Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: throttling

7 Experimental Investigation of Hybrid Rocket Motor: Ignition, Throttling and Re-Ignition Phenomena

Authors: A. El-S. Makled, M. K. Al-Tamimi

Abstract:

Ignition phenomena are of great interest area over the past many years, and it has a direct impact on many propulsion and combustion applications. The direct goal of the paper is to realize and evaluate a functioning ignition method, shut-off, throttling and re-start operations for the hybrid rocket motor. A small-scale hybrid rocket motor (SSHRM) is designed, manufactured, demonstrated at various operating conditions and finally equipped for laboratory firing tests with high level of safety. Various solid fuel grains as Polymethyle-methacrylate (PMMA) and Polyethylene (PE) are selected, and it is decided to use the commercial gaseous oxygen (GO2) for its availability and low cost. Examine different types of ignition methods, pyrotechnic charge, fuse wire, heat wire and finally hot oxidizer method by using the heat exchanger, which are proposed as very safe ignition methods. Finally; recognize phenomena of throttling and re-start operations. Ignition by hot GO2 impingement is proved to be a very attractive ignition method for laboratory SSHRM, for its high safety, reliability and acceptable delay time. Finally; the throttling and re-start operations are demonstrated several times and can be carried out more easily with hot air ignition method.

Keywords: hybrid rocket motor, ignition system, re-start phenomena, throttling

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6 Preliminary Performance of a Liquid Oxygen-Liquid Methane Pintle Injector for Thrust Variations

Authors: Brunno Vasques

Abstract:

Due to the non-toxic nature and high performance in terms of vacuum specific impulse and density specific impulse, the combination of liquid oxygen and liquid methane have been identified as a promising option for future space vehicle systems. Applications requiring throttling capability include specific missions such as rendezvous, planetary landing and de-orbit as well as weapon systems. One key challenge in throttling liquid rocket engines is maintaining an adequate pressure drop across the injection elements, which is necessary to provide good propellant atomization and mixing as well as system stability. The potential scalability of pintle injectors, their great suitability to throttling and inherent combustion stability characteristics led to investigations using a variety of propellant combinations, including liquid oxygen and hydrogen and fluorine-oxygen and methane. Presented here are the preliminary performance and heat transfer information obtained during hot-fire testing of a pintle injector running on liquid oxygen and liquid methane propellants. The specific injector design selected for this purpose is a multi-configuration building block version with replaceable injection elements, providing flexibility to accommodate hardware modifications with minimum difficulty. On the basis of single point runs and the use of a copper/nickel segmented calorimetric combustion chamber and associated transient temperature measurement, the characteristic velocity efficiency, injector footprint and heat fluxes could be established for the first proposed pintle configuration as a function of injection velocity- and momentum-ratios. A description of the test-bench is presented as well as a discussion of irregularities encountered during testing, such as excessive heat flux into the pintle tip resulting from certain operating conditions.

Keywords: green propellants, hot-fire performance, rocket engine throttling, pintle injector

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
5 Power Recovery in Egyptian Natural Gas Pressure Reduction Stations Using Turboexpander Systems

Authors: Kamel A. Elshorbagy, Mohamed A. Hussein, Rola S. Afify

Abstract:

Natural gas pressure reduction is typically achieved using pressure reducing valves, where isenthalpic expansion takes place with considerable amount of wasted energy in an irreversible throttling process of the gas. Replacing gas-throttling process by an expansion process in a turbo expander (TE) converts the pressure of natural gas into mechanical energy transmitted to a loading device (i.e. an electric generator). This paper investigates the performance of a turboexpander system for power recovery at natural gas pressure reduction stations. There is a considerable temperature drop associated with the turboexpander process. Essential preheating is required, using gas fired boilers, to avoid undesirable effects of a low outlet temperature. Various system configurations were simulated by the general flow sheet simulator HYSYS and factors affecting the overall performance of the systems were investigated. Power outputs and fuel requirements were found using typical gas flow variation data. The simulation was performed for two case studies in which real input data are used. These case studies involve a domestic (commercial) and an industrial natural gas pressure reduction stations in Egypt. Economic studies of using the turboexpander system in both of the two natural gas pressure reduction stations are conducted using precise data obtained through communication with several companies working in this field. The results of economic analysis, for the two case studies, prove that using turboexpander systems in Egyptian natural gas reduction stations can be a successful project for energy conservation.

Keywords: natural gas, power recovery, reduction stations, turboexpander systems

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4 An Approach towards Elementary Investigation on HCCI Technology

Authors: Jitendra Sharma

Abstract:

Here a Homogeneous Charge is used as in a spark-ignited engine, but the charge is compressed to auto ignition as in a diesel. The main difference compared with the Spark Ignition (SI) engine is the lack of flame propagation and hence the independence from turbulence. Compared with the diesel engine. HCCI has a homogeneous charge and have no problems associated with soot and Nox but HC and CO were higher than in SI mode. It was not possible to achieve high IMEP (Indicated Mean Effective Pressure) values with HCCI. The Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is an attractive technology because of its high efficiency and low emissions. However, HCCI lakes a direct combustion trigger making control of combustion timing challenging, especially during transients. To aid in HCCI engine control we present a simple model of the HCCI combustion process valid over a range of intake pressures, intake temperatures, equivalence ratios and engine speeds. HCCI a new combustion technology that may develop as an alternative to diesel engines with high efficiency and low Knox and particulate matter emissions. The homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a promising new engine technology that combines elements of the diesel and gasoline engine operating cycles. HCCI as a way to increase the efficiency of the gasoline engine. The attractive properties are increased fuel efficiency due to reduced throttling losses, increased expansion ratio and higher thermodynamic efficiency. With the advantages there are some mechanical limitations to the operation of the HCCI engine. The implementation of homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) to gasoline engines is constrained by many factors. The main drawback of HCCI is the absence of direct combustion timing control. Therefore all the right conditions for auto ignition have to be set before combustion starts. This paper describes the past and current research done on HCCI engine. Many research got considerable success in doing detailed modeling of HCCI combustion. This paper aims at studying the fundamentals of HCCI combustion, the strategy to control the limitation of HCCI engine.

Keywords: HCCI, diesel engine, combustion, elementary investigation

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3 Parametric Investigation of Aircraft Door’s Emergency Power Assist System (EPAS)

Authors: Marshal D. Kafle, Jun H. Kim, Hyun W. Been, Kyoung M. Min

Abstract:

Fluid viscous damping systems are well suited for many air vehicles subjected to shock and vibration. These damping system work with the principle of viscous fluid throttling through the orifice to create huge pressure difference between compression and rebound chamber and obtain the required damping force. One application of such systems is its use in aircraft door system to counteract the door’s velocity and safely stop it. In exigency situations like crash or emergency landing where the door doesn’t open easily, possibly due to unusually tilting of fuselage or some obstacles or intrusion of debris obstruction to move the parts of the door, such system can be combined with other systems to provide needed force to forcefully open the door and also securely stop it simultaneously within the required time i.e.less than 8seconds. In the present study, a hydraulic system called snubber along with other systems like actuator, gas bottle assembly which together known as emergency power assist system (EPAS) is designed, built and experimentally studied to check the magnitude of angular velocity, damping force and time required to effectively open the door. Whenever needed, the gas pressure from the bottle is released to actuate the actuator and at the same time pull the snubber’s piston to operate the emergency opening of the door. Such EPAS installed in the suspension arm of the aircraft door is studied explicitly changing parameters like orifice size, oil level, oil viscosity and bypass valve gap and its spring of the snubber at varying temperature to generate the optimum design case. Comparative analysis of the EPAS at several cases is done and conclusions are made. It is found that during emergency condition, the systemopening time and angular velocity, when snubber with 0.3mm piston and shaft orifice and bypass valve gap of 0.5 mm with its original spring is used,shows significant improvement over the old ones.

Keywords: aircraft door damper, bypass valve, emergency power assist system, hydraulic damper, oil viscosity

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2 Design Optimisation of a Novel Cross Vane Expander-Compressor Unit for Refrigeration System

Authors: Y. D. Lim, K. S. Yap, K. T. Ooi

Abstract:

In recent years, environmental issue has been a hot topic in the world, especially the global warming effect caused by conventional non-environmentally friendly refrigerants has increased. Several studies of a more energy-efficient and environmentally friendly refrigeration system have been conducted in order to tackle the issue. In search of a better refrigeration system, CO2 refrigeration system has been proposed as a better option. However, the high throttling loss involved during the expansion process of the refrigeration cycle leads to a relatively low efficiency and thus the system is impractical. In order to improve the efficiency of the refrigeration system, it is suggested by replacing the conventional expansion valve in the refrigeration system with an expander. Based on this issue, a new type of expander-compressor combined unit, named Cross Vane Expander-Compressor (CVEC) was introduced to replace the compressor and the expansion valve of a conventional refrigeration system. A mathematical model was developed to calculate the performance of CVEC, and it was found that the machine is capable of saving the energy consumption of a refrigeration system by as much as 18%. Apart from energy saving, CVEC is also geometrically simpler and more compact. To further improve its efficiency, optimization study of the device is carried out. In this report, several design parameters of CVEC were chosen to be the variables of optimization study. This optimization study was done in a simulation program by using complex optimization method, which is a direct search, multi-variables and constrained optimization method. It was found that the main design parameters, which was shaft radius was reduced around 8% while the inner cylinder radius was remained unchanged at its lower limit after optimization. Furthermore, the port sizes were increased to their upper limit after optimization. The changes of these design parameters have resulted in reduction of around 12% in the total frictional loss and reduction of 4% in power consumption. Eventually, the optimization study has resulted in an improvement in the mechanical efficiency CVEC by 4% and improvement in COP by 6%.

Keywords: complex optimization method, COP, cross vane expander-compressor, CVEC, design optimization, direct search, energy saving, improvement, mechanical efficiency, multi variables

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1 Three-Dimensional Fluid-Structure-Thermal Coupling Dynamics Simulation Model of a Gas-Filled Fluid-Resistance Damper and Experimental Verification

Authors: Wenxue Xu

Abstract:

Fluid resistance damper is an important damping element to attenuate vehicle vibration. It converts vibration energy into thermal energy dissipation through oil throttling. It is a typical fluid-solid-heat coupling problem. A complete three-dimensional flow-structure-thermal coupling dynamics simulation model of a gas-filled fluid-resistance damper was established. The flow-condition-based interpolation (FCBI) method and direct coupling calculation method, the unit's FCBI-C fluid numerical analysis method and iterative coupling calculation method are used to achieve the damper dynamic response of the piston rod under sinusoidal excitation; the air chamber inflation pressure, spring compression characteristics, constant flow passage cross-sectional area and oil parameters, etc. The system parameters, excitation frequency, and amplitude and other excitation parameters are analyzed and compared in detail for the effects of differential pressure characteristics, velocity characteristics, flow characteristics and dynamic response of valve opening, floating piston response and piston rod output force characteristics. Experiments were carried out on some simulation analysis conditions. The results show that the node-based FCBI (flow-condition-based interpolation) fluid numerical analysis method and direct coupling calculation method can better guarantee the conservation of flow field calculation, and the calculation step is larger, but the memory is also larger; if the chamber inflation pressure is too low, the damper will become cavitation. The inflation pressure will cause the speed characteristic hysteresis to increase, and the sealing requirements are too strict. The spring compression characteristics have a great influence on the damping characteristics of the damper, and reasonable damping characteristic needs to properly design the spring compression characteristics; the larger the cross-sectional area of the constant flow channel, the smaller the maximum output force, but the more stable when the valve plate is opening.

Keywords: damper, fluid-structure-thermal coupling, heat generation, heat transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 33