Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: M. Nuhu

10 Exergy and Energy Analysis of Pre-Heating Unit of Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit in Kaduna Refining and Petrochemical Company

Authors: M. Nuhu, S. Bilal, A. A. Hamisu, J. A. Abbas, Y. Z. Aminu, P. O. Helen


Exergy and energy analysis of preheating unit of FCCU of KRPC has been calculated and presented in this study. From the design, the efficiency of each heat exchanger was 86%. However, on completion of this work the efficiencies was calculated to be 39.90%, 55.66%, 56.22%, and 57.14% for 16E02, 16E03, 16E04, and 16E05 respectively. 16E04 has the minimum energy loss of 0.86%. The calculated second law and exergy efficiencies of the system were 43.01 and 56.99% respectively.

Keywords: exergy analysis, ideal work, efficiency, exergy destruction, temperature

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9 Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Solar Energy Systems

Authors: Zakariyya Hassan Abdullahi, Zainab Suleiman Abdullahi, Nuhu Alhaji Muhammad


In this paper, a thorough review of photovoltaic and photovoltaic thermal systems is done on the basis of its performance based on electrical as well as thermal output. Photovoltaic systems are classified according to their use, i.e., electricity production, and thermal, Photovoltaic systems behave in an extraordinary and useful way, they react to light by transforming part of it into electricity useful way and unique, since photovoltaic and thermal applications along with the electricity production. The application of various photovoltaic systems is also discussed in detail. The performance analysis including all aspects, e.g., electrical, thermal, energy, and energy efficiency are also discussed. A case study for PV and PV/T system based on energetic analysis is presented.

Keywords: photovoltaic, renewable, performance, efficiency, energy

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8 Ethno-Medical Potentials of Tacazzea apiculata Oliv. (Periplocaceae)

Authors: Abubakar Ahmed, Zainab Mohammed, Hadiza D. Nuhu, Hamisu Ibrahim


Introduction: The plant Tacazzea apiculata Oliv (Periplocaceae) is widely distributed in tropical West Africa. It is claimed to have multiple uses in traditional medicine among which are its use to treat hemorrhoids, inflammations and cancers. Methods: Ethno-botanical survey through interview and using show-and-tell method of data collection were conducted among Hausa and Fulani tribes of northern Nigeria with the view to document useful information on the numerous claims by the local people on the plant. Results: The results revealed that the plant T. apiculata has relative popularity among the herbalist (38.2 %), nomads (14.8 %) and fishermen (16.0%). The most important uses of the plant in traditional medicine are inflammation (Fedelity level: 25.7 %) and Haemorrhoids (Fedelity level: 17.1 %) Conclusion: These results suggest the relevance of T. apiculata in traditional medicine and as a good candidate for drug Development.

Keywords: ethno-botany, periplocaceae, Tacazzea apiculata, traditional medicine

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7 Synthesis and Physico-Chemical Analysis of Jatropha curcas Seed Oil for ISO VG32 and VG46 Applications

Authors: M. Nuhu, M. S. Amina, A. H. Aminu, A. J. Abbas, N. Salahudeen, A. Z. Yusuf


Transesterification of jatropha methyl ester (JME) with the common polyol, trimethylolpropane (TMP) produced the TMP based ester which exhibits improved temperature properties. This paper discusses the physic-chemical properties of jatropha bio-lubricant base oil applicable for ISO VG32 and VG46 requirement. The catalyst employed for the JME was CaO synthesized in National Research Institute for Chemical Technology (NARICT) that gives 100% conversion. The molar ratio of JME to TMP was 3.5:1 and the catalyst (NaOCH3) loading were found to be 0.8% of the weight of the total reactants. The final fractionated jatropha bio-lubricant base was found to contain 11.95% monoesters, 43.89% diesters and 44.16% triesters (desired product). In addition, it was found that the bio-lubricant base oil produced is comparable to the ISO VG46 commercial standards for light and industrial gears applications and other plant based bio-lubricant.

Keywords: biodegradability, methyl ester, pour point, transesterification, viscosity index

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6 Strategic Smart-City Projects and the Economic Impact of Prioritizing around Public Facilities: Case Study of Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria

Authors: Abdullateef Abdulkarim Jimoh, Muhammad Lawal A., Usman Muhammad, Hamisu Abdullahi, Nuhu Abdullahi Jega


Smart city projects can be aided by urban development policies in public facilities, but economic resources to finance urban system reorganization is an issue to various governments. This is further compounded with the impact of the slowing down of national economies. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the need to prioritize the economic benefits of smart city projects and, specifically, in towns transforming into cities like Birnin kebbi. The smart-city projects can aim at developing a new form of ‘‘modernity and civilization’’ of the productive economy. This study adopts the descriptive statistical approach to identify the key performance indicators (KPI) for tracking the progress of cities and its developmental objectives. It has been established that numerous aspects of the modernization policies can enhance the competitiveness of territories, particular in aspects of social cohesion, the diffusion of knowledge, creativity, accessibility, etc.

Keywords: economy, economic policy, public facilities, smart city, urbanization

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5 Removal of Mixed Heavy Metals from Contaminated Clay Soils Using Pulsed Electrokinetic Process

Authors: Nuhu Dalhat Mu’azu, Abdullahi Usman, A. Bukhari, Muhammad Hussain Essa, Salihu Lukman


Electrokinetic remediation process was employed for the removal of four (4) heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Hg and Pb) from contaminated clay and bentonite soils under pulsed current supply mode. The effects of voltage gradient, pulse duty cycle and bentonite/clay ratio on the simultaneous removal efficiencies of the heavy metals were investigated. A total of thirteen experiments were designed and conducted according to factorial design with each experiment allowed to continuously ran for 3 weeks. Results obtained showed that increase in bentonite ratio decreased the removal efficiency of the heavy metals with no significant effect on the energy consumption. Conversely, increase in both voltage gradient and pulse duty cycle increased the heavy metals removal efficiencies with increased in energy consumption. Additionally, increase in voltage gradient increased the electrical conductivity and the soil pH due to due to continuous refill and replacement of process fluids as they decomposed under the induced voltage gradient. Under different operating conditions, the maximum removal efficiencies obtained for Cr, Cu, Hg, and Pb were 21.87, 83.2, 62.4, 78.06 and 16.65% respectively.

Keywords: clay, bentonite, soil remediation, mixed contaminants, heavy metals, and electrokinetic-adsorption

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4 Measurement of Natural Radioactivity and Health Hazard Index Evaluation in Major Soils of Tin Mining Areas of Perak

Authors: Habila Nuhu


Natural radionuclides in the environment can significantly contribute to human exposure to ionizing radiation. The knowledge of their levels in an environment can help the radiological protection agencies in policymaking. Measurement of natural radioactivity in major soils in the tin mining state of Perak Malaysia has been conducted using an HPGe detector. Seventy (70) soil samples were collected at widely distributed locations in the state. Six major soil types were sampled, and thirteen districts around the state were covered. The following were the results of the 226Ra (238U), 228Ra (232Th), and 40K activity in the soil samples: 226Ra (238U) has a mean activity concentration of 191.83 Bq kg⁻¹, more than five times the UNSCEAR reference limits of 35 Bq kg⁻¹. The mean activity concentration of 228Ra (232Th) with a value of 232.41 Bq kg⁻¹ is over seven times the UNSCEAR reference values of 30 Bq kg⁻¹. The average concentration of 40K activity was 275.24 Bq kg⁻¹, which was less than the UNSCEAR reference limit of 400 Bq Kg⁻¹. The range of external hazards index (Hₑₓ) values was from 1.03 to 2.05, while the internal hazards index (Hin) was from 1.48 to 3.08. The Hex and Hin should be less than one for minimal external and internal radiation threats as well as secure use of soil material for building construction. The Hₑₓ and Hin results generally indicate that while using the soil types and their derivatives as building materials in the study area, care must be taken.

Keywords: activity concentration, hazard index, soil samples, tin mining

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3 In a Situation of Great Distress: Cross Border Migration and the Quest for Enduring Security in North-East Nigeria

Authors: Nuhu Bitrus Mailabari


Nigeria is a highly multifarious nation trapped between affluence and affliction. On one hand, the state has vast territorial size, economic strength, relative internal cohesion, and good external linkages. On the other, it is bedeviled with enormous challenges. It is common knowledge that the North-East geo-political zone has suffered colossal destruction for the most part of the last ten years due to the activities of the insurgent group Boko Haram. Several factors (political, economic, religious, socio-cultural) have been credited with the heightened insecurity in the region. Without a doubt, the security crisis in the region has rekindled several discussions critical to Nigeria’s security architecture. However, the debate on finding an enduring solution to the devastation in the North East continually neglects the nexus between cross border migration and national security. Using content analysis, this paper debates two main issues that continue to affect security in the North East. One, the cumulative impact of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) protocol on the free movement of people and goods. Two, the porous nature of Nigeria’s borders. Theoretically, the paper will rely on the systems theory because of its broad focus on structure, linkage, and process. The work concludes in twofold. First, that cross border migration and poor border management processes further worsened the political and socio-economic conditions of a region that is already in a bad state. Secondly, in addition to the existing strategies, Nigeria must develop a holistic approach including new methods of handling cross border movements in solving the security issues.

Keywords: border, cross border, migration, Nigeria, northeast region, security

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2 Climate Change Adaptation Interventions in Agriculture and Sustainable Development through South-South Cooperation in Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: Nuhu Mohammed Gali, Kenichi Matsui


Climate change poses a significant threat to agriculture and food security in Africa. The UNFCC recognized the need to address climate change adaptation in the broader context of sustainable development. African countries have initiated a governance system for adapting and responding to climate change in their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). Despite the implementation limitations, Africa’s adaptation initiatives highlight the need to strengthen and expand adaptation responses. This paper looks at the extent to which South-South cooperation facilitates the implementation of adaptation actions between nations for agriculture and sustainable development. We conducted a literature review and content analysis of reports prepared by international organizations, reflecting the diversity of adaptation activities taking place in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our analysis of the connection between adaptation and nationally determined contributions (NDCs) showed that climate actions are mainstreamed into sustainable development. The NDCs in many countries on climate change adaptation action for agriculture aimed to strengthen the resilience of the poor. We found that climate-smart agriculture is the core of many countries target to end hunger. We revealed that South-South Cooperation, in terms of capacity, technology, and financial support, can help countries to achieve their climate action priorities and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We found that inadequate policy and regulatory frameworks between countries, differences in development priorities and strategies, poor communication, inadequate coordination, and the lack of local engagement and advocacy are some key barriers to South-South Cooperation in Africa. We recommend a multi-dimensional partnership, provisionoffinancialresources, systemic approach for coordination and engagement to promote and achieve the potential of SSC in Africa.

Keywords: climate change, adaptation, food security, sustainable development goals

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1 Multilevel Modelling of Modern Contraceptive Use in Nigeria: Analysis of the 2013 NDHS

Authors: Akiode Ayobami, Akiode Akinsewa, Odeku Mojisola, Salako Busola, Odutolu Omobola, Nuhu Khadija


Purpose: Evidence exists that family planning use can contribute to reduction in infant and maternal mortality in any country. Despite these benefits, contraceptive use in Nigeria still remains very low, only 10% among married women. Understanding factors that predict contraceptive use is very important in order to improve the situation. In this paper, we analysed data from the 2013 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) to better understand predictors of contraceptive use in Nigeria. The use of logistics regression and other traditional models in this type of situation is not appropriate as they do not account for social structure influence brought about by the hierarchical nature of the data on response variable. We therefore used multilevel modelling to explore the determinants of contraceptive use in order to account for the significant variation in modern contraceptive use by socio-demographic, and other proximate variables across the different Nigerian states. Method: This data has a two-level hierarchical structure. We considered the data of 26, 403 married women of reproductive age at level 1 and nested them within the 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja at level 2. We modelled use of modern contraceptive against demographic variables, being told about FP at health facility, heard of FP on TV, Magazine or radio, husband desire for more children nested within the state. Results: Our results showed that the independent variables in the model were significant predictors of modern contraceptive use. The estimated variance component for the null model, random intercept, and random slope models were significant (p=0.00), indicating that the variation in contraceptive use across the Nigerian states is significant, and needs to be accounted for in order to accurately determine the predictors of contraceptive use, hence the data is best fitted by the multilevel model. Only being told about family planning at the health facility and religion have a significant random effect, implying that their predictability of contraceptive use varies across the states. Conclusion and Recommendation: Results showed that providing FP information at the health facility and religion needs to be considered when programming to improve contraceptive use at the state levels.

Keywords: multilevel modelling, family planning, predictors, Nigeria

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