Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2043

Search results for: hybrid rocket motor

2043 Experimental Investigation of Hybrid Rocket Motor: Ignition, Throttling and Re-Ignition Phenomena

Authors: A. El-S. Makled, M. K. Al-Tamimi


Ignition phenomena are of great interest area over the past many years, and it has a direct impact on many propulsion and combustion applications. The direct goal of the paper is to realize and evaluate a functioning ignition method, shut-off, throttling and re-start operations for the hybrid rocket motor. A small-scale hybrid rocket motor (SSHRM) is designed, manufactured, demonstrated at various operating conditions and finally equipped for laboratory firing tests with high level of safety. Various solid fuel grains as Polymethyle-methacrylate (PMMA) and Polyethylene (PE) are selected, and it is decided to use the commercial gaseous oxygen (GO2) for its availability and low cost. Examine different types of ignition methods, pyrotechnic charge, fuse wire, heat wire and finally hot oxidizer method by using the heat exchanger, which are proposed as very safe ignition methods. Finally; recognize phenomena of throttling and re-start operations. Ignition by hot GO2 impingement is proved to be a very attractive ignition method for laboratory SSHRM, for its high safety, reliability and acceptable delay time. Finally; the throttling and re-start operations are demonstrated several times and can be carried out more easily with hot air ignition method.

Keywords: hybrid rocket motor, ignition system, re-start phenomena, throttling

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2042 A Finite Element Method Simulation for Rocket Motor Material Selection

Authors: T. Kritsana, P. Sawitri, P. Teeratas


This article aims to study the effect of pressure on rocket motor case by Finite Element Method simulation to select optimal material in rocket motor manufacturing process. In this study, cylindrical tubes with outside diameter of 122 mm and thickness of 3 mm are used for simulation. Defined rocket motor case materials are AISI4130, AISI1026, AISI1045, AL2024 and AL7075. Internal pressure used for the simulation is 22 MPa. The result from Finite Element Method shows that at a pressure of 22 MPa rocket motor case produced by AISI4130, AISI1045 and AL7075 can be used. A comparison of the result between AISI4130, AISI1045 and AL7075 shows that AISI4130 has minimum principal stress and confirm the results of Finite Element Method by the used of calculation method found that, the results from Finite Element Method has good reliability.

Keywords: rocket motor case, finite element method, principal stress, simulation

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2041 Hybrid Rocket Motor Performance Parameters: Theoretical and Experimental Evaluation

Authors: A. El-S. Makled, M. K. Al-Tamimi


A mathematical model to predict the performance parameters (thrusts, chamber pressures, fuel mass flow rates, mixture ratios, and regression rates during firing time) of hybrid rocket motor (HRM) is evaluated. The internal ballistic (IB) hybrid combustion model assumes that the solid fuel surface regression rate is controlled only by heat transfer (convective and radiative) from flame zone to solid fuel burning surface. A laboratory HRM is designed, manufactured, and tested for low thrust profile space missions (10-15 N) and for validating the mathematical model (computer program). The polymer material and gaseous oxidizer which are selected for this experimental work are polymethyle-methacrylate (PMMA) and polyethylene (PE) as solid fuel grain and gaseous oxygen (GO2) as oxidizer. The variation of various operational parameters with time is determined systematically and experimentally in firing of up to 20 seconds, and an average combustion efficiency of 95% of theory is achieved, which was the goal of these experiments. The comparison between recording fire data and predicting analytical parameters shows good agreement with the error that does not exceed 4.5% during all firing time. The current mathematical (computer) code can be used as a powerful tool for HRM analytical design parameters.

Keywords: hybrid combustion, internal ballistics, hybrid rocket motor, performance parameters

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2040 Design, Modeling, Fabrication, and Testing of a Scaled down Hybrid Rocket Engine

Authors: Pawthawala Nancy Manish, Syed Alay Hashim


A hybrid rocket is a rocket engine which uses propellants in two different states of matter- one is in solid and the other either gas or liquid. A hybrid rocket exhibit advantages over both liquid rockets and solid rockets especially in terms of simplicity, stop-start-restart capabilities, safety and cost. This paper deals the design and development of a hybrid rocket having paraffin wax as solid fuel and liquid oxygen as oxidizer. Due to variation of pressure in combustion chamber there is significantly change in mass flow rate, burning rate and uneven regression along the length of the grain. This project describes the working model of a hybrid propellant rocket motor. We have designed a hybrid rocket thrust chamber based on the predetermined combustion chamber pressure and the properties of hybrid propellant. This project is all ready in working condition with normal oxygen injector. Now we have planned to modify the injector design to improve the combustion property. We will use spray type injector for injecting the oxidizer. This idea will increase the performance followed by the regression rate of the solid fuel. By employing mass conservation law, oxygen mass flux, oxidizer/fuel ratio and regression rate the thrust coefficient can be obtained for our current design. CATIA V5 R20 is our design software for the complete setup. This project is fully based on experimental evaluation and the collection of combustion and flow parameters. The thrust chamber is made of stainless steel and the duration of test is around 15-20 seconds (Maximum). These experiments indicates that paraffin based fuel provides the opportunity to satisfy a broad range of mission requirements for the next generation of the hybrid rocket system.

Keywords: burning rate, liquid oxygen, mass flow rate, paraffin wax and sugar

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2039 Design and Burnback Analysis of Three Dimensional Modified Star Grain

Authors: Almostafa Abdelaziz, Liang Guozhu, Anwer Elsayed


The determination of grain geometry is an important and critical step in the design of solid propellant rocket motor. In this study, the design process involved parametric geometry modeling in CAD, MATLAB coding of performance prediction and 2D star grain ignition experiment. The 2D star grain burnback achieved by creating new surface via each web increment and calculating geometrical properties at each step. The 2D star grain is further modified to burn as a tapered 3D star grain. Zero dimensional method used to calculate the internal ballistic performance. Experimental and theoretical results were compared in order to validate the performance prediction of the solid rocket motor. The results show that the usage of 3D grain geometry will decrease the pressure inside the combustion chamber and enhance the volumetric loading ratio.

Keywords: burnback analysis, rocket motor, star grain, three dimensional grains

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
2038 Failure Analysis: Solid Rocket Motor Type “Candy” - Explosion in a Static Test

Authors: Diego Romero, Fabio Rojas, J. Alejandro Urrego


The sounding rockets are aerospace vehicles that were developed in the mid-20th century, and Colombia has been involved in research that was carried out with the aim of innovating with this technology. The rockets are university research programs with the collaboration of the local government, with a simple strategy, develop and reduce the greatest costs associated with the production of a kind type of technology. In this way, in this document presents the failure analysis of a solid rocket motor, with the real compatibly to reach the thermosphere with a low-cost fuel. This solid rocket motor is the latest development of the Uniandes Aerospace Project (PUA for its Spanish acronym), an undergraduate and postgraduate research group at Universidad de los Andes (Bogotá, Colombia), dedicated to incurring in this type of technology. This motor has been carried out on Candy-type solid fuel, which is a compound of potassium nitrate and sorbitol, and the investigation has allowed the production of solid motors powerful enough to reach space, and which represents a unique technological advance in Latin America and an important development in experimental rocketry.To outline the main points the explosion in a static test is an important to explore and demonstrate the ways to develop technology, methodologies, production and manufacturing, being a solid rocket motor with 30 kN of thrust. In conclusion, this analysis explores different fields such as: design, manufacture, materials, production, first fire and more, with different engineering tools with principal objective find root failure. Following the engineering analysis methodology, was possible to design a new version of motor, with learned lessons new manufacturing specification, therefore, when publishing this project, it is intended to be a reference for future research in this field and benefit the industry.

Keywords: candy propellant, candy rockets, explosion, failure analysis, static test, solid rocket motor

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2037 Speed Control of Hybrid Stepper Motor by Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Controller

Authors: Talha Ali Khan


This paper presents an adaptive neuro-fuzzy interference system (ANFIS), which is applied to a hybrid stepper motor (HSM) to regulate its speed. The dynamic response of the HSM with the ANFIS controller is studied during the starting process and under different load disturbance. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is compared with that of the conventional PI controller. The proposed method solves the problem of nonlinearities and load changes of the HSM drives. The proposed controller ensures fast and precise dynamic response with an excellent steady state performance. Matlab/Simulink program is used for this dynamic simulation study.

Keywords: stepper motor, hybrid, ANFIS, speed control

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2036 Aging Evaluation of Ammonium Perchlorate/Hydroxyl Terminated Polybutadiene-Based Solid Rocket Engine by Reactive Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Thermal Analysis

Authors: R. F. B. Gonçalves, E. N. Iwama, J. A. F. F. Rocco, K. Iha


Propellants based on Hydroxyl Terminated Polybutadiene/Ammonium Perchlorate (HTPB/AP) are the most commonly used in most of the rocket engines used by the Brazilian Armed Forces. This work aimed at the possibility of extending its useful life (currently in 10 years) by performing kinetic-chemical analyzes of its energetic material via Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and also performing computer simulation of aging process using the software Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS). Thermal analysis via DSC was performed in triplicates and in three heating ratios (5 ºC, 10 ºC, and 15 ºC) of rocket motor with 11 years shelf-life, using the Arrhenius equation to obtain its activation energy, using Ozawa and Kissinger kinetic methods, allowing comparison with manufacturing period data (standard motor). In addition, the kinetic parameters of internal pressure of the combustion chamber in 08 rocket engines with 11 years of shelf-life were also acquired, for comparison purposes with the engine start-up data.

Keywords: shelf-life, thermal analysis, Ozawa method, Kissinger method, LAMMPS software, thrust

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2035 Development of a Plug-In Hybrid Powertrain System with Double Continuously Variable Transmissions

Authors: Cheng-Chi Yu, Chi-Shiun Chiou


This study developed a plug-in hybrid powertrain system which consisted of two continuous variable transmissions. By matching between the engine, motor, generator, and dual continuous variable transmissions, this integrated power system can take advantages of the components. The hybrid vehicle can be driven by the internal combustion engine, or electric motor alone, or by these two power sources together when the vehicle is driven in hard acceleration or high load. The energy management of this integrated hybrid system controls the power systems based on rule-based control strategy to achieve better fuel economy. When the vehicle driving power demand is low, the internal combustion engine is operating in the low efficiency region, so the internal combustion engine is shut down, and the vehicle is driven by motor only. When the vehicle driving power demand is high, internal combustion engine would operate in the high efficiency region; then the vehicle could be driven by internal combustion engine. This strategy would operate internal combustion engine only in optimal efficiency region to improve the fuel economy. In this research, the vehicle simulation model was built in MATLAB/ Simulink environment. The analysis results showed that the power coupled efficiency of the hybrid powertrain system with dual continuous variable transmissions was better than that of the Honda hybrid system on the market.

Keywords: plug-in hybrid power system, fuel economy, performance, continuously variable transmission

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2034 A Spatial Perspective on the Metallized Combustion Aspect of Rockets

Authors: Chitresh Prasad, Arvind Ramesh, Aditya Virkar, Karan Dholkaria, Vinayak Malhotra


Solid Propellant Rocket is a rocket that utilises a combination of a solid Oxidizer and a solid Fuel. Success in Solid Rocket Motor design and development depends significantly on knowledge of burning rate behaviour of the selected solid propellant under all motor operating conditions and design limit conditions. Most Solid Motor Rockets consist of the Main Engine, along with multiple Boosters that provide an additional thrust to the space-bound vehicle. Though widely used, they have been eclipsed by Liquid Propellant Rockets, because of their better performance characteristics. The addition of a catalyst such as Iron Oxide, on the other hand, can drastically enhance the performance of a Solid Rocket. This scientific investigation tries to emulate the working of a Solid Rocket using Sparklers and Energized Candles, with a central Energized Candle acting as the Main Engine and surrounding Sparklers acting as the Booster. The Energized Candle is made of Paraffin Wax, with Magnesium filings embedded in it’s wick. The Sparkler is made up of 45% Barium Nitrate, 35% Iron, 9% Aluminium, 10% Dextrin and the remaining composition consists of Boric Acid. The Magnesium in the Energized Candle, and the combination of Iron and Aluminium in the Sparkler, act as catalysts and enhance the burn rates of both materials. This combustion of Metallized Propellants has an influence over the regression rate of the subject candle. The experimental parameters explored here are Separation Distance, Systematically varying Configuration and Layout Symmetry. The major performance parameter under observation is the Regression Rate of the Energized Candle. The rate of regression is significantly affected by the orientation and configuration of the sparklers, which usually act as heat sources for the energized candle. The Overall Efficiency of any engine is factorised by the thermal and propulsive efficiencies. Numerous efforts have been made to improve one or the other. This investigation focuses on the Orientation of Rocket Motor Design to maximize their Overall Efficiency. The primary objective is to analyse the Flame Spread Rate variations of the energized candle, which resembles the solid rocket propellant used in the first stage of rocket operation thereby affecting the Specific Impulse values in a Rocket, which in turn have a deciding impact on their Time of Flight. Another objective of this research venture is to determine the effectiveness of the key controlling parameters explored. This investigation also emulates the exhaust gas interactions of the Solid Rocket through concurrent ignition of the Energized Candle and Sparklers, and their behaviour is analysed. Modern space programmes intend to explore the universe outside our solar system. To accomplish these goals, it is necessary to design a launch vehicle which is capable of providing incessant propulsion along with better efficiency for vast durations. The main motivation of this study is to enhance Rocket performance and their Overall Efficiency through better designing and optimization techniques, which will play a crucial role in this human conquest for knowledge.

Keywords: design modifications, improving overall efficiency, metallized combustion, regression rate variations

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2033 Optimization of Switched Reluctance Motor for Drive System in Automotive Applications

Authors: A. Peniak, J. Makarovič, P. Rafajdus, P. Dúbravka


The purpose of this work is to optimize a Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) for an automotive application, specifically for a fully electric car. A new optimization approach is proposed. This unique approach transforms automotive customer requirements into an optimization problem, based on sound knowledge of a SRM theory. The approach combines an analytical and a finite element analysis of the motor to quantify static nonlinear and dynamic performance parameters, as phase currents and motor torque maps, an output power and power losses in order to find the optimal motor as close to the reality as possible, within reasonable time. The new approach yields the optimal motor which is competitive with other types of already proposed motors for automotive applications. This distinctive approach can also be used to optimize other types of electrical motors, when parts specifically related to the SRM are adjusted accordingly.

Keywords: automotive, drive system, electric car, finite element method, hybrid car, optimization, switched reluctance motor

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2032 The Uniting Control Lyapunov Functions in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Linear Motor

Authors: Yi-Fei Yang, Nai-Bao He, Shao-Bang Xing


This study investigates the permanent magnet synchronous linear motor (PMSLM) chaotic motion under the specific physical parameters, the stability and the security of motor-driven system will be unavoidably influenced. Therefore, it is really necessary to investigate the methods of controlling or suppressing chaos in PMSLM. Firstly, we derive a chaotic model of PMSLM in the closed-loop system. Secondly, in order to realize the local asymptotic stabilization of the mechanical subsystem and the global stabilization of the motor-driven system including electrical subsystem, we propose an improved uniting control lyapunov functions by introducing backstepping approach. Finally, an illustrated example is also given to show the electiveness of the obtained results.

Keywords: linear motor, lyapunov functions, chao control, hybrid controller

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2031 Hybrid Control Strategy for Nine-Level Asymmetrical Cascaded H-Bridge Inverter

Authors: Bachir Belmadani, Rachid Taleb, M’hamed Helaimi


Multilevel inverters are well used in high power electronic applications because of their ability to generate a very good quality of waveforms, reducing switching frequency, and their low voltage stress across the power devices. This paper presents the hybrid pulse-width modulation (HPWM) strategy of a uniform step asymmetrical cascaded H-bridge nine-level Inverter (USACHB9LI). The HPWM approach is compared to the well-known sinusoidal pulse-width modulation (SPWM) strategy. Simulation results demonstrate the better performances and technical advantages of the HPWM controller in feeding a high power induction motor.

Keywords: uniform step asymmetrical cascaded h-bridge high-level inverter, hybrid pwm, sinusoidal pwm, high power induction motor

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2030 Embedded Digital Image System

Authors: Dawei Li, Cheng Liu, Yiteng Liu


This paper introduces an embedded digital image system for Chinese space environment vertical exploration sounding rocket. In order to record the flight status of the sounding rocket as well as the payloads, an onboard embedded image processing system based on ADV212, a JPEG2000 compression chip, is designed in this paper. Since the sounding rocket is not designed to be recovered, all image data should be transmitted to the ground station before the re-entry while the downlink band used for the image transmission is only about 600 kbps. Under the same condition of compression ratio compared with other algorithm, JPEG2000 standard algorithm can achieve better image quality. So JPEG2000 image compression is applied under this condition with a limited downlink data band. This embedded image system supports lossless to 200:1 real time compression, with two cameras to monitor nose ejection and motor separation, and two cameras to monitor boom deployment. The encoder, ADV7182, receives PAL signal from the camera, then output the ITU-R BT.656 signal to ADV212. ADV7182 switches between four input video channels as the program sequence. Two SRAMs are used for Ping-pong operation and one 512 Mb SDRAM for buffering high frame-rate images. The whole image system has the characteristics of low power dissipation, low cost, small size and high reliability, which is rather suitable for this sounding rocket application.

Keywords: ADV212, image system, JPEG2000, sounding rocket

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2029 Design and Analysis of Active Rocket Control Systems

Authors: Piotr Jerzy Rugor, Julia Wajoras


The presented work regards a single-stage aerodynamically controlled solid propulsion rocket. Steering a rocket to fly along a predetermined trajectory can be beneficial for minimizing aerodynamic losses and achieved by implementing an active control system on board. In this particular case, a canard configuration has been chosen, although other methods of control have been considered and preemptively analyzed, including non-aerodynamic ones. The objective of this work is to create a system capable of guiding the rocket, focusing on roll stabilization. The paper describes initial analysis of the problem, covers the main challenges of missile guidance and presents data acquired during the experimental study.

Keywords: active canard control system, rocket design, numerical simulations, flight optimization

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2028 Induction Motor Analysis Using LabVIEW

Authors: E. Ramprasath, P. Manojkumar, P. Veena


Proposed paper dealt with the modelling and analysis of induction motor based on the mathematical expression using the graphical programming environment of Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench (LabVIEW). Induction motor modelling with the mathematical expression enables the motor to be simulated with the various required parameters. Owing to the invention of variable speed drives study about the induction motor characteristics became complex.In this simulation motor internal parameter such as stator resistance and reactance, rotor resistance and reactance, phase voltage, frequency and losses will be given as input. By varying the speed of motor corresponding parameters can be obtained they are input power, output power, efficiency, torque induced, slip and current.

Keywords: induction motor, LabVIEW software, modelling and analysi, electrical and mechanical characteristics of motor

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2027 Fault Diagnosis in Induction Motor

Authors: Kirti Gosavi, Anita Bhole


The paper demonstrates simulation and steady-state performance of three phase squirrel cage induction motor and detection of rotor broken bar fault using MATLAB. This simulation model is successfully used in the fault detection of rotor broken bar for the induction machines. A dynamic model using PWM inverter and mathematical modelling of the motor is developed. The dynamic simulation of the small power induction motor is one of the key steps in the validation of the design process of the motor drive system and it is needed for eliminating advertent design errors and the resulting error in the prototype construction and testing. The simulation model will be helpful in detecting the faults in three phase induction motor using Motor current signature analysis.

Keywords: squirrel cage induction motor, pulse width modulation (PWM), fault diagnosis, induction motor

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2026 Buck Boost Inverter to Improve the Efficiency and Performance of E-Motor by Reducing the Influence of Voltage Sag of Battery on the Performance of E-Motor

Authors: Shefeen Maliyakkal, Pranav Satheesh, Steve Simon, Sharath Kuruppath


This paper researches the impact of battery voltage sag on the performance and efficiency of E-motor in electric cars. Terminal voltage of battery reduces with the S.o.C. This results in the downward shift of torque-speed curve of E-motor and increased copper losses in E-motor. By introducing a buck-boost inverter between the battery and E-motor, an additional degree of freedom was achieved. By boosting the AC voltage, the dependency of voltage sag on the performance of E-motor was eliminated. A strategy was also proposed for the operation of the buck-boost inverter to minimize copper and iron losses in E-motor to maximize efficiency. MATLAB-SIMULINK model of E-drive was used to obtain simulation results. The temperature rise in the E-motor was reduced by 14% for a 10% increase in AC voltage. From the results, it was observed that a 20% increase in AC voltage can result in improvement of running torque and maximum torque of E-motor by 44%. Hence it was concluded that using a buck-boost inverter for E-drive significantly improves both performance and efficiency of E-motor.

Keywords: buck-boost, E-motor, battery, voltage sag

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2025 Performance Enhancement of Hybrid Racing Car by Design Optimization

Authors: Tarang Varmora, Krupa Shah, Karan Patel


Environmental pollution and shortage of conventional fuel are the main concerns in the transportation sector. Most of the vehicles use an internal combustion engine (ICE), powered by gasoline fuels. This results into emission of toxic gases. Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) powered by electric machine and ICE is capable of reducing emission of toxic gases and fuel consumption. However to build HEV, it is required to accommodate motor and batteries in the vehicle along with engine and fuel tank. Thus, overall weight of the vehicle increases. To improve the fuel economy and acceleration, the weight of the HEV can be minimized. In this paper, the design methodology to reduce the weight of the hybrid racing car is proposed. To this end, the chassis design is optimized. Further, attempt is made to obtain the maximum strength with minimum material weight. The best configuration out of the three main configurations such as series, parallel and the dual-mode (series-parallel) is chosen. Moreover, the most suitable type of motor, battery, braking system, steering system and suspension system are identified. The racing car is designed and analyzed in the simulating software. The safety of the vehicle is assured by performing static and dynamic analysis on the chassis frame. From the results, it is observed that, the weight of the racing car is reduced by 11 % without compromising on safety and cost. It is believed that the proposed design and specifications can be implemented practically for manufacturing hybrid racing car.

Keywords: design optimization, hybrid racing car, simulation, vehicle, weight reduction

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2024 Winged Test Rocket with Fully Autonomous Guidance and Control for Realizing Reusable Suborbital Vehicle

Authors: Koichi Yonemoto, Hiroshi Yamasaki, Masatomo Ichige, Yusuke Ura, Guna S. Gossamsetti, Takumi Ohki, Kento Shirakata, Ahsan R. Choudhuri, Shinji Ishimoto, Takashi Mugitani, Hiroya Asakawa, Hideaki Nanri


This paper presents the strategic development plan of winged rockets WIRES (WInged REusable Sounding rocket) aiming at unmanned suborbital winged rocket for demonstrating future fully reusable space transportation technologies, such as aerodynamics, Navigation, Guidance and Control (NGC), composite structure, propulsion system, and cryogenic tanks etc., by universities in collaboration with government and industries, as well as the past and current flight test results.

Keywords: autonomous guidance and control, reusable rocket, space transportation system, suborbital vehicle, winged rocket

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
2023 Comparison of the Thermal Characteristics of Induction Motor, Switched Reluctance Motor and Inset Permanent Magnet Motor for Electric Vehicle Application

Authors: Sadeep Sasidharan, T. B. Isha


Modern day electric vehicles require compact high torque/power density motors for electric propulsion. This necessitates proper thermal management of the electric motors. The main focus of this paper is to compare the steady state thermal analysis of a conventional 20 kW 8/6 Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) with that of an Induction Motor and Inset Permanent Magnet (IPM) motor of the same rating. The goal is to develop a proper thermal model of the three types of models for Finite Element Thermal Analysis. JMAG software is used for the development and simulation of the thermal models. The results show that the induction motor is subjected to more heating when used for electric vehicle application constantly, compared to the SRM and IPM.

Keywords: electric vehicles, induction motor, inset permanent magnet motor, loss models, switched reluctance motor, thermal analysis

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2022 An Improved Approach for Hybrid Rocket Injection System Design

Authors: M. Invigorito, G. Elia, M. Panelli


Hybrid propulsion combines beneficial properties of both solid and liquid rockets, such as multiple restarts, throttability as well as simplicity and reduced costs. A nitrous oxide (N2O)/paraffin-based hybrid rocket engine demonstrator is currently under development at the Italian Aerospace Research Center (CIRA) within the national research program HYPROB, funded by the Italian Ministry of Research. Nitrous oxide belongs to the class of self-pressurizing propellants that exhibit a high vapor pressure at standard ambient temperature. This peculiar feature makes those fluids very attractive for space rocket applications because it avoids the use of complex pressurization systems, leading to great benefits in terms of weight savings and reliability. To avoid feed-system-coupled instabilities, the phase change is required to occur through the injectors. In this regard, the oxidizer is stored in liquid condition while target chamber pressures are designed to lie below vapor pressure. The consequent cavitation and flash vaporization constitute a remarkably complex phenomenology that arises great modelling challenges. Thus, it is clear that the design of the injection system is fundamental for the full exploitation of hybrid rocket engine throttability. The Analytical Hierarchy Process has been used to select the injection architecture as best compromise among different design criteria such as functionality, technology innovation and cost. The impossibility to use engineering simplified relations for the dimensioning of the injectors led to the needs of applying a numerical approach based on OpenFOAM®. The numerical tool has been validated with selected experimental data from literature. Quantitative, as well as qualitative comparisons are performed in terms of mass flow rate and pressure drop across the injector for several operating conditions. The results show satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. Modeling assumptions, together with their impact on numerical predictions are discussed in the paper. Once assessed the reliability of the numerical tool, the injection plate has been designed and sized to guarantee the required amount of oxidizer in the combustion chamber and therefore to assure high combustion efficiency. To this purpose, the plate has been designed with multiple injectors whose number and diameter have been selected in order to reach the requested mass flow rate for the two operating conditions of maximum and minimum thrust. The overall design has been finally verified through three-dimensional computations in cavitating non-reacting conditions and it has been verified that the proposed design solution is able to guarantee the requested values of mass flow rates.

Keywords: hybrid rocket, injection system design, OpenFOAM®, cavitation

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2021 Optimal Control of DC Motor Using Linear Quadratic Regulator

Authors: Meetty Tomy, Arxhana G Thosar


This paper provides the implementation of optimal control for an armature-controlled DC motor. The selection of error weighted Matrix and control weighted matrix in order to implement optimal control theory for improving the dynamic behavior of DC motor is presented. The closed loop performance of Armature controlled DC motor with derived linear optimal controller is then evaluated for the transient operating condition (starting). The result obtained from MATLAB is compared with that of PID controller and simple closed loop response of the motor.

Keywords: optimal control, DC motor, performance index, MATLAB

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
2020 Novel Stator Structure Switching Flux Permanent Magnet Motor

Authors: Mengjie Shen, Jianhua Wu, Chun Gan, Lifeng Zhang, Qingguo Sun


Switching flux permanent magnet (SFPM) motor has doubly salient structure which lead to high torque ripple, and also has cogging torque as a permanent magnet motor. Torque ripple and cogging torque have impact on the motor performance. A novel stator structure SFPM motor is presented in this paper. A triangular shape silicon steel sheet is put in the stator slot to reduce the torque ripple, which will not deteriorate the cogging torque. The simulation of proposed motor is analyzed using 2-D finite element method (FEM) based on Ansoft and Simplorer software, and the result show a good performance of the proposed SFPM motor.

Keywords: switching flux permanent magnet (SFPM) motor, torque ripple, Ansoft, FEM

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2019 Wall Heat Flux Mapping in Liquid Rocket Combustion Chamber with Different Jet Impingement Angles

Authors: O. S. Pradeep, S. Vigneshwaran, K. Praveen Kumar, K. Jeyendran, V. R. Sanal Kumar


The influence of injector attitude on wall heat flux plays an important role in predicting the start-up transient and also determining the combustion chamber wall durability of liquid rockets. In this paper comprehensive numerical studies have been carried out on an idealized liquid rocket combustion chamber to examine the transient wall heat flux during its start-up transient at different injector attitude. Numerical simulations have been carried out with the help of a validated 2d axisymmetric, double precision, pressure-based, transient, species transport, SST k-omega model with laminar finite rate model for governing turbulent-chemistry interaction for four cases with different jet intersection angles, viz., 0o, 30o, 45o, and 60o. We concluded that the jets intersection angle is having a bearing on the time and location of the maximum wall-heat flux zone of the liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient. We also concluded that the wall heat flux mapping in liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient is a meaningful objective for the chamber wall material selection and the lucrative design optimization of the combustion chamber for improving the payload capability of the rocket.  

Keywords: combustion chamber, injector, liquid rocket, rocket engine wall heat flux

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2018 Design and Implementation Guidance System of Guided Rocket RKX-200 Using Optimal Guidance Law

Authors: Amalia Sholihati, Bambang Riyanto Trilaksono


As an island nation, is a necessity for the Republic of Indonesia to have a capable military defense on land, sea or air that the development of military weapons such as rockets for air defense becomes very important. RKX rocket-200 is one of the guided missiles which are developed by consortium Indonesia and coordinated by LAPAN that serve to intercept the target. RKX-200 is designed to have the speed of Mach 0.5-0.9. RKX rocket-200 belongs to the category two-stage rocket that control is carried out on the second stage when the rocket has separated from the booster. The requirement for better performance to intercept missiles with higher maneuverability continues to push optimal guidance law development, which is derived from non-linear equations. This research focused on the design and implementation of a guidance system based OGL on the rocket RKX-200 while considering the limitation of rockets such as aerodynamic rocket and actuator. Guided missile control system has three main parts, namely, guidance system, navigation system and autopilot systems. As for other parts such as navigation systems and other supporting simulated on MATLAB based on the results of previous studies. In addition to using the MATLAB simulation also conducted testing with hardware-based ARM TWR-K60D100M conjunction with a navigation system and nonlinear models in MATLAB using Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation (HILS).

Keywords: RKX-200, guidance system, optimal guidance law, Hils

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2017 Studies on Pre-ignition Chamber Dynamics of Solid Rockets with Different Port Geometries

Authors: S. Vivek, Sharad Sharan, R. Arvind, D. V. Praveen, J. Vigneshwar, S. Ajith, V. R. Sanal Kumar


In this paper numerical studies have been carried out to examine the starting transient flow features of high-performance solid propellant rocket motors with different port geometries but with same propellant loading density. Numerical computations have been carried out using a 3D SST k-ω turbulence model. This code solves standard k-omega turbulence equations with shear flow corrections using a coupled second order implicit unsteady formulation. In the numerical study, a fully implicit finite volume scheme of the compressible, Reynolds-Averaged, Navier-Stokes equations are employed. We have observed from the numerical results that in solid rocket motors with highly loaded propellants having divergent port geometry the hot igniter gases can create pre-ignition thrust oscillations due to flow unsteadiness and recirculation. Under these conditions the convective flux to the surface of the propellant will be enhanced, which will create reattachment point far downstream of the transition region and it will create a situation for secondary ignition and formation of multiple-flame fronts. As a result the effective time required for the complete burning surface area to be ignited comes down drastically giving rise to a high pressurization rate (dp/dt) in the second phase of starting transient. This in effect could lead to starting thrust oscillations and eventually a hard start of the solid rocket motor. We have also observed that the igniter temperature fluctuations will be diminished rapidly and will reach the steady state value faster in the case of solid propellant rocket motors with convergent port than the divergent port irrespective of the igniter total pressure. We have concluded that the thrust oscillations and unexpected thrust spike often observed in solid rockets with non-uniform ports are presumably contributed due to the joint effects of the geometry dependent driving forces, transient burning and the chamber gas dynamics forces. We also concluded that the prudent selection of the port geometry, without altering the propellant loading density, for damping the total temperature fluctuations within the motor is a meaningful objective for the suppression and control of instability and/or pressure/thrust oscillations often observed in solid propellant rocket motors with non-uniform port geometry.

Keywords: ignition transient, solid rockets, starting transient, thrust transient

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2016 Modeling and Optimal Control of Hybrid Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with Wind Disturbance

Authors: Sunsoo Kim, Niladri Das, Raktim Bhattacharya


This paper addresses modeling and control of a six-degree-of-freedom unmanned aerial vehicle capable of vertical take-off and landing in the presence of wind disturbances. We design a hybrid vehicle that combines the benefits of both the fixed-wing and the rotary-wing UAVs. A non-linear model for the hybrid vehicle is rapidly built, combining rigid body dynamics, aerodynamics of wing, and dynamics of the motor and propeller. Further, we design a H₂ optimal controller to make the UAV robust to wind disturbances. We compare its results against that of proportional-integral-derivative and linear-quadratic regulator based control. Our proposed controller results in better performance in terms of root mean squared errors and time responses during two scenarios: hover and level- flight.

Keywords: hybrid UAVs, VTOL, aircraft modeling, H2 optimal control, wind disturbances

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2015 Design of Torque Actuator in Hybrid Multi-DOF System with Taking into Account Magnetic Saturation

Authors: Hyun-Seok Hong, Tae-Chul Jeong, Huai-Cong Liu, Ju Lee


In this paper, proposes to replace the three-phase SPM for tilting by a single-phase torque actuator of the hybrid multi-DOF system. If a three-phase motor for tilting SPM as acting as instantaneous, low electricity use efficiency, controllability is bad disadvantages. It uses a single-phase torque actuator has a high electrical efficiency compared, good controllability. Thus this will have a great influence on the development and practical use of the system. This study designed a single phase torque actuator in consideration of the magnetic saturation. And compared the SPM and FEM analysis and validation through testing of the production model.

Keywords: hybrid multi-DOF system, SPM, torque actuator, UAV, drone

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2014 Design of Functional Safe Motor Control Systems in Automotive Applications

Authors: Jae-Woo Kim, Kyung-Jung Lee, Hyun-Sik Ahn


This paper presents a design methodology for the motor driven automotive subsystems with the consideration of the functional safety. There are many such modules in vehicles which use DC/AC motors for an electronic throttle control system, a motor driven power steering, a motor driven seat belt systems and for HVAC systems. The functional safety for the automotive electrical and electronic parts are standardized as ISO 26262, but the development procedure is very complex to be followed. We focus on the functional safe motor controller design process and show the designed motor controller hardware satisfies the required safety integrity level by using metric calculations with the safety mechanism.

Keywords: AUTOSAR, MDPS, Simulink, software component

Procedia PDF Downloads 274