Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 874

Search results for: ‎weakly primal ideal

874 Zero Divisor Graph of a Poset with Respect to Primal Ideals

Authors: Hossein Pourali


In this paper, we extend the concepts of primal and weakly primal ideals for posets. Further, the diameter of the zero divisor graph of a poset with respect to a non-primal ideal is determined. The relation between primary and primal ideals in posets is also studied.

Keywords: ‎associated prime ideal, ‎‎ideal, ‎‎primary ideal, primal ideal‎, prime‎ ‎ideal, semiprime ideal, ‎weakly primal ideal, zero divisors graph

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873 Fuzzy Ideal Topological Spaces

Authors: Ali Koam, Ismail Ibedou, S. E. Abbas


In this paper, it is introduced the notion of r-fuzzy ideal separation axioms Tᵢi = 0; 1; 2 based on a fuzzy ideal I on a fuzzy topological space (X; τ). An r-fuzzy ideal connectedness related to the fuzzy ideal I is introduced which has relations with a previous r-fuzzy fuzzy connectedness. An r-fuzzy ideal compactness related to Ι is introduced which has also relations with many other types of fuzzy compactness.

Keywords: fuzzy ideal, fuzzy separation axioms, fuzzy compactness, fuzzy connectedness

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872 Fuzzy Implicative Pseudo-Ideals of Pesudo-BCK Algebras

Authors: Alireza Gilani


In this paper, we consider the fuzzification of implicative pseudo-ideal in a pseudo-BCK algebra, and then we investigate some of their properties. We prove that the family of fuzzy implicative pseudo-ideal is completely distributive lattice.

Keywords: BCK-algebra, pseudo-BCK algebra, pseudo-ideal, implicative pseudo-ideal

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871 Identification of Ideal Plain Sufu (Fermented Soybean Curds) Based on Ideal Profile Method and Assessment of the Consistency of Ideal Profiles Obtained from Consumers

Authors: Yan Ping Chen, Hau Yin Chung


The Ideal Profile Method (IPM) is a newly developed descriptive sensory analysis conducted by consumers without previous training. To perform this test, both the perceived and the ideal intensities from the judgements of consumers on products’ attributes, as well as their hedonic ratings were collected for formulating an ideal product (the most liked one). In addition, Ideal Profile Analysis (IPA) was conducted to check the consistency of the ideal data at both the panel and consumer levels. In this test, 12 commercial plain sufus bought from Hong Kong local market were tested by 113 consumers according to the IPM, and rated on 22 attributes. Principal component analysis was used to profile the perceived and the ideal spaces of tested products. The consistency of ideal data was then checked by IPA. The result showed that most consumers shared a common ideal. It was observed that the sensory product space and the ideal product space were structurally similar. Their first dimensions all opposed products with intense fermented related aroma to products with less fermented related aroma. And the predicted ideal profile (the estimated liking score around 7.0 in a 9.0-point scale) got higher hedonic score than the tested products (the average liking score around 6.0 in a 9.0-point scale). For the majority of consumers (95.2%), the stated ideal product considered as a potential ideal through checking the R2 coefficient value. Among all the tested products, sample-6 was the most popular one with consumer liking percentage around 30%. This product with less fermented and moldy flavour but easier to melt in mouth texture possessed close sensory profile according to the ideal product. This experiment validated that data from untrained consumers could be guided as useful information. Appreciated sensory characteristics could be served as reference in the optimization of the commercial plain sufu.

Keywords: ideal profile method, product development, sensory evaluation, sufu (fermented soybean curd)

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870 Some Properties in Jordan Ideal on 3-Prime Near-Rings

Authors: Abdelkarim Boua, Abdelhakim Chillali


The study of non-associative structures in algebraic structures has become a separate entity; for, in the case of groups, their corresponding non-associative structure i.e. loops is dealt with separately. Similarly there is vast amount of research on the nonassociative structures of semigroups i.e. groupoids and that of rings i.e. nonassociative rings. However it is unfortunate that we do not have a parallel notions or study of non-associative near-rings. In this work we shall attempt to generalize a few known results and study the commutativity of Jordan ideal in 3-prime near-rings satisfying certain identities involving the Jordan ideal. We study the derivations satisfying certain differential identities on Jordan ideals of 3-prime near-rings. Moreover, we provide examples to show that hypothesis of our results are necessary. We give some new results and examples concerning the existence of Jordan ideal and derivations in near-rings. These near-rings can be used to build a new codes.

Keywords: 3-prime near-rings, near-rings, Jordan ideal, derivations

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869 Experiments on Weakly-Supervised Learning on Imperfect Data

Authors: Yan Cheng, Yijun Shao, James Rudolph, Charlene R. Weir, Beth Sahlmann, Qing Zeng-Treitler


Supervised predictive models require labeled data for training purposes. Complete and accurate labeled data, i.e., a ‘gold standard’, is not always available, and imperfectly labeled data may need to serve as an alternative. An important question is if the accuracy of the labeled data creates a performance ceiling for the trained model. In this study, we trained several models to recognize the presence of delirium in clinical documents using data with annotations that are not completely accurate (i.e., weakly-supervised learning). In the external evaluation, the support vector machine model with a linear kernel performed best, achieving an area under the curve of 89.3% and accuracy of 88%, surpassing the 80% accuracy of the training sample. We then generated a set of simulated data and carried out a series of experiments which demonstrated that models trained on imperfect data can (but do not always) outperform the accuracy of the training data, e.g., the area under the curve for some models is higher than 80% when trained on the data with an error rate of 40%. Our experiments also showed that the error resistance of linear modeling is associated with larger sample size, error type, and linearity of the data (all p-values < 0.001). In conclusion, this study sheds light on the usefulness of imperfect data in clinical research via weakly-supervised learning.

Keywords: weakly-supervised learning, support vector machine, prediction, delirium, simulation

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868 An Optimization Model for Maximum Clique Problem Based on Semidefinite Programming

Authors: Derkaoui Orkia, Lehireche Ahmed


The topic of this article is to exploring the potentialities of a powerful optimization technique, namely Semidefinite Programming, for solving NP-hard problems. This approach provides tight relaxations of combinatorial and quadratic problems. In this work, we solve the maximum clique problem using this relaxation. The clique problem is the computational problem of finding cliques in a graph. It is widely acknowledged for its many applications in real-world problems. The numerical results show that it is possible to find a maximum clique in polynomial time, using an algorithm based on semidefinite programming. We implement a primal-dual interior points algorithm to solve this problem based on semidefinite programming. The semidefinite relaxation of this problem can be solved in polynomial time.

Keywords: semidefinite programming, maximum clique problem, primal-dual interior point method, relaxation

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867 ED Machining of Particulate Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites

Authors: Sarabjeet Singh Sidhu, Ajay Batish, Sanjeev Kumar


This paper reports the optimal process conditions for machining of three different types of metal matrix composites (MMCs): 65vol%SiC/A356.2; 10vol%SiC-5vol%quartz/Al and 30vol%SiC/A359 using PMEDM process. Metal removal rate (MRR), tool wear rate (TWR), surface roughness (SR) and surface integrity (SI) were evaluated after each trial and contributing process parameters were identified. The four responses were then collectively optimized using the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) and optimal process conditions were identified for each type of MMCS. The density of reinforced particles shields the matrix material from spark energy hence the high MRR and SR was observed with lowest reinforced particle. TWR was highest with Cu-Gr electrode due to disintegration of the weakly bonded particles in the composite electrode. Each workpiece was examined for surface integrity and ranked as per severity of surface defects observed and their rankings were used for arriving at the most optimal process settings for each workpiece.

Keywords: metal matrix composites (MMCS), metal removal rate (MRR), surface roughness (SR), surface integrity (SI), tool wear rate (TWR), technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS)

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866 [Keynote Talk]: Existence of Random Fixed Point Theorem for Contractive Mappings

Authors: D. S. Palimkar


Random fixed point theory has received much attention in recent years, and it is needed for the study of various classes of random equations. The study of random fixed point theorems was initiated by the Prague school of probabilistic in the 1950s. The existence and uniqueness of fixed points for the self-maps of a metric space by altering distances between the points with the use of a control function is an interesting aspect in the classical fixed point theory. In a new category of fixed point problems for a single self-map with the help of a control function that alters the distance between two points in a metric space which they called an altering distance function. In this paper, we prove the results of existence of random common fixed point and its uniqueness for a pair of random mappings under weakly contractive condition for generalizing alter distance function in polish spaces using Random Common Fixed Point Theorem for Generalized Weakly Contractions.

Keywords: Polish space, random common fixed point theorem, weakly contractive mapping, altering function

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865 3D Microbubble Dynamics in a Weakly Viscous Fluid Near a Rigid Boundary Subject to Ultrasound

Authors: K. Manmi, Q. X. Wang


This paper investigates microbubble dynamics subject to ultrasound in a weakly viscous fluid near a rigid boundary. The phenomenon is simulated using a boundary integral method. The weak viscous effects are incorporated into the model through the normal stress balance across the bubble surface. The model agrees well with the Rayleigh-Plesset equation for a spherical bubble for several cycles. The effects of the fluid viscosity in the bubble dynamics are analyzed, including jet development, centroid movement and bubble volume.

Keywords: microbubble dynamics, bubble jetting, viscous effect, boundary integral method

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864 Developing Primal Teachers beyond the Classroom: The Quadrant Intelligence (Q-I) Model

Authors: Alexander K. Edwards


Introduction: The moral dimension of teacher education globally has assumed a new paradigm of thinking based on the public gain (return-on-investments), value-creation (quality), professionalism (practice), and business strategies (innovations). Abundant literature reveals an interesting revolutionary trend in complimenting the raising of teachers and academic performances. Because of the global competition in the knowledge-creation and service areas, the C21st teacher at all levels is expected to be resourceful, strategic thinker, socially intelligent, relationship aptitude, and entrepreneur astute. This study is a significant contribution to practice and innovations to raise exemplary or primal teachers. In this study, the qualities needed were considered as ‘Quadrant Intelligence (Q-i)’ model for a primal teacher leadership beyond the classroom. The researcher started by examining the issue of the majority of teachers in Ghana Education Services (GES) in need of this Q-i to be effective and efficient. The conceptual framing became determinants of such Q-i. This is significant for global employability and versatility in teacher education to create premium and primal teacher leadership, which are again gaining high attention in scholarship due to failing schools. The moral aspect of teachers failing learners is a highly important discussion. In GES, some schools score zero percent at the basic education certificate examination (BECE). The question is what will make any professional teacher highly productive, marketable, and an entrepreneur? What will give teachers the moral consciousness of doing the best to succeed? Method: This study set out to develop a model for primal teachers in GES as an innovative way to highlight a premium development for the C21st business-education acumen through desk reviews. The study is conceptually framed by examining certain skill sets such as strategic thinking, social intelligence, relational and emotional intelligence and entrepreneurship to answer three main burning questions and other hypotheses. Then the study applied the causal comparative methodology with a purposive sampling technique (N=500) from CoE, GES, NTVI, and other teachers associations. Participants responded to a 30-items, researcher-developed questionnaire. Data is analyzed on the quadrant constructs and reported as ex post facto analyses of multi-variances and regressions. Multiple associations were established for statistical significance (p=0.05). Causes and effects are postulated for scientific discussions. Findings: It was found out that these quadrants are very significant in teacher development. There were significant variations in the demographic groups. However, most teachers lack considerable skills in entrepreneurship, leadership in teaching and learning, and business thinking strategies. These have significant effect on practices and outcomes. Conclusion and Recommendations: It is quite conclusive therefore that in GES teachers may need further instructions in innovations and creativity to transform knowledge-creation into business venture. In service training (INSET) has to be comprehensive. Teacher education curricula at Colleges may have to be re-visited. Teachers have the potential to raise their social capital, to be entrepreneur, and to exhibit professionalism beyond their community services. Their primal leadership focus will benefit many clienteles including students and social circles. Recommendations examined the policy implications for curriculum design, practice, innovations and educational leadership.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, entrepreneurship, leadership, quadrant intelligence (q-i), primal teacher leadership, strategic thinking, social intelligence

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863 Analytical Design of IMC-PID Controller for Ideal Decoupling Embedded in Multivariable Smith Predictor Control System

Authors: Le Hieu Giang, Truong Nguyen Luan Vu, Le Linh


In this paper, the analytical tuning rules of IMC-PID controller are presented for the multivariable Smith predictor that involved the ideal decoupling. Accordingly, the decoupler is first introduced into the multivariable Smith predictor control system by a well-known approach of ideal decoupling, which is compactly extended for general nxn multivariable processes and the multivariable Smith predictor controller is then obtained in terms of the multiple single-loop Smith predictor controllers. The tuning rules of PID controller in series with filter are found by using Maclaurin approximation. Many multivariable industrial processes are employed to demonstrate the simplicity and effectiveness of the presented method. The simulation results show the superior performances of presented method in compared with the other methods.

Keywords: ideal decoupler, IMC-PID controller, multivariable smith predictor, Padé approximation

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862 Feasibility of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles as Dark Matter Candidates: Exploratory Study on The Possible Reasons for Lack of WIMP Detection

Authors: Sloka Bhushan


Dark matter constitutes a majority of matter in the universe, yet very little is known about it due to its extreme lack of interaction with regular matter and the fundamental forces. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles, or WIMPs, have been contested to be one of the strongest candidates for dark matter due to their promising theoretical properties. However, various endeavors to detect these elusive particles have failed. This paper explores the various particles which may be WIMPs and the detection techniques being employed to detect WIMPs (such as underground detectors, LHC experiments, and so on). There is a special focus on the reasons for the lack of detection of WIMPs so far, and the possibility of limits in detection being a reason for the lack of physical evidence of the existence of WIMPs. This paper also explores possible inconsistencies within the WIMP particle theory as a reason for the lack of physical detection. There is a brief review on the possible solutions and alternatives to these inconsistencies. Additionally, this paper also reviews the supersymmetry theory and the possibility of the supersymmetric neutralino (A possible WIMP particle) being detectable. Lastly, a review on alternate candidates for dark matter such as axions and MACHOs has been conducted. The explorative study in this paper is conducted through a series of literature reviews.

Keywords: dark matter, particle detection, supersymmetry, weakly interacting massive particles

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861 Probability-Based Damage Detection of Structures Using Model Updating with Enhanced Ideal Gas Molecular Movement Algorithm

Authors: M. R. Ghasemi, R. Ghiasi, H. Varaee


Model updating method has received increasing attention in damage detection structures based on measured modal parameters. Therefore, a probability-based damage detection (PBDD) procedure based on a model updating procedure is presented in this paper, in which a one-stage model-based damage identification technique based on the dynamic features of a structure is investigated. The presented framework uses a finite element updating method with a Monte Carlo simulation that considers the uncertainty caused by measurement noise. Enhanced ideal gas molecular movement (EIGMM) is used as the main algorithm for model updating. Ideal gas molecular movement (IGMM) is a multiagent algorithm based on the ideal gas molecular movement. Ideal gas molecules disperse rapidly in different directions and cover all the space inside. This is embedded in the high speed of molecules, collisions between them and with the surrounding barriers. In IGMM algorithm to accomplish the optimal solutions, the initial population of gas molecules is randomly generated and the governing equations related to the velocity of gas molecules and collisions between those are utilized. In this paper, an enhanced version of IGMM, which removes unchanged variables after specified iterations, is developed. The proposed method is implemented on two numerical examples in the field of structural damage detection. The results show that the proposed method can perform well and competitive in PBDD of structures.

Keywords: enhanced ideal gas molecular movement (EIGMM), ideal gas molecular movement (IGMM), model updating method, probability-based damage detection (PBDD), uncertainty quantification

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860 Delivery System Design of the Local Part to Reduce the Logistic Costs in an Automotive Industry

Authors: Alesandro Romero, Inaki Maulida Hakim


This research was conducted in an automotive company in Indonesia to overcome the problem of high logistics cost. The problem causes high of additional truck delivery. From the breakdown of the problem, chosen one route, which has the highest gap value, namely for RE-04. Research methodology will be started from calculating the ideal condition, making simulation, calculating the ideal logistic cost, and proposing an improvement. From the calculation of the ideal condition, box arrangement was done on the truck; the average efficiency was 97,4 % with three trucks delivery per day. Route simulation making uses Tecnomatix Plant Simulation software as a visualization for the company about how the system is occurred on route RE-04 in ideal condition. Furthermore, from the calculation of logistics cost of the ideal condition, it brings savings of Rp53.011.800,00 in a month. The last step is proposing improvements on the area of route RE-04. The route arrangement is done by Saving Method and sequence of each supplier with the Nearest Neighbor. The results of the proposed improvements are three new route groups, where was expected to decrease logistics cost Rp3.966.559,40 per day, and increase the average of the truck efficiency 8,78% per day.

Keywords: efficiency, logistic cost, milkrun, saving methode, simulation

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859 Non-Coplanar Nuclei in Heavy-Ion Reactions

Authors: Sahila Chopra, Hemdeep, Arshdeep Kaur, Raj K. Gupta


In recent times, we noticed an interesting and important role of non-coplanar degree-of-freedom (Φ = 00) in heavy ion reactions. Using the dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM) with Φ degree-of-freedom included, we have studied three compound systems 246Bk∗, 164Yb∗ and 105Ag∗. Here, within the DCM with pocket formula for nuclear proximity potential, we look for the effects of including compact, non-coplanar configurations (Φc = 00) on the non-compound nucleus (nCN) contribution in total fusion cross section σfus. For 246Bk∗, formed in 11B+235U and 14N+232Th reaction channels, the DCM with coplanar nuclei (Φc = 00) shows an nCN contribution for 11B+235U channel, but none for 14N+232Th channel, which on including Φ gives both reaction channels as pure compound nucleus decays. In the case of 164Yb∗, formed in 64Ni+100Mo, the small nCN effects for Φ=00 are reduced to almost zero for Φ = 00. Interestingly, however, 105Ag∗ for Φ = 00 shows a small nCN contribution, which gets strongly enhanced for Φ = 00, such that the characteristic property of PCN presents a change of behaviour, like that of a strongly fissioning superheavy element to a weakly fissioning nucleus; note that 105Ag∗ is a weakly fissioning nucleus and Psurv behaves like one for a weakly fissioning nucleus for both Φ = 00 and Φ = 00. Apparently, Φ is presenting itself like a good degree-of-freedom in the DCM.

Keywords: dynamical cluster-decay model, fusion cross sections, non-compound nucleus effects, non-coplanarity

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858 Visualizing the Commercial Activity of a City by Analyzing the Data Information in Layers

Authors: Taras Agryzkov, Jose L. Oliver, Leandro Tortosa, Jose Vicent


This paper aims to demonstrate how network models can be used to understand and to deal with some aspects of urban complexity. As it is well known, the Theory of Architecture and Urbanism has been using for decades’ intellectual tools based on the ‘sciences of complexity’ as a strategy to propose theoretical approaches about cities and about architecture. In this sense, it is possible to find a vast literature in which for instance network theory is used as an instrument to understand very diverse questions about cities: from their commercial activity to their heritage condition. The contribution of this research consists in adding one step of complexity to this process: instead of working with one single primal graph as it is usually done, we will show how new network models arise from the consideration of two different primal graphs interacting in two layers. When we model an urban network through a mathematical structure like a graph, the city is usually represented by a set of nodes and edges that reproduce its topology, with the data generated or extracted from the city embedded in it. All this information is normally displayed in a single layer. Here, we propose to separate the information in two layers so that we can evaluate the interaction between them. Besides, both layers may be composed of structures that do not have to coincide: from this bi-layer system, groups of interactions emerge, suggesting reflections and in consequence, possible actions.

Keywords: graphs, mathematics, networks, urban studies

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857 Unbalanced Distribution Optimal Power Flow to Minimize Losses with Distributed Photovoltaic Plants

Authors: Malinwo Estone Ayikpa


Electric power systems are likely to operate with minimum losses and voltage meeting international standards. This is made possible generally by control actions provide by automatic voltage regulators, capacitors and transformers with on-load tap changer (OLTC). With the development of photovoltaic (PV) systems technology, their integration on distribution networks has increased over the last years to the extent of replacing the above mentioned techniques. The conventional analysis and simulation tools used for electrical networks are no longer able to take into account control actions necessary for studying distributed PV generation impact. This paper presents an unbalanced optimal power flow (OPF) model that minimizes losses with association of active power generation and reactive power control of single-phase and three-phase PV systems. Reactive power can be generated or absorbed using the available capacity and the adjustable power factor of the inverter. The unbalance OPF is formulated by current balance equations and solved by primal-dual interior point method. Several simulation cases have been carried out varying the size and location of PV systems and the results show a detailed view of the impact of PV distributed generation on distribution systems.

Keywords: distribution system, loss, photovoltaic generation, primal-dual interior point method

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856 The Relationship among Personality, Culture Personality and Ideal Tourist/Business Destinations

Authors: Tamás Gyulavári, Erzsébet Malota


The main purpose of our study was to investigate the effect of congruence between the perceived self and perceived culture personality on the evaluation of the examined countries as ideal business/tourist destinations. A measure of Culture Personality (CP) has been developed and implemented to assess the perception of French and Turkish culture. Results show that very similar personality structure of both cultures can be extracted along the dimensions of Competence, Interpersonal approach, Aura, Life approach and Rectitude. Regarding the congruence theory, we found that instead of the effect of similarity between the perceived culture personality and actual self, the more positively culture personality is perceived relative to the perceived self, the more positive attitude the individual has toward the country as business and tourist destination.

Keywords: culture personality, ideal business/tourist destination, personality, scale development

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855 Body Mass Hurts Adolescent Girls More than Thin-Ideal Images

Authors: Javaid Marium, Ahmad Iftikhar


This study was aimed to identify factors that affect negative mood and body image dissatisfaction in women. positive and negative affect, self esteem, body image satisfaction and figure rating scale was administered to 97 female undergraduate students. This served as a base line data for correlation analysis in the first instance. One week later participants who volunteered to appear in the second phase of the study (N=47) were shown thin- ideal images as an intervention and soon after they completed positive and negative affect schedule and body image states scale again as a post test. Results indicated body mass as a strong negative predictor of body image dis/satisfaction, self esteem was a moderate predictor and mood was not a significant predictor. The participants whose actual body shape was markedly discrepant with the ideally desired body shape had significantly low level of body image satisfaction (p < .001) than those with low discrepancy. Similar results were found for self esteem (p < .004). Both self esteem and body mass predicted body satisfaction about equally and significantly. However, on viewing thin-ideal images, the participants of different body weight showed no change in their body image satisfaction than before. Only the overweight participants were significantly affected on negative mood as a short term reaction after viewing the thin ideal images. Comparing the three groups based on their body mass, one-way ANOVA revealed significant difference on negative mood as well as body image satisfaction. This reveals body mass as a potent and stable factor that consistently and strongly affected body satisfaction not the transient portrayal of thin ideal images.

Keywords: body image satisfaction, thin-ideal images, media, mood affects, self esteem

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854 A Comparative Evaluation of Finite Difference Methods for the Extended Boussinesq Equations and Application to Tsunamis Modelling

Authors: Aurore Cauquis, Philippe Heinrich, Mario Ricchiuto, Audrey Gailler


In this talk, we look for an accurate time scheme to model the propagation of waves. Several numerical schemes have been developed to solve the extended weakly nonlinear weakly dispersive Boussinesq Equations. The temporal schemes used are two Lax-Wendroff schemes, second or third order accurate, two Runge-Kutta schemes of second and third order and a simplified third order accurate Lax-Wendroff scheme. Spatial derivatives are evaluated with fourth order accuracy. The numerical model is applied to two monodimensional benchmarks on a flat bottom. It is also applied to the simulation of the Algerian tsunami generated by a Mw=6 seism on the 18th March 2021. The tsunami propagation was highly dispersive and propagated across the Mediterranean Sea. We study here the effects of the order of temporal discretization on the accuracy of the results and on the time of computation.

Keywords: numerical analysis, tsunami propagation, water wave, boussinesq equations

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853 A Resolution on Ideal University Teachers Perspective of Turkish Students

Authors: Metin Özkan


In the last decade, Turkish higher education has been expanded dramatically. With this expansion, Turkey has come a long way in establishing an efficient system of higher education which is moving into a ‘mass’ system with institutions spanning the whole country. This expansion as a quantitative target leads to questioning the quality of higher education services. Especially, the qualities of higher education services depend on mainly quality of educators. Qualities of educators are most important in Turkish higher education system due to rapid rise in the number of universities and students. Therefore, it is seen important that reveals the portrait of ideal university teacher from the point of view student enrolled in Turkish higher education system. The purpose of this current study is to determine the portrait of ideal university teacher according to the views of Turkish Students. This research is carried out with descriptive scanning method and combined and mixed of qualitative and quantitative methodologies. Research data of qualitative section were collected at Gaziantep University with the participation of 45 students enrolled in 15 different faculties. Quantitative section was performed on 217 students. The data were obtained through semi-structured interview and “Ideal University Teacher Assessment” form developed by the researcher. The interview form consists of basically two parts. The first part of the interview was about personal information, the second part included questions about the characteristic of ideal university teacher. The questions which constitute the second part of the interview are; "what is a good university teacher like?” and “What human qualities and professional skills should a university teacher have? ". Assessment form which was created from the qualitative data obtained from interviews was used to attain scaling values for pairwise comparison and ranking judgment. According to study results, it has been found that ideal university teacher characteristics include the features like patient, tolerant, comprehensive and tolerant. Ideal university teacher, besides, implement the teaching methods like encouraging the students’ critical thinking, accepting the students’ recommendations on how to conduct the lesson and making use of the new technologies etc. Motivating and respecting the students, adopting a participative style, adopting a sincere way of manner also constitute the ideal university features relationships with students.

Keywords: faculty, higher education, ideal university teacher, teacher behavior

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852 The Efficacy of an Ideal RGP Fitting on Higher Order Aberrations (HOA) in 65 Keratoconus Patients

Authors: Ghandehari-Motlagh, Mohammad


Purpose: To evaluate of the effect of an ideal fit of RGPs on HOA and keratoconus indices. Methods: In this cohort study, 65 keratoconus eyes with more than 3 lines(Snellen)improvement between BSCVA and BCVA(RGP) were imaged with Pentacam HR and their topometric and Zernike analysis findings without RGP were recorded. After 6 months or later of RGP fitting (Rose-K,Boston XO2), imaging with pentacam was repeated and the above information were recorded. Results: 65 different grades of keratoconus eyes with mean age of 27.32 yrs/old(SD +_5.51)enrolled including M 28(43.1%) and F 37(56.9%). 44(67.7%) with family Hx of Kc and 21(31.25%)without any Kc in their families. 54 (83.1%) with and 11 (16.9%) without any ocular allergy Hx. Maximum percent of age of onset of kc was 15 ys/old(29.2%).This study showed there are meaningful correlations between with and without RGP Pentacam indices and HOA in each grade of Kc.92.3% of patients had foreign body sensation but 96.9% had 11-20 hours/day RGP wear that confirms on psychologic effect of an ideal fit on patient’s motivation. Conclusion: With the three points touch principle of RGP fitting in Kc corneas, the patients will have a decrease in HOA and so delayed need for PK or LK.

Keywords: keratoconus, rigid gas permeable lens, aberration, fitting

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851 Real, Ideal, or False Self- Presentation among Young Adult and Middle Adult Facebook Users

Authors: Maria Joan Grafil, Hannah Wendam, Christine Joyce Yu


The use of social networking sites had been a big part of life of most people. One of the most popular among these is Facebook. Users range from young adults to late adults. While it is more popular among emerging and young adults, this social networking site gives people opportunities to express the self. Via Facebook, people have the opportunity to think about what they prefer to show others. This study identified which among the multiple facets of the self (real self, false self or ideal self) is dominantly presented by young adults and middle adults in using the social networking site Facebook. South Metro Manila was the locale of this study where 100 young adult participants (aged 18-25) were students from nearby universities and the 100 middle adult participants (aged 35-45) were working residents within the area. Participants were comprised of 53% females and 47% males. The data was gathered using a self-report questionnaire to determine which online self-presentation (real self-presentation, false self-presentation, or ideal self-presentation) of the participants has greater extent when engaging in the social networking site Facebook. Using means comparison, results showed that both young adults and middle adults engaged primarily in real self-presentation.

Keywords: false self, ideal self, middle adult, real self, self presentation, young adult

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850 Cultural Aspects of Tax Compliance of Medium Size Enterprises in South Africa

Authors: Oludele A. Akinboade


The paper discusses cultural aspects of tax compliance of medium size companies (MEs) in South Africa to enhance tax compliance. A survey of 641 companies in eight provinces was made. Racial identities of ME owners are not significant in explaining differences in tax registration compliance. Black ownership of MEs is negatively and highly significantly correlated with pay as you earn compliance. The opposite is found in favour of Asian ME owners. White ownership of MEs is negative and weakly (10%) significantly correlated with company income tax compliance while the opposite is found in favour of Asian ownership. Race is negative and highly significant in explaining White owned MEs value added tax compliance behaviour. The opposite is found in favour of Asian ME owners. Black ownership of MEs is negatively and weakly significantly(10%) associated with timely submission of tax returns.

Keywords: tax compliance, cultural diversity, medium size companies, South Africa

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849 An Efficient Tool for Mitigating Voltage Unbalance with Reactive Power Control of Distributed Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

Authors: Malinwo Estone Ayikpa


With the rapid increase of grid-connected PV systems over the last decades, genuine challenges have arisen for engineers and professionals of energy field in the planning and operation of existing distribution networks with the integration of new generation sources. However, the conventional distribution network, in its design was not expected to receive other generation outside the main power supply. The tools generally used to analyze the networks become inefficient and cannot take into account all the constraints related to the operation of grid-connected PV systems. Some of these constraints are voltage control difficulty, reverse power flow, and especially voltage unbalance which could be due to the poor distribution of single-phase PV systems in the network. In order to analyze the impact of the connection of small and large number of PV systems to the distribution networks, this paper presents an efficient optimization tool that minimizes voltage unbalance in three-phase distribution networks with active and reactive power injections from the allocation of single-phase and three-phase PV plants. Reactive power can be generated or absorbed using the available capacity and the adjustable power factor of the inverter. Good reduction of voltage unbalance can be achieved by reactive power control of the PV systems. The presented tool is based on the three-phase current injection method and the PV systems are modeled via an equivalent circuit. The primal-dual interior point method is used to obtain the optimal operating points for the systems.

Keywords: Photovoltaic system, Primal-dual interior point method, Three-phase optimal power flow, Voltage unbalance

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848 Sample Preparation and Coring of Highly Friable and Heterogeneous Bonded Geomaterials

Authors: Mohammad Khoshini, Arman Khoshghalb, Meghdad Payan, Nasser Khalili


Most of the Earth’s crust surface rocks are technically categorized as weak rocks or weakly bonded geomaterials. Deeply weathered, weakly cemented, friable and easily erodible, they demonstrate complex material behaviour and understanding the overlooked mechanical behaviour of such materials is of particular importance in geotechnical engineering practice. Weakly bonded geomaterials are so susceptible to surface shear and moisture that conventional methods of core drilling fail to extract high-quality undisturbed samples out of them. Moreover, most of these geomaterials are of high heterogeneity rendering less reliable and feasible material characterization. In order to compensate for the unpredictability of the material response, either numerous experiments are needed to be conducted or large factors of safety must be implemented in the design process. However, none of these approaches is sustainable. In this study, a method for dry core drilling of such materials is introduced to take high-quality undisturbed core samples. By freezing the material at certain moisture content, a secondary structure is developed throughout the material which helps the whole structure to remain intact during the core drilling process. Moreover, to address the heterogeneity issue, the natural material was reconstructed artificially to obtain a homogeneous material with very high similarity to the natural one in both micro and macro-mechanical perspectives. The method is verified for both micro and macro scale. In terms of micro-scale analysis, using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), pore spaces and inter-particle bonds were investigated and compared between natural and artificial materials. X-Ray Diffraction, XRD, analyses are also performed to control the chemical composition. At the macro scale, several uniaxial compressive strength tests, as well as triaxial tests, were performed to verify the similar mechanical response of the materials. A high level of agreement is observed between micro and macro results of natural and artificially bonded geomaterials. The proposed methods can play an important role to cut down the costs of experimental programs for material characterization and also to promote the accuracy of the numerical modellings based on the experimental results.

Keywords: Artificial geomaterial, core drilling, macro-mechanical behavior, micro-scale, sample preparation, SEM photography, weakly bonded geomaterials

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847 A Study on the Ideal and Actual Coping Responses of Public and Private College School Teachers on Job-Related Stress

Authors: Zaralyn Bernardo, Dante Boac, Annabelle Del Rosario


Professional individuals who are in a primary role to impart learning with the new generation are alarmingly tend to have a vast decrease in their workforce due to stress at work. Thus, the study used mixed method research design to explore the ideal and actual coping patterns of college school teachers, both private and public, using Coping Response Inventory-Adult (CRI-Adult). It was suggested that in order for coping to be effective there must be a congruence or good match between coping efforts and preferred coping style. Results basically provided the same information on sources of teacher stress. However, workload and low salary were more likely heightened, for public and private school, respectively. There is also a significant difference between the ideal and actual coping style of college school teachers. Though the public school teachers leaned towards problem-focused as their ideal way of coping, both public and private teachers are somewhat inclined to use emotion-focused coping in actual situation. Results of FGD identified the factors that contribute to the incongruence or mismatch in their preferred style of coping and actual efforts to cope. Identified factors based on thematic analysis (TA) are clustered into themes such as affectivity and rehearsal of the preferred coping responses, sensitivity to pressure impairs coping efficacy, seeking for social acceptance and approval, indefinite appraisal of perceived stress, emotional dysregulation, and impulsivity, immediate desire to terminate negative emotion and adversity. Most of the factors somewhat provide partial elucidation on the engagement of the respondents on emotion-focused coping.

Keywords: coping responses subtypes, appraisal, teacher stress, ideal and actual coping

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846 A Straightforward Approach for Determining the Weights of Decision Makers Based on Angle Cosine and Projection Method

Authors: Qiang Yang, Ping-An Du


Group decision making with multiple attribute has attracted intensive concern in the decision analysis area. This paper assumes that the contributions of all the decision makers (DMs) are not equal to the decision process based on different knowledge and experience in group setting. The aim of this paper is to develop a novel approach to determine weights of DMs in the group decision making problems. In this paper, the weights of DMs are determined in the group decision environment via angle cosine and projection method. First of all, the average decision of all individual decisions is defined as the ideal decision. After that, we define the weight of each decision maker (DM) by aggregating the angle cosine and projection between individual decision and ideal decision with associated direction indicator μ. By using the weights of DMs, all individual decisions are aggregated into a collective decision. Further, the preference order of alternatives is ranked in accordance with the overall row value of collective decision. Finally, an example in a chemical company is provided to illustrate the developed approach.

Keywords: angel cosine, ideal decision, projection method, weights of decision makers

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845 The Lexical Eidos as an Invariant of a Polysemantic Word

Authors: S. Pesina, T. Solonchak


Phenomenological analysis is not based on natural language, but ideal language which is able to be a carrier of ideal meanings – eidos representing typical structures or essences. For this purpose, it’s necessary to release from the spatio-temporal definiteness of a subject and then state its noetic essence (eidos) by means of free fantasy generation. Herewith, as if a totally new objectness is created - the universal, confirming the thesis that thinking process takes place in generalizations passing by numerous means through the specific to the general and from the general through the specific to the singular.

Keywords: lexical eidos, phenomenology, noema, polysemantic word, semantic core

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