Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 214

Search results for: timing

214 Do European Hedge Fund Managers Time Market Liquidity?

Authors: Soumaya Ben Kheilifa, Dorra Mezzez Hmaied

Abstract:

We propose two approaches to examine whether European hedge fund managers can time market liquidity. Using a sample of 1616 European hedge funds, we find evidence of liquidity timing. More importantly, this ability adds economic value to investors. Thus, it represents valuable managerial skill and a major source of European hedge funds’ performance. Also we show that the majority of these funds demonstrate liquidity timing ability especially during liquidity crisis. Finally, it emerged that our main evidence of liquidity timing remains significant after controlling for market timing and volatility timing.

Keywords: european hedge funds, liquidity timing ability, market liquidity, crisis

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
213 A Survey on Countermeasures of Cache-Timing Attack on AES Systems

Authors: Settana M. Abdulh, Naila A. Sadalla, Yaseen H. Taha, Howaida Elshoush

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Side channel attacks are based on side channel information, which is information that is leaked from encryption systems. This includes timing information, power consumption as well as electromagnetic or even sound leaking which can exploited by an attacker. Implementing side channel attacks are possible if and only if an attacker has access to a cryptosystem. In this case, the attacker can exploit bad implementation in software or hardware which is not controlled by encryption implementer. Thus, he/she will represent a real threat to the security system. Several countermeasures have been proposed to eliminate side channel information vulnerability.Cache timing attack is a special type of side channel attack. Here, timing information is collected and analyzed by an attacker to guess sensitive information such as encryption key or plaintext. This paper reviews the technique applied in this attack and surveys the countermeasures against it, evaluating the feasibility and usability of each. Based on this evaluation, finally we pose several recommendations about using these countermeasures.

Keywords: AES algorithm, side channel attack, cache timing attack, cache timing countermeasure

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
212 Timing Equation for Capturing Satellite Thermal Images

Authors: Toufic Abd El-Latif Sadek

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The Asphalt object represents the asphalted areas, like roads. The best original data of thermal images occurred at a specific time during the days of the year, by preventing the gaps in times which give the close and same brightness from different objects, using seven sample objects, asphalt, concrete, metal, rock, dry soil, vegetation, and water. It has been found in this study a general timing equation for capturing satellite thermal images at different locations, depends on a fixed time the sunrise and sunset; Capture Time= Tcap =(TM*TSR) ±TS.

Keywords: asphalt, satellite, thermal images, timing equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
211 A New IFO Estimation Scheme for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Systems

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon

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We address a new integer frequency offset (IFO) estimation scheme with an aid of a pilot for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing systems. After correlating each continual pilot with a predetermined scattered pilot, the correlation value is again correlated to alleviate the influence of the timing offset. From numerical results, it is demonstrated that the influence of the timing offset on the IFO estimation is significantly decreased.

Keywords: estimation, integer frequency offset, OFDM, timing offset

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
210 Timing and Noise Data Mining Algorithm and Software Tool in Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Design

Authors: Qing K. Zhu

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Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) design becomes very complex due to the continuous integration of millions of gates in one chip based on Moore’s law. Designers have encountered numerous report files during design iterations using timing and noise analysis tools. This paper presented our work using data mining techniques combined with HTML tables to extract and represent critical timing/noise data. When we apply this data-mining tool in real applications, the running speed is important. The software employs table look-up techniques in the programming for the reasonable running speed based on performance testing results. We added several advanced features for the application in one industry chip design.

Keywords: VLSI design, data mining, big data, HTML forms, web, VLSI, EDA, timing, noise

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
209 Best Timing for Capturing Satellite Thermal Images, Asphalt, and Concrete Objects

Authors: Toufic Abd El-Latif Sadek

Abstract:

The asphalt object represents the asphalted areas like roads, and the concrete object represents the concrete areas like concrete buildings. The efficient extraction of asphalt and concrete objects from one satellite thermal image occurred at a specific time, by preventing the gaps in times which give the close and same brightness values between asphalt and concrete, and among other objects. So that to achieve efficient extraction and then better analysis. Seven sample objects were used un this study, asphalt, concrete, metal, rock, dry soil, vegetation, and water. It has been found that, the best timing for capturing satellite thermal images to extract the two objects asphalt and concrete from one satellite thermal image, saving time and money, occurred at a specific time in different months. A table is deduced shows the optimal timing for capturing satellite thermal images to extract effectively these two objects.

Keywords: asphalt, concrete, satellite thermal images, timing

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
208 Factors for Entry Timing Choices Using Principal Axis Factorial Analysis and Logistic Regression Model

Authors: C. M. Mat Isa, H. Mohd Saman, S. R. Mohd Nasir, A. Jaapar

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International market expansion involves a strategic process of market entry decision through which a firm expands its operation from domestic to the international domain. Hence, entry timing choices require the needs to balance the early entry risks and the problems in losing opportunities as a result of late entry into a new market. Questionnaire surveys administered to 115 Malaysian construction firms operating in 51 countries worldwide have resulted in 39.1 percent response rate. Factor analysis was used to determine the most significant factors affecting entry timing choices of the firms to penetrate the international market. A logistic regression analysis used to examine the firms’ entry timing choices, indicates that the model has correctly classified 89.5 per cent of cases as late movers. The findings reveal that the most significant factor influencing the construction firms’ choices as late movers was the firm factor related to the firm’s international experience, resources, competencies and financing capacity. The study also offers valuable information to construction firms with intention to internationalize their businesses.

Keywords: factors, early movers, entry timing choices, late movers, logistic regression model, principal axis factorial analysis, Malaysian construction firms

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
207 A Golay Pair Based Synchronization Algorithm for Distributed Multiple-Input Multiple-Output System

Authors: Weizhi Zhong, Xiaoyi Lu, Lei Xu

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In order to solve the problem of inaccurate synchronization for distributed multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system in multipath environment, a golay pair aided timing synchronization method is proposed in this paper. A new synchronous training sequence based on golay pair is designed. By utilizing the aperiodic auto-correlation complementary property of the new training sequence, the fine timing point is obtained at the receiver. Simulation results show that, compared with the tradition timing synchronization approaches, the proposed algorithm can provide high accuracy in synchronization, especially under multipath condition.

Keywords: distributed MIMO system, golay pair, multipath, synchronization

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
206 A Second Spark Ignition Timing for the High Power Aircraft Radial Engine Using a CFD Transient Modeling

Authors: Tytus Tulwin, Adam Majczak

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In aviation most important systems that impact the aircraft flight safety are duplicated. The ASz-62IR aircraft radial engine consists of two spark plugs powered by two separate magnetos. The relative difference in spark timing has an influence on the combustion process. The retardation of the second spark relative to the first spark was analyzed. The CFD simulation was developed as a multicycle transient model. Two independent spark sources imitate two flame fronts after an ignition period. It makes the combustion process shorter but only for certain range of second spark retardation. The model was validated by the in-cylinder pressure comparison. Combustion parameters were analyzed for different second spark retardation values. It was found that the most advantageous ignition timing in means of performance is simultaneous ignition. Nevertheless, for this engine the ignition time of the second spark plug is greatly retarded eliminating the advantageous performance influence. The reason behind this is maintaining high ignition certainty for all engine running conditions and for whole operating rpm range. In aviation the engine reliability is more important than its performance. Introducing electronic ignition system can yield from simultaneous ignition timing by increasing the engine performance and providing good reliability for all flight conditions. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, INNOLOT, under Grant Agreement No. INNOLOT/I/1/NCBR/2013.

Keywords: CFD, combustion, ignition, simulation, timing

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
205 Validity of a Timing System in the Alpine Ski Field: A Magnet-Based Timing System Using the Magnetometer Built into an IMU

Authors: Carla Pérez-Chirinos Buxadé, Bruno Fernández-Valdés, Mónica Morral-Yepes, Sílvia Tuyà Viñas, Josep Maria Padullés Riu, Gerard Moras Feliu

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There is a long way to explore all the possible applications inertial measurement units (IMUs) have in the sport field. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of a new application on the use of these wearable sensors. Specifically, it was to evaluate a magnet-based timing system (M-BTS) for timing gate-to-gate in an alpine ski slalom using the magnetometer embedded in an IMU. This was a validation study. The criterion validity of time measured by the M-BTS was assessed using the 95% error-range against actual time obtained from photocells. The experiment was carried out with first-and second-year junior skiers performing a ski slalom on a ski training slope. Eight alpine skiers (17.4 ± 0.8 years, 176.4 ± 4.9 cm, 67.7 ± 2.0 kg, 128.8 ± 26.6 slalom FIS-Points) participated in the study. An IMU device was attached to the skier’s lower back. Skiers performed a 40-gate slalom from which four gates were assessed. The M-BTS consisted of placing four bar magnets buried into the snow surface, on the inner side of each gate’s turning pole; the magnetometer built into the IMU detected the peak-shaped magnetic field when passing near the magnets at a certain speed. Four magnetic peaks were detected. The time compressed between peaks was calculated. Three inter-gate times were obtained for each system: photocells and M-BTS. The total time was defined as the time sum of the inter-gate times. The 95% error intervals for the total time was 0.050 s for the ski slalom. The M-BTS is valid for timing gate-to-gate in an alpine ski slalom. Inter-gate times can provide additional data for analyzing skier’s performance, such as asymmetries between left and right foot.

Keywords: gate crossing time, inertial measurement unit, timing system, wearable sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
204 Objectifying Media and Preadolescents' Media Internalization: A Developmental Perspective

Authors: Ann Rousseau, Steven Eggermont

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The current study sought to explain pre-adolescents’ differential susceptibility to the internalization of mediated appearance ideals, using a three-wave panel survey of preadolescent girls and boys (N = 973, Mage = 11.14). Based on the premises of objectification theory and sexual script theory, we proposed a double role for pubertal timing and cross-sex interactions in preadolescents’ media internalization. More specifically, we expected pubertal timing and cross-sex interactions to (a) trigger higher levels of media internalization, directly and indirectly via body surveillance, and (b) positively moderate the relationship between objectifying media exposure and girls’ and boys’ media internalization. A first cross-lagged model tested whether the pubertal timing and cross-sex interactions could trigger preadolescents media internalization and body surveillance. Structural equation analysis indicated that pubertal timing (Wave1) positively predicted body surveillance and media internalization (both Wave3). Cross-sex involvement (Wave1) was positively linked to media internalization (Wave2), but body surveillance (Wave2) was not associated with cross-sex interactions. Results also showed a reciprocal interaction between media internalization (Wave 2 and 3) and body surveillance (Wave2 and 3). Multiple group analysis showed that the observed relationships did not vary by gender. A second moderated moderation model examined whether (a) the relationship between objectifying media exposure (television and magazines, both Wave1) and media internalization (Wave3) depended on pubertal timing (Wave1), and (b) the two-way interaction between objectifying media exposure (Wave1) and pubertal timing (Wave1) varied depending on cross-sex interactions (Wave1). Results revealed that cross-sex interactions functioned as a buffer against media internalization. For preadolescents who had fewer cross-sex interactions, early puberty (relative to peers) positively moderated the relationship between magazine exposure and the internalization of mediated appearance ideals. No significant relationships were found for television. Again, no gender difference could be observed. The present study suggests a double role for pubertal timing and cross-sex interactions in preadolescents media internalization, and indicate that early developers with few cross-sex experiences are particularly vulnerable for media internalization. Additionally, the current findings suggest that there is relative gender equity in magazines’ ability to cultivate media internalization among preadolescents.

Keywords: cross-sex interactions, media effects, objectification theory, pubertal timing

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
203 Buy-and-Hold versus Alternative Strategies: A Comparison of Market-Timing Techniques

Authors: Jonathan J. Burson

Abstract:

With the rise of virtually costless, mobile-based trading platforms, stock market trading activity has increased significantly over the past decade, particularly for the millennial generation. This increased stock market attention, combined with the recent market turmoil due to the economic upset caused by COVID-19, make the topics of market-timing and forecasting particularly relevant. While the overall stock market saw an unprecedented, historically-long bull market from March 2009 to February 2020, the end of that bull market reignited a search by investors for a way to reduce risk and increase return. Similar searches for outperformance occurred in the early, and late 2000’s as the Dotcom bubble burst and the Great Recession led to years of negative returns for mean-variance, index investors. Extensive research has been conducted on fundamental analysis, technical analysis, macroeconomic indicators, microeconomic indicators, and other techniques—all using different methodologies and investment periods—in pursuit of higher returns with lower risk. The enormous variety of timeframes, data, and methodologies used by the diverse forecasting methods makes it difficult to compare the outcome of each method directly to other methods. This paper establishes a process to evaluate the market-timing methods in an apples-to-apples manner based on simplicity, performance, and feasibility. Preliminary findings show that certain technical analysis models provide a higher return with lower risk when compared to the buy-and-hold method and to other market-timing strategies. Furthermore, technical analysis models tend to be easier for individual investors both in terms of acquiring the data and in analyzing it, making technical analysis-based market-timing methods the preferred choice for retail investors.

Keywords: buy-and-hold, forecast, market-timing, probit, technical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
202 A Dual Spark Ignition Timing Influence for the High Power Aircraft Radial Engine Using a CFD Transient Modeling

Authors: Tytus Tulwin, Ksenia Siadkowska, Rafał Sochaczewski

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A high power radial reciprocating engine is characterized by a large displacement volume of a combustion chamber. Choosing the right moment for ignition is important for a high performance or high reliability and ignition certainty. This work shows methods of simulating ignition process and its impact on engine parameters. For given conditions a flame speed is limited when a deflagration combustion takes place. Therefore, a larger length scale of the combustion chamber compared to a standard size automotive engine makes combustion take longer time to propagate. In order to speed up the mixture burn-up time the second spark is introduced. The transient Computational Fluid Dynamics model capable of simulating multicycle engine processes was developed. The CFD model consists of ECFM-3Z combustion and species transport models. A relative ignition timing difference for the both spark sources is constant. The temperature distribution on engine walls was calculated in the separate conjugate heat transfer simulation. The in-cylinder pressure validation was performed for take-off power flight conditions. The influence of ignition timing on parameters like in-cylinder temperature or rate of heat release was analyzed. The most advantageous spark timing for the highest power output was chosen. The conditions around the spark plug locations for the pre-ignition period were analyzed. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, INNOLOT, under Grant Agreement No. INNOLOT/I/1/NCBR/2013.

Keywords: CFD, combustion, ignition, simulation, timing

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
201 Timing and Impacts of Megafloods in the North Pacific as Recorded by Freshwater Diatoms

Authors: Cristina Lopes, Alan C. Mix

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The timing and extension of large discharges from glacial lakes, known as megafloods, into the oceans have been of key importance. This type of events can influence the oceanic/land interactions and even be related with climate changes. While the impact of such floods has been fairly studied in the North Atlantic, the impact of analog floods in the North Pacific remains debatable and relatively unknown. Here we will show records of the Missoula floods that have carved the Northwest landscape and have entered the North Pacific through the Columbia River. These records are given by the presence of high (more than 40%) percentages of freshwater diatoms in marine sediments. A regression equation using these percentages allows to estimate by how much the salinities decreased. The timing and impact of North Pacific megafloods recorded in three marine cores of Oregon and California for the past 25000 years (B.P.) will be presented. These records show that the volume of freshwater that entered the North Pacific reached as far as 600 Km south of the Columbia River Mouth, decreasing the salinities by as much as 4 units.

Keywords: diatoms, megafloods, Missoula, North Pacific

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
200 Estimating the Timing Interval for Malarial Indoor Residual Spraying: A Modelling Approach

Authors: Levicatus Mugenyi, Joaniter Nankabirwa, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, John Rek, Niel Hens, Moses Kamya, Grant Dorsey

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Background: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) reduces vector densities and malaria transmission, however, the most effective spraying intervals for IRS have not been well established. We aim to estimate the optimal timing interval for IRS using a modeling approach. Methods: We use a generalized additive model to estimate the optimal timing interval for IRS using the predicted malaria incidence. The model is applied to post IRS cohort clinical data from children aged 0.5–10 years in selected households in Tororo, historically a high malaria transmission setting in Uganda. Six rounds of IRS were implemented in Tororo during the study period (3 rounds with bendiocarb: December 2014 to December 2015, and 3 rounds with actellic: June 2016 to July 2018). Results: Monthly incidence of malaria from October 2014 to February 2019 decreased from 3.25 to 0.0 per person-years in the children under 5 years, and 1.57 to 0.0 for 5-10 year-olds. The optimal time interval for IRS differed between bendiocarb and actellic and by IRS round. It was estimated to be 17 and 40 weeks after the first round of bendiocarb and actellic, respectively. After the third round of actellic, 36 weeks was estimated to be optimal. However, we could not estimate from the data the optimal time after the second and third rounds of bendiocarb and after the second round of actellic. Conclusion: We conclude that to sustain the effect of IRS in a high-medium transmission setting, the second rounds of bendiocarb need to be applied roughly 17 weeks and actellic 40 weeks after the first round, and the timing differs for subsequent rounds. The amount of rainfall did not influence the trend in malaria incidence after IRS, as well as the IRS timing intervals. Our results suggest that shorter intervals for the IRS application can be more effective compared to the current practice, which is about 24 weeks for bendiocarb and 48 weeks for actellic. However, when considering our findings, one should account for the cost and drug resistance associated with IRS. We also recommend that the timing and incidence should be monitored in the future to improve these estimates.

Keywords: incidence, indoor residual spraying, generalized additive model, malaria

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
199 The Study of Tire Pyrolysis Fuel in CI Diesel Engine for Spray Combustion Character and Performance

Authors: Chun Pao Kuo, Chi Tong Lin

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The study explored atomization characteristics of tire pyrolysis fuel and its impacts on using three types of fuel: diesel oil mixed with 10% of tire pyrolysis fuel (called T10), diesel oil mixed with 20% tire pyrolysis (called T20), and consumer-grade diesel oil (D100). The investigators used the fuel for simulation and tests at various fuel injection timing, engine speed, and fuel injection speed to inspect impacts from fuel type on oil droplet atomization speed and output power. Actual vehicle tests were conducted using a 5-ton sedan (Hino) with 3660 cc displacement and a front-end inline four-cylinder diesel engine, and this type of vehicle is easily available from the market. A dynamometer was used to set up three engine speeds for the dynamometer testing at different injection timing and pressure. Next, an exhaust analyzer was used to measure exhaust pollution at different conditions to explore the effect of fuel types and injection speeds on output power in order to establish the best operation conditions for tire pyrolysis fuel.

Keywords: diesel engine, exhaust pollution, fuel injection timing, tire pyrolysis oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
198 Speech Rhythm Variation in Languages and Dialects: F0, Natural and Inverted Speech

Authors: Imen Ben Abda

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Languages have been classified into different rhythm classes. 'Stress-timed' languages are exemplified by English, 'syllable-timed' languages by French and 'mora-timed' languages by Japanese. However, to our best knowledge, acoustic studies have not been unanimous in strictly establishing which rhythm category a given language belongs to and failed to show empirical evidence for isochrony. Perception seems to be a good approach to categorize languages into different rhythm classes. This study, within the scope of experimental phonetics, includes an account of different perceptual experiments using cues from natural and inverted speech, as well as pitch extracted from speech data. It is an attempt to categorize speech rhythm over a large set of Arabic (Tunisian, Algerian, Lebanese and Moroccan) and English dialects (Welsh, Irish, Scottish and Texan) as well as other languages such as Chinese, Japanese, French, and German. Listeners managed to classify the different languages and dialects into different rhythm classes using suprasegmental cues mainly rhythm and pitch (F0). They also perceived rhythmic differences even among languages and dialects belonging to the same rhythm class. This may show that there are different subclasses within very broad rhythmic typologies.

Keywords: F0, inverted speech, mora-timing, rhythm variation, stress-timing, syllable-timing

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
197 The Effects of Source and Timing on the Acceptance of New Product Recommendation: A Lab Experiment

Authors: Yani Shi, Jiaqi Yan

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A new product is important for companies to extend consumers and manifest competitiveness. New product often involves new features that consumers might not be familiar with while it may also have a competitive advantage to attract consumers compared to established products. However, although most online retailers employ recommendation agents (RA) to influence consumers’ product choice decision, recommended new products are not accepted and chosen as expected. We argue that it might also be caused by providing a new product recommendation in the wrong way at the wrong time. This study seeks to discuss how new product evaluations sourced from third parties could be employed in RAs as evidence of the superiority for the new product and how the new product recommendation could be provided to a consumer at the right time so that it can be accepted and finally chosen during the consumer’s decision-making process. A 2*2 controlled laboratory experiment was conducted to understand the selection of new product recommendation sources and recommendation timing. Human subjects were randomly assigned to one of the four treatments to minimize the effects of individual differences on the results. Participants were told to make purchase choices from our product categories. We find that a new product recommended right after a similar existing product and with the source of the expert review will be more likely to be accepted. Based on this study, both theoretical and practical contributions are provided regarding new product recommendation.

Keywords: new product recommendation, recommendation timing, recommendation source, recommendation agents

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
196 Drip Irrigation Timing and Its Effect on Tomato Yield for a Two-Day Schedule

Authors: T. Kizza, M. Muyinda

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Irrigation schedules are normally given in terms of frequency (irrigation days). Specific timings within a given day are not usually included. This study examined the effect of irrigation timing for a two-day irrigation schedule of a surface drip-irrigated tomato field on yield. It was carried out for three dry seasons; July-Sept 2016, Jan-April 2017 and Jan-March 2018, at MuZARDI research station. Four irrigation treatments; T1 morning (8.00hrs), T2 noon (12:00hrs), T3 evening (17:00hr) and T4, a combination of morning and evening, were evaluated. The irrigation duration was one hour for T1-T3 and split into 30 minutes for T4. First season results indicated noon watering as having the best yield over other treatments at 51.59t/ha followed closely by morning watering at 50.6t/ha. Plants watered at noon had the highest number of fruits at 19/plant with an average weight of 94g/fruit. Plants watered in the morning had fruits with the highest average weight at 111.2g/fruit but they were the lowest number at 16 fruits/plant. The three-season data indicated the highest yield at 45.9t/ha for morning watering, followed by noon watering at 44.3t/ha and the least yield was for evening watering at 40.9t/ha. Watering tomatoes in the morning will give optimum yields for a two-day irrigation schedule.

Keywords: drip irrigation, irrigation schedule, irrigation timing, tomato yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
195 Efficient Control of Some Dynamic States of Wheeled Robots

Authors: Boguslaw Schreyer

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In some types of wheeled robots it is important to secure starting acceleration and deceleration maxima while at the same time maintaining transversal stability. In this paper torque distribution between the front and rear wheels as well as the timing of torque application have been calculated. Both secure an optimum traction coefficient. This paper also identifies required input signals to a control unit, which controls the torque values and timing. Using a three dimensional, two mass model of a robot developed by the author a computer simulation was performed confirming the calculations presented in this paper. These calculations were also implemented and confirmed during military robot testing.

Keywords: robot dynamics, torque distribution, traction coefficient, wheeled robots

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
194 The Possibility of Solving a 3x3 Rubik’s Cube under 3 Seconds

Authors: Chung To Kong, Siu Ming Yiu

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Rubik's cube was invented in 1974. Since then, speedcubers all over the world try their best to break the world record again and again. The newest record is 3.47 seconds. There are many factors that affect the timing, including turns per second (tps), algorithm, finger trick, hardware of the cube. In this paper, the lower bound of the cube solving time will be discussed using convex optimization. Extended analysis of the world records will be used to understand how to improve the timing. With the understanding of each part of the solving step, the paper suggests a list of speed improvement techniques. Based on the analysis of the world record, there is a high possibility that the 3 seconds mark will be broken soon.

Keywords: Rubik's Cube, speed, finger trick, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
193 Self Tuning Controller for Reducing Cycle to Cycle Variations in SI Engine

Authors: Alirıza Kaleli, M. Akif Ceviz, Erdoğan Güner, Köksal Erentürk

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The cyclic variations in spark ignition engines occurring especially under specific engine operating conditions make the maximum pressure variable for successive in-cylinder pressure cycles. Minimization of cyclic variations has a great importance in effectively operating near to lean limit, or at low speed and load. The cyclic variations may reduce the power output of the engine, lead to operational instabilities, and result in undesirable engine vibrations and noise. In this study, spark timing is controlled in order to reduce the cyclic variations in spark ignition engines. Firstly, an ARMAX model has developed between spark timing and maximum pressure using system identification techniques. By using this model, the maximum pressure of the next cycle has been predicted. Then, self-tuning minimum variance controller has been designed to change the spark timing for consecutive cycles of the first cylinder of test engine to regulate the in-cylinder maximum pressure. The performance of the proposed controller is illustrated in real time and experimental results show that the controller has a reliable effect on cycle to cycle variations of maximum cylinder pressure when the engine works under low speed conditions.

Keywords: cyclic variations, cylinder pressure, SI engines, self tuning controller

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
192 Effect of Low to Moderate Altitude on Football Performance: An Analysis of Thirteen Seasons in the South African Premier Soccer League

Authors: Khatija Bahdur, Duane Dell’Oca

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There is limited information on how altitude impacts performance in a team sport. Most altitude research in football has been conducted at high elevation ( > 2500m), resulting in a chasm of understanding whether low to moderate altitude affects performance. The South African Premier Soccer League (PSL) fixtures entail matches played at altitudes from sea level to 1700m above mean sea level. Despite coaches highlighting the effect of altitude on performance outcomes in matches, further research is needed to establish whether altitude does impact match results. Greater insight into if and how altitude impacts performance in the PSL will assist coaches in deciding if and how to incorporate altitude in their planning. The purpose of this study is to fill in this gap through the use of a retrospective analysis of PSL matches. This quantitative study is based on a descriptive analysis of 181 PSL matches involving one team based at sea-level, taking place over a period of thirteen seasons. The following data were obtained: altitude at which the match was played, match result, the timing of goals, and timing of substitutions. The altitude was classified in 2 ways: inland ( > 500m) and coastal ( < 500m) and also further subdivided into narrower categories ( < 500m, 500-1000m, 1000-1300m; 1300-1500m, > 1500m). The analysis included a 2-sample t-test to determine differences in total goals scored and timing of goals for inland and coastal matches and the chi-square test to identify the significance of altitude on match results. The level of significance was set at the alpha level of 0.05. Match results are significantly affected by the altitude and level of altitude within inland teams most likely to win when playing at inland venues (p=0.000). The proportion of draws was slightly higher at the coast. At altitudes between 500-1000m, 1300-1500m, and 1500-1700m, a greater percentage of matches were won by coastal teams as opposed to draws. The timing of goals varied based on the team’s base altitude and the match elevation. The most significant differences were between 36-40 minutes (p=0.023), 41-45 minutes (p=0.000) and 50-65 minutes (p=0.000). When breaking down inland team’s matches to different altitude categories, greater differences were highlighted. Inland teams scored more goals per minute between 10-20 minute (p=0.009), 41-45 minutes (p=0.003) and 50-65 minutes (p=0.015). The total number of goals scored per match at different altitudes by a) inland teams (p=0.000), b) coastal teams (p=0.006). Coastal teams made significantly more substitutions when playing at altitude (p=0.034), although there were no significant differences when comparing the different altitude categories. The timing of all three changes, however, did vary significantly at the different altitudes. There were no significant differences in timing or number of substitutions for inland teams. Match results and timing of goals are influenced by altitude, with differences between the level of altitude also playing a role. The trends indicate that inland teams win more matches when playing at altitude against coastal teams, and they score more goals just prior to half-time and in the first quarter of the second half.

Keywords: coastal teams, inland teams, timing of goals, results, substitutions

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
191 Entropy Risk Factor Model of Exchange Rate Prediction

Authors: Darrol Stanley, Levan Efremidze, Jannie Rossouw

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We investigate the predictability of the USD/ZAR (South African Rand) exchange rate with sample entropy analytics for the period of 2004-2015. We calculate sample entropy based on the daily data of the exchange rate and conduct empirical implementation of several market timing rules based on these entropy signals. The dynamic investment portfolio based on entropy signals produces better risk adjusted performance than a buy and hold strategy. The returns are estimated on the portfolio values in U.S. dollars. These results are preliminary and do not yet account for reasonable transactions costs, although these are very small in currency markets.

Keywords: currency trading, entropy, market timing, risk factor model

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
190 A Robust Frequency Offset Estimator for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon

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We address the integer frequency offset (IFO) estimation under the influence of the timing offset (TO) in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. Incorporating the IFO and TO into the symbol set used to represent the received OFDM symbol, we investigate the influence of the TO on the IFO, and then, propose a combining method between two consecutive OFDM correlations, reducing the influence. The proposed scheme has almost the same complexity as that of the conventional schemes, whereas it does not need the TO knowledge contrary to the conventional schemes. From numerical results it is confirmed that the proposed scheme is insensitive to the TO, consequently, yielding an improvement of the IFO estimation performance over the conventional schemes when the TO exists.

Keywords: estimation, integer frequency offset, OFDM, timing offset

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
189 Use of Life Cycle Data for State-Oriented Maintenance

Authors: Maximilian Winkens, Matthias Goerke

Abstract:

The state-oriented maintenance enables the preventive intervention before the failure of a component and guarantees avoidance of expensive breakdowns. Because the timing of the maintenance is defined by the component’s state, the remaining service life can be exhausted to the limit. The basic requirement for the state-oriented maintenance is the ability to define the component’s state. New potential for this is offered by gentelligent components. They are developed at the Corporative Research Centre 653 of the German Research Foundation (DFG). Because of their sensory ability they enable the registration of stresses during the component’s use. The data is gathered and evaluated. The methodology developed determines the current state of the gentelligent component based on the gathered data. This article presents this methodology as well as current research. The main focus of the current scientific work is to improve the quality of the state determination based on the life-cycle data analysis. The methodology developed until now evaluates the data of the usage phase and based on it predicts the timing of the gentelligent component’s failure. The real failure timing though, deviate from the predicted one because the effects from the production phase aren’t considered. The goal of the current research is to develop a methodology for state determination which considers both production and usage data.

Keywords: state-oriented maintenance, life-cycle data, gentelligent component, preventive intervention

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188 Effect of Variation of Injection Timing on Performance and Emission Characteristics of Compression Ignition Engine: A CFD Approach

Authors: N. Balamurugan, N. V. Mahalakshmi

Abstract:

Compression ignition (CI) engines are known for their high thermal efficiency in comparison with spark-ignited (SI) engines. This makes CI engines a potential candidate for the future prime source of power for transportation sector to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to shrink carbon footprint. However, CI engines produce high levels of NOx and soot emissions. Conventional methods to reduce NOx and soot emissions often result in the infamous NOx-soot trade-off. The injection parameters are one of the most important factors in the working of CI engines. The engine performance, power output, economy etc., is greatly dependent on the effectiveness of the injection parameters. The injection parameter has their direct impact on combustion process and pollutant formation. The injection parameter’s values are required to be optimised according to the application of the engine. Control of fuel injection mode is one method for reduction of NOx and soot emissions that is achievable. This study aims to assess, compare and analyse the influence of the effect of injection characteristics that is SOI timing studied on combustion and emissions in in-cylinder combustion processes with that of conventional DI Diesel Engine system using the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) package STAR- CD ES-ICE.

Keywords: variation of injection timing, compression ignition engine, spark-ignited, Computational Fluid Dynamic

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
187 Influence of Valve Lift Timing on Producer Gas Combustion and Its Modeling Using Two-Stage Wiebe Function

Authors: M. Sreedhar Babu, Vishal Garg, S. B. Akella, Shibu Clement, N. K. S Rajan

Abstract:

Producer gas is a biomass derived gaseous fuel which is extensively used in internal combustion engines for power generation application. Unlike the conventional hydrocarbon fuels (Gasoline and Natural gas), the combustion properties of producer gas fuel are much different. Therefore, setting of optimal spark time for efficient engine operation is required. Owing to the fluctuating tendency of producer gas composition during gasification process, the heat release patterns (dictating the power output and emissions) obtained are quite different from conventional fuels. It was found that, valve lift timing is yet another factor which influences the burn rate of producer gas fuel, and thus, the heat release rate of the engine. Therefore, the present study was motivated to estimate the influence of valve lift timing analytically (Wiebe model) on the burn rate of producer gas through curve fitting against experimentally obtained mass fraction burn curves of several producer gas compositions. Furthermore, Wiebe models are widely used in zero-dimensional codes for engine parametric studies and are quite popular. This study also addresses the influence of hydrogen and methane concentration of producer gas on combustion trends, which are known to cause dynamics in engine combustion.

Keywords: combustion duration (CD), crank angle (CA), mass fraction burnt (MFB), producer sas (PG), Wiebe Combustion Model (WCM), wide open throttle (WOT)

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186 The Evaluation of Signal Timing Optimization and Implement of Transit Signal Priority in Intersections and Their Effect on Delay Reduction

Authors: Mohammad Reza Ramezani, Shahriyar Afandizadeh

Abstract:

Since the intersections play a crucial role in traffic delay, it is significant to evaluate them precisely. In this paper, three critical intersections in Tehran (Capital of Iran) had been simulated. The main purpose of this paper was to optimize the public transit delay. The simulation had three different phase in three intersections of Tehran. The first phase was about the current condition of intersection; the second phase was about optimized signal timing and the last phase was about prioritized public transit access. The Aimsun software was used to simulate all phases, and the Synchro software was used to optimization of signals as well. The result showed that the implement of optimization and prioritizing system would reduce about 50% of delay for public transit.

Keywords: transit signal priority, intersection optimization, public transit, simulation

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185 A Case-Based Reasoning-Decision Tree Hybrid System for Stock Selection

Authors: Yaojun Wang, Yaoqing Wang

Abstract:

Stock selection is an important decision-making problem. Many machine learning and data mining technologies are employed to build automatic stock-selection system. A profitable stock-selection system should consider the stock’s investment value and the market timing. In this paper, we present a hybrid system including both engage for stock selection. This system uses a case-based reasoning (CBR) model to execute the stock classification, uses a decision-tree model to help with market timing and stock selection. The experiments show that the performance of this hybrid system is better than that of other techniques regarding to the classification accuracy, the average return and the Sharpe ratio.

Keywords: case-based reasoning, decision tree, stock selection, machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 280