in aircraft piston engine Asz62-IR. This engine was modernized and a type of ignition system was developed. Due to the high costs of experiments of a nine-cylinder 1,000 hp aircraft engine, a simulation technique should be applied. Therefore, computational fluid dynamics to simulate the combustion process is a reasonable solution. Accordingly, the tests for varied ignition advance angles were carried out and the optimal value to be tested on a real engine was specified. The CFD model was created with the AVL Fire software. The engine in the research had two spark plugs for each cylinder and ignition advance angles had to be set up separately for each spark. The results of the simulation were verified by comparing the pressure in the cylinder. The courses of the indicated pressure of the engine mounted on a test stand were compared. The real course of pressure was measured with an optical sensor, mounted in a specially drilled hole between the valves. It was the OPTRAND pressure sensor, which was designed especially to engine combustion process research. The indicated pressure was measured in cylinder no 3. The engine was running at take-off power. The engine was loaded by a propeller at a special test bench. The verification of the CFD simulation results was based on the results of the test bench studies. The course of the simulated pressure obtained is within the measurement error of the optical sensor. This error is 1% and reflects the hysteresis and nonlinearity of the sensor. The real indicated pressure measured in the cylinder and the pressure taken from the simulation were compared. It can be claimed that the verification of CFD simulations based on the pressure is a success. The next step was to research on the impact of changing the ignition advance timing of spark plugs 1 and 2 on a combustion process. Moving ignition timing between 1 and 2 spark plug results in a longer and uneven firing of a mixture. The most optimal point in terms of indicated power occurs when ignition is simultaneous for both spark plugs, but so severely separated ignitions are assured that ignition will occur at all speeds and loads of engine. It should be confirmed by a bench experiment of the engine. However, this simulation research enabled us to determine the optimal ignition advance angle to be implemented into the ignition control system. This knowledge allows us to set up the ignition point with two spark plugs to achieve as large power as possible.

Keywords: CFD model, combustion, engine, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
3995 Experimental Investigation of Hybrid Rocket Motor: Ignition, Throttling and Re-Ignition Phenomena

Authors: A. El-S. Makled, M. K. Al-Tamimi


Ignition phenomena are of great interest area over the past many years, and it has a direct impact on many propulsion and combustion applications. The direct goal of the paper is to realize and evaluate a functioning ignition method, shut-off, throttling and re-start operations for the hybrid rocket motor. A small-scale hybrid rocket motor (SSHRM) is designed, manufactured, demonstrated at various operating conditions and finally equipped for laboratory firing tests with high level of safety. Various solid fuel grains as Polymethyle-methacrylate (PMMA) and Polyethylene (PE) are selected, and it is decided to use the commercial gaseous oxygen (GO2) for its availability and low cost. Examine different types of ignition methods, pyrotechnic charge, fuse wire, heat wire and finally hot oxidizer method by using the heat exchanger, which are proposed as very safe ignition methods. Finally; recognize phenomena of throttling and re-start operations. Ignition by hot GO2 impingement is proved to be a very attractive ignition method for laboratory SSHRM, for its high safety, reliability and acceptable delay time. Finally; the throttling and re-start operations are demonstrated several times and can be carried out more easily with hot air ignition method.

Keywords: hybrid rocket motor, ignition system, re-start phenomena, throttling

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
3994 Investigation of Ignition Delay for Low Molecular Hydrocarbon Fuel and Oxygen Mixture behind the Reflected Shock

Authors: K. R. Guna, Aldin Justin Sundararaj, B. C. Pillai, A. N. Subash


A systematic study has been made for ignition delay times measurement behind a reflected shock wave for the low molecular weight hydrocarbon fuel in argon simulated gas mixtures. The low molecular hydrocarbon fuel–oxygen was diluted with argon for desired concentration is taken for the study. The suitability of the shock tube for measuring the ignition delay time is demonstrated by measuring the ignition delay for the liquefied petroleum gas for equivalence ratios (ф=0.5 & 1) in the temperature range 1150-1650 K. The pressure range was fixed from 5-15 bar. The ignition delay was measured by recording the ignition-induced pressure jump and emission from CH radical simultaneously. From conducting experiments, it was found that the ignition delay time for liquefied petroleum gas reduces with increase in temperature. The shock tube was calibrated for ethane-oxygen gas mixture and the results obtained from this study is compared with the earlier reported values and found to be comparably well suited for the measurement of ignition delay times. The above work was carried out using the shock tube facility at propulsion and high enthalpy laboratory, Karunya University.

Keywords: ignition delay, LPG, reflected shock, shock wave

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
3993 Nitrogen Effects on Ignition Delay Time in Supersonic Premixed and Diffusion Flames

Authors: A. M. Tahsini


Computational study of two dimensional supersonic reacting hydrogen-air flows is performed to investigate the nitrogen effects on ignition delay time for premixed and diffusion flames. Chemical reaction is treated using detail kinetics and the advection upstream splitting method is used to calculate the numerical inviscid fluxes. The results show that only in the stoichiometric condition for both premixed and diffusion flames, there is monotone dependency of the ignition delay time to the nitrogen addition. In other situations, the optimal condition from ignition viewpoint should be found using numerical investigations.

Keywords: diffusion flame, ignition delay time, mixing layer, numerical simulation, premixed flame, supersonic flow

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3992 Optical Ignition of Nanoenergetic Materials with Tunable Explosion Reactivity

Authors: Ji Hoon Kim, Jong Man Kim, Hyung Woo Lee, Soo Hyung Kim


The applications of nanoenergetic materials (nEMs) could be extended by developing more convenient and reliable ignition methods. However, the underwater ignition of nEMs is a significant challenge because water perturbs the reactants prior to ignition and also quenches the subsequent combustion reaction of nEMs upon ignition. In this study, we developed flash and laser-ignitable nEMs for underwater explosion. This was achieved by adding various carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as the optical igniter into an nEM matrix, composed of Al/CuO nanoparticles. The CNTs absorb the irradiated optical energy and rapidly convert it into thermal energy, and then the thermal energy is concentrated to ignite the core catalysts and neighboring nEMs. The maximum burn rate was achieved by adding 1 wt% CNTs into the nEM matrix. The burn rate significantly decreased with increasing amount of CNTs (≥ 2 wt%), indicating that the optical ignition and controlled-explosion reactivity of nEMs are possible by incorporating an appropriate amount of CNTs.

Keywords: nanoenergetic materials, carbon nanotubes, optical ignition, tunable explosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
3991 A Second Spark Ignition Timing for the High Power Aircraft Radial Engine Using a CFD Transient Modeling

Authors: Tytus Tulwin, Adam Majczak


In aviation most important systems that impact the aircraft flight safety are duplicated. The ASz-62IR aircraft radial engine consists of two spark plugs powered by two separate magnetos. The relative difference in spark timing has an influence on the combustion process. The retardation of the second spark relative to the first spark was analyzed. The CFD simulation was developed as a multicycle transient model. Two independent spark sources imitate two flame fronts after an ignition period. It makes the combustion process shorter but only for certain range of second spark retardation. The model was validated by the in-cylinder pressure comparison. Combustion parameters were analyzed for different second spark retardation values. It was found that the most advantageous ignition timing in means of performance is simultaneous ignition. Nevertheless, for this engine the ignition time of the second spark plug is greatly retarded eliminating the advantageous performance influence. The reason behind this is maintaining high ignition certainty for all engine running conditions and for whole operating rpm range. In aviation the engine reliability is more important than its performance. Introducing electronic ignition system can yield from simultaneous ignition timing by increasing the engine performance and providing good reliability for all flight conditions. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, INNOLOT, under Grant Agreement No. INNOLOT/I/1/NCBR/2013.

Keywords: CFD, combustion, ignition, simulation, timing

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3990 Combustion Analysis of Suspended Sodium Droplet

Authors: T. Watanabe


Combustion analysis of suspended sodium droplet is performed by solving numerically the Navier-Stokes equations and the energy conservation equations. The combustion model consists of the pre-ignition and post-ignition models. The reaction rate for the pre-ignition model is based on the chemical kinetics, while that for the post-ignition model is based on the mass transfer rate of oxygen. The calculated droplet temperature is shown to be in good agreement with the existing experimental data. The temperature field in and around the droplet is obtained as well as the droplet shape variation, and the present numerical model is confirmed to be effective for the combustion analysis.

Keywords: analysis, combustion, droplet, sodium

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
3989 Fire Safety Engineering of Wood Dust Layer or Cloud

Authors: Marzena Półka, Bożena Kukfisz


This paper presents an analysis of dust explosion hazards in the process industries. It includes selected testing method of dust explosibility and presentation two of them according to experimental standards used by Department of Combustion and Fire Theory in The Main School of Fire Service in Warsaw. In the article are presented values of maximum acceptable surface temperature (MAST) of machines operating in the presence of dust cloud and chosen dust layer with thickness of 5 and 12,5mm. The comparative analysis, points to the conclusion that the value of the minimum ignition temperature of the layer (MITL) and the minimum ignition temperature of dust cloud (MTCD) depends on the granularity of the substance. Increasing the thickness of the dust layer reduces minimum ignition temperature of dust layer. Increasing the thickness of dust at the same time extends the flameless combustion and delays the ignition.

Keywords: fire safety engineering, industrial hazards, minimum ignition temperature, wood dust

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3988 A Dual Spark Ignition Timing Influence for the High Power Aircraft Radial Engine Using a CFD Transient Modeling

Authors: Tytus Tulwin, Ksenia Siadkowska, Rafał Sochaczewski


A high power radial reciprocating engine is characterized by a large displacement volume of a combustion chamber. Choosing the right moment for ignition is important for a high performance or high reliability and ignition certainty. This work shows methods of simulating ignition process and its impact on engine parameters. For given conditions a flame speed is limited when a deflagration combustion takes place. Therefore, a larger length scale of the combustion chamber compared to a standard size automotive engine makes combustion take longer time to propagate. In order to speed up the mixture burn-up time the second spark is introduced. The transient Computational Fluid Dynamics model capable of simulating multicycle engine processes was developed. The CFD model consists of ECFM-3Z combustion and species transport models. A relative ignition timing difference for the both spark sources is constant. The temperature distribution on engine walls was calculated in the separate conjugate heat transfer simulation. The in-cylinder pressure validation was performed for take-off power flight conditions. The influence of ignition timing on parameters like in-cylinder temperature or rate of heat release was analyzed. The most advantageous spark timing for the highest power output was chosen. The conditions around the spark plug locations for the pre-ignition period were analyzed. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, INNOLOT, under Grant Agreement No. INNOLOT/I/1/NCBR/2013.

Keywords: CFD, combustion, ignition, simulation, timing

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
3987 Individual Cylinder Ignition Advance Control Algorithms of the Aircraft Piston Engine

Authors: G. Barański, P. Kacejko, M. Wendeker


The impact of the ignition advance control algorithms of the ASz-62IR-16X aircraft piston engine on a combustion process has been presented in this paper. This aircraft engine is a nine-cylinder 1000 hp engine with a special electronic control ignition system. This engine has two spark plugs per cylinder with an ignition advance angle dependent on load and the rotational speed of the crankshaft. Accordingly, in most cases, these angles are not optimal for power generated. The scope of this paper is focused on developing algorithms to control the ignition advance angle in an electronic ignition control system of an engine. For this type of engine, i.e. radial engine, an ignition advance angle should be controlled independently for each cylinder because of the design of such an engine and its crankshaft system. The ignition advance angle is controlled in an open-loop way, which means that the control signal (i.e. ignition advance angle) is determined according to the previously developed maps, i.e. recorded tables of the correlation between the ignition advance angle and engine speed and load. Load can be measured by engine crankshaft speed or intake manifold pressure. Due to a limited memory of a controller, the impact of other independent variables (such as cylinder head temperature or knock) on the ignition advance angle is given as a series of one-dimensional arrays known as corrective characteristics. The value of the ignition advance angle specified combines the value calculated from the primary characteristics and several correction factors calculated from correction characteristics. Individual cylinder control can proceed in line with certain indicators determined from pressure registered in a combustion chamber. Control is assumed to be based on the following indicators: maximum pressure, maximum pressure angle, indicated mean effective pressure. Additionally, a knocking combustion indicator was defined. Individual control can be applied to a single set of spark plugs only, which results from two fundamental ideas behind designing a control system. Independent operation of two ignition control systems – if two control systems operate simultaneously. It is assumed that the entire individual control should be performed for a front spark plug only and a rear spark plug shall be controlled with a fixed (or specific) offset relative to the front one or from a reference map. The developed algorithms will be verified by simulation and engine test sand experiments. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, INNOLOT, under Grant Agreement No. INNOLOT/I/1/NCBR/2013.

Keywords: algorithm, combustion process, radial engine, spark plug

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
3986 Smart Helmet for Two-Wheelers

Authors: Ravi Nandu, Kuldeep Singh


A helmet is a protective layer that is worn in order to prevent head injury. Helmet is the most important safety gear for two wheeler riders. However, due to carelessness of people, less importance toward safety, lot of causalities is every year. According to National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) two wheelers claimed 92 lives every day out of which most were due to helmetless drive. The system design will be such that without wearing the helmet the rider cannot start two wheelers. The helmet will be connected to vehicle key ignition systems which will be electronically controlled. The smart helmet will be having proximity sensor fitted inside it, which will act as our switch for ignition and further with wireless connection the helmet sensor circuit will be connected to the vehicle ignition system.

Keywords: helmet, proximity sensor, microcontroller, head injury

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
3985 Ignition Interlock Device for Motorcycles

Authors: Luisito L. Lacatan, Zacha Valerie G. Ancheta, Michelangelo A. Dorado, Lester Joseph M. Ochoa, Anthony Mark G. Tayabas


Ignition Interlock Device or IID is a mechanism installed inside a vehicle which requires the driver to breathe into the device before starting the vehicle. If the IID detects that the alcohol level or blood alcohol content (BAC) is higher than the accepted value, the engine will not start. If the driver is not able to provide a clean breath sample, the IID will log the event, warn the driver, and then start up an alarm. The purpose of the IID is to prevent accidents due to driving under the influence (DUI). With the rise of the two-wheeled vehicle in the Philippines due to its mobility and purchasing power, IIDs are still mainly installed on four-wheeled vehicles. Even though riding the motorcycle when drunk is more dangerous, there are only a small number of installed devices on motorcycles and scooters. The general objective of this study was to develop a system with hardware and software components that would implement IID on motorcycles. The study employed a descriptive method of research. The study also concluded the following: the infrared must have a point-to-point communication, the breathalyzer on the helmet should react to ethanol, the microcontroller on the motorcycle should accept all IR signals from the helmet and interpret it and the GPS shield should have an unobstructed line-of-sight communication with the GPS satellites.

Keywords: blood alcohol content, breathalyser, driving under the influence, global positioning system, global system for mobile communication

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
3984 Comparative Parametric and Emission Characteristics of Single Cylinder Spark Ignition Engine Using Gasoline, Ethanol, and H₂O as Micro Emulsion Fuels

Authors: Ufaith Qadri, M Marouf Wani


In this paper, the performance and emission characteristics of a Single Cylinder Spark Ignition engine have been investigated. The research is based on micro emulsion application as fuel in a gasoline engine. We have analyzed many micro emulsion compositions in various proportions, for predicting the performance of the Spark Ignition engine. This new technology of fuel modifications is emerging very rapidly as lot of research is going on in the field of micro emulsion fuels in Compression Ignition engines, but the micro emulsion fuel used in a Gasoline engine is very rare. The use of micro emulsion as fuel in a Spark Ignition engine is virtually unexplored. So, our main goal is to see the performance and emission characteristics of micro emulsions as fuel, in Spark Ignition engines, and finding which composition is more efficient. In this research, we have used various micro emulsion fuels whose composition varies for all the three blends, and their performance and emission characteristic were predicted in AVL Boost software. Conventional Gasoline fuel 90%, 80% and 85% were blended with co-surfactant Ethanol in different compositions, and water was used as an additive for making it crystal clear transparent micro emulsion fuel, which is thermodynamically stable. By comparing the performances of engines, the power has shown similarity for micro emulsion fuel and conventional Gasoline fuel. On the other hand, Torque and BMEP shows increase for all the micro emulsion fuels. Micro emulsion fuel shows higher thermal efficiency and lower Specific Fuel Consumption for all the compositions as compared to the Gasoline fuel. Carbon monoxide and Hydro carbon emissions were also measured. The result shows that emissions decrease for all the composition of micro emulsion fuels, and proved to be the most efficient fuel both in terms of performance and emission characteristics.

Keywords: AVL Boost, emissions, microemulsions, performance, Spark Ignition (SI) engine

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3983 Further Development in Predicting Post-Earthquake Fire Ignition Hazard

Authors: Pegah Farshadmanesh, Jamshid Mohammadi, Mehdi Modares


In nearly all earthquakes of the past century that resulted in moderate to significant damage, the occurrence of postearthquake fire ignition (PEFI) has imposed a serious hazard and caused severe damage, especially in urban areas. In order to reduce the loss of life and property caused by post-earthquake fires, there is a crucial need for predictive models to estimate the PEFI risk. The parameters affecting PEFI risk can be categorized as: 1) factors influencing fire ignition in normal (non-earthquake) condition, including floor area, building category, ignitability, type of appliance, and prevention devices, and 2) earthquake related factors contributing to the PEFI risk, including building vulnerability and earthquake characteristics such as intensity, peak ground acceleration, and peak ground velocity. State-of-the-art statistical PEFI risk models are solely based on limited available earthquake data, and therefore they cannot predict the PEFI risk for areas with insufficient earthquake records since such records are needed in estimating the PEFI model parameters. In this paper, the correlation between normal condition ignition risk, peak ground acceleration, and PEFI risk is examined in an effort to offer a means for predicting post-earthquake ignition events. An illustrative example is presented to demonstrate how such correlation can be employed in a seismic area to predict PEFI hazard.

Keywords: fire risk, post-earthquake fire ignition (PEFI), risk management, seismicity

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3982 Fire Characteristic of Commercial Retardant Flame Polycarbonate under Different Oxygen Concentration: Ignition Time and Heat Blockage

Authors: Xuelin Zhang, Shouxiang Lu, Changhai Li


The commercial retardant flame polycarbonate samples as the main high speed train interior carriage material with different thicknesses were investigated in Fire Propagation Apparatus with different external heat fluxes under different oxygen concentration from 12% to 40% to study the fire characteristics and quantitatively analyze the ignition time, mass loss rate and heat blockage. The additives of commercial retardant flame polycarbonate were intumescent and maintained a steady height before ignition when heated. The results showed the transformed ignition time (1/t_ig)ⁿ increased linearly with external flux under different oxygen concentration after deducting the heat blockage due to pyrolysis products, the mass loss rate was taken on linearly with external heat fluxes and the slop of the fitting line for mass loss rate and external heat fluxes decreased with the enhanced oxygen concentration and the heat blockage independent on external heat fluxes rose with oxygen concentration increasing. The inquired data as the input of the fire simulation model was the most important to be used to evaluate the fire risk of commercial retardant flame polycarbonate.

Keywords: ignition time, mass loss rate, heat blockage, fire characteristic

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
3981 Modeling and Optimization of Performance of Four Stroke Spark Ignition Injector Engine

Authors: A. A. Okafor, C. H. Achebe, J. L. Chukwuneke, C. G. Ozoegwu


The performance of an engine whose basic design parameters are known can be predicted with the assistance of simulation programs into the less time, cost and near value of actual. This paper presents a comprehensive mathematical model of the performance parameters of four stroke spark ignition engine. The essence of this research work is to develop a mathematical model for the analysis of engine performance parameters of four stroke spark ignition engine before embarking on full scale construction, this will ensure that only optimal parameters are in the design and development of an engine and also allow to check and develop the design of the engine and it’s operation alternatives in an inexpensive way and less time, instead of using experimental method which requires costly research test beds. To achieve this, equations were derived which describe the performance parameters (sfc, thermal efficiency, mep and A/F). The equations were used to simulate and optimize the engine performance of the model for various engine speeds. The optimal values obtained for the developed bivariate mathematical models are: sfc is 0.2833kg/kwh, efficiency is 28.77% and a/f is 20.75.

Keywords: bivariate models, engine performance, injector engine, optimization, performance parameters, simulation, spark ignition

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
3980 Simulation Research of Innovative Ignition System of ASz62IR Radial Aircraft Engine

Authors: Miroslaw Wendeker, Piotr Kacejko, Mariusz Duk, Pawel Karpinski


The research in the field of aircraft internal combustion engines is currently driven by the needs of decreasing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, while fulfilling the level of safety. Currently, reciprocating aircraft engines are found in sports, emergency, agricultural and recreation aviation. Technically, they are most at a pre-war knowledge of the theory of operation, design and manufacturing technology, especially if compared to that high level of development of automotive engines. Typically, these engines are driven by carburetors of a quite primitive construction. At present, due to environmental requirements and dealing with a climate change, it is beneficial to develop aircraft piston engines and adopt the achievements of automotive engineering such as computer-controlled low-pressure injection, electronic ignition control and biofuels. The paper describes simulation research of the innovative power and control systems for the aircraft radial engine of high power. Installing an electronic ignition system in the radial aircraft engine is a fundamental innovative idea of this solution. Consequently, the required level of safety and better functionality as compared to the today’s plug system can be guaranteed. In this framework, this research work focuses on describing a methodology for optimizing the electronically controlled ignition system. This attempt can reduce emissions of toxic compounds as a result of lowered fuel consumption, optimized combustion and engine capability of efficient combustion of ecological fuels. New, redundant elements of the control system can improve the safety of aircraft. Consequently, the required level of safety and better functionality as compared to the today’s plug system can be guaranteed. The simulation research aimed to determine the vulnerability of the values measured (they were planned as the quantities measured by the measurement systems) to determining the optimal ignition angle (the angle of maximum torque at a given operating point). The described results covered: a) research in steady states; b) velocity ranging from 1500 to 2200 rpm (every 100 rpm); c) loading ranging from propeller power to maximum power; d) altitude ranging according to the International Standard Atmosphere from 0 to 8000 m (every 1000 m); e) fuel: automotive gasoline ES95. The three models of different types of ignition coil (different energy discharge) were studied. The analysis aimed at the optimization of the design of the innovative ignition system for an aircraft engine. The optimization involved: a) the optimization of the measurement systems; b) the optimization of actuator systems. The studies enabled the research on the vulnerability of the signals to the control of the ignition timing. Accordingly, the number and type of sensors were determined for the ignition system to achieve its optimal performance. The results confirmed the limited benefits, in terms of fuel consumption. Thus, including spark management in the optimization is mandatory to significantly decrease the fuel consumption. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, INNOLOT, under Grant Agreement No. INNOLOT/I/1/NCBR/2013.

Keywords: piston engine, radial engine, ignition system, CFD model, engine optimization

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3979 Investigation on the Performance and Emission Characteristics of Biodiesel (Animal Oil): Ethanol Blends in a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

Authors: A. Veeresh Babu, M. Vijay Kumar, P. Ravi Kumar, Katam Ganesh Babu


Biodiesel can be considered as a potential alternative fuel for compression ignition engines. These can be obtained from various resources. However, the usage of biodiesel in high percentage in compression ignition may cause some technical problems because of their higher viscosity, high pour point, and low volatility. Ethanol can be used as a fuel extender to enable use of higher percentage of biodiesel in CI engine. Blends of ethanol-animal fat oil biodiesel-diesel have been prepared and experimental study has been carried out. We have found that B40E20 fuel blend (40% biodiesel and 20 % ethanol in diesel) reduces the specific fuel consumption and improves brake thermal efficiency of engine compared to B40 fuel blend. We observed that fuel characteristics improved considerably with addition of ethanol to biodiesel. Emissions of CO, HC and smoke were reduced while CO2 emissions were increased because of more complete combustion of the blend.

Keywords: diesel, biodiesel, ethanol, CI engine, engine performance, exhaust emission

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3978 A Statistical Model for the Dynamics of Single Cathode Spot in Vacuum Cylindrical Cathode

Authors: Po-Wen Chen, Jin-Yu Wu, Md. Manirul Ali, Yang Peng, Chen-Te Chang, Der-Jun Jan


Dynamics of cathode spot has become a major part of vacuum arc discharge with its high academic interest and wide application potential. In this article, using a three-dimensional statistical model, we simulate the distribution of the ignition probability of a new cathode spot occurring in different magnetic pressure on old cathode spot surface and at different arcing time. This model for the ignition probability of a new cathode spot was proposed in two typical situations, one by the pure isotropic random walk in the absence of an external magnetic field, other by the retrograde motion in external magnetic field, in parallel with the cathode surface. We mainly focus on developed relationship between the ignition probability density distribution of a new cathode spot and the external magnetic field.

Keywords: cathode spot, vacuum arc discharge, transverse magnetic field, random walk

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3977 Comparison of Spiking Neuron Models in Terms of Biological Neuron Behaviours

Authors: Fikret Yalcinkaya, Hamza Unsal


To understand how neurons work, it is required to combine experimental studies on neural science with numerical simulations of neuron models in a computer environment. In this regard, the simplicity and applicability of spiking neuron modeling functions have been of great interest in computational neuron science and numerical neuroscience in recent years. Spiking neuron models can be classified by exhibiting various neuronal behaviors, such as spiking and bursting. These classifications are important for researchers working on theoretical neuroscience. In this paper, three different spiking neuron models; Izhikevich, Adaptive Exponential Integrate Fire (AEIF) and Hindmarsh Rose (HR), which are based on first order differential equations, are discussed and compared. First, the physical meanings, derivatives, and differential equations of each model are provided and simulated in the Matlab environment. Then, by selecting appropriate parameters, the models were visually examined in the Matlab environment and it was aimed to demonstrate which model can simulate well-known biological neuron behaviours such as Tonic Spiking, Tonic Bursting, Mixed Mode Firing, Spike Frequency Adaptation, Resonator and Integrator. As a result, the Izhikevich model has been shown to perform Regular Spiking, Continuous Explosion, Intrinsically Bursting, Thalmo Cortical, Low-Threshold Spiking and Resonator. The Adaptive Exponential Integrate Fire model has been able to produce firing patterns such as Regular Ignition, Adaptive Ignition, Initially Explosive Ignition, Regular Explosive Ignition, Delayed Ignition, Delayed Regular Explosive Ignition, Temporary Ignition and Irregular Ignition. The Hindmarsh Rose model showed three different dynamic neuron behaviours; Spike, Burst and Chaotic. From these results, the Izhikevich cell model may be preferred due to its ability to reflect the true behavior of the nerve cell, the ability to produce different types of spikes, and the suitability for use in larger scale brain models. The most important reason for choosing the Adaptive Exponential Integrate Fire model is that it can create rich ignition patterns with fewer parameters. The chaotic behaviours of the Hindmarsh Rose neuron model, like some chaotic systems, is thought to be used in many scientific and engineering applications such as physics, secure communication and signal processing.

Keywords: Izhikevich, adaptive exponential integrate fire, Hindmarsh Rose, biological neuron behaviours, spiking neuron models

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3976 An Approach towards Elementary Investigation on HCCI Technology

Authors: Jitendra Sharma


Here a Homogeneous Charge is used as in a spark-ignited engine, but the charge is compressed to auto ignition as in a diesel. The main difference compared with the Spark Ignition (SI) engine is the lack of flame propagation and hence the independence from turbulence. Compared with the diesel engine. HCCI has a homogeneous charge and have no problems associated with soot and Nox but HC and CO were higher than in SI mode. It was not possible to achieve high IMEP (Indicated Mean Effective Pressure) values with HCCI. The Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is an attractive technology because of its high efficiency and low emissions. However, HCCI lakes a direct combustion trigger making control of combustion timing challenging, especially during transients. To aid in HCCI engine control we present a simple model of the HCCI combustion process valid over a range of intake pressures, intake temperatures, equivalence ratios and engine speeds. HCCI a new combustion technology that may develop as an alternative to diesel engines with high efficiency and low Knox and particulate matter emissions. The homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a promising new engine technology that combines elements of the diesel and gasoline engine operating cycles. HCCI as a way to increase the efficiency of the gasoline engine. The attractive properties are increased fuel efficiency due to reduced throttling losses, increased expansion ratio and higher thermodynamic efficiency. With the advantages there are some mechanical limitations to the operation of the HCCI engine. The implementation of homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) to gasoline engines is constrained by many factors. The main drawback of HCCI is the absence of direct combustion timing control. Therefore all the right conditions for auto ignition have to be set before combustion starts. This paper describes the past and current research done on HCCI engine. Many research got considerable success in doing detailed modeling of HCCI combustion. This paper aims at studying the fundamentals of HCCI combustion, the strategy to control the limitation of HCCI engine.

Keywords: HCCI, diesel engine, combustion, elementary investigation

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3975 The Analysis of Exhaust Emission from Single Cylinder Non-Mobile Spark Ignition Engine Using Ethanol-Gasoline Blend as Fuel

Authors: Iyiola Olusola Oluwaleye, Ogbevire Umukoro


In view of the prevailing pollution problems and its consequences on the environment, efforts are being made to lower the concentration of toxic components in combustion products and decreasing fossil fuel consumption by using renewable alternative fuels. In this work, the impact of ethanol-gasoline blend on the exhaust emission of a single cylinder non-mobile spark ignition engine was investigated. Gasoline was blended with 5 – 20% of ethanol sourced from the open market (bought off the shelf) in an interval of 5%. The results of the emission characteristics of the exhaust gas from the combustion of the ethanol-gasoline blends showed that increasing the percentage of ethanol in the blend decreased CO emission by between 2.12% and 52.29% and HC emissions by between12.14% and 53.24%, but increased CO2 and NOx emissions by between 25% to 56% and 59% to 60% respectively. E15 blend is preferred above other blends at no-load and across all the load variations. However its NOx emission was the highest when compared with other samples. This will negatively affect human health and the environment but this drawback can be remedied by adequate treatment with appropriate additives.

Keywords: blends, emission, ethanol, gasoline, spark ignition engine

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3974 Modeling of Combustion Process in the Piston Aircraft Engine Using a MCFM-3Z Model

Authors: Marcin Szlachetka, Konrad Pietrykowski


Modeling of a combustion process in a 9-cylinder aircraft engine is presented. The simulations of the combustion process in the IC engine have provided the information on the spatial and time distributions of selected quantities within the combustion chamber of the engine. The numerical analysis results have been compared with the results of indication process of the engine on the test stand. Modeling of combustion process an auto-ignited IC engine in the AVL Fire was carried out within the study. For the calculations, a ECFM-3Z model was used. Verification of simulation results was carried out by comparison of the pressure in the cylinder. The courses of indicated pressure, obtained from the simulations and during the engine tests mounted on a test stand were compared. The engine was braked by the propeller, which results in an adequate external power characteristics. The test object is a modified ASz-62IR engine with the injection system. The engine was running at take-off power. To check the optimum ignition timing regarding power, calculations, tests were performed for 7 different moments of ignition. The analyses of temperature distribution in the cylinder depending on the moments of ignition were carried out. Additional the course of pressure in the cylinder at different angles of ignition delays of the second spark plug were examined. The swirling of the mixture in the combustion chamber was also analysed. It has been shown that the largest vortexes occur in the middle of the chamber, and gets smaller, closer to the combustion chamber walls. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, INNOLOT, under Grant Agreement No. INNOLOT/I/1/NCBR/2013.

Keywords: CFD, combustion, internal combustion engine, aircraft engine

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3973 The Falling Point of Lubricant

Authors: Arafat Husain


The lubricants are one of the most used resource in today’s world. Lot of the superpowers are dependent on the lubricant resource for their country to function. To see that the lubricants are not adulterated we need to develop some efficient ways and to see which fluid has been added to the lubricant. So to observe the these malpractices in the lubricant we need to develop a method. We take a elastic ball and through it at probability circle in the submerged in the lubricant at a fixed force and see the distance of pitching and the point of fall. Then we the ratio of distance of falling to the distance of pitching and if the measured ratio is greater than one the fluid is less viscous and if the ratio is lesser than the lubricant is viscous. We will check the falling point of pure lubricant at fixed force and every pure lubricant would have a fixed falling point. After that we would adulterate the lubricant and note the falling point and if the falling point is less than the standard value then adulterate is solid and if the adulterate is liquid the falling point will be more than the standard value. Hence the comparison with the standard falling point will give the efficiency of the lubricant.

Keywords: falling point of lubricant, falling point ratios, probability circle, octane number

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3972 Studies on Pre-ignition Chamber Dynamics of Solid Rockets with Different Port Geometries

Authors: S. Vivek, Sharad Sharan, R. Arvind, D. V. Praveen, J. Vigneshwar, S. Ajith, V. R. Sanal Kumar


In this paper numerical studies have been carried out to examine the starting transient flow features of high-performance solid propellant rocket motors with different port geometries but with same propellant loading density. Numerical computations have been carried out using a 3D SST k-ω turbulence model. This code solves standard k-omega turbulence equations with shear flow corrections using a coupled second order implicit unsteady formulation. In the numerical study, a fully implicit finite volume scheme of the compressible, Reynolds-Averaged, Navier-Stokes equations are employed. We have observed from the numerical results that in solid rocket motors with highly loaded propellants having divergent port geometry the hot igniter gases can create pre-ignition thrust oscillations due to flow unsteadiness and recirculation. Under these conditions the convective flux to the surface of the propellant will be enhanced, which will create reattachment point far downstream of the transition region and it will create a situation for secondary ignition and formation of multiple-flame fronts. As a result the effective time required for the complete burning surface area to be ignited comes down drastically giving rise to a high pressurization rate (dp/dt) in the second phase of starting transient. This in effect could lead to starting thrust oscillations and eventually a hard start of the solid rocket motor. We have also observed that the igniter temperature fluctuations will be diminished rapidly and will reach the steady state value faster in the case of solid propellant rocket motors with convergent port than the divergent port irrespective of the igniter total pressure. We have concluded that the thrust oscillations and unexpected thrust spike often observed in solid rockets with non-uniform ports are presumably contributed due to the joint effects of the geometry dependent driving forces, transient burning and the chamber gas dynamics forces. We also concluded that the prudent selection of the port geometry, without altering the propellant loading density, for damping the total temperature fluctuations within the motor is a meaningful objective for the suppression and control of instability and/or pressure/thrust oscillations often observed in solid propellant rocket motors with non-uniform port geometry.

Keywords: ignition transient, solid rockets, starting transient, thrust transient

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3971 Thermomechanical Simulation of Equipment Subjected to an Oxygen Pressure and Heated Locally by the Ignition of Small Particles

Authors: Khaled Ayfi


In industrial oxygen systems at high temperature and high pressure, contamination by solid particles is one of the principal causes of ignition hazards. Indeed, gas can sweep away particles, generated by corrosion inside the pipes or during maintenance operations (welding residues, careless disassembly, etc.) and produce accumulations at places where the gas velocity decrease. Moreover, in such an environment rich in oxygen (oxidant), particles are highly reactive and can ignite system walls more actively and at higher temperatures. Oxidation based thermal effects are responsible for mechanical properties lost, leading to the destruction of the pressure equipment wall. To deal with this problem, a numerical analysis is done regarding a sample representative of a wall subjected to pressure and temperature. The validation and analysis are done comparing the numerical simulations results to experimental measurements. More precisely, in this work, we propose a numerical model that describes the thermomechanical behavior of thin metal disks under pressure and subjected to laser heating. This model takes into account the geometric and material nonlinearity and has been validated by the comparison of simulation results with experimental measurements.

Keywords: ignition, oxygen, numerical simulation, thermomechanical behavior

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3970 PointNetLK-OBB: A Point Cloud Registration Algorithm with High Accuracy

Authors: Wenhao Lan, Ning Li, Qiang Tong


To improve the registration accuracy of a source point cloud and template point cloud when the initial relative deflection angle is too large, a PointNetLK algorithm combined with an oriented bounding box (PointNetLK-OBB) is proposed. In this algorithm, the OBB of a 3D point cloud is used to represent the macro feature of source and template point clouds. Under the guidance of the iterative closest point algorithm, the OBB of the source and template point clouds is aligned, and a mirror symmetry effect is produced between them. According to the fitting degree of the source and template point clouds, the mirror symmetry plane is detected, and the optimal rotation and translation of the source point cloud is obtained to complete the 3D point cloud registration task. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, a comparative experiment was performed using the publicly available ModelNet40 dataset. The experimental results demonstrate that, compared with PointNetLK, PointNetLK-OBB improves the registration accuracy of the source and template point clouds when the initial relative deflection angle is too large, and the sensitivity of the initial relative position between the source point cloud and template point cloud is reduced. The primary contribution of this paper is the use of PointNetLK to avoid the non-convex problem of traditional point cloud registration and leveraging the regularity of the OBB to avoid the local optimization problem in the PointNetLK context.

Keywords: mirror symmetry, oriented bounding box, point cloud registration, PointNetLK-OBB

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3969 A Method for Calculating Dew Point Temperature in the Humidity Test

Authors: Wu Sa, Zhang Qian, Li Qi, Wang Ye


Currently in humidity tests having not put the Dew point temperature as a control parameter, this paper selects wet and dry bulb thermometer to measure the vapor pressure, and introduces several the saturation vapor pressure formulas easily calculated on the controller. Then establish the Dew point temperature calculation model to obtain the relationship between the Dew point temperature and vapor pressure. Finally check through the 100 groups of sample in the range of 0-100 ℃ from "Psychrometric handbook", find that the average error is small. This formula can be applied to calculate the Dew point temperature in the humidity test.

Keywords: dew point temperature, psychrometric handbook, saturation vapor pressure, wet and dry bulb thermometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 279