Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 44

Search results for: retardant

44 Eco-Ways to Reduce Environmental Impacts of Flame Retardant Textiles at the End of Life

Authors: Sohail Yasin, Massimo Curti, Nemeshwaree Behary, Giorgio Rovero

Abstract:

It is well-known that the presence of discarded textile products in municipal landfills poses environmental problems due to leaching of chemical products from the textile to the environment. Incineration of such textiles is considered to be an efficient way to produce energy and reduce environmental impacts of textile materials at their end-of life stage. However, the presence of flame retardant products on textiles would decrease the energy yield and emit toxic gases during incineration stage. While some non-durable flame retardants can be removed by wet treatments (e.g. washing), these substances pollute water and pose concerns towards environmental health. Our study shows that infrared radiation can be used efficiently to degrade flame retardant products on the textiles. This method is finalized to minimize the decrease in energy yield during the incineration or gasification processes of flame retardant cotton fabrics.

Keywords: degradation, flame retardant, infrared radiation, cotton, incineration

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
43 Thermoplastic Composites with Reduced Discoloration and Enhanced Fire-Retardant Property

Authors: Peng Cheng, Liqing Wei, Hongyu Chen, Ruomiao Wang

Abstract:

This paper discusses a light-weight reinforced thermoplastic (LWRT) composite with superior fire retardancy. This porous LWRT composite is manufactured using polyolefin, fiberglass, and fire retardant additives via a wet-lay process. However, discoloration of the LWRT can be induced by various mechanisms, which may be a concern in the building and construction industry. It is commonly understood that discoloration is strongly associated with the presence of phenolic antioxidant(s) and NOx. The over-oxidation of phenolic antioxidant(s) is probably the root-cause of the discoloration (pinking/yellowing). Hanwha Azdel, Inc. developed a LWRT with fire-retardant property of ASTM E84-Class A specification, as well as negligible discoloration even under harsh conditions. In addition, this thermoplastic material is suitable for secondary processing (e.g. compression molding) if necessary.

Keywords: discoloration, fire-retardant, thermoplastic composites, wet-lay process

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
42 Investigation of the Effect of Phosphorous on the Flame Retardant Polyacrylonitrile Nanofiber

Authors: Mustafa Yılmaz, Ahmet Akar, Nesrin Köken, Nilgün Kızılcan

Abstract:

Commercially available poly(acrylonitrile-co-vinyl acetate) P(AN-VA) or poly(acrylonitrile-co-methyl acrylate) P(AN-MA) are not satisfactory to meet the demand in flame and fire-resistance. In this work, vinylphosphonic acid is used during polymerization of acrylonitrile, vinyl acetate, methacrylic acid to produce fire-retardant polymers. These phosphorus containing polymers are successfully spun in the form of nanofibers. Properties such as water absorption of polymers are also determined and compared with commercial polymers.

Keywords: flame retardant, nanofiber, polyacrylonitrile, phosphorous compound, membrane

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
41 Advanced Phosphorus-Containing Polymer Materials towards Eco-Friendly Flame Retardant Epoxy Thermosets

Authors: Ionela-Daniela Carja, Diana Serbezeanu, Tachita Vlad-Bubulac, Corneliu Hamciuc

Abstract:

Nowadays, epoxy materials are extensively used in ever more areas and under ever more demanding environmental conditions due to their remarkable combination of properties, light weight and ease of processing. However, these materials greatly increase the fire risk due to their flammability and possible release of toxic by-products as a result of their chemical composition which consists mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms. Therefore, improving the fire retardant behaviour to prevent the loss of life and property is of particular concern among government regulatory bodies, consumers and manufacturers alike. Modification of epoxy resins with organophosphorus compounds, as reactive flame retardants or additives, is the key to achieving non-flammable advanced epoxy materials. Herein, a detailed characterization of fire behaviour for a series of phosphorus-containing epoxy thermosets is reported. A carefully designed phosphorus flame retardant additive was simply blended with a bifunctional bisphenol-A based epoxy resin. Further thermal cross-linking in the presence of various aminic hardeners led to eco-friendly flame retardant epoxy resins. The type of hardener, concentration of flame retardant additive, compatibility between the components of the mixture, char formation and morphology, thermal stability, flame retardant mechanisms were investigated. It was found that even a very low content of phosphorus introduced into the epoxy matrix increased the limiting oxygen index value to about 30%. In addition, the peak of the heat release rate value decreased up to 45% as compared to the one of the neat epoxy system. The main flame retardant mechanism was the condensed-phase one as revealed by SEM and XPS measurements.

Keywords: condensed-phase mechanism, eco-friendly phosphorus flame retardant, epoxy resin, thermal stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
40 Fire Characteristic of Commercial Retardant Flame Polycarbonate under Different Oxygen Concentration: Ignition Time and Heat Blockage

Authors: Xuelin Zhang, Shouxiang Lu, Changhai Li

Abstract:

The commercial retardant flame polycarbonate samples as the main high speed train interior carriage material with different thicknesses were investigated in Fire Propagation Apparatus with different external heat fluxes under different oxygen concentration from 12% to 40% to study the fire characteristics and quantitatively analyze the ignition time, mass loss rate and heat blockage. The additives of commercial retardant flame polycarbonate were intumescent and maintained a steady height before ignition when heated. The results showed the transformed ignition time (1/t_ig)ⁿ increased linearly with external flux under different oxygen concentration after deducting the heat blockage due to pyrolysis products, the mass loss rate was taken on linearly with external heat fluxes and the slop of the fitting line for mass loss rate and external heat fluxes decreased with the enhanced oxygen concentration and the heat blockage independent on external heat fluxes rose with oxygen concentration increasing. The inquired data as the input of the fire simulation model was the most important to be used to evaluate the fire risk of commercial retardant flame polycarbonate.

Keywords: ignition time, mass loss rate, heat blockage, fire characteristic

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
39 Flame Retardancy of Organophosphorus Compound on Cellulose - an Eco Friendly Concern

Authors: M. A. Hannan, N. Matthias Neisius

Abstract:

Organophosphorus compound diethyloxymethyl-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPAC) was applied on cotton cellulose to impart eco-friendly flame retardant property to it. Here acetal linkage was introduced rather than conventionally used ester linkage to rescue from the undurability problem of flame retardant compound. Some acidic catalysts, sodium dihydrogen phosphate (NaH2PO4), ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (NH4H2PO4) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) were successfully used to form acetal linkage between the base material and flame retardant compound. Inspiring limiting oxygen index (LOI) value of 22.4 was found after exclusive washing treatment. A good outcome of total heat of combustion (THC) 6.05 KJ/g was found possible during pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC) test of the treated sample. Low temperature dehydration with sufficient amount of char residue (14.89%) was experienced in case of treated sample. In addition, the temperature of peak heat release rate (TPHRR) 343.061°C supported the expected low temperature pyrolysis in condensed phase mechanism. With the consequence of pyrolysis effects, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) also reported inspiring weight retention% of the treated samples.

Keywords: acetal linkage, char residue, cotton cellulose, flame retardant, loi, low temperature pyrolysis, organophosphorus, THC, THRR

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
38 Preparation and Flame-Retardant Properties of Epoxy Resins Containing Organophosphorus Compounds

Authors: Tachita Vlad-Bubulac, Ionela-Daniela Carja, Diana Serbezeanu, Corneliu Hamciuc, Vicente Javier Forrat Perez

Abstract:

The present work describes the preparation of new organophosphorus compounds with high content of phosphorus followed by the incorporation of these compounds into epoxy resin systems in order to investigate the phosphorus effect in terms of thermal stability, flame-retardant and mechanical properties of modified epoxy resins. Thus, two new organophosphorus compounds have been synthesized and fully characterized. 6-Oxido-6H-dibenz[c,e][1,2]oxaphosphorinyl-phenylcarbinol has been prepared by the addition reaction of P–H group of 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide to carbonyl group of benzaldehyde. By treating the phenylcarbinol derivative with POCl3 a new phosphorus compound was obtained, having a content of 12.227% P. The organophosphorus compounds have been purified by recrystallization while their chemical structures have been confirmed by melting point measurements, FTIR and HNMR spectroscopies. In the next step various flame-retardant epoxy resins with different content of phosphorus have been prepared starting from a commercial epoxy resin and using dicyandiamide (DICY) as a latent curing agent in the presence of an accelerator. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been applied to investigate the behavior and kinetics of curing process of thermosetting systems. The results showed that the best curing characteristic and glass transition temperature are obtained at a ratio of epoxy resin: DICY: accelerator equal to 94:5:1. The thermal stability of the phosphorus-containing epoxy resins was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis in nitrogen and air, DSC, SEM and LOI test measurements.

Keywords: epoxy resins, flame retardant properties, phosphorus-containing compounds, thermal stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
37 Catalytic Effect on Eco Friendly Functional Material in Flame Retardancy of Cellulose

Authors: Md. Abdul Hannan

Abstract:

Two organophosphorus compounds, namely diethyloxymethyl-9-oxa-10- phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPAC) and diethyl (2,2-diethoxyethyl) phosphonate (DPAC) were applied on cotton cellulose to impart non-carcinogenic and durable (in alkaline washing) flame retardant property to it. Some acidic catalysts, sodium dihydrogen phosphate (NaH2PO4), ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (NH4H2PO4) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) were successfully used. Synergistic acidic catalyzing effect of NaH2PO4+H3PO4 and NaH2PO4+NH4H2PO4 was also investigated. Appreciable limiting oxygen index (LOI) value of 23.2% was achieved in case of the samples treated with flame retardant (FR) compound DPAC along with the combined acidic catalyzing effect. A distinguishing outcome of total heat of combustion (THC) 3.27 KJ/g was revealed during pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC) test of the treated sample. In respect of thermal degradation, low temperature dehydration in conjugation with sufficient amount of char residue (30.5%) was obtained in case of DPAC treated sample. Consistently, the temperature of peak heat release rate (TPHRR) (325°C) of DPAC treated sample supported the expected low temperature pyrolysis in condensed phase mechanism. Subsequent thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) also reported inspiring weight retention% of the treated samples. Furthermore, for both of the flame retardant compounds, effect of different catalysts, considering both individual and combined, effect of solvents and overall the optimization of the process parameters were studied in detail.

Keywords: cotton cellulose, organophosphorus flame retardant, acetal linkage, THC, HRR, PHHR, char residue, LOI

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
36 Investigations of Flame Retardant Properties of Beneficiated Huntite and Hydromagnesite Mineral Reinforced Polymer Composites

Authors: H. Yilmaz Atay

Abstract:

Huntite and hydromagnesite minerals have been used as additive materials to achieve incombustible material due to their inflammability property. Those fire retardants materials can help to extinguish in the early stages of fire. Thus dispersion of the flame can be prevented even if the fire started. Huntite and hydromagnesite minerals are known to impart fire-proofing of the polymer composites. However, the additives used in the applications led to deterioration in the mechanical properties due to the usage of high amount of the powders in the composites. In this study, by enriching huntite and hydromagnesite, it was aimed to use purer minerals to reinforce the polymer composites. Thus, predictably, using purer mineral will lead to use lower amount of mineral powders. By this manner, the minerals free from impurities by various processes were added to the polymer matrix with different loading level and grades. Different types of samples were manufactured, and subsequently characterized by XRD, SEM-EDS, XRF and flame-retardant tests. Tensile strength and elongation at break values were determined according to loading levels and grades. Besides, a comparison on the properties of the polymer composites produced by using of minerals with and without impurities was performed. As a result of the work, it was concluded that it is required to use beneficiated minerals to provide better fire-proofing behaviors in the polymer composites.

Keywords: flame retardant, huntite and hydromagnesite, mechanical property, polymer composites

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
35 Synergistic Studies of Multi-Flame Retarders Using Silica Nanoparticles, and Nitrogen and Phosphorus-Based Compounds for Polystyrene Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Florencio D. De Los Reyes, Magdaleno R. Vasquez Jr., Mark Daniel G. De Luna, Peerasak Paoprasert

Abstract:

The effect of adding silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) obtained from rice husk, and phosphorus and nitrogen based compounds namely 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenantrene-10-oxide (DOPO) and melamine, respectively, on the flammability of polystyrene (PS) was studied using response surface methodology (RSM). The flammability of PS was reduced as the limiting oxygen index (LOI) values increased when the flame retardant additives were added. DOPO exhibited the best retarding property increasing the LOI value of PS by 42.4%. A quadratic model for LOI was obtained from the RSM results, with percent loading of SiNPs, DOPO, and melamine, as independent variables. The observed increase in the LOI value as the percent loading of the flame retardant additives is increased, was attributed both to the main effects and synergistic effects of the parameters, as the LOI response of SiNPs is greatly enhanced by the addition of DOPO and melamine, as shown by the response surface plots. This indicates the potential of producing a cheaper, effective, and non-toxic multi-flame retardant system for the polymeric system via different flame retarding mechanisms.

Keywords: flame retardancy, polystyrene, response surface methodology, rice husk, silica nanoparticle

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
34 Integrated Finishing of Textiles

Authors: Geetal Mahajan, R. V. Adivarekar

Abstract:

In this research, an attempt has been made to develop integrated finish on textile fabrics. The demand for mosquito repellent, flame retardant, and water repellent finished fabric has increased. Integrated finishing was done using commercially available products. These finishing agents were first assessed individually for their functional properties and then used in combination with other agents. Dip-air dry and pad-dry-cure (PDC) were two different methods used for fabric finishing. The finished fabric was assessed using spray test, limiting oxygen index and mosquito repellence test. Integrated finished fabric is in great demand by the customers as it increases the aesthetic as well as the functional properties of the fabric with added benefit of water and energy conservation.

Keywords: flame retardant, integrated finishing, mosquito repellent, textiles, water repellent

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
33 Mechanism of Action of New Sustainable Flame Retardant Additives in Polyamide 6,6

Authors: I. Belyamani, M. K. Hassan, J. U. Otaigbe, W. R. Fielding, K. A. Mauritz, J. S. Wiggins, W. L. Jarrett

Abstract:

We have investigated the flame-retardant efficiency of special new phosphate glass (P-glass) compositions having different glass transition temperatures (Tg) on the processing conditions of polyamide 6,6 (PA6,6) and the final hybrid flame retardancy (FR). We have showed that the low Tg P glass composition (i.e., ILT 1) is a promising flame retardant for PA6,6 at a concentration of up to 15 wt. % compared to intermediate (IIT 3) and high (IHT 1) Tg P glasses. Cone calorimetry data showed that the ILT 1 decreased both the peak heat release rate and the total heat amount released from the PA6,6/ILT 1 hybrids, resulting in an efficient formation of a glassy char layer. These intriguing findings prompted to address several questions concerning the mechanism of action of the different P glasses studied. The general mechanism of action of phosphorous based FR additives occurs during the combustion stage by enhancing the morphology of the char and the thermal shielding effect. However, the present work shows that P glass based FR additives act during melt processing of PA6,6/P glass hybrids. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) revealed that the Tg of PA6,6/ILT 1 was significantly shifted to a lower Tg (~65 oC) and another transition appeared at high temperature (~ 166 oC), thus indicating a strong interaction between PA6,6 and ILT 1. This was supported by a drop in the melting point and crystallinity of the PA6,6/ILT 1 hybrid material as detected by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The dielectric spectroscopic investigation of the networks’ molecular level structural variations (i.e. hybrids chain motion, Tg and sub-Tg relaxations) agreed very well with the DMA and DSC findings; it was found that the three different P glass compositions did not show any effect on the PA6,6 sub-Tg relaxations (related to the NH2 and OH chain end groups motions). Nevertheless, contrary to IIT 3 and IHT 1 based hybrids, the PA6,6/ILT 1 hybrid material showed an evidence of splitting the PA6,6 Tg relaxations into two peaks. Finally, the CPMAS 31P-NMR data confirmed the miscibility between ILT 1 and PA6,6 at the molecular level, as a much larger enhancement in cross-polarization for the PA6,6/15%ILT 1 hybrids was observed. It can be concluded that compounding low Tg P-glass (i.e. ILT 1) with PA6,6 facilitates hydrolytic chain scission of the PA6,6 macromolecules through a potential chemical interaction between phosphate and the alpha-Carbon of the amide bonds of the PA6,6, leading to better flame retardant properties.

Keywords: broadband dielectric spectroscopy, composites, flame retardant, polyamide, phosphate glass, sustainable

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
32 Comprehensive Microstructural and Thermal Analysis of Nano Intumescent Fire Retardant Coating for Structural Applications

Authors: Hammad Aziz

Abstract:

Intumescent fire retardant coating (IFRC) is applied on the surface of material requiring fire protection. In this research work, IFRC’s were developed using ammonium polyphosphate, expandable graphite, melamine, boric acid, zinc borate, mica, magnesium oxide, and bisphenol A BE-188 with polyamide polyamine H-4014 as curing agent. Formulations were prepared using nano size MgO and compared with control formulation i.e. without nano size MgO. Small scale hydrocarbon fire test was conducted to scrutinize the thermal performance of the coating. Char and coating were further characterized by using FESEM, FTIR, EDS, TGA and DTGA. Thus, Intumescent coatings reinforced with 2 wt. % of nano-MgO (rod shaped particles) provide superior thermal performance and uniform microstructure of char due to well dispersion of nano particles.

Keywords: intumescent coating, char, SEM, TGA

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
31 Experimental Measurements of Fire Retardants on Plywood at Fire Test

Authors: Gisele C. A. Martins, Leonardo A. Marcolin, Laurenn B. de Macedo, Francisco A. Rocco Lahr, Carlito Calil Jr

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The use and development of wood composite materials increased in the past few years. However, in Brazil there are some restrictions on these products regarding their use since it could be considered a potential risk in a fire situation. Thus, becomes evident the need for research aiming to fit these in safety standards. This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of two new fire retardant products produced by a Brazilian industry. Tests were performed on plywood panels of Pinus spp previously immersed, varying the products concentrations and compared with untreated samples. The test used to evaluate the flame spread in a panel was the modified Schlyter test. The product in question was proved efficient, before and after shutting off the burner. Comparing panels with the panels without treatment, there was a decrease of 400% of the height of the flame spread on the treated ones.

Keywords: fire retardant, flame spread, plywood, wood-based material

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
30 Flame Retardant Study of Methylol Melamine Phosphate-Treated Cotton Fibre

Authors: Nurudeen Afolami Ayeni, Kasali Bello

Abstract:

Methylolmelamine with increasing degree of methylol substitution and the phosphates derivatives were used to resinate cotton fabric (CF). The resination was carried out at different curing time and curing temperature. Generally, the results show a reduction in the flame propagation rate of the treated fabrics compared to the untreated cotton fabric (CF). While the flame retardancy of methylolmelamine-treated fibre could be attributed to the degree of crosslinking of fibre-resin network which promotes stability, the methylolmelamine phosphate-treated fabrics show better retardancy due to the intumescences action of the phosphate resin upon decomposition in the resin – fabric network.

Keywords: cotton fabric, flame retardant, methylolmelamine, crosslinking, resination

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
29 The Experimental and Statistical Analysis of the Wood Strength against Pressure According to Different Wood Types, Sizes, and Coatings

Authors: Mustafa Altin, Gamze Fahriye Pehlivan, Sadiye Didem Boztepe Erkis, Sakir Tasdemir, Sevda Altin

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In this study, an experimental study was executed related to the strength of wooden materials which have been commonly used both in the past and present against pressure and whether fire retardant materials used against fire have any effects or not. Totally, 81 samples which included three different wood species, three different sizes, two different fire retardants and two unprocessed samples were prepared. Compressive pressure tests were applied to the prepared samples, their variance analyses were executed in accordance with the obtained results and it was aimed to determine the most convenient wooden materials and fire-retardant coating material. It was also determined that the species of wood and the species of coating caused the decrease and/or increase in the resistance against pressure.

Keywords: resistance of wood against pressure, species of wood, variance analysis, wood coating, wood fire safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
28 A FR Fire-Off with Polysilicic Acid for Pes/Co Blends

Authors: Raziye Atakan, Ebru Celebi, Gulay Ozcan, Neda Soydan, A. Sezai Sarac

Abstract:

In this study, a novel polymeric flame retardant chemical with phosphorous-nitrogen synergism was synthesized by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), hydrophilic polyester resin (PR), phosphoric acid and dicyandiamide (DCDA). Polyester/Cotton (Pes/Co) blend fabrics were treated via pad-dry-cure process with this synthesized chemical. PVA (PR)-P-DCDA has shown that it is an effective flame retardant on the fabrics. In order to improve durable flame retardancy for cotton part of the blend, polysilicic acid and citric acid monohydrate auxiliaries were added in FR finishing bath at different concentrations. Flammability and characteristic properties of the sample were tested according to relevant ISO standard and procedures. To do so, ISO 6940 vertical flammability test, TGA, DTA, LOI and FTIR analysis have been performed. The obtained results showed that this new finishing formulation is a good char-forming agent for the PES/CO blends and polysilicic acid could be used for cellulosic blends with PVA (PR)-P-DCDA.

Keywords: flame retardancy, flammability, Pes/Co blends, polysilicic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
27 Effects of Flame Retardant Nano Bio-Filler on the Fire Behaviour of Thin Film Intumescent Coatings

Authors: Ming Chian Yew, Ming Kun Yew, Lip Huat Saw, Tan Ching Ng, Rajkumar Durairaj, Jing Han Beh

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the fire protection performance, char formation and heat release characteristics of the thin film intumescent coatings that incorporate waste eggshell (ES) as a nano bio-filler. In this study, the Bunsen burner and the fire propagation (BS 476: Part 6) tests of coatings were measured. Experiments on the samples were also tested to evaluate their fire behavior using a cone calorimeter according to ISO 5660-1 specifications. On exposure, the samples B, C and D had been certified to be Class 0 due to the fire propagation indexes of the samples were less than 12. Samples B and D showed a significant reduction in total heat rate (B=11.6 MJ/m² and D=12.0 MJ/m²) and uniform char structures with the addition of 3.30 wt.% and 2.75 wt.% ES nano bio-filler, respectively. As a result, ES nano bio-filler composition good to slow down the fire expanding and demonstrate better fire protection due to its positive synergistic effect with flame retardant ingredients on physical and chemical reactions in fire protection.

Keywords: cone calorimeter, eggshell, fire protection, heat release rate, intumescent coating

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
26 Green Synthesis Approach for Renewable Textile Coating and Their Mechanical and Thermal Properties

Authors: Heba Gamal Abd Elhaleem Elsayed, Nour F Attia

Abstract:

The extensive use of textile and textile based materials in various applications including industrial applications are increasing regularly due to their interesting properties which require rapid development in their functions to be adapted to these applications [1-3]. Herein, green, new and renewable smart coating was developed for furniture textile fabrics. Facile and single step method was used for synthesis of green coating based on mandarin peel and chitosan. As, the mandarin peel as fruit waste material was dried, grinded and directly dispersed in chitosan solution producing new green coating composite and then coated on textile fabrics. The mass loadings of green mandarin peel powder was varied on 20-70 wt% and optimized. Thermal stability of coated textile fabrics was enhanced and char yield was improved compared to uncoated one. The charring effect of mandarin peel powder coated samples was significantly enhanced anticipating good flame retardancy effect. The tensile strength of the coated textile fabrics was improved achieved 35% improvement compared to uncoated sample. The interaction between the renewable coating and textile was evaluated. The morphology of uncoated and coated textile fabrics was studied using microscopic technique. Additionally, based on thermal properties of mandarin peel powder it could be promising flame retardant for textile fabrics. This study open new avenues for finishing textile fabrics with enhanced thermal, flame retardancy and mechanical properties with cost-effective and renewable green and effective coating

Keywords: flame retardant , Thermal Properties, Textile Coating , Renewable Textile

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
25 Effect of Fire Retardant Painting Product on Smoke Optical Density of Burning Natural Wood Samples

Authors: Abdullah N. Olimat, Ahmad S. Awad, Faisal M. AL-Ghathian

Abstract:

Natural wood is used in many applications in Jordan such as furniture, partitions constructions, and cupboards. Experimental work for smoke produced by the combustion of certain wood samples was studied. Smoke generated from burning of natural wood, is considered as a major cause of death in furniture fires. The critical parameter for life safety in fires is the available time for escape, so the visual obscuration due to smoke release during fire is taken into consideration. The effect of smoke, produced by burning of wood, depends on the amount of smoke released in case of fire. The amount of smoke production, apparently, affects the time available for the occupants to escape. To achieve the protection of life of building occupants during fire growth, fire retardant painting products are tested. The tested samples of natural wood include Beech, Ash, Beech Pine, and white Beech Pine. A smoke density chamber manufactured by fire testing technology has been used to perform measurement of smoke properties. The procedure of test was carried out according to the ISO-5659. A nonflammable vertical radiant heat flux of 25 kW/m2 is exposed to the wood samples in a horizontal orientation. The main objective of the current study is to carry out the experimental tests for samples of natural woods to evaluate the capability to escape in case of fire and the fire safety requirements. Specific optical density, transmittance, thermal conductivity, and mass loss are main measured parameters. Also, comparisons between samples with paint and with no paint are carried out between the selected samples of woods.

Keywords: extinction coefficient, optical density, transmittance, visibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
24 Developments and Implementation of Biomaterials in Textile Coating and Finishing

Authors: David De Smet, Myriam Vanneste

Abstract:

There is a constant need for the improvement of materials applied in textile industries. Nowadays there is a tendency for “bio, eco, natural and environmental friendly” consciousness of the consumer resulting in various textile labels. Materials, totally based on CO2-neutral renewable resources (biopolymers), respond very well to this tendency. Proteins and PLA were evaluated as binders for textile coatings. Much attention is paid to the functionalization of textiles, therefore bio-additves are examined to introduce abrasion resistance, antimicrobial and flame retardant properties.

Keywords: biomaterial, textile, coating, finishing

Procedia PDF Downloads 571
23 Influence Study of the Molar Ratio between Solvent and Initiator on the Reaction Rate of Polyether Polyols Synthesis

Authors: María José Carrero, Ana M. Borreguero, Juan F. Rodríguez, María M. Velencoso, Ángel Serrano, María Jesús Ramos

Abstract:

Flame-retardants are incorporated in different materials in order to reduce the risk of fire, either by providing increased resistance to ignition, or by acting to slow down combustion and thereby delay the spread of flames. In this work, polyether polyols with fire retardant properties were synthesized due to their wide application in the polyurethanes formulation. The combustion of polyurethanes is primarily dependent on the thermal properties of the polymer, the presence of impurities and formulation residue in the polymer as well as the supply of oxygen. There are many types of flame retardants, most of them are phosphorous compounds of different nature and functionality. The addition of these compounds is the most common method for the incorporation of flame retardant properties. The employment of glycerol phosphate sodium salt as initiator for the polyol synthesis allows obtaining polyols with phosphate groups in their structure. However, some of the critical points of the use of glycerol phosphate salt are: the lower reactivity of the salt and the necessity of a solvent (dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO). Thus, the main aim in the present work was to determine the amount of the solvent needed to get a good solubility of the initiator salt. Although the anionic polymerization mechanism of polyether formation is well known, it seems convenient to clarify the role that DMSO plays at the starting point of the polymerization process. Regarding the fact that the catalyst deprotonizes the hydroxyl groups of the initiator and as a result of this, two water molecules and glycerol phosphate alkoxide are formed. This alkoxide, together with DMSO, has to form a homogeneous mixture where the initiator (solid) and the propylene oxide (PO) are soluble enough to mutually interact. The addition rate of PO increased when the solvent/initiator ratios studied were increased, observing that it also made the initiation step shorter. Furthermore, the molecular weight of the polyol decreased when higher solvent/initiator ratios were used, what revealed that more amount of salt was activated, initiating more chains of lower length but allowing to react more phosphate molecules and to increase the percentage of phosphorous in the final polyol. However, the final phosphorous content was lower than the theoretical one because only a percentage of salt was activated. On the other hand, glycerol phosphate disodium salt was still partially insoluble in DMSO studied proportions, thus, the recovery and reuse of this part of the salt for the synthesis of new flame retardant polyols was evaluated. In the recovered salt case, the rate of addition of PO remained the same than in the commercial salt but a shorter induction period was observed, this is because the recovered salt presents a higher amount of deprotonated hydroxyl groups. Besides, according to molecular weight, polydispersity index, FT-IR spectrum and thermal stability, there were no differences between both synthesized polyols. Thus, it is possible to use the recovered glycerol phosphate disodium salt in the same way that the commercial one.

Keywords: DMSO, fire retardants, glycerol phosphate disodium salt, recovered initiator, solvent

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
22 Suitability of Wood Sawdust Waste Reinforced Polymer Composite for Fireproof Doors

Authors: Timine Suoware, Sylvester Edelugo, Charles Amgbari

Abstract:

The susceptibility of natural fibre polymer composites to flame has necessitated research to improve and develop flame retardant (FR) to delay the escape of combustible volatiles. Previous approaches relied mostly on FR such as aluminium tri-hydroxide (ATH) and ammonium polyphosphate (APP) to improve fire performances of wood sawdust polymer composites (WSPC) with emphasis on non-structural building applications. In this paper, APP was modified with gum Arabic powder (GAP) and then hybridized with ATH at 0, 12 and 18% loading ratio to form new FR species; WSPC12%APP-GAP and WSPC18%ATH/APP-GAP. The FR species were incorporated in wood sawdust waste reinforced in polyester resin to form panels for fireproof doors. The panels were produced using hand lay compression moulding technique and cured at room temperature. Specimen cut from panels were then tested for tensile strength (TS), flexural strength (FS) and impact strength (IS) using universal testing machine and impact tester; thermal stability using (TGA/DSC 1: Metler Toledo); time-to-ignition (Tig), heat release rates (HRR); peak HRR (HRRp), average HRR (HRRavg), total HRR (THR), peak mass loss rate (MLRp), average smoke production rate (SPRavg) and carbon monoxide production (COP ) were obtained using the cone calorimeter apparatus. From the mechanical properties obtained, improvements of IS for the panels were not noticeable whereas TS and FS for WSPC12%APP-GAP respectively stood at 12.44 MPa and 85.58 MPa more than those without FR (WSPC0%). For WSC18%ATH/APP-GAP TS and FS respectively stood at 16.45 MPa and 50.49 MPa more compared to (WSPC0%). From the thermal analysis, the panels did not exhibit any significant change as early degradation was observed. At 900 OC, the char residues improved by 15% for WSPC12%APP-GAP and 19% for WSPC18%ATH/APP-GAP more than (WSC0%) at 5%, confirming the APP-GAP to be a good FR. At 50 kW/m2 heat flux (HF), WSPC12%APP-GAP improved better the fire behaviour of the panels when compared to WSC0% as follows; Tig = 46 s, HRRp = 56.1 kW/2, HRRavg = 32.8 kW/m2, THR = 66.6 MJ/m2, MLRp = 0.103 g/s, TSR = 0.04 m2/s and COP = 0.051 kg/kg. These were respectively more than WSC0%. It can be concluded that the new concept of modifying FR with GAP in WSC could meet the requirement of a fireproof door for building applications.

Keywords: composite, flame retardant, wood sawdust, fireproof doors

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21 Acoustic Performance and Application of Three Personalized Sound-Absorbing Materials

Authors: Fangying Wang, Zhang Sanming, Ni Qian

Abstract:

In recent years, more and more personalized sound absorbing materials have entered the Chinese room acoustical decoration market. The acoustic performance of three kinds of personalized sound-absorbing materials: Flame-retardant Flax Fiber Sound-absorbing Cotton, Eco-Friendly Sand Acoustic Panel and Transparent Micro-perforated Panel (Film) are tested by Reverberation Room Method. The sound absorption characteristic curves show that their performance match for or even exceed the traditional sound absorbing material. Through the application in the actual projects, these personalized sound-absorbing materials also proved their sound absorption ability and unique decorative effect.

Keywords: acoustic performance, application prospect personalized sound-absorbing materials

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20 Nano Composite of Clay and Modified Ketonic Resin as Fire Retardant Polyol for Polyurethane

Authors: D. Önen, N. Kızılcan, B. Yıldız, A. Akar

Abstract:

In situ modified cyclohexanone-formaldehyde resins were prepared by addition of alendronic acid during resin preparation. Clay nanocomposites in ketonic resins were achieved by adding clay into the flask at the beginning of the resin preparation. The prepared resins were used for the synthesis of fire resistant polyurethanes foam. Both phosphorous containing modifier compound alendronic acid and nanoclay increases fire resistance of the cyclohexanone-formaldehyde resin thus polyurethane produced from these resins. The effect of the concentrations of alendronic acid and clay on the fire resistance and physical properties of polyurethanes was studied.

Keywords: alendronic acid, clay, ketonic resin, polyurethane

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19 Biological Applications of CNT Inherited Polyaniline Nano-Composites

Authors: Yashfeen Khan, Anees Ahmad

Abstract:

In the last few decades, nano-composites have been the topic of interest. Presently, the modern era enlightens the synthesis of hybrid nano-composites over their individual counterparts because of higher application potentials and synergism. Recently, CNT hybrids have demonstrated their pronounced capability as effective sorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions (the root trouble) and organic contaminants due to their high specific surface area, enhanced reactivity, and sequestration characteristics. The present abstract discusses removal efficiencies of organic, inorganic pollutants through CNT/PANI/ composites. It also represents the widespread applications of CNT like monitoring biological systems, biosensors, as heat resources for treating cancer, fire retardant applications of polymer/CNT composites etc. And considering the same, this article aims to brief the scenario of CNT-PANI nano-composites.

Keywords: biosensors, CNT, hybrids, polyaniline, synergism

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18 The Determination of the Zinc Sulfate, Sodium Hydroxide and Boric Acid Molar Ratio on the Production of Zinc Borates

Authors: N. Tugrul, A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin

Abstract:

Zinc borate is an important boron compound that can be used as multi-functional flame retardant additive due to its high dehydration temperature property. In this study, the raw materials of ZnSO4.7H2O, NaOH and H3BO3 were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and used in the synthesis of zinc borates. The synthesis parameters were set to 100°C reaction temperature and 120 minutes of reaction time, with different molar ratio of starting materials (ZnSO4.7H2O:NaOH:H3BO3). After the zinc borate synthesis, the identifications of the products were conducted by XRD and FT-IR. As a result, Zinc Oxide Borate Hydrate [Zn3B6O12.3.5H2O], were synthesized at the molar ratios of 1:1:3, 1:1:4, 1:2:5 and 1:2:6. Among these ratios 1:2:6 had the best results.

Keywords: Zinc borate, ZnSO4.7H2O, NaOH, H3BO3, XRD, FT-IR

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17 Improving Fire Resistance of Wood and Wood-Based Composites and Fire Testing Systems

Authors: Nadir Ayrilmis

Abstract:

Wood and wood-based panels are one of the oldest structural materials used in the construction industry due to their significant advantages such as good mechanical properties, low density, renewable material, low-cost, recycling, etc. However, they burn when exposed to a flame source or high temperatures. This is very important when the wood products are used as structural or hemi-structural materials in the construction industry, furniture industry, so on. For this reason, the fire resistance is demanded property for wood products. They can be impregnated with fire retardants to improve their fire resistance. The most used fire retardants, fire-retardant mechanism, and fire-testing systems, and national and international fire-durability classifications and standard requirements for fire-durability of wood and wood-based panels were given in this study.

Keywords: fire resistance, wood-based panels, cone calorimeter, wood

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16 Multifunctional Coating of Nylon Using Nano-Si, Nano-Ti and SiO2-TiO2 Nancomposite :Properties of Colorimetric and Flammability

Authors: E. Fereydouni, Laleh Maleknia , M. E. Olya

Abstract:

The present research, nylon fabric dyed by pressure method with nano-Si, nano-Ti particles and SiO2-TiO2 nancomposite. The influence of the amount of Si, Ti and SiO2-TiO2 on the performance of nylon fabric was investigated by the use of Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR), horizontal flammability apparatus (HFA), scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDX), water contact angle tester (WCA) and CIE LAB colorimetric system. The possible interactions between particles and nylon fiber were elucidated by the FTIR spectroscopy. Results indicated that the stabilized nanoparticles and nanocomposite enhances flame retardancy of nylon fabrics. Also, the prominet features of nanoparticles and nanocomposite treatment can note increase of adsorption and fixation of dye.

Keywords: nano-Si, nano- Ti, SiO2-TiO2 nancomposite, nylon fabric, flame retardant nylon

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15 A New Approach on the Synthesis of Zinc Borates by Ultrasonic Method and Determination of the Zinc Oxide and Boric Acid Optimum Molar Ratio

Authors: A. Ersan, A. S. Kipcak, M. Yildirim, A. M. Erayvaz, E. M. Derun, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul

Abstract:

Zinc borates are used as a multi-functional flame retardant additive for its high dehydration temperature. In this study, a new method of ultrasonic mixing was used in the synthesis of zinc borates. The reactants of zinc oxide (ZnO) and boric acid (H3BO3) were used at the constant reaction parameters of 90°C reaction temperature and 55 min of reaction time. Several molar ratios of ZnO:H3BO3 (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5) were conducted for the determination of the optimum reaction ratio. Prior to the synthesis, the characterization of the synthesized zinc borates were made by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). From the results Zinc Oxide Borate Hydrate [Zn3B6O12.3.5H2O], were synthesized optimum at the molar ratio of 1:3, with a reaction efficiency of 95.2%.

Keywords: zinc borates, ultrasonic mixing, XRD, FT-IR, reaction efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 233