Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: M. Wendeker

13 Optimal Diesel Engine Technology Analysis Matching the Platform of the Helicopter

Authors: M. Wendeker, K. Siadkowska, P. Magryta, Z. Czyz, K. Skiba


In the paper environmental impact analysis the optimal Diesel engine for a light helicopter was performed. The paper consist an answer to the question of what the optimal Diesel engine for a light helicopter is, taking into consideration its expected performance and design capacity. The use of turbocharged engine with self-ignition and an electronic control system can substantially reduce the negative impact on the environment by decreasing toxic substance emission, fuel consumption and therefore carbon dioxide emission. In order to establish the environmental benefits of the diesel engine technologies, mathematical models were created, providing additional insight on the environmental impact and performance of a classic turboshaft and an advanced diesel engine light helicopter, incorporating technology developments.

Keywords: diesel engine, helicopter, simulation, environmental impact

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12 Simulation Research of City Bus Fuel Consumption during the CUEDC Australian Driving Cycle

Authors: P. Kacejko, M. Wendeker


The fuel consumption of city buses depends on a number of factors that characterize the technical properties of the bus and driver, as well as traffic conditions. This parameter related to greenhouse gas emissions is regulated by law in many countries. This applies to both fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Simulation studies are a way to reduce the costs of optimization studies. The paper describes simulation research of fuel consumption city bus driving. Parameters of the developed model are based on experimental results obtained on chassis dynamometer test stand and road tests. The object of the study was a city bus equipped with a compression-ignition engine. The verified model was applied to simulate the behavior of a bus during the CUEDC Australian Driving Cycle. The results of the calculations showed a direct influence of driving dynamics on fuel consumption.

Keywords: Australian Driving Cycle, city bus, diesel engine, fuel consumption

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11 Influence of Geometrical Parameters of a Wind Turbine on the Optimal Tip-Speed Ratio

Authors: Zdzislaw Piotr Kaminski, Miroslaw Wendeker, Zbigniew Czyz


The paper describes the geometric model, calculation algorithm and results of the CFD simulation of the airflow around a rotor in the vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) with the ANSYS Fluent computational solver. The CFD method enables creating aerodynamic characteristics of forces acting on rotor working surfaces and determining parameters such as torque or power generated by the rotor assembly. The object of the research was a rotor whose construction is based on patent no.PL219985. The conducted tests enabled a mathematical model with a description of the generation of aerodynamic forces acting on each rotor blade. Additionally, this model was compared to the results of the wind tunnel tests. The analysis also focused on the influence of the blade angle on turbine power and the TSR. The research has shown that the turbine blade angle has a significant impact on the optimal value of the TSR.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, numerical analysis, renewable energy, wind turbine

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10 The Modeling of City Bus Fuel Economy during the JE05 Emission Test Cycle

Authors: Miroslaw Wendeker, Piotr Kacejko, Marcin Szlachetka, Mariusz Duk


This paper discusses a model of fuel economy in a city bus driving in a dynamic urban environment. Rapid changes in speed result in a constantly changing kinetic energy accumulated in a bus mass and an increased fuel consumption due to hardly recuperated kinetic energy. The model is based on the bench test results achieved from chassis dynamometer, airport and city street researches. The verified model was applied to simulate the behavior of a bus during the Japanese JE05 Emission Test Cycle. The fuel consumption was calculated for three separate research stages, i.e. urban, downtown and motorway. The simulations were performed for several values of vehicle mass and electrical load applied to on-board devices. The research results show fuel consumption is impacted by driving dynamics.

Keywords: city bus, heavy duty vehicle, Japanese JE05 test cycle, kinetic energy

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9 Analysis of Influence of Geometrical Set of Nozzles on Aerodynamic Drag Level of a Hero’s Based Steam Turbine

Authors: Mateusz Paszko, Miroslaw Wendeker, Adam Majczak


High temperature waste energy offers a number of management options. The most common energy recuperation systems, that are actually used to utilize energy from the high temperature sources are steam turbines working in a high pressure and temperature closed cycles. Due to the high costs of production of energy recuperation systems, especially rotary turbine discs equipped with blades, currently used solutions are limited in use with waste energy sources of temperature below 100 °C. This study presents the results of simulating the flow of the water vapor in various configurations of flow ducts in a reaction steam turbine based on Hero’s steam turbine. The simulation was performed using a numerical model and the ANSYS Fluent software. Simulation computations were conducted with use of the water vapor as an internal agent powering the turbine, which is fully safe for an environment in case of a device failure. The conclusions resulting from the conducted numerical computations should allow for optimization of the flow ducts geometries, in order to achieve the greatest possible efficiency of the turbine. It is expected that the obtained results should be useful for further works related to the development of the final version of a low drag steam turbine dedicated for low cost energy recuperation systems.

Keywords: energy recuperation, CFD analysis, waste energy, steam turbine

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8 Cooling of Exhaust Gases Emitted Into the Atmosphere as the Possibility to Reduce the Helicopter Radiation Emission Level

Authors: Mateusz Paszko, Mirosław Wendeker, Adam Majczak


Every material body that temperature is higher than 0K (absolute zero) emits infrared radiation to the surroundings. Infrared radiation is highly meaningful in military aviation, especially in military applications of helicopters. Helicopters, in comparison to other aircraft, have much lower flight speeds and maneuverability, which makes them easy targets for actual combat assets like infrared-guided missiles. When designing new helicopter types, especially for combat applications, it is essential to pay enormous attention to infrared emissions of the solid parts composing the helicopter’s structure, as well as to exhaust gases egressing from the engine’s exhaust system. Due to their high temperature, exhaust gases, egressed to the surroundings are a major factor in infrared radiation emission and, in consequence, detectability of a helicopter performing air combat operations. Protection of the helicopter in flight from early detection, tracking and finally destruction can be realized in many ways. This paper presents the analysis of possibilities to decrease the infrared radiation level that is emitted to the environment by helicopter in flight, by cooling exhaust in special ejection-based coolers. The paper also presents the concept 3D model and results of numeric analysis of ejective-based cooler cooperation with PA-10W turbine engine. Numeric analysis presented promising results in decreasing the infrared emission level by PA W-3 helicopter in flight.

Keywords: exhaust cooler, helicopter propulsion, infrared radiation, stealth

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7 Research of Actuators of Common Rail Injection Systems with the Use of LabVIEW on a Specially Designed Test Bench

Authors: G. Baranski, A. Majczak, M. Wendeker


Currently, the most commonly used solution to provide fuel to the diesel engines is the Common Rail system. Compared to previous designs, as a due to relatively simple construction and electronic control systems, these systems allow achieving favourable engine operation parameters with particular emphasis on low emission of toxic compounds into the atmosphere. In this system, the amount of injected fuel dose is strictly dependent on the course of parameters of the electrical impulse sent by the power amplifier power supply system injector from the engine controller. The article presents the construction of a laboratory test bench to examine the course of the injection process and the expense in storage injection systems. The test bench enables testing of injection systems with electromagnetically controlled injectors with the use of scientific engineering tools. The developed system is based on LabView software and CompactRIO family controller using FPGA systems and a real time microcontroller. The results of experimental research on electromagnetic injectors of common rail system, controlled by a dedicated National Instruments card, confirm the effectiveness of the presented approach. The results of the research described in the article present the influence of basic parameters of the electric impulse opening the electromagnetic injector on the value of the injected fuel dose. Acknowledgement: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK ‘PZL-KALISZ’ S.A.’ and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: fuel injector, combustion engine, fuel pressure, compression ignition engine, power supply system, controller, LabVIEW

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6 Analysis of Power Demand for the Common Rail Pump Drive in an Aircraft Engine

Authors: Rafal Sochaczewski, Marcin Szlachetka, Miroslaw Wendeker


Increasing requirements to reduce exhaust emissions and fuel consumption while increasing the power factor is increasingly becoming applicable to internal combustion engines intended for aircraft applications. As a result, intensive research work is underway to develop a diesel-powered unit for aircraft propulsion. Due to a number of advantages, such as lack of the head (lower heat loss) and timing system, opposite movement of pistons conducive to balancing the engine, the two-stroke compression-ignition engine with the opposite pistons has been developed and upgraded. Of course, such construction also has drawbacks. The main one is the necessity of using a gear connecting two crankshafts or a complicated crank system with one shaft. The peculiarity of the arrangement of pistons with sleeves, as well as the fulfillment of rigorous requirements, makes it necessary to apply the most modern technologies and constructional solutions. In the case of the fuel supply system, it was decided to use common rail system elements. The paper presents an analysis of the possibility of using a common rail pump to supply an aircraft compression-ignition engine. It is an engine with a two-stroke cycle, three cylinders, opposing pistons, and 100 kW power. Each combustion chamber is powered by two injectors controlled by electromagnetic valves. In order to assess the possibility of using a common rail pump, four high-pressure pumps were tested on a bench. They are piston pumps differing in the number and geometry of the pumping sections. The analysis included the torque on the pump drive shaft and the power needed to drive the pump depending on the rotational speed, pumping pressure and fuel dispenser settings. The research allowed to optimize the engine power supply system depending on the fuel demand and the way the pump is mounted on the engine. Acknowledgment: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK ‘PZL-KALISZ’ S.A.’ and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish Nation-al Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: diesel engine, fuel pump, opposing pistons, two-stroke

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5 Individual Cylinder Ignition Advance Control Algorithms of the Aircraft Piston Engine

Authors: G. Barański, P. Kacejko, M. Wendeker


The impact of the ignition advance control algorithms of the ASz-62IR-16X aircraft piston engine on a combustion process has been presented in this paper. This aircraft engine is a nine-cylinder 1000 hp engine with a special electronic control ignition system. This engine has two spark plugs per cylinder with an ignition advance angle dependent on load and the rotational speed of the crankshaft. Accordingly, in most cases, these angles are not optimal for power generated. The scope of this paper is focused on developing algorithms to control the ignition advance angle in an electronic ignition control system of an engine. For this type of engine, i.e. radial engine, an ignition advance angle should be controlled independently for each cylinder because of the design of such an engine and its crankshaft system. The ignition advance angle is controlled in an open-loop way, which means that the control signal (i.e. ignition advance angle) is determined according to the previously developed maps, i.e. recorded tables of the correlation between the ignition advance angle and engine speed and load. Load can be measured by engine crankshaft speed or intake manifold pressure. Due to a limited memory of a controller, the impact of other independent variables (such as cylinder head temperature or knock) on the ignition advance angle is given as a series of one-dimensional arrays known as corrective characteristics. The value of the ignition advance angle specified combines the value calculated from the primary characteristics and several correction factors calculated from correction characteristics. Individual cylinder control can proceed in line with certain indicators determined from pressure registered in a combustion chamber. Control is assumed to be based on the following indicators: maximum pressure, maximum pressure angle, indicated mean effective pressure. Additionally, a knocking combustion indicator was defined. Individual control can be applied to a single set of spark plugs only, which results from two fundamental ideas behind designing a control system. Independent operation of two ignition control systems – if two control systems operate simultaneously. It is assumed that the entire individual control should be performed for a front spark plug only and a rear spark plug shall be controlled with a fixed (or specific) offset relative to the front one or from a reference map. The developed algorithms will be verified by simulation and engine test sand experiments. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, INNOLOT, under Grant Agreement No. INNOLOT/I/1/NCBR/2013.

Keywords: algorithm, combustion process, radial engine, spark plug

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4 Simulation Research of Diesel Aircraft Engine

Authors: Łukasz Grabowski, Michał Gęca, Mirosław Wendeker


This paper presents the simulation results of a new opposed piston diesel engine to power a light aircraft. Created in the AVL Boost, the model covers the entire charge passage, from the inlet up to the outlet. The model shows fuel injection into cylinders and combustion in cylinders. The calculation uses the module for two-stroke engines. The model was created using sub-models available in this software that structure the model. Each of the sub-models is complemented with parameters in line with the design premise. Since engine weight resulting from geometric dimensions is fundamental in aircraft engines, two configurations of stroke were studied. For each of the values, there were calculated selected operating conditions defined by crankshaft speed. The required power was achieved by changing air fuel ratio (AFR). There was also studied brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC). For stroke S1, the BSFC was lowest at all of the three operating points. This difference is approximately 1-2%, which means higher overall engine efficiency but the amount of fuel injected into cylinders is larger by several mg for S1. The cylinder maximum pressure is lower for S2 due to the fact that compressor gear driving remained the same and boost pressure was identical in the both cases. Calculations for various values of boost pressure were the next stage of the study. In each of the calculation case, the amount of fuel was changed to achieve the required engine power. In the former case, the intake system dimensions were modified, i.e. the duct connecting the compressor and the air cooler, so its diameter D = 40 mm was equal to the diameter of the compressor outlet duct. The impact of duct length was also examined to be able to reduce the flow pulsation during the operating cycle. For the so selected geometry of the intake system, there were calculations for various values of boost pressure. The boost pressure was changed by modifying the gear driving the compressor. To reach the required level of cruising power N = 68 kW. Due to the mechanical power consumed by the compressor, high pressure ratio results in a worsened overall engine efficiency. The figure on the change in BSFC from 210 g/kWh to nearly 270 g/kWh shows this correlation and the overall engine efficiency is reduced by about 8%. Acknowledgement: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK "PZL-KALISZ" S.A." and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: aircraft, diesel, engine, simulation

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3 The Impact of Undisturbed Flow Speed on the Correlation of Aerodynamic Coefficients as a Function of the Angle of Attack for the Gyroplane Body

Authors: Zbigniew Czyz, Krzysztof Skiba, Miroslaw Wendeker


This paper discusses the results of aerodynamic investigation of the Tajfun gyroplane body designed by a Polish company, Aviation Artur Trendak. This gyroplane has been studied as a 1:8 scale model. Scaling objects for aerodynamic investigation is an inherent procedure in any kind of designing. If scaling, the criteria of similarity need to be satisfied. The basic criteria of similarity are geometric, kinematic and dynamic. Despite the results of aerodynamic research are often reduced to aerodynamic coefficients, one should pay attention to how values of coefficients behave if certain criteria are to be satisfied. To satisfy the dynamic criterion, for example, the Reynolds number should be focused on. This is the correlation of inertial to viscous forces. With the multiplied flow speed by the specific dimension as a numerator (with a constant kinematic viscosity coefficient), flow speed in a wind tunnel research should be increased as many times as an object is decreased. The aerodynamic coefficients specified in this research depend on the real forces that act on an object, its specific dimension, medium speed and variations in its density. Rapid prototyping with a 3D printer was applied to create the research object. The research was performed with a T-1 low-speed wind tunnel (its diameter of the measurement volume is 1.5 m) and a six-element aerodynamic internal scales, WDP1, at the Institute of Aviation in Warsaw. This T-1 wind tunnel is low-speed continuous operation with open space measurement. The research covered a number of the selected speeds of undisturbed flow, i.e. V = 20, 30 and 40 m/s, corresponding to the Reynolds numbers (as referred to 1 m) Re = 1.31∙106, 1.96∙106, 2.62∙106 for the angles of attack ranging -15° ≤ α ≤ 20°. Our research resulted in basic aerodynamic characteristics and observing the impact of undisturbed flow speed on the correlation of aerodynamic coefficients as a function of the angle of attack of the gyroplane body. If the speed of undisturbed flow in the wind tunnel changes, the aerodynamic coefficients are significantly impacted. At speed from 20 m/s to 30 m/s, drag coefficient, Cx, changes by 2.4% up to 9.9%, whereas lift coefficient, Cz, changes by -25.5% up to 15.7% if the angle of attack of 0° excluded or by -25.5% up to 236.9% if the angle of attack of 0° included. Within the same speed range, the coefficient of a pitching moment, Cmy, changes by -21.1% up to 7.3% if the angles of attack -15° and -10° excluded or by -142.8% up to 618.4% if the angle of attack -15° and -10° included. These discrepancies in the coefficients of aerodynamic forces definitely need to consider while designing the aircraft. For example, if load of certain aircraft surfaces is calculated, additional correction factors definitely need to be applied. This study allows us to estimate the discrepancies in the aerodynamic forces while scaling the aircraft. This work has been financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education.

Keywords: aerodynamics, criteria of similarity, gyroplane, research tunnel

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2 Adaptive Power Control of the City Bus Integrated Photovoltaic System

Authors: Piotr Kacejko, Mariusz Duk, Miroslaw Wendeker


This paper presents an adaptive controller to track the maximum power point of a photovoltaic modules (PV) under fast irradiation change on the city-bus roof. Photovoltaic systems have been a prominent option as an additional energy source for vehicles. The Municipal Transport Company (MPK) in Lublin has installed photovoltaic panels on its buses roofs. The solar panels turn solar energy into electric energy and are used to load the buses electric equipment. This decreases the buses alternators load, leading to lower fuel consumption and bringing both economic and ecological profits. A DC–DC boost converter is selected as the power conditioning unit to coordinate the operating point of the system. In addition to the conversion efficiency of a photovoltaic panel, the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method also plays a main role to harvest most energy out of the sun. The MPPT unit on a moving vehicle must keep tracking accuracy high in order to compensate rapid change of irradiation change due to dynamic motion of the vehicle. Maximum power point track controllers should be used to increase efficiency and power output of solar panels under changing environmental factors. There are several different control algorithms in the literature developed for maximum power point tracking. However, energy performances of MPPT algorithms are not clarified for vehicle applications that cause rapid changes of environmental factors. In this study, an adaptive MPPT algorithm is examined at real ambient conditions. PV modules are mounted on a moving city bus designed to test the solar systems on a moving vehicle. Some problems of a PV system associated with a moving vehicle are addressed. The proposed algorithm uses a scanning technique to determine the maximum power delivering capacity of the panel at a given operating condition and controls the PV panel. The aim of control algorithm was matching the impedance of the PV modules by controlling the duty cycle of the internal switch, regardless of changes of the parameters of the object of control and its outer environment. Presented algorithm was capable of reaching the aim of control. The structure of an adaptive controller was simplified on purpose. Since such a simple controller, armed only with an ability to learn, a more complex structure of an algorithm can only improve the result. The presented adaptive control system of the PV system is a general solution and can be used for other types of PV systems of both high and low power. Experimental results obtained from comparison of algorithms by a motion loop are presented and discussed. Experimental results are presented for fast change in irradiation and partial shading conditions. The results obtained clearly show that the proposed method is simple to implement with minimum tracking time and high tracking efficiency proving superior to the proposed method. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, PBS, under Grant Agreement No. PBS 2/A6/16/2013.

Keywords: adaptive control, photovoltaic energy, city bus electric load, DC-DC converter

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1 Simulation Research of Innovative Ignition System of ASz62IR Radial Aircraft Engine

Authors: Miroslaw Wendeker, Piotr Kacejko, Mariusz Duk, Pawel Karpinski


The research in the field of aircraft internal combustion engines is currently driven by the needs of decreasing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, while fulfilling the level of safety. Currently, reciprocating aircraft engines are found in sports, emergency, agricultural and recreation aviation. Technically, they are most at a pre-war knowledge of the theory of operation, design and manufacturing technology, especially if compared to that high level of development of automotive engines. Typically, these engines are driven by carburetors of a quite primitive construction. At present, due to environmental requirements and dealing with a climate change, it is beneficial to develop aircraft piston engines and adopt the achievements of automotive engineering such as computer-controlled low-pressure injection, electronic ignition control and biofuels. The paper describes simulation research of the innovative power and control systems for the aircraft radial engine of high power. Installing an electronic ignition system in the radial aircraft engine is a fundamental innovative idea of this solution. Consequently, the required level of safety and better functionality as compared to the today’s plug system can be guaranteed. In this framework, this research work focuses on describing a methodology for optimizing the electronically controlled ignition system. This attempt can reduce emissions of toxic compounds as a result of lowered fuel consumption, optimized combustion and engine capability of efficient combustion of ecological fuels. New, redundant elements of the control system can improve the safety of aircraft. Consequently, the required level of safety and better functionality as compared to the today’s plug system can be guaranteed. The simulation research aimed to determine the vulnerability of the values measured (they were planned as the quantities measured by the measurement systems) to determining the optimal ignition angle (the angle of maximum torque at a given operating point). The described results covered: a) research in steady states; b) velocity ranging from 1500 to 2200 rpm (every 100 rpm); c) loading ranging from propeller power to maximum power; d) altitude ranging according to the International Standard Atmosphere from 0 to 8000 m (every 1000 m); e) fuel: automotive gasoline ES95. The three models of different types of ignition coil (different energy discharge) were studied. The analysis aimed at the optimization of the design of the innovative ignition system for an aircraft engine. The optimization involved: a) the optimization of the measurement systems; b) the optimization of actuator systems. The studies enabled the research on the vulnerability of the signals to the control of the ignition timing. Accordingly, the number and type of sensors were determined for the ignition system to achieve its optimal performance. The results confirmed the limited benefits, in terms of fuel consumption. Thus, including spark management in the optimization is mandatory to significantly decrease the fuel consumption. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, INNOLOT, under Grant Agreement No. INNOLOT/I/1/NCBR/2013.

Keywords: piston engine, radial engine, ignition system, CFD model, engine optimization

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