Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10842

Search results for: ideal work

10842 Zero Divisor Graph of a Poset with Respect to Primal Ideals

Authors: Hossein Pourali

Abstract:

In this paper, we extend the concepts of primal and weakly primal ideals for posets. Further, the diameter of the zero divisor graph of a poset with respect to a non-primal ideal is determined. The relation between primary and primal ideals in posets is also studied.

Keywords: ‎associated prime ideal, ‎‎ideal, ‎‎primary ideal, primal ideal‎, prime‎ ‎ideal, semiprime ideal, ‎weakly primal ideal, zero divisors graph

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
10841 Fuzzy Ideal Topological Spaces

Authors: Ali Koam, Ismail Ibedou, S. E. Abbas

Abstract:

In this paper, it is introduced the notion of r-fuzzy ideal separation axioms Tᵢi = 0; 1; 2 based on a fuzzy ideal I on a fuzzy topological space (X; τ). An r-fuzzy ideal connectedness related to the fuzzy ideal I is introduced which has relations with a previous r-fuzzy fuzzy connectedness. An r-fuzzy ideal compactness related to Ι is introduced which has also relations with many other types of fuzzy compactness.

Keywords: fuzzy ideal, fuzzy separation axioms, fuzzy compactness, fuzzy connectedness

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
10840 Some Properties in Jordan Ideal on 3-Prime Near-Rings

Authors: Abdelkarim Boua, Abdelhakim Chillali

Abstract:

The study of non-associative structures in algebraic structures has become a separate entity; for, in the case of groups, their corresponding non-associative structure i.e. loops is dealt with separately. Similarly there is vast amount of research on the nonassociative structures of semigroups i.e. groupoids and that of rings i.e. nonassociative rings. However it is unfortunate that we do not have a parallel notions or study of non-associative near-rings. In this work we shall attempt to generalize a few known results and study the commutativity of Jordan ideal in 3-prime near-rings satisfying certain identities involving the Jordan ideal. We study the derivations satisfying certain differential identities on Jordan ideals of 3-prime near-rings. Moreover, we provide examples to show that hypothesis of our results are necessary. We give some new results and examples concerning the existence of Jordan ideal and derivations in near-rings. These near-rings can be used to build a new codes.

Keywords: 3-prime near-rings, near-rings, Jordan ideal, derivations

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10839 Fuzzy Implicative Pseudo-Ideals of Pesudo-BCK Algebras

Authors: Alireza Gilani

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the fuzzification of implicative pseudo-ideal in a pseudo-BCK algebra, and then we investigate some of their properties. We prove that the family of fuzzy implicative pseudo-ideal is completely distributive lattice.

Keywords: BCK-algebra, pseudo-BCK algebra, pseudo-ideal, implicative pseudo-ideal

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10838 Identification of Ideal Plain Sufu (Fermented Soybean Curds) Based on Ideal Profile Method and Assessment of the Consistency of Ideal Profiles Obtained from Consumers

Authors: Yan Ping Chen, Hau Yin Chung

Abstract:

The Ideal Profile Method (IPM) is a newly developed descriptive sensory analysis conducted by consumers without previous training. To perform this test, both the perceived and the ideal intensities from the judgements of consumers on products’ attributes, as well as their hedonic ratings were collected for formulating an ideal product (the most liked one). In addition, Ideal Profile Analysis (IPA) was conducted to check the consistency of the ideal data at both the panel and consumer levels. In this test, 12 commercial plain sufus bought from Hong Kong local market were tested by 113 consumers according to the IPM, and rated on 22 attributes. Principal component analysis was used to profile the perceived and the ideal spaces of tested products. The consistency of ideal data was then checked by IPA. The result showed that most consumers shared a common ideal. It was observed that the sensory product space and the ideal product space were structurally similar. Their first dimensions all opposed products with intense fermented related aroma to products with less fermented related aroma. And the predicted ideal profile (the estimated liking score around 7.0 in a 9.0-point scale) got higher hedonic score than the tested products (the average liking score around 6.0 in a 9.0-point scale). For the majority of consumers (95.2%), the stated ideal product considered as a potential ideal through checking the R2 coefficient value. Among all the tested products, sample-6 was the most popular one with consumer liking percentage around 30%. This product with less fermented and moldy flavour but easier to melt in mouth texture possessed close sensory profile according to the ideal product. This experiment validated that data from untrained consumers could be guided as useful information. Appreciated sensory characteristics could be served as reference in the optimization of the commercial plain sufu.

Keywords: ideal profile method, product development, sensory evaluation, sufu (fermented soybean curd)

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10837 A Study on the Ideal and Actual Coping Responses of Public and Private College School Teachers on Job-Related Stress

Authors: Zaralyn Bernardo, Dante Boac, Annabelle Del Rosario

Abstract:

Professional individuals who are in a primary role to impart learning with the new generation are alarmingly tend to have a vast decrease in their workforce due to stress at work. Thus, the study used mixed method research design to explore the ideal and actual coping patterns of college school teachers, both private and public, using Coping Response Inventory-Adult (CRI-Adult). It was suggested that in order for coping to be effective there must be a congruence or good match between coping efforts and preferred coping style. Results basically provided the same information on sources of teacher stress. However, workload and low salary were more likely heightened, for public and private school, respectively. There is also a significant difference between the ideal and actual coping style of college school teachers. Though the public school teachers leaned towards problem-focused as their ideal way of coping, both public and private teachers are somewhat inclined to use emotion-focused coping in actual situation. Results of FGD identified the factors that contribute to the incongruence or mismatch in their preferred style of coping and actual efforts to cope. Identified factors based on thematic analysis (TA) are clustered into themes such as affectivity and rehearsal of the preferred coping responses, sensitivity to pressure impairs coping efficacy, seeking for social acceptance and approval, indefinite appraisal of perceived stress, emotional dysregulation, and impulsivity, immediate desire to terminate negative emotion and adversity. Most of the factors somewhat provide partial elucidation on the engagement of the respondents on emotion-focused coping.

Keywords: coping responses subtypes, appraisal, teacher stress, ideal and actual coping

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10836 Analytical Design of IMC-PID Controller for Ideal Decoupling Embedded in Multivariable Smith Predictor Control System

Authors: Le Hieu Giang, Truong Nguyen Luan Vu, Le Linh

Abstract:

In this paper, the analytical tuning rules of IMC-PID controller are presented for the multivariable Smith predictor that involved the ideal decoupling. Accordingly, the decoupler is first introduced into the multivariable Smith predictor control system by a well-known approach of ideal decoupling, which is compactly extended for general nxn multivariable processes and the multivariable Smith predictor controller is then obtained in terms of the multiple single-loop Smith predictor controllers. The tuning rules of PID controller in series with filter are found by using Maclaurin approximation. Many multivariable industrial processes are employed to demonstrate the simplicity and effectiveness of the presented method. The simulation results show the superior performances of presented method in compared with the other methods.

Keywords: ideal decoupler, IMC-PID controller, multivariable smith predictor, Padé approximation

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10835 Exergy and Energy Analysis of Pre-Heating Unit of Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit in Kaduna Refining and Petrochemical Company

Authors: M. Nuhu, S. Bilal, A. A. Hamisu, J. A. Abbas, Y. Z. Aminu, P. O. Helen

Abstract:

Exergy and energy analysis of preheating unit of FCCU of KRPC has been calculated and presented in this study. From the design, the efficiency of each heat exchanger was 86%. However, on completion of this work the efficiencies was calculated to be 39.90%, 55.66%, 56.22%, and 57.14% for 16E02, 16E03, 16E04, and 16E05 respectively. 16E04 has the minimum energy loss of 0.86%. The calculated second law and exergy efficiencies of the system were 43.01 and 56.99% respectively.

Keywords: exergy analysis, ideal work, efficiency, exergy destruction, temperature

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10834 Probability-Based Damage Detection of Structures Using Model Updating with Enhanced Ideal Gas Molecular Movement Algorithm

Authors: M. R. Ghasemi, R. Ghiasi, H. Varaee

Abstract:

Model updating method has received increasing attention in damage detection structures based on measured modal parameters. Therefore, a probability-based damage detection (PBDD) procedure based on a model updating procedure is presented in this paper, in which a one-stage model-based damage identification technique based on the dynamic features of a structure is investigated. The presented framework uses a finite element updating method with a Monte Carlo simulation that considers the uncertainty caused by measurement noise. Enhanced ideal gas molecular movement (EIGMM) is used as the main algorithm for model updating. Ideal gas molecular movement (IGMM) is a multiagent algorithm based on the ideal gas molecular movement. Ideal gas molecules disperse rapidly in different directions and cover all the space inside. This is embedded in the high speed of molecules, collisions between them and with the surrounding barriers. In IGMM algorithm to accomplish the optimal solutions, the initial population of gas molecules is randomly generated and the governing equations related to the velocity of gas molecules and collisions between those are utilized. In this paper, an enhanced version of IGMM, which removes unchanged variables after specified iterations, is developed. The proposed method is implemented on two numerical examples in the field of structural damage detection. The results show that the proposed method can perform well and competitive in PBDD of structures.

Keywords: enhanced ideal gas molecular movement (EIGMM), ideal gas molecular movement (IGMM), model updating method, probability-based damage detection (PBDD), uncertainty quantification

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10833 Delivery System Design of the Local Part to Reduce the Logistic Costs in an Automotive Industry

Authors: Alesandro Romero, Inaki Maulida Hakim

Abstract:

This research was conducted in an automotive company in Indonesia to overcome the problem of high logistics cost. The problem causes high of additional truck delivery. From the breakdown of the problem, chosen one route, which has the highest gap value, namely for RE-04. Research methodology will be started from calculating the ideal condition, making simulation, calculating the ideal logistic cost, and proposing an improvement. From the calculation of the ideal condition, box arrangement was done on the truck; the average efficiency was 97,4 % with three trucks delivery per day. Route simulation making uses Tecnomatix Plant Simulation software as a visualization for the company about how the system is occurred on route RE-04 in ideal condition. Furthermore, from the calculation of logistics cost of the ideal condition, it brings savings of Rp53.011.800,00 in a month. The last step is proposing improvements on the area of route RE-04. The route arrangement is done by Saving Method and sequence of each supplier with the Nearest Neighbor. The results of the proposed improvements are three new route groups, where was expected to decrease logistics cost Rp3.966.559,40 per day, and increase the average of the truck efficiency 8,78% per day.

Keywords: efficiency, logistic cost, milkrun, saving methode, simulation

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10832 The Relationship among Personality, Culture Personality and Ideal Tourist/Business Destinations

Authors: Tamás Gyulavári, Erzsébet Malota

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The main purpose of our study was to investigate the effect of congruence between the perceived self and perceived culture personality on the evaluation of the examined countries as ideal business/tourist destinations. A measure of Culture Personality (CP) has been developed and implemented to assess the perception of French and Turkish culture. Results show that very similar personality structure of both cultures can be extracted along the dimensions of Competence, Interpersonal approach, Aura, Life approach and Rectitude. Regarding the congruence theory, we found that instead of the effect of similarity between the perceived culture personality and actual self, the more positively culture personality is perceived relative to the perceived self, the more positive attitude the individual has toward the country as business and tourist destination.

Keywords: culture personality, ideal business/tourist destination, personality, scale development

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
10831 Attitudes toward Work-Life Balance among Japanese Youth

Authors: Tomoko Adachi

Abstract:

Although, thirty years have passed since the enactment of Equal Employment Opportunity Law, contemporary Japanese citizens still have difficulties in balancing work and life responsibilities. Not a few women give up their professional career after childbirth, meanwhile, men spend longer hours at work and have minimal time for their families. One of the reasons should be attributed to the traditional gender role ideas which have been entrenched even among younger generations. In an attempt to explore the psychological factors which enable work-life balance, the current study investigated attitudes of Japanese youth toward work-life balance and their relationships with gender role attitudes. Participants were 948 Japanese (165 men and 783 women) with the average age of 19.60 (SD=1.18). As for measure, a scale developed and modified by the author was used to assess attitudes toward work-life balance and Short form of the Scale of Egalitarian Sex Role Attitudes (SESRA-S) was used to assess traditional vs. egalitarian gender role attitudes. The results showed clear gender differences as follows. First, examination of attitudes toward work-life balance showed that more than 90% of men preferred to continue their work without child care interruption. Meanwhile, women showed various attitudes, with around 50% wanted to have child care interruption, 40% wanted to continue working without it, while, 10% wanted to work until childbirth. Secondly, gender comparison of egalitarian gender role attitudes showed that women possessed equal ideas on gender roles than men. Thirdly, relationships between gender role attitudes and attitudes for work-life balance were examined. No significant relationship between the two was found among men, which implies that regardless of the gender role attitudes, most of the men thought that continuing work without child care interruption was the ideal path for them. On the other hand, the effects of gender role attitudes were apparent among women, showing that women with egalitarian attitudes preferred to continue their professional career even after childbirth. The present study revealed gender difference in the idea about work-life balance with men possessing traditional ideas of 'men should be a bread winner'. Implications for support on young adults to reconcile work and family responsibilities were discussed.

Keywords: career path, gender role attitudes, work-life balance, youth

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10830 Body Mass Hurts Adolescent Girls More than Thin-Ideal Images

Authors: Javaid Marium, Ahmad Iftikhar

Abstract:

This study was aimed to identify factors that affect negative mood and body image dissatisfaction in women. positive and negative affect, self esteem, body image satisfaction and figure rating scale was administered to 97 female undergraduate students. This served as a base line data for correlation analysis in the first instance. One week later participants who volunteered to appear in the second phase of the study (N=47) were shown thin- ideal images as an intervention and soon after they completed positive and negative affect schedule and body image states scale again as a post test. Results indicated body mass as a strong negative predictor of body image dis/satisfaction, self esteem was a moderate predictor and mood was not a significant predictor. The participants whose actual body shape was markedly discrepant with the ideally desired body shape had significantly low level of body image satisfaction (p < .001) than those with low discrepancy. Similar results were found for self esteem (p < .004). Both self esteem and body mass predicted body satisfaction about equally and significantly. However, on viewing thin-ideal images, the participants of different body weight showed no change in their body image satisfaction than before. Only the overweight participants were significantly affected on negative mood as a short term reaction after viewing the thin ideal images. Comparing the three groups based on their body mass, one-way ANOVA revealed significant difference on negative mood as well as body image satisfaction. This reveals body mass as a potent and stable factor that consistently and strongly affected body satisfaction not the transient portrayal of thin ideal images.

Keywords: body image satisfaction, thin-ideal images, media, mood affects, self esteem

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
10829 Application of Lean Six Sigma Tools to Minimize Time and Cost in Furniture Packaging

Authors: Suleiman Obeidat, Nabeel Mandahawi

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In this work, the packaging process for a move is improved. The customers of this move need their household stuff to be moved from their current house to the new one with minimum damage, in an organized manner, on time and with the minimum cost. Our goal was to improve the process between 10% and 20% time efficiency, 90% reduction in damaged parts and an acceptable improvement in the cost of the total move process. The expected ROI was 833%. Many improvement techniques have been used in terms of the way the boxes are prepared, their preparation cost, packing the goods, labeling them and moving them to a place for moving out. DMAIC technique is used in this work: SIPOC diagram, value stream map of “As Is” process, Root Cause Analysis, Maps of “Future State” and “Ideal State” and an Improvement Plan. A value of ROI=624% is obtained which is lower than the expected value of 833%. The work explains the techniques of improvement and the deficiencies in the old process.

Keywords: packaging, lean tools, six sigma, DMAIC methodology, SIPOC

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10828 A Resolution on Ideal University Teachers Perspective of Turkish Students

Authors: Metin Özkan

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In the last decade, Turkish higher education has been expanded dramatically. With this expansion, Turkey has come a long way in establishing an efficient system of higher education which is moving into a ‘mass’ system with institutions spanning the whole country. This expansion as a quantitative target leads to questioning the quality of higher education services. Especially, the qualities of higher education services depend on mainly quality of educators. Qualities of educators are most important in Turkish higher education system due to rapid rise in the number of universities and students. Therefore, it is seen important that reveals the portrait of ideal university teacher from the point of view student enrolled in Turkish higher education system. The purpose of this current study is to determine the portrait of ideal university teacher according to the views of Turkish Students. This research is carried out with descriptive scanning method and combined and mixed of qualitative and quantitative methodologies. Research data of qualitative section were collected at Gaziantep University with the participation of 45 students enrolled in 15 different faculties. Quantitative section was performed on 217 students. The data were obtained through semi-structured interview and “Ideal University Teacher Assessment” form developed by the researcher. The interview form consists of basically two parts. The first part of the interview was about personal information, the second part included questions about the characteristic of ideal university teacher. The questions which constitute the second part of the interview are; "what is a good university teacher like?” and “What human qualities and professional skills should a university teacher have? ". Assessment form which was created from the qualitative data obtained from interviews was used to attain scaling values for pairwise comparison and ranking judgment. According to study results, it has been found that ideal university teacher characteristics include the features like patient, tolerant, comprehensive and tolerant. Ideal university teacher, besides, implement the teaching methods like encouraging the students’ critical thinking, accepting the students’ recommendations on how to conduct the lesson and making use of the new technologies etc. Motivating and respecting the students, adopting a participative style, adopting a sincere way of manner also constitute the ideal university features relationships with students.

Keywords: faculty, higher education, ideal university teacher, teacher behavior

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10827 The Efficacy of an Ideal RGP Fitting on Higher Order Aberrations (HOA) in 65 Keratoconus Patients

Authors: Ghandehari-Motlagh, Mohammad

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Purpose: To evaluate of the effect of an ideal fit of RGPs on HOA and keratoconus indices. Methods: In this cohort study, 65 keratoconus eyes with more than 3 lines(Snellen)improvement between BSCVA and BCVA(RGP) were imaged with Pentacam HR and their topometric and Zernike analysis findings without RGP were recorded. After 6 months or later of RGP fitting (Rose-K,Boston XO2), imaging with pentacam was repeated and the above information were recorded. Results: 65 different grades of keratoconus eyes with mean age of 27.32 yrs/old(SD +_5.51)enrolled including M 28(43.1%) and F 37(56.9%). 44(67.7%) with family Hx of Kc and 21(31.25%)without any Kc in their families. 54 (83.1%) with and 11 (16.9%) without any ocular allergy Hx. Maximum percent of age of onset of kc was 15 ys/old(29.2%).This study showed there are meaningful correlations between with and without RGP Pentacam indices and HOA in each grade of Kc.92.3% of patients had foreign body sensation but 96.9% had 11-20 hours/day RGP wear that confirms on psychologic effect of an ideal fit on patient’s motivation. Conclusion: With the three points touch principle of RGP fitting in Kc corneas, the patients will have a decrease in HOA and so delayed need for PK or LK.

Keywords: keratoconus, rigid gas permeable lens, aberration, fitting

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10826 BER of the Leaky Feeder under Rayleigh Fading Multichannel Reception with Imperfect Phase Estimation

Authors: Hasan Farahneh, Xavier Fernando

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Leaky Feeder (LF) has been a proven technology for many decades and its promises broadband wireless access in short range but being overlooked until now. The LF is a natural MIMO transceiver ideal for micro and pico cells. In this work, the LF is considered as a linear antenna array MultiInput-Single-Output (MISO) and derive the average bit error rate (BER) in Rayleigh fading channel considering ideal and independent paths (iid) which consider there is no correlation and mutual coupling between transmit antennas (slots) or receiver antenna considering QPSK modulation with imperfect phase estimation. We consider maximal ratio transmission (MRT) at the transmit end and maximal ratio combining (MRC) at the receiving end. Analytical expressions are derived for the BER with radiating cable transmitters. The effects of slot spacing and carrier frequency on the BER are also studied. Numerical evaluations show the radiating cable transmitter offer much lower BER than a single antenna transmitter with same SNR.

Keywords: leaky feeder, BER, QPSK, rayleigh fading, channel gain, phase mismatch

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10825 Real, Ideal, or False Self- Presentation among Young Adult and Middle Adult Facebook Users

Authors: Maria Joan Grafil, Hannah Wendam, Christine Joyce Yu

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The use of social networking sites had been a big part of life of most people. One of the most popular among these is Facebook. Users range from young adults to late adults. While it is more popular among emerging and young adults, this social networking site gives people opportunities to express the self. Via Facebook, people have the opportunity to think about what they prefer to show others. This study identified which among the multiple facets of the self (real self, false self or ideal self) is dominantly presented by young adults and middle adults in using the social networking site Facebook. South Metro Manila was the locale of this study where 100 young adult participants (aged 18-25) were students from nearby universities and the 100 middle adult participants (aged 35-45) were working residents within the area. Participants were comprised of 53% females and 47% males. The data was gathered using a self-report questionnaire to determine which online self-presentation (real self-presentation, false self-presentation, or ideal self-presentation) of the participants has greater extent when engaging in the social networking site Facebook. Using means comparison, results showed that both young adults and middle adults engaged primarily in real self-presentation.

Keywords: false self, ideal self, middle adult, real self, self presentation, young adult

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10824 Determination of the Thermophysical Characteristics of the Composite Material Clay Cement Paper

Authors: A. Ouargui, N. Belouaggadia, M. Ezzine

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In Morocco, the building sector is largely responsible for the evolution of energy consumption. The control of energy in this sector remains a major issue despite the rise of renewable energies. The design of an environmentally friendly building requires mastery and knowledge of energy and bioclimatic aspects. This implies taking into consideration of all the elements making up the building and the way in which energy exchanges take place between these elements. In this context, thermal insulation seems to be an ideal starting point for reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. In this context, thermal insulation seems to be an ideal starting point for reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of this work is to provide some solutions to reduce energy consumption while maintaining thermal comfort in the building. The objective of our work is to present an experimental study on the characterization of local materials used in the thermal insulation of buildings. These are paper recycling stabilized with cement and clay. The thermal conductivity of these materials, which were constituted based on sand, clay, cement; water, as well as treated paper, was determined by the guarded-hot-plate method. It involves the design of two materials that will subsequently be subjected to thermal and mechanical tests to determine their thermophysical properties. The results show that the thermal conductivity decreases as well in the case of the paper-cement mixture as that of the paper-clay and seems to stabilize around 40%. Measurements of mechanical properties such as flexural strength have shown that the enrichment of the studied material with paper makes it possible to reduce the flexural strength by 20% while optimizing the conductivity.

Keywords: building, composite material, insulation, thermal conductivity, paper residue

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10823 Munting Kamay, Munting Gawa: Children's Development Training, a UCU Experience

Authors: Elizabeth A. Montero

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The project contemplated in this study particularly aimed at enabling public school children of ages ten to twelve who belong to low and middle income families. The pupils were provided training on communication, work, computer and social skills. In this study, the researcher hypothesized that children given the opportunity to develop a skill through guidance and proper supervision will significantly learn, improve and develop a skill. Since children’s minds are highly absorbent like a sponge absorbing anything within its capacity to take, it is ideal and necessary that education should provide an environment that is rich offering an array of meaningful experiences. The context of this study is well balanced since it catered to the children’s communication, work, computer and social skills.

Keywords: Munting Kamay, Munting Gawa, children’s development training, UCU experience

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10822 Inorganic Microporous Membranes Fabricated by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Liquid Deposition

Authors: Damian A. Mooney, Michael T. P. Mc Cann, J. M. Don MacElroy, Olli Antson, Denis P. Dowling

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Atmospheric pressure plasma liquid deposition (APPLD) is a novel technology used for the deposition of thin films via the injection of a reactive liquid precursor into a high-energy discharge plasma at ambient pressure. In this work, APPLD, utilising a TEOS precursor, was employed to produce asymmetric membranes consisting of a thin (100 nm) layer of deposited silica on a microporous silica support in order to assess their suitability for high temperature gas separation applications. He and N₂ gas permeability measurements were made for each of the fabricated membranes and a maximum ideal He/N₂ selectivity of 66 was observed at room temperature. He, N₂ and CO2 gas permeances were also measured at the elevated temperature of 673K and ideal He/N₂ and CO₂/N₂ selectivities of 300 and 7.4, respectively, were observed. The results suggest that this plasma-based deposition technique can be a viable method for the manufacture of membranes for the efficient separation of high temperature, post-combustion gases, including that of CO₂/N₂ where the constituent gases differ in size by fractions of an Ångstrom.

Keywords: asymmetric membrane, CO₂ separation, high temperature, plasma deposition, thin films

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10821 A Straightforward Approach for Determining the Weights of Decision Makers Based on Angle Cosine and Projection Method

Authors: Qiang Yang, Ping-An Du

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Group decision making with multiple attribute has attracted intensive concern in the decision analysis area. This paper assumes that the contributions of all the decision makers (DMs) are not equal to the decision process based on different knowledge and experience in group setting. The aim of this paper is to develop a novel approach to determine weights of DMs in the group decision making problems. In this paper, the weights of DMs are determined in the group decision environment via angle cosine and projection method. First of all, the average decision of all individual decisions is defined as the ideal decision. After that, we define the weight of each decision maker (DM) by aggregating the angle cosine and projection between individual decision and ideal decision with associated direction indicator μ. By using the weights of DMs, all individual decisions are aggregated into a collective decision. Further, the preference order of alternatives is ranked in accordance with the overall row value of collective decision. Finally, an example in a chemical company is provided to illustrate the developed approach.

Keywords: angel cosine, ideal decision, projection method, weights of decision makers

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10820 The Lexical Eidos as an Invariant of a Polysemantic Word

Authors: S. Pesina, T. Solonchak

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Phenomenological analysis is not based on natural language, but ideal language which is able to be a carrier of ideal meanings – eidos representing typical structures or essences. For this purpose, it’s necessary to release from the spatio-temporal definiteness of a subject and then state its noetic essence (eidos) by means of free fantasy generation. Herewith, as if a totally new objectness is created - the universal, confirming the thesis that thinking process takes place in generalizations passing by numerous means through the specific to the general and from the general through the specific to the singular.

Keywords: lexical eidos, phenomenology, noema, polysemantic word, semantic core

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10819 A Theory-Based Analysis on Implications of Democracy in Cambodia

Authors: Puthsodary Tat

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Democracy has been categorially accepted and used as foreign and domestic policy agendas for the hope of peace, economic growth and prosperity for more than 25 years in Cambodia. However, the country is now in the grip of dictatorship, human rights violations, and prospective economic sanctions. This paper examines different perceptions and experiences of democratic assistance. In this study, the author employs discourse theory, idealism and realism as a theory-based methodology for debating and assessing the implications of democratization. Discourse theory is used to establish a platform for understanding discursive formations, body of knowledge and the games of truth of democracy. Idealist approaches give rational arguments for adopting key tenets that work well on the ground. In contrast, realism allows for some sweeping critiques of utopian ideal and offers particular views on why Western hegemonic missions do not work well. From idealist views, the research finds that Cambodian people still believe that democracy is a prima facie universality for peace, growth and prosperity. From realism, democratization is on the brink of death in three reasons. Firstly, there are tensions between Western and local discourses about democratic values and norms. Secondly, democratic tenets have been undermined by the ruling party-controlled courts, corruption, structural oppression and political patronage-based institutions. The third pitfall is partly associated with foreign aid dependency and geopolitical power struggles in the region. Finally, the study offers a precise mosaic of democratic principles that may be used to avoid a future geopolitical and economic crisis.

Keywords: corruption, democracy, democratic principles, discourse theory, discursive formations, foreign aid dependency, games of truth, geopolitical and economic crisis, geopolitical power struggle, hegemonic mission, idealism, realism, utopian ideal

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10818 Long Hours Impact on Work-Life Balance

Authors: Syeda Faiza Gardazi, Syed Ahsan Ali Gardazi, Ajmal Waheed

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The trend of overtime is increasing among workers due to more pressure to perform workloads, job insecurity, and financial issues. Overtime work affects the work-life balance conflict negatively as well positively. Work-life balance conflict has become an important issue as traditional work and family roles have changed. The purpose of the current research was to study the impact of overtime work on work-life balance conflict along with the moderating role of job satisfaction. For this purpose, data is collected from the employees working in different public and private sectors of Pakistan using simple random sampling technique. Descriptive statistics was used for data presentation and analysis. Correlation and regression analysis were used to test four research hypotheses proposed on the basis of research framework. The findings led to the acceptance of four hypotheses. The results show that high working hours and overtime in general lead to high work-life balance conflict. Moreover, job satisfaction moderates the relationship between overtime work and work-life balance conflict.

Keywords: family to work conflict, overtime work, work to family conflict, work-life balance conflict

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10817 Mixed Micellization Study of Adiphenine Hydrochloride with 1-Decyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride

Authors: Abbul B. Khan, Neeraj Dohare, Rajan Patel

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The mixed micellization of adiphenine hydrochloride (ADP) with 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C10mim.Cl), was investigated at different mole fractions and temperatures by surface tension measurements. The synergistic behavior (i.e., non-ideal behavior) for binary mixtures was explained by the deviation of critical micelle concentration (cmc) from ideal critical micelle concentration (cmc*), micellar mole fraction (Xim) from ideal micellar mole fraction (Xiideal), the values of interaction parameter (β) and activity coefficients (fi) (for both mixed micelles and mixed monolayer). The excess free energy (∆Gex) for the ADP- C10mim.Cl binary mixtures explain the stability of mixed micelles in comparison to micelles of pure ADP and C10mim.Cl. Interfacial parameters, i.e., Gibbs surface excess (Гmax), minimum head group area at air/ water interface (Amin), and free energy of micellization (ΔG0m) were also evaluated for the systems.

Keywords: adiphenine hydrochloride, critical micelle concentration, interaction parameter, activity coefficient

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10816 A Study of Closed Sets and Maps with Ideals

Authors: Asha Gupta, Ramandeep Kaur

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to study a class of closed sets, called generalized pre-closed sets with respect to an ideal (briefly Igp-closed sets), which is an extension of generalized pre-closed sets in general topology. Then, by using these sets, the concepts of Igp- compact spaces along with some classes of maps like continuous and closed maps via ideals have been introduced and analogues of some known results for compact spaces, continuous maps and closed maps in general topology have been obtained.

Keywords: ideal, gp-closed sets, gp-closed maps, gp-continuous maps

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10815 Effect of Social Media on Knowledge Work

Authors: Pekka Makkonen, Georgios Lampropoulos, Kerstin Siakas

Abstract:

This paper examines the impact of social media on knowledge work. It discloses and highlights which specific aspects, areas and tasks of knowledge work can be improved by the use of social media. Moreover, the study includes a survey about higher education students’ viewpoints in regard to the use of social media as a means to enhance knowledge work and knowledge sharing. The analysis has been conducted based both on empirical data and on discussions about the sources dealing with knowledge work and how it can be enhanced by using social media. The results show that social media can improve knowledge work, knowledge building and maintenance tasks in which communication, information sharing and collaboration play a vital role. Additionally, by using social media, personal, collaborative and supplementary work activities can be enhanced. Based on the results of the study, we suggest how knowledge work can be enhanced when using the contemporary information and communications technologies (ICTs) of the 21st century and recommend future directions towards improving knowledge work.

Keywords: knowledge work, social media, social media services, improving work performance

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10814 Union-Primes and Immediate Neighbors

Authors: Shai Sarussi

Abstract:

The union of a nonempty chain of prime ideals in a noncommutative ring is not necessarily a prime ideal. An ideal is called union-prime if it is a union of a nonempty chain of prime ideals but is not a prime. In this paper, some relations between chains of prime ideals and the induced chains of union-prime ideals are shown; in particular, the cardinality of such chains and the cardinality of the sets of cuts of such chains are discussed. For a ring R and a nonempty full chain of prime ideals C of R, several characterizations for the property of immediate neighbors in C are given.

Keywords: prime ideals, union-prime ideals, immediate neighbors, Kaplansky's conjecture

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10813 History, Challenges and Solutions for Social Work Education and Recognition in Vietnam

Authors: Thuy Bui Anh, Ngan Nguyen Thi Thanh

Abstract:

Currently, social work in Vietnam is entering the first step in the development process to become a true profession with a strong position in society. However, Spirit of helping and sharing of social work has already existed in the daily life of Vietnamese people for a very long time, becoming a precious heritage passed down from ancestors to the next generations while expanding the territory, building and defending for the country. Following the stream of history, charity work in Vietnam has gradually transformed itself towards a more professional work, especially in the last 2 decades. Accordingly, more than 50 universities and educational institutions in Vietnam have been licensed to train social work, ensuring a stronger foundation on human resources working in this field. Despite the strong growth, social work profession, social work education and the recognition of the role of the social workers still need to be fueled to develop, responded to the increasing demand of Vietnam society.

Keywords: education, history, recognition, social work, Vietnam

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