Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: S. Ajith

8 Serious Game as a Performance Assessment Tool that Reduces Examination Anxiety

Authors: R. Ajith, Kamal Bijlani


Over the past few years, tremendous evolutions have happened in the educational discipline. Serious game, which is regarded as one of the most important inventions is being widely for learning purposes. Serious games can be used to negate the various drawbacks that the current evaluation and assessment methods have, like examination anxiety and the lack of proper feedback given to the learners. This paper proposes serious game as a tool for conducting evaluations and assessments. The examination anxiety faced by learners can be reduced, as they are provided with a game as an examination. The serious game also tracks learner’s actions, records them and provide feedback based on the predefined set of actions according to the course objectives. The appropriate feedback given to the learner will help in developmental activities in the learning process.

Keywords: serious games, evaluation, performance assessment, examination anxiety, performance feedback

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7 Olive Seed Tannins as Bioadhesives for Manufacturing Wood-Based Panels

Authors: Ajith K. A. Gedara, Iva Chianella, Jose L. Endrino, Qi Zhang


The olive seed is a by-product of the olive oil production industry. Biuret test and ferric chloride test revealed that water or alkali NaOH extractions of olive seed flour are rich in proteins and tannins. Both protein and tannins are well-known bio-based wood adhesives in the wood-based panel industry. In general, tannins-based adhesives show better mechanical and physical properties than protein wood adhesives. This paper explores different methods of extracting tannins from olive seed flour against the tannins yield and their applications as bio-based adhesives in wood-based panels. Once investigated, the physical and the mechanical properties of wood-based panels made using bio-adhesives based tannins extracted from olive seed flour revealed that the resulting products seemed to satisfy the Japanese Industrial Standards JIS A 5908:2015.

Keywords: bio-adhesives, olive seed flour, tannins, wood-based panels

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6 Modern Proteomics and the Application of Machine Learning Analyses in Proteomic Studies of Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Etiology

Authors: Dulanjali Ranasinghe, Isuru Supasan, Kaushalya Premachandra, Ranjan Dissanayake, Ajith Rajapaksha, Eustace Fernando


Proteomics studies of organisms are considered to be significantly information-rich compared to their genomic counterparts because proteomes of organisms represent the expressed state of all proteins of an organism at a given time. In modern top-down and bottom-up proteomics workflows, the primary analysis methods employed are gel–based methods such as two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis and mass spectrometry based methods. Machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) have been used increasingly in modern biological data analyses. In particular, the fields of genomics, DNA sequencing, and bioinformatics have seen an incremental trend in the usage of ML and AI techniques in recent years. The use of aforesaid techniques in the field of proteomics studies is only beginning to be materialised now. Although there is a wealth of information available in the scientific literature pertaining to proteomics workflows, no comprehensive review addresses various aspects of the combined use of proteomics and machine learning. The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive outlook on the application of machine learning into the known proteomics workflows in order to extract more meaningful information that could be useful in a plethora of applications such as medicine, agriculture, and biotechnology.

Keywords: proteomics, machine learning, gel-based proteomics, mass spectrometry

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5 Studies on Lucrative Design of a Waste Heat Recovery System for Air Conditioners

Authors: Ashwin Bala, K. Panthalaraja Kumaran, S. Prithviraj, R. Pradeep, J. Udhayakumar, S. Ajith


In this paper, studies have been carried out for an in-house design of a waste heat recovery system for effectively utilizing the domestic air conditioner heat energy for producing hot water. Theoretical studies have been carried to optimizing the flow rate for getting maximum output with a minimum size of the heater. Critical diameter, wall thickness, and total length of the water pipeline have been estimated from the conventional heat transfer model. Several combinations of pipeline shapes viz., spiral, coil, zigzag wound through the radiator has been attempted and accordingly shape has been optimized using heat transfer analyses. The initial condition is declared based on the water flow rate and temperature. Through the parametric analytical studies we have conjectured that water flow rate, temperature difference between incoming water and radiator skin temperature, pipe material, radiator material, geometry of the water pipe viz., length, diameter, and wall thickness are having bearing on the lucrative design of a waste heat recovery system for air conditioners. Results generated through the numerical studies have been validated using an in-house waste heat recovery system for air conditioners.

Keywords: air conditioner design, energy conversion system, radiator design for energy recovery systems, waste heat recovery system

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4 Enhanced Growth of Microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Cultivated in Different Organic Waste and Effective Conversion of Algal Oil to Biodiesel

Authors: Ajith J. Kings, L. R. Monisha Miriam, R. Edwin Raj, S. Julyes Jaisingh, S. Gavaskar


Microalgae are a potential bio-source for rejuvenated solutions in various disciplines of science and technology, especially in medicine and energy. Biodiesel is being replaced for conventional fuels in automobile industries with reduced pollution and equivalent performance. Since it is a carbon neutral fuel by recycling CO2 in photosynthesis, global warming potential can be held in control using this fuel source. One of the ways to meet the rising demand of automotive fuel is to adopt with eco-friendly, green alternative fuels called sustainable microalgal biodiesel. In this work, a microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was cultivated and optimized in different media compositions developed from under-utilized waste materials in lab scale. Using the optimized process conditions, they are then mass propagated in out-door ponds, harvested, dried and oils extracted for optimization in ambient conditions. The microalgal oil was subjected to two step esterification processes using acid catalyst to reduce the acid value (0.52 mg kOH/g) in the initial stage, followed by transesterification to maximize the biodiesel yield. The optimized esterification process parameters are methanol/oil ratio 0.32 (v/v), sulphuric acid 10 vol.%, duration 45 min at 65 ºC. In the transesterification process, commercially available alkali catalyst (KOH) is used and optimized to obtain a maximum biodiesel yield of 95.4%. The optimized parameters are methanol/oil ratio 0.33(v/v), alkali catalyst 0.1 wt.%, duration 90 min at 65 ºC 90 with smooth stirring. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is employed as a tool for optimizing the process parameters. The biodiesel was then characterized with standard procedures and especially by GC-MS to confirm its compatibility for usage in internal combustion engine.

Keywords: microalgae, organic media, optimization, transesterification, characterization

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3 Influence of Hydrophobic Surface on Flow Past Square Cylinder

Authors: S. Ajith Kumar, Vaisakh S. Rajan


In external flows, vortex shedding behind the bluff bodies causes to experience unsteady loads on a large number of engineering structures, resulting in structural failure. Vortex shedding can even turn out to be disastrous like the Tacoma Bridge failure incident. We need to have control over vortex shedding to get rid of this untoward condition by reducing the unsteady forces acting on the bluff body. In circular cylinders, hydrophobic surface in an otherwise no-slip surface is found to be delaying separation and minimizes the effects of vortex shedding drastically. Flow over square cylinder stands different from this behavior as separation can takes place from either of the two corner separation points (front or rear). An attempt is made in this study to numerically elucidate the effect of hydrophobic surface in flow over a square cylinder. A 2D numerical simulation has been done to understand the effects of the slip surface on the flow past square cylinder. The details of the numerical algorithm will be presented at the time of the conference. A non-dimensional parameter, Knudsen number is defined to quantify the slip on the cylinder surface based on Maxwell’s equation. The slip surface condition of the wall affects the vorticity distribution around the cylinder and the flow separation. In the numerical analysis, we observed that the hydrophobic surface enhances the shedding frequency and damps down the amplitude of oscillations of the square cylinder. We also found that the slip has a negative effect on aerodynamic force coefficients such as the coefficient of lift (CL), coefficient of drag (CD) etc. and hence replacing the no slip surface by a hydrophobic surface can be treated as an effective drag reduction strategy and the introduction of hydrophobic surface could be utilized for reducing the vortex induced vibrations (VIV) and is found as an effective method in controlling VIV thereby controlling the structural failures.

Keywords: drag reduction, flow past square cylinder, flow control, hydrophobic surfaces, vortex shedding

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2 Beyond the “Breakdown” of Karman Vortex Street

Authors: Ajith Kumar S., Sankaran Namboothiri, Sankrish J., SarathKumar S., S. Anil Lal


A numerical analysis of flow over a heated circular cylinder is done in this paper. The governing equations, Navier-Stokes, and energy equation within the Boussinesq approximation along with continuity equation are solved using hybrid FEM-FVM technique. The density gradient created due to the heating of the cylinder will induce buoyancy force, opposite to the direction of action of acceleration due to gravity, g. In the present work, the flow direction and the direction of buoyancy force are taken as same (vertical flow configuration), so that the buoyancy force accelerates the mean flow past the cylinder. The relative dominance of the buoyancy force over the inertia force is characterized by the Richardson number (Ri), which is one of the parameter that governs the flow dynamics and heat transfer in this analysis. It is well known that above a certain value of Reynolds number, Re (ratio of inertia force over the viscous forces), the unsteady Von Karman vortices can be seen shedding behind the cylinder. The shedding wake patterns could be seriously altered by heating/cooling the cylinder. The non-dimensional shedding frequency called the Strouhal number is found to be increasing as Ri increases. The aerodynamic force coefficients CL and CD are observed to change its value. In the present vertical configuration of flow over the cylinder, as Ri increases, shedding frequency gets increased and suddenly drops down to zero at a critical value of Richardson number. The unsteady vortices turn to steady standing recirculation bubbles behind the cylinder after this critical Richardson number. This phenomenon is well known in literature as "Breakdown of the Karman Vortex Street". It is interesting to see the flow structures on further increase in the Richardson number. On further heating of the cylinder surface, the size of the recirculation bubble decreases without loosing its symmetry about the horizontal axis passing through the center of the cylinder. The separation angle is found to be decreasing with Ri. Finally, we observed a second critical Richardson number, after which the the flow will be attached to the cylinder surface without any wake behind it. The flow structures will be symmetrical not only about the horizontal axis, but also with the vertical axis passing through the center of the cylinder. At this stage, there will be a "single plume" emanating from the rear stagnation point of the cylinder. We also observed the transition of the plume is a strong function of the Richardson number.

Keywords: drag reduction, flow over circular cylinder, flow control, mixed convection flow, vortex shedding, vortex breakdown

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1 Studies on Pre-ignition Chamber Dynamics of Solid Rockets with Different Port Geometries

Authors: S. Vivek, Sharad Sharan, R. Arvind, D. V. Praveen, J. Vigneshwar, S. Ajith, V. R. Sanal Kumar


In this paper numerical studies have been carried out to examine the starting transient flow features of high-performance solid propellant rocket motors with different port geometries but with same propellant loading density. Numerical computations have been carried out using a 3D SST k-ω turbulence model. This code solves standard k-omega turbulence equations with shear flow corrections using a coupled second order implicit unsteady formulation. In the numerical study, a fully implicit finite volume scheme of the compressible, Reynolds-Averaged, Navier-Stokes equations are employed. We have observed from the numerical results that in solid rocket motors with highly loaded propellants having divergent port geometry the hot igniter gases can create pre-ignition thrust oscillations due to flow unsteadiness and recirculation. Under these conditions the convective flux to the surface of the propellant will be enhanced, which will create reattachment point far downstream of the transition region and it will create a situation for secondary ignition and formation of multiple-flame fronts. As a result the effective time required for the complete burning surface area to be ignited comes down drastically giving rise to a high pressurization rate (dp/dt) in the second phase of starting transient. This in effect could lead to starting thrust oscillations and eventually a hard start of the solid rocket motor. We have also observed that the igniter temperature fluctuations will be diminished rapidly and will reach the steady state value faster in the case of solid propellant rocket motors with convergent port than the divergent port irrespective of the igniter total pressure. We have concluded that the thrust oscillations and unexpected thrust spike often observed in solid rockets with non-uniform ports are presumably contributed due to the joint effects of the geometry dependent driving forces, transient burning and the chamber gas dynamics forces. We also concluded that the prudent selection of the port geometry, without altering the propellant loading density, for damping the total temperature fluctuations within the motor is a meaningful objective for the suppression and control of instability and/or pressure/thrust oscillations often observed in solid propellant rocket motors with non-uniform port geometry.

Keywords: ignition transient, solid rockets, starting transient, thrust transient

Procedia PDF Downloads 349