Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 73

Search results for: leaky feeder

73 BER of the Leaky Feeder under Rayleigh Fading Multichannel Reception with Imperfect Phase Estimation

Authors: Hasan Farahneh, Xavier Fernando

Abstract:

Leaky Feeder (LF) has been a proven technology for many decades and its promises broadband wireless access in short range but being overlooked until now. The LF is a natural MIMO transceiver ideal for micro and pico cells. In this work, the LF is considered as a linear antenna array MultiInput-Single-Output (MISO) and derive the average bit error rate (BER) in Rayleigh fading channel considering ideal and independent paths (iid) which consider there is no correlation and mutual coupling between transmit antennas (slots) or receiver antenna considering QPSK modulation with imperfect phase estimation. We consider maximal ratio transmission (MRT) at the transmit end and maximal ratio combining (MRC) at the receiving end. Analytical expressions are derived for the BER with radiating cable transmitters. The effects of slot spacing and carrier frequency on the BER are also studied. Numerical evaluations show the radiating cable transmitter offer much lower BER than a single antenna transmitter with same SNR.

Keywords: leaky feeder, BER, QPSK, rayleigh fading, channel gain, phase mismatch

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72 Impact of Increasing Distributed Solar PV Systems on Distribution Networks in South Africa

Authors: Aradhna Pandarum

Abstract:

South Africa is experiencing an exponential growth of distributed solar PV installations. This is due to various factors with the predominant one being increasing electricity tariffs along with decreasing installation costs, resulting in attractive business cases to some end-users. Despite there being a variety of economic and environmental advantages associated with the installation of PV, their potential impact on distribution grids has yet to be thoroughly investigated. This is especially true since the locations of these units cannot be controlled by Network Service Providers (NSPs) and their output power is stochastic and non-dispatchable. This report details two case studies that were completed to determine the possible voltage and technical losses impact of increasing PV penetration in the Northern Cape of South Africa. Some major impacts considered for the simulations were ramping of PV generation due to intermittency caused by moving clouds, the size and overall hosting capacity and the location of the systems. The main finding is that the technical impact is different on a constrained feeder vs a non-constrained feeder. The acceptable PV penetration level is much lower for a constrained feeder than a non-constrained feeder, depending on where the systems are located.

Keywords: medium voltage networks, power system losses, power system voltage, solar photovoltaic

Procedia PDF Downloads 24
71 Hub Port Positioning and Route Planning of Feeder Lines for Regional Transportation Network

Authors: Huang Xiaoling, Liu Lufeng

Abstract:

In this paper, we seek to determine one reasonable local hub port and optimal routes for a containership fleet, performing pick-ups and deliveries, between the hub and spoke ports in a same region. The relationship between a hub port, and traffic in feeder lines is analyzed. A new network planning method is proposed, an integrated hub port location and route design, a capacitated vehicle routing problem with pick-ups, deliveries and time deadlines are formulated and solved using an improved genetic algorithm for positioning the hub port and establishing routes for a containership fleet. Results on the performance of the algorithm and the feasibility of the approach show that a relatively small fleet of containerships could provide efficient services within deadlines.

Keywords: route planning, hub port location, container feeder service, regional transportation network

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
70 Reliability Analysis in Power Distribution System

Authors: R. A. Deshpande, P. Chandhra Sekhar, V. Sankar

Abstract:

In this paper, we discussed the basic reliability evaluation techniques needed to evaluate the reliability of distribution systems which are applied in distribution system planning and operation. Basically, the reliability study can also help to predict the reliability performance of the system after quantifying the impact of adding new components to the system. The number and locations of new components needed to improve the reliability indices to certain limits are identified and studied.

Keywords: distribution system, reliability indices, urban feeder, rural feeder

Procedia PDF Downloads 595
69 Comparison Analysis of Multi-Channel Echo Cancellation Using Adaptive Filters

Authors: Sahar Mobeen, Anam Rafique, Irum Baig

Abstract:

Acoustic echo cancellation in multichannel is a system identification application. In real time environment, signal changes very rapidly which required adaptive algorithms such as Least Mean Square (LMS), Leaky Least Mean Square (LLMS), Normalized Least Mean square (NLMS) and average (AFA) having high convergence rate and stable. LMS and NLMS are widely used adaptive algorithm due to less computational complexity and AFA used of its high convergence rate. This research is based on comparison of acoustic echo (generated in a room) cancellation thorough LMS, LLMS, NLMS, AFA and newly proposed average normalized leaky least mean square (ANLLMS) adaptive filters.

Keywords: LMS, LLMS, NLMS, AFA, ANLLMS

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68 Vibration Control of a Flexible Structure Using MFC Actuator

Authors: Jinsiang Shaw, Jeng-Jie Huang

Abstract:

Active vibration control is good for low frequency excitation, with advantages of light weight and adaptability. This paper employs a macro-fiber composite (MFC) actuator for vibration suppression in a cantilevered beam due to its higher output force to reject the disturbance. A notch filter with an adaptive tuning algorithm, the leaky filtered-X least mean square algorithm (leaky FXLMS algorithm), is developed and applied to the system. Experimental results show that the controller and MFC actuator was very effective in attenuating the structural vibration. Furthermore, this notch filter controller was compared with the traditional skyhook controller. It was found that its performance was better, with over 88% vibration suppression near the first resonant frequency of the structure.

Keywords: macro-fiber composite, notch filter, skyhook controller, vibration suppression

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67 Distribution System Planning with Distributed Generation and Capacitor Placements

Authors: Nattachote Rugthaicharoencheep

Abstract:

This paper presents a feeder reconfiguration problem in distribution systems. The objective is to minimize the system power loss and to improve bus voltage profile. The optimization problem is subjected to system constraints consisting of load-point voltage limits, radial configuration format, no load-point interruption, and feeder capability limits. A method based on genetic algorithm, a search algorithm based on the mechanics of natural selection and natural genetics, is proposed to determine the optimal pattern of configuration. The developed methodology is demonstrated by a 33-bus radial distribution system with distributed generations and feeder capacitors. The study results show that the optimal on/off patterns of the switches can be identified to give the minimum power loss while respecting all the constraints.

Keywords: network reconfiguration, distributed generation capacitor placement, loss reduction, genetic algorithm

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66 Dielectric Thickness Modulation Based Optically Transparent Leaky Wave Antenna Design

Authors: Waqar Ali Khan

Abstract:

A leaky-wave antenna design is proposed which is based on the realization of a certain kind of surface impedance profile that allows the existence of a perturbed surface wave (fast wave) that radiates. The antenna is realized by using optically transparent material Plexiglas. Plexiglas behaves as a dielectric at radio frequencies and is transparent at optical frequencies. In order to have a ground plane for the microwave frequencies, metal strips are used parallel to the E field of the operating mode. The microwave wavelength chosen is large enough such that it does not resolve the metal strip ground plane and sees it to be a uniform ground plane. While, at optical frequencies, the metal strips do have some shadowing effect. However still, about 62% of optical power can be transmitted through the antenna.

Keywords: Plexiglass, surface-wave, optically transparent, metal strip

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65 A Semi-Implicit Phase Field Model for Droplet Evolution

Authors: M. H. Kazemi, D. Salac

Abstract:

A semi-implicit phase field method for droplet evolution is proposed. Using the phase field Cahn-Hilliard equation, we are able to track the interface in multiphase flow. The idea of a semi-implicit finite difference scheme is reviewed and employed to solve two nonlinear equations, including the Navier-Stokes and the Cahn-Hilliard equations. The use of a semi-implicit method allows us to have larger time steps compared to explicit schemes. The governing equations are coupled and then solved by a GMRES solver (generalized minimal residual method) using modified Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization. To show the validity of the method, we apply the method to the simulation of a rising droplet, a leaky dielectric drop and the coalescence of drops. The numerical solutions to the phase field model match well with existing solutions over a defined range of variables.

Keywords: coalescence, leaky dielectric, numerical method, phase field, rising droplet, semi-implicit method

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64 Derivation of Human NK Cells from T Cell-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Using Xenogeneic Serum-Free and Feeder Cell-Free Culture System

Authors: Aliya Sekenova, Vyacheslav Ogay

Abstract:

The derivation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from somatic cells by direct reprogramming opens wide perspectives in the regenerative medicine. It means the possibility to develop the personal and, consequently, any immunologically compatible cells for applications in cell-based therapy. The purpose of our study was to develop the technology for the production of NK cells from T cell-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (TiPSCs) for subsequent application in adoptive cancer immunotherapy. Methods: In this study iPSCs were derived from peripheral blood T cells using Sendai virus vectors expressing Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc. Pluripotent characteristics of TiPSCs were examined and confirmed with alkaline phosphatase staining, immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR analysis. For NK cell differentiation, embryoid bodies (EB) formed from (TiPSCs) were cultured in xenogeneic serum-free medium containing human serum, IL-3, IL-7, IL-15, SCF, FLT3L without using M210-B4 and AFT-024 stromal feeder cells. After differentiation, NK cells were characterized with immunofluorescence analysis, flow cytometry and cytotoxicity assay. Results: Here, we for the first time demonstrate that TiPSCs can effectively differentiate into functionally active NK cells without M210-B4 and AFT-024 xenogeneic stroma cells. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometry analysis showed that EB-derived cells can differentiate into a homogeneous population of NK cell expressing high levels of CD56, CD45 and CD16 specific markers. Moreover, these cells significantly express killing activation receptors such as NKp44 and NKp46. In the comparative analysis, we observed that NK cells derived using feeder-free culture system have more high killing activity against K-562 tumor cells, than NK cells derived by feeder-dependent method. Thus, we think that our obtained data will be useful for the development of large-scale production of NK cells for translation into cancer immunotherapy.

Keywords: induced pluripotent stem cells, NK cells, T cells, cell diffentiation, feeder cell-free culture system

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63 A New Method Presentation for Locating Fault in Power Distribution Feeders Considering DG

Authors: Rahman Dashti, Ehsan Gord

Abstract:

In this paper, an improved impedance based fault location method is proposed. In this method, online fault locating is performed using voltage and current information at the beginning of the feeder. Determining precise fault location in a short time increases reliability and efficiency of the system. The proposed method utilizes information about main component of voltage and current at the beginning of the feeder and distributed generation unit (DGU) in order to precisely locate different faults in acceptable time. To evaluate precision and accuracy of the proposed method, a 13-node is simulated and tested using MATLAB.

Keywords: distribution network, fault section determination, distributed generation units, distribution protection equipment

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
62 Optimal Sizing and Placement of Distributed Generators for Profit Maximization Using Firefly Algorithm

Authors: Engy Adel Mohamed, Yasser Gamal-Eldin Hegazy

Abstract:

This paper presents a firefly based algorithm for optimal sizing and allocation of distributed generators for profit maximization. Distributed generators in the proposed algorithm are of photovoltaic and combined heat and power technologies. Combined heat and power distributed generators are modeled as voltage controlled nodes while photovoltaic distributed generators are modeled as constant power nodes. The proposed algorithm is implemented in MATLAB environment and tested the unbalanced IEEE 37-node feeder. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in optimal selection of distributed generators size and site in order to maximize the total system profit.

Keywords: distributed generators, firefly algorithm, IEEE 37-node feeder, profit maximization

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61 Integrated Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) and Bus System in Singapore: MRT Ridership and the Provision of Feeder Bus Services

Authors: Devansh Jain, Shu Ting Goh

Abstract:

With the aim of improving the quality of life of people of Singapore with provision of better transport services, Land and Transport Authority Singapore recently published its Master Plan 2013. The major objectives mentioned in the plan were to make a comprehensive public transport network with better quality Mass Rapid Transit, bus services along with cycling and walking. MRT is the backbone of the transport system in Singapore, and to promote and increase the MRT ridership, good accessibility to access the MRT stations is a necessity. The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between MRT ridership and the provision of feeder bus services in Singapore planning areas and also to understand the hub and spoke model adopted by Singapore for provision of transport services. The findings of the study will lead to conclusions made from the Regression model developed by the various factors affecting MRT ridership, and hence will benefit to enhance the services provided by the system.

Keywords: quality of life, public transport, mass rapid transit, ridership

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60 Voltage and Frequency Regulation Using the Third-Party Mid-Size Battery

Authors: Roghieh A. Biroon, Zoleikha Abdollahi

Abstract:

The recent growth of renewables, e.g., solar panels, batteries, and electric vehicles (EVs) in residential and small commercial sectors, has potential impacts on the stability and operation of power grids. Considering approximately 50 percent share of the residential and the commercial sectors in the electricity demand market, the significance of these impacts, and the necessity of addressing them are more highlighted. Utilities and power system operators should manage the renewable electricity sources integration with power systems in such a way to extract the most possible advantages for the power systems. The most common effect of high penetration level of the renewables is the reverse power flow in the distribution feeders when the customers generate more power than their needs. The reverse power flow causes voltage rise and thermal issues in the power grids. To overcome the voltage rise issues in the distribution system, several techniques have been proposed including reducing transformers short circuit resistance and feeder impedance, installing autotransformers/voltage regulators along the line, absorbing the reactive power by distributed generators (DGs), and limiting the PV and battery sizes. In this study, we consider a medium-scale battery energy storage to manage the power energy and address the aforementioned issues on voltage deviation and power loss increase. We propose an optimization algorithm to find the optimum size and location for the battery. The optimization for the battery location and size is so that the battery maintains the feeder voltage deviation and power loss at a certain desired level. Moreover, the proposed optimization algorithm controls the charging/discharging profile of the battery to absorb the negative power flow from residential and commercial customers in the feeder during the peak time and sell the power back to the system during the off-peak time. The proposed battery regulates the voltage problem in the distribution system while it also can play frequency regulation role in islanded microgrids. This battery can be regulated and controlled by the utilities or a third-party ancillary service provider for the utilities to reduce the power system loss and regulate the distribution feeder voltage and frequency in standard level.

Keywords: ancillary services, battery, distribution system and optimization

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59 Analytic Hierarchy Process for the Container Terminal Choice from Multiple Terminals within the Port of Colombo

Authors: G. M. B. P. Abeysekara, W. A. D. C. Wijerathna

Abstract:

Terminal choice from the multiple terminals region is not a simple decision and it is very complex, because shipping lines should consider on influential factors for the terminal choice at once according to their requirement. Therefore, terminal choice is a multiple criterion decision making (MCDM) situation under a specially designed decision hierarchy. Identification of perspective of shipping lines regarding terminal choice is vital important for the decision makers regarding container terminals. Thus this study is evaluated perception on main and feeder shipping lines’ regarding port of Colombo container terminals, and ranked terminals according to shipping lines preference. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) model is adapted to this study, since it has features similar to the MCDM, it is weighted every influential factor by using pair wise comparisons, and consistency of the decision makers’ judgments are checked to evaluate trustworthiness of gathered data. And rating method is used to rank the terminals within Port of Colombo by assigning particular preference values with respect to the criteria and sub criteria. According to the findings of this study, main lines’ mainly concern on water depth of approach channel, depth of berth, handling charges and handling equipment facilities. And feeder lines’ main concerns were handling equipment facilities, loading and discharging efficiency, depth of berth and handling charges. Findings of the study suggested concentrating regarding the emphasized areas in order to enhance the competitiveness of terminals, and to increase number of vessel callings at the Port of Colombo. Application of above finding of the terminals within Port of Colombo lead to a far better competition among terminals and would uplift the overall level of services.

Keywords: AHP, Main and feeder shipping lines, criteria, sub criteria

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58 Detection of Resistive Faults in Medium Voltage Overhead Feeders

Authors: Mubarak Suliman, Mohamed Hassan

Abstract:

Detection of downed conductors occurring with high fault resistance (reaching kilo-ohms) has always been a challenge, especially in countries like Saudi Arabia, on which earth resistivity is very high in general (reaching more than 1000 Ω-meter). The new approaches for the detection of resistive and high impedance faults are based on the analysis of the fault current waveform. These methods are still under research and development, and they are currently lacking security and dependability. The other approach is communication-based solutions which depends on voltage measurement at the end of overhead line branches and communicate the measured signals to substation feeder relay or a central control center. However, such a detection method is costly and depends on the availability of communication medium and infrastructure. The main objective of this research is to utilize the available standard protection schemes to increase the probability of detection of downed conductors occurring with a low magnitude of fault currents and at the same time avoiding unwanted tripping in healthy conditions and feeders. By specifying the operating region of the faulty feeder, use of tripping curve for discrimination between faulty and healthy feeders, and with proper selection of core balance current transformer (CBCT) and voltage transformers with fewer measurement errors, it is possible to set the pick-up of sensitive earth fault current to minimum values of few amps (i.e., Pick-up Settings = 3 A or 4 A, …) for the detection of earth faults with fault resistance more than (1 - 2 kΩ) for 13.8kV overhead network and more than (3-4) kΩ fault resistance in 33kV overhead network. By implementation of the outcomes of this study, the probability of detection of downed conductors is increased by the utilization of existing schemes (i.e., Directional Sensitive Earth Fault Protection).

Keywords: sensitive earth fault, zero sequence current, grounded system, resistive fault detection, healthy feeder

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57 Paleoproductivity during the Younger Dryas off Northeastern Luzon, Philippines

Authors: Jay Mar D. Quevedo, Fernando P. Siringan, Cesar L. Villanoy

Abstract:

The influence of the Younger Dryas (YD) event on primary production off the northeast shelf of Luzon, Philippines is examined using sediment cores from two deep sea sites north of the Bicol shelf and with varying relative influence from terrestrial sediment input and the Kuroshio Current. Core A is immediately west of the Kuroshio feeder current and is off the slope while Core B is from a bathymetric high located almost west of Core A. XRF-, CHN- and LOI- derived geochemical proxies are utilized for reconstruction. A decrease in sediment input from ~12.9 to ~11.6 kyr BP corresponding to the YD event is indicated by the proxies, Ti, Al, and Al/Ti, in both cores. This is consistent with the drier climate during this period. Primary productivity indicators in the cores show opposing trends during the YD; Core A shows an increasing trend while Core B shows a decreasing trend. The decreasing trend in Core B can be due to a decrease in terrestrial nutrient input due to a decrease in precipitation. On the other hand, the increasing trend in Core A can be due to a swifter Kuroshio Current caused by a swifter and more southerly NEC bifurcation which in turn is due to a southerly shift of the ITCZ during YD. A stronger Kuroshio feeder would have enhanced upwelling induced by steeper sea surface across the current and by more intense cyclonic gyres due to flow separation where the shelf width suddenly decreases north of the Bicol Shelf.

Keywords: paleoproductivity, younger dryas, Philippines, northeastern Luzon

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56 Molecular Pathogenesis of NASH through the Dysregulation of Metabolic Organ Network in the NASH-HCC Model Mouse Treated with Streptozotocin-High Fat Diet

Authors: Bui Phuong Linh, Yuki Sakakibara, Ryuto Tanaka, Elizabeth H. Pigney, Taishi Hashiguchi

Abstract:

NASH is an increasingly prevalent chronic liver disease that can progress to hepatocellular carcinoma and now is attracting interest worldwide. The STAM™ model is a clinically-correlated murine NASH model which shows the same pathological progression as NASH patients and has been widely used for pharmacological and basic research. The multiple parallel hits hypothesis suggests abnormalities in adipocytokines, intestinal microflora, and endotoxins are intertwined and could contribute to the development of NASH. In fact, NASH patients often exhibit gut dysbiosis and dysfunction in adipose tissue and metabolism. However, the analysis of the STAM™ model has only focused on the liver. To clarify whether the STAM™ model can also mimic multiple pathways of NASH progression, we analyzed the organ crosstalk interactions between the liver and the gut and the phenotype of adipose tissue in the STAM™ model. NASH was induced in male mice by a single subcutaneous injection of 200 µg streptozotocin 2 days after birth and feeding with high-fat diet after 4 weeks of age. The mice were sacrificed at NASH stage. Colon samples were snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80˚C for tight junction-related protein analysis. Adipose tissue was prepared into paraffin blocks for HE staining. Blood adiponectin was analyzed to confirm changes in the adipocytokine profile. Tight junction-related proteins in the intestine showed that expression of ZO-1 decreased with the progression of the disease. Increased expression of endotoxin in the blood and decreased expression of Adiponectin were also observed. HE staining revealed hypertrophy of adipocytes. Decreased expression of ZO-1 in the intestine of STAM™ mice suggests the occurrence of leaky gut, and abnormalities in adipocytokine secretion were also observed. Together with the liver, phenotypes in these organs are highly similar to human NASH patients and might be involved in the pathogenesis of NASH.

Keywords: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, fibrosis, organ crosstalk, leaky gut

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55 Design Study on a Contactless Material Feeding Device for Electro Conductive Workpieces

Authors: Oliver Commichau, Richard Krimm, Bernd-Arno Behrens

Abstract:

A growing demand on the production rate of modern presses leads to higher stroke rates. Commonly used material feeding devices for presses like grippers and roll-feeding systems can only achieve high stroke rates along with high gripper forces, to avoid stick-slip. These forces are limited by the sensibility of the surfaces of the workpieces. Stick-slip leads to scratches on the surface and false positioning of the workpiece. In this paper, a new contactless feeding device is presented, which develops higher feeding force without damaging the surface of the workpiece through gripping forces. It is based on the principle of the linear induction motor. A primary part creates a magnetic field and induces eddy currents in the electrically conductive material. A Lorentz-Force applies to the workpiece in feeding direction as a mutual reaction between the eddy-currents and the magnetic induction. In this study, the FEA model of this approach is shown. The calculation of this model was used to identify the influence of various design parameters on the performance of the feeder and thus showing the promising capabilities and limits of this technology. In order to validate the study, a prototype of the feeding device has been built. An experimental setup was used to measure pulling forces and placement accuracy of the experimental feeder in order to give an outlook of a potential industrial application of this approach.

Keywords: conductive material, contactless feeding, linear induction, Lorentz-Force

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54 Discrimination of Modes of Double- and Single-Negative Grounded Slab

Authors: R. Borghol, T. Aguili

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate theoretically the waves propagation in a lossless double-negative grounded slab (DNG). This study is performed by the Transverse Resonance Method (TRM). The proper or improper nature of real and complex modes is observed. They are highly dependent on metamaterial parameters, i.e. ɛr-negative, µr-negative, or both. Numerical results provided that only the proper complex modes (i.e., leaky modes) exist in DNG slab, and only the improper complex modes exist in single-negative grounded slab.

Keywords: double negative grounded slab, real and complex modes, single negative grounded slab, transverse resonance method

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53 The Comparison between bFGF and Small Molecules in Derivation of Chicken Primordial Germ Cells and Embryonic Germ Cells

Authors: Maryam Farzaneh, Seyyedeh Nafiseh Hassani, Hossein Baharvand

Abstract:

Objective: Chicken gonadal tissue has a two population such primordial germ cells (PGCs) and stromal cells (somatic cells). PGCs and embryonic germ cells (EGCs) that is a pluripotent type of PGCs in long-term culture are suitable sources for the production of chicken pluripotent stem cell lines, transgenic birds, vaccine and recombinant protein production. In general, the effect of growth factors such bFGF and mouse LIF on derivation of PGCs in vitro are important and in this study we could see the unique effect of small molecules such PD032 and SB43 as a chemical, in comparison to growth factors. Materials and Methods: After incubation of fertilized chicken egg up to 6 days and isolation of primary gonadal tissues and culture of mixed cells like PGCs and stromal cells. PGCs proliferate in the present of fetal calf serum (FCS) and small molecules and in another group bFGF, that these factors are important for PGCs culture and derivation. Somatic cells produce a multilayer feeder under the PGCs in primary culture and PGCs make a small cluster under these cells. Results: In present of small molecules and high volume of FCS (15%), the present of EGCs as a pluripotent stem cells were clear four weeks, that they had a positive immune-staining and periodic acid-Schiff staining (PAS), but in present of growth factors like bFGF without any chemicals, the present of PGCs were clear but after 7 until 10 days, there were disappear. Conclusion: Until now we have seen many researches about derivation and maintenance of chicken PGCs, in the hope of understanding the mechanisms that occur during germline development and production of a therapeutic product by transgenic birds. There are still many unknowns in this area and this project will try to have efficient conditions for identification of suitable culture medium for long-term culture of PGCs in vitro without serum and feeder cells.

Keywords: chicken gonadal primordial germ cells, pluripotent stem cells, growth factors, small molecules, transgenic birds

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52 Transit Facility Planning in Fringe Areas of Kolkata Metropolitan Region

Authors: Soumen Mitra, Aparna Saha

Abstract:

The perceived link between the city and the countryside is evolving rapidly and is getting shifted away from the assumptions of mainstream paradigms to new conceptual networks where rural-urban links are being redefined. In this conceptual field, the fringe interface is still considered as a transitional zone between city and countryside, and is defined as a diffused area rather than a discrete territory. In developing countries fringe areas are said to have both rural and urban characteristics but are devoid of basic municipal facilities. Again, when the urban core areas envelopes the fringe areas along with it the character of fringe changes but services are not well facilitated which in turn results to uneven growth, rapid and haphazard development. One of the major services present in fringe areas is inter-linkages in terms of transit corridors. Planning for the appropriate and sustainable future of fringe areas requires a sheer focus on these corridors pertaining to transit facility, for better accessibility and mobility. Inducing a transit facility plan enhances the various facilities and also increases their proximity for user groups. The study focuses on the western fringe region of Kolkata metropolis which is a major source of industrial hub and housing sector, thus converting the agricultural lands into non-agricultural use. The study emphasizes on providing transit facilities both physical (stops, sheds, terminals, etc.) and operational (ticketing system, route prioritization, integration of transit modes, etc.), to facilitate the region as well as accelerate the growth pattern systematically. Hence, the scope of this work is on the basis of prevailing conditions in fringe areas and attempts for an effective transit facility plan. The strategies and recommendations are in terms of road widening, service coverage, feeder route prioritization, bus stops facilitation, pedestrian facilities, etc, which in turn enhances the region’s growth pattern. Thus, this context of transit facility planning acts as a catalytic agent to avoid the future unplanned growth and accelerates it towards an integrated development.

Keywords: feeder route, fringe, municipal planning, transit facility

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51 Comprehensive Multilevel Practical Condition Monitoring Guidelines for Power Cables in Industries: Case Study of Mobarakeh Steel Company in Iran

Authors: S. Mani, M. Kafil, E. Asadi

Abstract:

Condition Monitoring (CM) of electrical equipment has gained remarkable importance during the recent years; due to huge production losses, substantial imposed costs and increases in vulnerability, risk and uncertainty levels. Power cables feed numerous electrical equipment such as transformers, motors, and electric furnaces; thus their condition assessment is of a very great importance. This paper investigates electrical, structural and environmental failure sources, all of which influence cables' performances and limit their uptimes; and provides a comprehensive framework entailing practical CM guidelines for maintenance of cables in industries. The multilevel CM framework presented in this study covers performance indicative features of power cables; with a focus on both online and offline diagnosis and test scenarios, and covers short-term and long-term threats to the operation and longevity of power cables. The study, after concisely overviewing the concept of CM, thoroughly investigates five major areas of power quality, Insulation Quality features of partial discharges, tan delta and voltage withstand capabilities, together with sheath faults, shield currents and environmental features of temperature and humidity; and elaborates interconnections and mutual impacts between those areas; using mathematical formulation and practical guidelines. Detection, location, and severity identification methods for every threat or fault source are also elaborated. Finally, the comprehensive, practical guidelines presented in the study are presented for the specific case of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) feeder MV power cables in Mobarakeh Steel Company (MSC), the largest steel company in MENA region, in Iran. Specific technical and industrial characteristics and limitations of a harsh industrial environment like MSC EAF feeder cable tunnels are imposed on the presented framework; making the suggested package more practical and tangible.

Keywords: condition monitoring, diagnostics, insulation, maintenance, partial discharge, power cables, power quality

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50 Concept of Automation in Management of Electric Power Systems

Authors: Richard Joseph, Nerey Mvungi

Abstract:

An electric power system includes a generating, a transmission, a distribution and consumers subsystems. An electrical power network in Tanzania keeps growing larger by the day and become more complex so that, most utilities have long wished for real-time monitoring and remote control of electrical power system elements such as substations, intelligent devices, power lines, capacitor banks, feeder switches, fault analyzers and other physical facilities. In this paper, the concept of automation of management of power systems from generation level to end user levels was determined by using Power System Simulator for Engineering (PSS/E) version 30.3.2.

Keywords: automation, distribution subsystem, generating subsystem, PSS/E, TANESCO, transmission subsystem

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49 Optimal Planning of Dispatchable Distributed Generators for Power Loss Reduction in Unbalanced Distribution Networks

Authors: Mahmoud M. Othman, Y. G. Hegazy, A. Y. Abdelaziz

Abstract:

This paper proposes a novel heuristic algorithm that aims to determine the best size and location of distributed generators in unbalanced distribution networks. The proposed heuristic algorithm can deal with the planning cases where power loss is to be optimized without violating the system practical constraints. The distributed generation units in the proposed algorithm is modeled as voltage controlled node with the flexibility to be converted to constant power factor node in case of reactive power limit violation. The proposed algorithm is implemented in MATLAB and tested on the IEEE 37 -node feeder. The results obtained show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: distributed generation, heuristic approach, optimization, planning

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48 A Firefly Based Optimization Technique for Optimal Planning of Voltage Controlled Distributed Generators

Authors: M. M. Othman, Walid El-Khattam, Y. G. Hegazy, A. Y. Abdelaziz

Abstract:

This paper presents a method for finding the optimal location and capacity of dispatchable DGs connected to the distribution feeders for optimal planning for a specified power loss without violating the system practical constraints. The distributed generation units in the proposed algorithm is modeled as voltage controlled node with the flexibility to be converted to constant power node in case of reactive power limit violation. The proposed algorithm is implemented in MATLAB and tested on the IEEE 37-nodes feeder. The results that are validated by comparing it with results obtained from other competing methods show the effectiveness, accuracy and speed of the proposed method.

Keywords: distributed generators, firefly technique, optimization, power loss

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47 Feeding Habits and Condition Factor of Oreochromis niloticus in Lake Alau, Northeastern Nigeria

Authors: Zahra Ali Lawan, Ali Abdulhakim

Abstract:

The stomach contents of 100 Oreochromis niloticus, sampled between April and August, 2011 in Alau Lake, northeastern Nigeria, were examined. Herbs and algae were the main contents representing 40.15%, 23.36% followed by some mud / sand components, insect parts and fish remains representing 14.60%, 13.87% and 8.03% respectively. Oreochromis niloticus was affirmed as an herbivore and a benthic feeder due to the presence of both herbs and mud/sand among its stomach content. The mean stomach fullness percentage was 70.94% and stomach emptiness was 29.06%. The average condition factor of the fishes was 1.69 with the best conditions recorded in the dry months of April and May at 1.74 and 1.94 respectively. The general trend in the condition factor for this species in this study is that relatively higher condition factors were recorded for relatively higher lengths.

Keywords: stomach contents, oreochromis niloticus, herbivores, Lake Alau

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46 Application of Fuzzy Logic in Voltage Regulation of Radial Feeder with Distributed Generators

Authors: Anubhav Shrivastava, Lakshya Bhat, Shivarudraswamy

Abstract:

Distributed Generation is the need of the hour. With current advancements in the DG technology, there are some major issues that need to be tackled in order to make this method of generation of energy more efficient and feasible. Among other problems, the control in voltage is the major issue that needs to be addressed. This paper focuses on control of voltage using reactive power control of DGs with the help of fuzzy logic. The membership functions have been defined accordingly and the control of the system is achieved. Finally, with the help of simulation results in Matlab, the control of voltage within the tolerance limit set (+/- 5%) is achieved. The voltage waveform graphs for the IEEE 14 bus system are obtained by using simple algorithm with MATLAB and then with fuzzy logic for 14 bus system. The goal of this project was to control the voltage within limits by controlling the reactive power of the DG using fuzzy logic.

Keywords: distributed generation, fuzzy logic, matlab, newton raphson, IEEE 14 bus, voltage regulation, radial network

Procedia PDF Downloads 487
45 Real-Time Recognition of Dynamic Hand Postures on a Neuromorphic System

Authors: Qian Liu, Steve Furber

Abstract:

To explore how the brain may recognize objects in its general,accurate and energy-efficient manner, this paper proposes the use of a neuromorphic hardware system formed from a Dynamic Video Sensor~(DVS) silicon retina in concert with the SpiNNaker real-time Spiking Neural Network~(SNN) simulator. As a first step in the exploration on this platform a recognition system for dynamic hand postures is developed, enabling the study of the methods used in the visual pathways of the brain. Inspired by the behaviours of the primary visual cortex, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are modeled using both linear perceptrons and spiking Leaky Integrate-and-Fire (LIF) neurons. In this study's largest configuration using these approaches, a network of 74,210 neurons and 15,216,512 synapses is created and operated in real-time using 290 SpiNNaker processor cores in parallel and with 93.0% accuracy. A smaller network using only 1/10th of the resources is also created, again operating in real-time, and it is able to recognize the postures with an accuracy of around 86.4% -only 6.6% lower than the much larger system. The recognition rate of the smaller network developed on this neuromorphic system is sufficient for a successful hand posture recognition system, and demonstrates a much-improved cost to performance trade-off in its approach.

Keywords: spiking neural network (SNN), convolutional neural network (CNN), posture recognition, neuromorphic system

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
44 Gendering Science, Technology and Innovation: The Case of R&D in Turkey

Authors: Setenay Nil Doğan, Ece Oztan

Abstract:

Research and development (R&D) as a term denotes the innovative studies conducted systematically to increase knowledge and its practices. As R&D intensity of Turkey (0,84%) is quite below the EU average intensity score, it has displayed a continuous increase since the 2000s. Also, the development of human capital in R&D has been one of the basic aims of National Strategy of Science, Technology, and Innovation, and National Innovation System 2023 of Turkey. R&D is considered to one of the fields in which the gender gap is wide. The reflections of the analogy of leaky pipeline, a term used for vertical differentiation in academy can also be observed in those scientific activities related with the private sector. In the private sector, the gender gap becomes wider: the percentage of female researchers in the universities (41%) decreases to 24% in the private sector. Though half of the undergraduates and gradutes are female in Turkey, a widening gender gap is observed in terms of employment in R&D. Given this background, this paper will focus on gendered dynamics of careers in R&D through the interviews conducted with 25 female and 25 male employees, working in a university technopark and some of the large RD centers in Turkey working in several sectors such as electronics, automotive etc. Focusing on some aspects of gender differences in terms of career experiences in R&D and innovation, mobility, participation to the projects, patents and inclusion to other innovatory activities, home-work balance, it aims to explore the relationships between science, technology, innovation and gender.

Keywords: gender, innovation, R&D, science, technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 355