Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 64

Search results for: Hyung Woo Lee

64 Survivability of Maneuvering Aircraft against Air to Air Infrared Missile

Authors: Ji-Yeul Bae, Hyung Mo Bae, Jihyuk Kim, Hyung Hee Cho


An air to air infrared missile poses a significant threat to the survivability of an aircraft due to an advanced sensitivity of sensor and maneuverability of the missile. Therefore, recent military aircraft is equipped with MAW (Missile Approach Warning) to take an evasive maneuver and to deploy countermeasures like chaff and flare. In this research, an effect of MAW sensitivity and resulting evasive maneuver on the survivability of the fighter aircraft is studied. A single engine fighter jet with Mach 0.9 flying at an altitude of 5 km is modeled in the research and infrared signature of the aircraft is calculated by numerical simulation. The survivability is assessed in terms of lethal range. The MAW sensitivity and maneuverability of an aircraft is used as variables. The result showed that improvement in survivability mainly achieved when the missile approach from the side of the aircraft. And maximum 30% increase in survivability of the aircraft is achieved when existence of the missile is noticed at 7 km distance. As a conclusion, sensitivity of the MAW seems to be more important factor than the maneuverability of the aircraft in terms of the survivability.

Keywords: air to air missile, missile approach warning, lethal range, survivability

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63 Optical Ignition of Nanoenergetic Materials with Tunable Explosion Reactivity

Authors: Ji Hoon Kim, Jong Man Kim, Hyung Woo Lee, Soo Hyung Kim


The applications of nanoenergetic materials (nEMs) could be extended by developing more convenient and reliable ignition methods. However, the underwater ignition of nEMs is a significant challenge because water perturbs the reactants prior to ignition and also quenches the subsequent combustion reaction of nEMs upon ignition. In this study, we developed flash and laser-ignitable nEMs for underwater explosion. This was achieved by adding various carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as the optical igniter into an nEM matrix, composed of Al/CuO nanoparticles. The CNTs absorb the irradiated optical energy and rapidly convert it into thermal energy, and then the thermal energy is concentrated to ignite the core catalysts and neighboring nEMs. The maximum burn rate was achieved by adding 1 wt% CNTs into the nEM matrix. The burn rate significantly decreased with increasing amount of CNTs (≥ 2 wt%), indicating that the optical ignition and controlled-explosion reactivity of nEMs are possible by incorporating an appropriate amount of CNTs.

Keywords: nanoenergetic materials, carbon nanotubes, optical ignition, tunable explosion

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62 Electrochemical Anodic Oxidation Synthesis of TiO2 nanotube as Perspective Electrode for the Detection of Phenyl Hydrazine

Authors: Sadia Ameen, M. Nazim, Hyumg-Kee Seo, Hyung-Shik Shin


TiO2 nanotube (NT) arrays were grown on titanium (Ti) foil substrate by electrochemical anodic oxidation and utilized as working electrode to fabricate a highly sensitive and reproducible chemical sensor for the detection of harmful phenyl hydrazine chemical. The fabricated chemical sensor based on TiO2 NT arrays electrode exhibited high sensitivity of ~40.9 µ and detection limit of ~0.22 µM with short response time (10s).

Keywords: TiO2 NT, phenyl hydrazine, chemical sensor, sensitivity, electrocatalytic properties

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61 Phone Number Spoofing Attack in VoLTE 4G

Authors: Joo-Hyung Oh


The number of service users of 4G VoLTE (voice over LTE) using LTE data networks is rapidly growing. VoLTE based on all-IP network enables clearer and higher-quality voice calls than 3G. It does, however, pose new challenges; a voice call through IP networks makes it vulnerable to security threats such as wiretapping and forged or falsified information. And in particular, stealing other users’ phone numbers and forging or falsifying call request messages from outgoing voice calls within VoLTE result in considerable losses that include user billing and voice phishing to acquaintances. This paper focuses on the threats of caller phone number spoofing in the VoLTE and countermeasure technology as safety measures for mobile communication networks.

Keywords: LTE, 4G, VoLTE, phone number spoofing

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60 Phone Number Spoofing Attack in VoLTE

Authors: Joo-Hyung Oh, Sekwon Kim, Myoungsun Noh, Chaetae Im


The number of service users of 4G VoLTE (voice over LTE) using LTE data networks is rapidly growing. VoLTE based on All-IP network enables clearer and higher-quality voice calls than 3G. It does, however, pose new challenges; a voice call through IP networks makes it vulnerable to security threats such as wiretapping and forged or falsified information. Moreover, in particular, stealing other users’ phone numbers and forging or falsifying call request messages from outgoing voice calls within VoLTE result in considerable losses that include user billing and voice phishing to acquaintances. This paper focuses on the threats of caller phone number spoofing in the VoLTE and countermeasure technology as safety measures for mobile communication networks.

Keywords: LTE, 4G, VoLTE, phone number spoofing

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59 Classifying Blog Texts Based on the Psycholinguistic Features of the Texts

Authors: Hyung Jun Ahn


With the growing importance of social media, it is imperative to analyze it to understand the users. Users share useful information and their experience through social media, where much of what is shared is in the form of texts. This study focused on blogs and aimed to test whether the psycho-linguistic characteristics of blog texts vary with the subject or the type of experience of the texts. For this goal, blog texts about four different types of experience, Go, skiing, reading, and musical were collected through the search API of the Tistory blog service. The analysis of the texts showed that various psycholinguistic characteristics of the texts are different across the four categories of the texts. Moreover, the machine learning experiment using the characteristics for automatic text classification showed significant performance. Specifically, the ensemble method, based on functional tree and bagging appeared to be most effective in classification.

Keywords: blog, social media, text analysis, psycholinguistics

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58 Pervaporation of Dimethyl Carbonate / Methanol / Water Mixtures Using Zeolite Membranes

Authors: Jong-Ho Moon, Dong-Ho Lee, Hyunuk Kim, Young Cheol Park, Jong-Seop Lee, Jae-deok Jeon, Hyung-Keun Lee


A novel membrane reactor process for DMC synthesis from carbon dioxide has been developing in Korea Institute of Energy Research. The scheme of direct synthesis of DMC from CO₂ and Methanol is 'CO₂ + 2MeOH ↔ DMC + H₂O'. Among them, reactants are CO₂ and MeOH, product is DMC, and byproduct is H₂O (water). According to Le Chatelier’s principle, removing byproduct (water) can shift the reaction equilibrium to the right (DMC production). The main purpose of this process is removing water during the reaction. For efficient in situ water removal (dehydration) and DMC separation, zeolite 4A membranes with very small pore diameter and hydrophilicity were introduced. In this study, pervaporation performances of binary and ternary DMC / methanol / water mixtures were evaluated.

Keywords: dimehtyl carbonate, methanol, water, zeolite membrane, pervaporation

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57 Polymer Nanocarrier for Rheumatoid Arthritis Therapy

Authors: Vijayakameswara Rao Neralla, Jueun Jeon, Jae Hyung Park


To develop a potential nanocarrier for diagnosis and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we prepared a hyaluronic acid (HA)-5β-cholanic acid (CA) conjugate with an acid-labile ketal linker. This conjugate could self-assemble in aqueous conditions to produce pH-responsive HA-CA nanoparticles as potential carriers of the anti-inflammatory drug methotrexate (MTX). MTX was rapidly released from nanoparticles under inflamed synovial tissue in RA. In vitro cytotoxicity data showed that pH-responsive HA-CA nanoparticles were non-toxic to RAW 264.7 cells. In vivo biodistribution results confirmed that, after their systemic administration, pH-responsive HA-CA nanoparticles selectively accumulated in the inflamed joints of collagen-induced arthritis mice. These results indicate that pH-responsive HA-CA nanoparticles represent a promising candidate as a drug carrier for RA therapy.

Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, hyaluronic acid, nanocarrier, self-assembly, MTX

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56 Renewable Integration Algorithm to Compensate Photovoltaic Power Using Battery Energy Storage System

Authors: Hyung Joo Lee, Jin Young Choi, Gun Soo Park, Kyo Sun Oh, Dong Jun Won


The fluctuation of the output of the renewable generator caused by weather conditions must be mitigated because it imposes strain on the system and adversely affects power quality. In this paper, we focus on mitigating the output fluctuation of the photovoltaic (PV) using battery energy storage system (BESS). To satisfy tight conditions of system, proposed algorithm is developed. This algorithm focuses on adjusting the integrated output curve considering state of capacity (SOC) of the battery. In this paper, the simulation model is PSCAD / EMTDC software. SOC of the battery and the overall output curve are shown using the simulation results. We also considered losses and battery efficiency.

Keywords: photovoltaic generation, battery energy storage system, renewable integration, power smoothing

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55 A Study on Fire Safety Standards through Case Study of Performance Based Design

Authors: Kyung Hoon Park, Hyung Jun Kim, Jong Wook Song


Super-tall building, large-scale and multi-purpose underground spaces reflect changes in construction trend. As current laws and codes such as Fire Services Act and construction codes are not enough to secure the fire safety of those structures and spaces, it is required to provide systemic supplement for performance-based design to establish or revise laws and technical standards to cope with the changes flexibly. In this study, the performance-based design standards of structures designed in Korea are compared with specification based design standards in an attempt to find the ways to establish fire safety standards for structures in Korea.

Keywords: performance based design, specification based design, fire safety design, life safety

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54 Mechanical and Micro-Structural Properties of Fly Ash Based Geopolymer with High-Temperature Exposure

Authors: Young-Cheol Choi, Joo-Hyung Kim, Gyu-Don Moon


This paper discusses the effect of Na2O (alkali) content, SiO2/Na2O mole ratio, and elevated temperature on the mechanical performance of fly-ash-based inorganic green geopolymer composites. Fly-ash-based geopolymers, which were manufactured with varying alkali contents (4–8 % of fly ash weight) and SiO2/Na2O mole ratios (0.6–1.4), were subjected to elevated temperatures up to 900 ºC ; the geopolymer composites and their performance were evaluated on the basis of weight loss and strength loss after temperature exposure. In addition, mineralogical changes due to the elevated temperature exposure were studied using x-ray diffraction. Investigations of microstructures and microprobe analysis were performed using mercury intrusion porosimetry. The results showed that the fly-ash-based geopolymer responded significantly to high-temperature conditions.

Keywords: fly ash, geopolymer, micro-structure, high-temperature, mechanical structural

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53 Evaluation of Progressive Collapse of Transmission Tower

Authors: Jeong-Hwan Choi, Hyo-Sang Park, Tae-Hyung Lee


The transmission tower is one of the crucial lifeline structures in a modern society, and it needs to be protected against extreme loading conditions. However, the transmission tower is a very complex structure and, therefore, it is very difficult to simulate the actual damage and the collapse behavior of the tower structure. In this study, the actual collapse behavior of the transmission tower due to lateral loading conditions such as wind load is evaluated through the computational simulation. For that, a progressive collapse procedure is applied to the simulation. In this procedure, after running the simulation, if a member of the tower structure fails, the failed member is removed and the simulation run again. The 154kV transmission tower is selected for this study. The simulation is performed by nonlinear static analysis procedure, namely pushover analysis, using OpenSEES, an earthquake simulation platform. Three-dimensional finite element models of those towers are developed.

Keywords: transmission tower, OpenSEES, pushover, progressive collapse

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52 Factors Associated with Self-Rated Health among Persons with Disabilities: A Korean National Survey

Authors: Won-Seok Kim, Hyung-Ik Shin


Self-rated health (SRH) is a subjective assessment of individual health and has been identified as a strong predictor for mortality and morbidity. However few studies have been directed to the factors associated with SRH in persons with disabilities (PWD). We used data of 7th Korean national survey for 5307 PWD in 2008. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to find out independent risk factors for poor SRH in PWD. As a result, indicators of physical condition (poor instrumental ADL), socioeconomic disadvantages (poor education, economically inactive, low self-rated social class, medicaid in health insurance, presence of unmet need for hospital use) and social participation and networks (no use of internet service) were selected as independent risk factors for poor SRH in final model. Findings in the present study would be helpful in making a program to promote the health and narrow the gap of health status between the PWD.

Keywords: disabilities, risk factors, self-rated health, socioeconomic disadvantages, social networks

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51 Detection of Nutrients Using Honeybee-Mimic Bioelectronic Tongue Systems

Authors: Soo Ho Lim, Minju Lee, Dong In Kim, Gi Youn Han, Seunghun Hong, Hyung Wook Kwon


We report a floating electrode-based bioelectronic tongue mimicking honeybee taste systems for the detection and discrimination of various nutrients. Here, carbon nanotube field effect transistors with floating electrodes (CNT-FET) were hybridized with nanovesicles containing honeybee nutrient receptors, gustatory receptors of Apis mellifera. This strategy enables us to detect nutrient substance with a high sensitivity and selectivity. It could also be utilized for the detection of nutrients in liquid food. This floating electrode-based bioelectronic tongue mimicking insect taste systems can be a simple, but highly effective strategy in many different basic research areas about sensory systems. Moreover, our research provides opportunities to develop various applications such as food screening, and it also can provide valuable insights on insect taste systems.

Keywords: taste system, CNT-FET, insect gustatory receptor, biolelectronic tongue

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50 Numerical Simulation of Effect of Various Rib Configurations on Enhancing Heat Transfer of Matrix Cooling Channel

Authors: Seok Min Choi, Minho Bang, Seuong Yun Kim, Hyungmin Lee, Won-Gu Joo, Hyung Hee Cho


The matrix cooling channel was used for gas turbine blade cooling passage. The matrix cooling structure is useful for the structure stability however the cooling performance of internal cooling channel was not enough for cooling. Therefore, we designed the rib configurations in the matrix cooling channel to enhance the cooling performance. The numerical simulation was conducted to analyze cooling performance of rib configured matrix cooling channel. Three different rib configurations were used which are vertical rib, angled rib and c-type rib. Three configurations were adopted in two positions of matrix cooling channel which is one fourth and three fourth of channel. The result shows that downstream rib has much higher cooling performance than upstream rib. Furthermore, the angled rib in the channel has much higher cooling performance than vertical rib. This is because; the angled rib improves the swirl effect of matrix cooling channel more effectively. The friction factor was increased with the installation of rib. However, the thermal performance was increased with the installation of rib in the matrix cooling channel.

Keywords: matrix cooling, rib, heat transfer, gas turbine

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49 Evaluation of the Laser and Partial Vibration Stimulation on Osteoporosis

Authors: Ji Hyung Park, Dong-Hyun Seo, Young-Jin Jung, Han Sung Kim


The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the laser and partial vibration stimulation on the mice tibia with morphological characteristics. Twenty female C57BL/6 mice (12 weeks old) were used for the experiment. The study was carried out on four groups of animals each consisting of five mice. Four groups of mice were ovariectomized. Animals were scanned at 0 and 2 weeks after ovariectomy by using micro-computed tomography to estimate morphological characteristics of tibial trabecular bone. Morphological analysis showed that structural parameters of multi-stimuli group appear significantly better phase in BV/TV, BS/BV, Tb.Th, Tb.N, Tb.Sp, and than single stimulation groups. However, single stimulation groups didn’t show significant effect on tibia with Sham group. This study suggests that multi-stimuli may restrain the change as the degenerate phase on osteoporosis in the mice tibia.

Keywords: laser, partial vibration, osteoporosis, in-vivo micro-CT, mice

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48 Influence of Silica Surface Hydrophilicity on Adsorbed Water and Isopropanol Studied by in-situ NMR

Authors: Hyung T. Kwak, Jun Gao, Yao An, Alfred Kleinhammes, Yue Wu


Surface wettability is a crucial factor in oil recovery. In oil industry, the rock wettability involves the interplay between water, oil, and solid surface. Therefore, studying the interplay between adsorptions of water and hydrocarbon molecules on solid surface would be very informative for understanding rock wettability. Here we use the in-situ Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) gas isotherm technique to study competitive adsorptions of water and isopropanol, an intermediate step from hydrocarbons. This in-situ NMR technique obtains information on thermodynamic properties such as the isotherm, molecular dynamics via spin relaxation measurements, and adsorption kinetics such as how fast the system can reach thermal equilibrium after changes of vapor pressures. Using surfaces of silica glass beads, which can be modified from hydrophilic to hydrophobic, we obtained information on the influence of surface hydrophilicity on the state of surface water via obtained thermodynamic and dynamic properties.

Keywords: Wettability, NMR, Gas Isotherm, Hydrophilicity, adsorption

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47 The Relationship between Brand Recall and Brand Attitude in Advergame

Authors: Azaze-Azizi Abdul Adis, Hyung Jun Kim, Mohamad Rizwan Abdul Majid, Zaiton Osman, Izyanti Awang Razli


The increase of online advertising, specifically advergame has become a popular method of strengthening consumer brand recognition by inserting attractive characters and enhancing entertainment value. There have been several remarkable studies on spokes-characters in advertising effectiveness. However, few studies have examined the link between character presence and consumers' brand recall and attitude in advergame. Moreover, how the entertainment value of an advergame influences brand recall and brand attitude and the mediating role of brand recall in influencing character presence and entertainment on brand attitude are still lacking in the advergaming literature. An online survey was conducted with 366 Malaysian gamers. Using structural equation modeling, the results showed that character presence had no influence but entertainment value had a positive influence on brand recall and brand attitude. This study confirmed the role of brand recall as a mediator of the effect of between entertainment and brand attitude in advergame.

Keywords: character presence, entertainment, brand recall, brand attitude, advergame

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46 Effect of Dual-Oligo Saccharide on Loperamide-Induced Constipation in Rat Model

Authors: So Hyun Ahn, Geu Rim Seo, Byungsoo Shin, Kwang-Won Yu, Hyung Joo Suh, Sung Hee Han


We investigated the effects of GOS, lactulose and DuOligo in loperamide-induced constipation rat model. Dual-Oligo saccharide (DuOligo) was composed with galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) and lactulose. GOS is an important dietary prebiotics that affects intestinal microbiota and barrier functions to have beneficial effect and lactulose is used as a laxative to treat constipation. To study the DuOligo, after adaptation period of four weeks of Spraque-Dawley rats, loperamide (5 mg/kg, twice per day) was injected to induce constipation for 1 week. DuOligo increased the fecal pellet amount, fecal weight, and water content of feces in rats with loperamide-induced constipation. DuOligo groups tended to produce more total fatty acid than that of observed for the control group. Gastrointestinal transit ratio and length and area of intestinal mucosa increased after treatment with DuOligo in loperamide-induced rats. These results showed that oral administration of DuOligo significantly modulated intestinal peristalsis.

Keywords: constipation, DuOligo, GOS, lactulose

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45 Collapse Performance of Steel Frame with Hysteric Energy Dissipating Devices

Authors: Hyung-Joon Kim, Jin-Young Park


Energy dissipating devices (EDDs) have become more popular as seismic-force-resisting systems for building structures. However, there is little information on the collapse capacities of frames employing EDDs which are an important criterion for their seismic design. This study investigates the collapse capacities of steel frames with TADAS hysteric energy dissipative devices (HEDDs) that become an alternative to steel braced frames. To do this, 5-story steel ordinary concentrically braced frame and steel frame with HEDDs are designed and modeled. Nonlinear dynamic analyses and incremental dynamic analysis with 40 ground motions scaled to maximum considered earthquake are carried out. It is shown from analysis results that the significant enhancement in terms of the collapse capacities is found due to the introduction HEDDs.

Keywords: collapse capacity, incremental dynamic analysis, steel braced frame, TADAS hysteric energy dissipative device

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44 Prediction of Heavy-Weight Impact Noise and Vibration of Floating Floor Using Modified Impact Spectrum

Authors: Ju-Hyung Kim, Dae-Ho Mun, Hong-Gun Park


When an impact is applied to a floating floor, noise and vibration response of high-frequency range is reduced effectively, while amplifies the response at low-frequency range. This means floating floor can make worse noise condition when heavy-weight impact is applied. The amplified response is the result of interaction between finishing layer (mortar plate) and concrete slab. Because an impact force is not directly delivered to concrete slab, the impact force waveform or spectrum can be changed. In this paper, the changed impact spectrum was derived from several floating floor vibration tests. Based on the measured data, numerical modeling can describe the floating floor response, especially at low-frequency range. As a result, heavy-weight impact noise can be predicted using modified impact spectrum.

Keywords: floating floor, heavy-weight impact, prediction, vibration

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43 Next Generation Membrane for Water Desalination: Facile Fabrication of Patterned Graphene Membrane

Authors: Jae-Kyung Choi, Soon-Yong Kwon, Hyung Duk Yun, Hyun-Sang Chung, Seongho Seo, Kukjin Bae


Recently, there were several attempts to utilize a graphene layer as a water desalination membrane. In order to use a graphene layer as a water desalination membrane, fabrication of crack-free suspension of graphene on a porous membrane, having hydrophobic surface, and generation of a uniform holes on a graphene are very important. In here, we showed a simple chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method to create a patterned graphene membrane on a patterned platinum film. After CVD growth process of patterned graphene layer/patterned Pt on SiO2 substrates, the patterned graphene layer can be successfully transferred onto arbitrary substrates via thermal-assisted transfer method. In this result, the transferred patterned graphene membrane has so hydrophobic surface which will certainly impact on the naturally and speed pass way for fresh water. In addition to this, we observed that overlapping of patterned graphene membranes reported previously by our group may generate different size of holes.

Keywords: chemical vapor deposition (CVD), hydrophobic surface, membrane desalination, porous graphene

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42 Effects of Phase and Morphology on the Electrochemical and Electrochromic Performances of Tungsten Oxide and Tungsten-Molybdenum Oxide Nanostructures

Authors: Jinjoo Jung, Hayeon Won, Doyeong Jeong, Do Hyung Kim


We present the electrochemical and electrochromic performance of the novel crystalline tungsten oxide and tungsten-molybdenum oxide nanostructures synthesized by utilizing solvo-thermal method with hexacarbonyl tungsten, hexacarbonyl molybdenum, and ethyl alcohol. The morphology and phase of the prepared products were highly dependent on the synthesis conditions such as synthesis and annealing temperature, synthesis time, and precursor ratio. The tungsten oxide nanostructures (TCNs) have urchin-like or spherical nanostructure with different phase of W18O49 and WO3. The morphology of tungsten-molybdenum oxide nanostructures (TMONs) is basically similar to that of TCNs. However, the morphology and phase of TMONs are more diverse and are strongly dependent on the composition ratios of W/Mo in the precursor. The electrochemical properties depending on their morphologies and phases of TCNs and TMONs are compared using cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. The relationship between the electrochromic performance and phase structures/morphologies of nanostructured TCNs and TMONs are systematically investigated.

Keywords: electrochemical, electrochromic, tungsten oxide, tungsten-molybdenum oxide

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41 Reliability Verification of the Performance Evaluation of Multiphase Pump

Authors: Joon-Hyung Kim, Him-Chan Lee, Jin-Hyuk Kim, Yong-Kab Lee, Young-Seok Choi


The crude oil in an oil well exists in various phases such as gas, seawater, and sand, as well as oil. Therefore, a phase separator is needed at the front of a single-phase pump for pressurization and transfer. On the other hand, the application of a multiphase pump can provide such advantages as simplification of the equipment structure and cost savings, because there is no need for a phase separation process. Therefore, the crude oil transfer method using a multiphase pump is being applied to recently developed oil wells. Due to this increase in demand, technical demands for the development of multiphase pumps are sharply increasing, but the progress of research into related technologies is insufficient, due to the nature of multiphase pumps that require high levels of skills. This study was conducted to verify the reliability of pump performance evaluation using numerical analysis, which is the basis of the development of a multiphase pump. For this study, a model was designed by selecting the specifications of the pump under study. The performance of the designed model was evaluated through numerical analysis and experiment, and the results of the performance evaluation were compared to verify the reliability of the result using numerical analysis.

Keywords: multiphase pump, numerical analysis, experiment, performance evaluation, reliability verification

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40 Effect of the Cross-Sectional Geometry on Heat Transfer and Particle Motion of Circulating Fluidized Bed Riser for CO2 Capture

Authors: Seungyeong Choi, Namkyu Lee, Dong Il Shim, Young Mun Lee, Yong-Ki Park, Hyung Hee Cho


Effect of the cross-sectional geometry on heat transfer and particle motion of circulating fluidized bed riser for CO2 capture was investigated. Numerical simulation using Eulerian-eulerian method with kinetic theory of granular flow was adopted to analyze gas-solid flow consisting in circulating fluidized bed riser. Circular, square, and rectangular cross-sectional geometry cases of the same area were carried out. Rectangular cross-sectional geometries were analyzed having aspect ratios of 1: 2, 1: 4, 1: 8, and 1:16. The cross-sectional geometry significantly influenced the particle motion and heat transfer. The downward flow pattern of solid particles near the wall was changed. The gas-solid mixing degree of the riser with the rectangular cross section of the high aspect ratio was the lowest. There were differences in bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient according to rectangular geometry with different aspect ratios.

Keywords: bed geometry, computational fluid dynamics, circulating fluidized bed riser, heat transfer

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39 Seismic Fragility Functions of RC Moment Frames Using Incremental Dynamic Analyses

Authors: Seung-Won Lee, JongSoo Lee, Won-Jik Yang, Hyung-Joon Kim


A capacity spectrum method (CSM), one of methodologies to evaluate seismic fragilities of building structures, has been long recognized as the most convenient method, even if it contains several limitations to predict the seismic response of structures of interest. This paper proposes the procedure to estimate seismic fragility curves using an incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) rather than the method adopting a CSM. To achieve the research purpose, this study compares the seismic fragility curves of a 5-story reinforced concrete (RC) moment frame obtained from both methods, an IDA method and a CSM. Both seismic fragility curves are similar in slight and moderate damage states whereas the fragility curve obtained from the IDA method presents less variation (or uncertainties) in extensive and complete damage states. This is due to the fact that the IDA method can properly capture the structural response beyond yielding rather than the CSM and can directly calculate higher mode effects. From these observations, the CSM could overestimate seismic vulnerabilities of the studied structure in extensive or complete damage states.

Keywords: seismic fragility curve, incremental dynamic analysis, capacity spectrum method, reinforced concrete moment frame

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38 Finite Element Analysis of Ball-Joint Boots under Environmental and Endurance Tests

Authors: Young-Doo Kwon, Seong-Hwa Jun, Dong-Jin Lee, Hyung-Seok Lee


Ball joints support and guide certain automotive parts that move relative to the frame of the vehicle. Such ball joints are covered and protected from dust, mud, and other interfering materials by ball-joint boots made of rubber—a flexible and near-incompressible material. The boots may experience twisting and bending deformations because of the motion of the joint arm. Thus, environmental and endurance tests of ball-joint boots apply both bending and twisting deformations. In this study, environmental and endurance testing was simulated via the finite element method performed by using a commercial software package. The ranges of principal stress and principal strain values that are known to directly affect the fatigue lives of the parts were sought. By defining these ranges, the number of iterative tests and modifications of the materials and dimensions of the boot can be decreased. Therefore, instead of performing actual part tests, manufacturers can perform standard fatigue tests in trials of different materials by applying only the defined range of stress or strain values.

Keywords: boot, endurance tests, rubber, FEA

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37 An Analytical Study on Rotational Capacity of Beam-Column Joints in Unit Modular Frames

Authors: Kyung-Suk Choi, Hyung-Joon Kim


Modular structural systems are constructed using a method that they are assembled with prefabricated unit modular frames on-site. This provides a benefit that can significantly reduce building construction time. Their structural design is usually carried out under the assumption that the load-carrying mechanism is similar to that of a traditional steel moment-resisting system. However, both systems are different in terms of beam-column connection details which may strongly influence the lateral structural behavior. Specially, the presence of access holes in a beam-column joint of a unit modular frame could cause undesirable failure during strong earthquakes. Therefore, this study carried out finite element analyses (FEM) of unit modular frames to investigate the cyclic behavior of beam-column joints with the structural influence of access holes. Analysis results show that the unit modular frames present stable cyclic response with large deformation capacities, and their joints are classified into semi-rigid connections.

Keywords: unit modular frame, steel moment connection, nonlinear analytical model, moment-rotation relation

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36 Production of Antimicrobial Agents against Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus through the Biocatalysis of Vegetable Oils

Authors: Hak-Ryul Kim, Hyung-Geun Lee, Qi Long, Ching Hou


Structural modification of natural lipids via chemical reaction or microbial bioconversion can change their properties or even create novel functionalities. Enzymatic oxidation of lipids leading to formation of oxylipin is one of those modifications. Hydroxy fatty acids, one of those oxylipins have gained important attentions because of their structural and functional properties compared with other non-hydroxy fatty acids. Recently 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (DOD) was produced with high yield from lipid-containing oleic acid by microbial conversion, and the further study confirmed that DOD contained strong antimicrobial activities against a broad range of microorganisms. In this study, we tried to modify DOD molecules by the enzymatic or physical reaction to create new functionality or to enhance the antimicrobial activity of DOD. After modification of DOD molecules by different ways, we confirmed that the antimicrobial activity of DOD was highly enhanced and presented strong antimicrobial activities against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, suggesting that DOD and its derivatives can be used as efficient antimicrobial agents for medical and industrial applications.

Keywords: biocatalysis, antimicrobial agent, multidrug-resistant bacteria, vegetable oil

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35 Chemical Stability of Ceramic Crucibles to Molten Titanium

Authors: Jong-Min Park, Hyung-Ki Park, Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha


Titanium is widely used due to its high specific strength, good biocompatibility, and excellent corrosion resistance. In order to produce titanium powders, it is necessary to melt titanium, and generally it is conducted by an induction heating method using Al₂O₃ ceramic crucible. However, since titanium reacts chemically with Al₂O₃, it is difficult to melt titanium by the induction heating method using Al₂O₃ crucible. To avoid this problem, we studied the chemical stability of the various crucibles such as Al₂O₃, MgO, ZrO₂, and Y₂O₃ crucibles to molten titanium. After titanium lumps (Grade 2, O(oxygen)<0.25wt%) were placed in each crucible, they were heated to 1800℃ with a heating rate of 5 ℃/min, held at 1800℃ for 30 min, and finally cooled to room temperature with a cooling rate of 5 ℃/min. All heat treatments were carried out in high purity Ar atmosphere. To evaluate the chemical stability, thermodynamic data such as Ellingham diagram were utilized, and also Vickers hardness test, microstructure analysis, and EPMA quantitative analysis were performed. As a result, Al₂O₃, MgO and ZrO₂ crucibles chemically reacted with molten titanium, but Y₂O₃ crucible rarely reacted with it.

Keywords: titanium, induction melting, crucible, chemical stability

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