Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 964

Search results for: Jordan ideal

964 Some Properties in Jordan Ideal on 3-Prime Near-Rings

Authors: Abdelkarim Boua, Abdelhakim Chillali

Abstract:

The study of non-associative structures in algebraic structures has become a separate entity; for, in the case of groups, their corresponding non-associative structure i.e. loops is dealt with separately. Similarly there is vast amount of research on the nonassociative structures of semigroups i.e. groupoids and that of rings i.e. nonassociative rings. However it is unfortunate that we do not have a parallel notions or study of non-associative near-rings. In this work we shall attempt to generalize a few known results and study the commutativity of Jordan ideal in 3-prime near-rings satisfying certain identities involving the Jordan ideal. We study the derivations satisfying certain differential identities on Jordan ideals of 3-prime near-rings. Moreover, we provide examples to show that hypothesis of our results are necessary. We give some new results and examples concerning the existence of Jordan ideal and derivations in near-rings. These near-rings can be used to build a new codes.

Keywords: 3-prime near-rings, near-rings, Jordan ideal, derivations

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963 E-Commerce in Jordan: Conceptual Model

Authors: Muneer Abbad

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This study comes with a comprehensive analysis of specific factors affecting the adoption of e-commerce in Jordan. From the theoretical perspective, this study will make a contribution to the e-commerce by providing insights on the factors that seem to affect e-commerce’s adoption. The current study will provide managers information about the planning and formulating appropriate strategies to ensure rapid adoption of e-commerce in Jordan. It will offer marketing implications, conclusions, and suggestions for future research.

Keywords: e-commerce, Jordan, adoption, conceptual model

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962 Zero Divisor Graph of a Poset with Respect to Primal Ideals

Authors: Hossein Pourali

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In this paper, we extend the concepts of primal and weakly primal ideals for posets. Further, the diameter of the zero divisor graph of a poset with respect to a non-primal ideal is determined. The relation between primary and primal ideals in posets is also studied.

Keywords: ‎associated prime ideal, ‎‎ideal, ‎‎primary ideal, primal ideal‎, prime‎ ‎ideal, semiprime ideal, ‎weakly primal ideal, zero divisors graph

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961 Innovation of e-Learning for Architectural Design Courses at the University of Jordan

Authors: Samer Abu Ghazaleh, Jawdat Gousous

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E-learning in general started in Jordan around ten years ago in universities and at different departments and colleges. This paper will investigate the possibility to apply e-learning in architecture department at University of Jordan. As known architecture departments in general depend greatly in its syllabus upon design courses and studios, which consists nearly one third of its total credit hours. A survey has been conducted for architectural students at the University of Jordan and several conclusions have been reached irrespective of age, gender and nationality of the students, where the main problem was the way of the communication between the tutor and the student.

Keywords: cellular telephone, design courses, e-learning, internet

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960 Accounting Legislation, Corporate Governance Codes and Disclosure in Jordan

Authors: Ayman Haddad, Wafaa Sbeiti, Amr Qasem

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The main aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the most influential economic changes and accounting legislation affecting financial reporting and disclosure practices in Jordan. It also provides an overview of disclosure studies conducted in Jordan covering the year(s) between 1986 and 2014. The economic changes in Jordan required conducting economic reform and revising/issuing new regulations and financial market reforms that led to an improvement in disclosure practices. The issuance of Temporary Securities Law and its Directives of Disclosure in 1997, which came into effect in 1998, is considered as the turning point in the improvement of disclosure practice in Jordan. Based on a review of prior disclosure studies, we conclude that disclosure practices have improved overtime. We also observe that that firm size as a factor has always affected the level of disclosure in Jordan and followed by external auditing while liquidity was found to have the least effect. The paper also addresses the disclosure items required in Corporate Governance Codes that exist for listed shareholding companies, banks, and insurance companies. Finally, the paper discusses the quality of accounting education in Jordan since prior studies noted its impact on accounting practice.

Keywords: accounting legislation, corporate governance, disclosure practice, Jordan

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959 Entrepreneurship Success in Jordan

Authors: Atef Aladwan

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This research will focus on stimulating greater freedom and facilitating small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Jordan to create jobs, as it is emerging as a key development issue. It will highlight the importance of integrating SMEs into development strategies. Jordan has potentially a large market for its products as a result of proximity to developed country markets, signing of various free trades agreements with European countries, cheap energy sources and vast sovereign funds willing to invest in the development of local enterprises. It is beginning to be accepted by governments that SMEs rather than government need to be the main player in domestic economic activity, especially as providers of employment opportunities, and hence generators of sources of income for many households. To foster SME development, it is generally recognised that reforms are needed in Jordan in order to bring about a more globally competitive and business-friendly environment.

Keywords: SMEs, competitiveness, entrepreneurship, jordan, development

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958 Fuzzy Ideal Topological Spaces

Authors: Ali Koam, Ismail Ibedou, S. E. Abbas

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In this paper, it is introduced the notion of r-fuzzy ideal separation axioms Tᵢi = 0; 1; 2 based on a fuzzy ideal I on a fuzzy topological space (X; τ). An r-fuzzy ideal connectedness related to the fuzzy ideal I is introduced which has relations with a previous r-fuzzy fuzzy connectedness. An r-fuzzy ideal compactness related to Ι is introduced which has also relations with many other types of fuzzy compactness.

Keywords: fuzzy ideal, fuzzy separation axioms, fuzzy compactness, fuzzy connectedness

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957 Modeling Jordan University of Science and Technology Parking Using Arena Program

Authors: T. Qasim, M. Alqawasmi, M. Hawash, M. Betar, W. Qasim

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Over the last decade, the over population that has happened in urban areas has been reflecting on the services that various local institutions provide to car users in the form of car parks, which is becoming a daily necessity in our lives. This study focuses on car parks at Jordan University of Science and Technology, in Irbid, Jordan, to understand the university parking needs. Data regarding arrival and departure times of cars and the parking utilization were collected, to find various options that the university can implement to solve and develop an efficient car parking system. Arena software was used to simulate a parking model. This model allows measuring the different solutions that solve the parking problem at Jordan University of Science and Technology.

Keywords: car park, simulation, modeling, service time

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956 Fuzzy Implicative Pseudo-Ideals of Pesudo-BCK Algebras

Authors: Alireza Gilani

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the fuzzification of implicative pseudo-ideal in a pseudo-BCK algebra, and then we investigate some of their properties. We prove that the family of fuzzy implicative pseudo-ideal is completely distributive lattice.

Keywords: BCK-algebra, pseudo-BCK algebra, pseudo-ideal, implicative pseudo-ideal

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955 Jordan Curves in the Digital Plane with Respect to the Connectednesses given by Certain Adjacency Graphs

Authors: Josef Slapal

Abstract:

Digital images are approximations of real ones and, therefore, to be able to study them, we need the digital plane Z2 to be equipped with a convenient structure that behaves analogously to the Euclidean topology on the real plane. In particular, it is required that such a structure allows for a digital analogue of the Jordan curve theorem. We introduce certain adjacency graphs on the digital plane and prove digital Jordan curves for them thus showing that the graphs provide convenient structures on Z2 for the study and processing of digital images. Further convenient structures including the wellknown Khalimsky and Marcus-Wyse adjacency graphs may be obtained as quotients of the graphs introduced. Since digital Jordan curves represent borders of objects in digital images, the adjacency graphs discussed may be used as background structures on the digital plane for solving the problems of digital image processing that are closely related to borders like border detection, contour filling, pattern recognition, thinning, etc.

Keywords: digital plane, adjacency graph, Jordan curve, quotient adjacency

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954 Key Challenges Facing the Management of Archaeological and Tourism Sites in Jordan

Authors: Muna Slehat

Abstract:

Jordan is endowed with over 14,500 productive archaeological sites and also a wealth of heritage sites that need to be protected from the pressing threat of destruction and damage. Archaeological sites in Jordan face significant threats, including insensitive development, urbanization, pollution, tourism, and vandalism, therefore an effective management plan is a key element, not only for the conservation of this heritage, but also to address issues such as tourism and sustainable development. This study highlights the obstacles that confront the management of the archaeological and tourism sites in Jordan, prior to and after the launch of the Strategies for Management of Jordan’s Archaeological Heritage by the Department of Antiquities (DoA) 2007-2010 and 2014-2018, as well as the establishment of the Directorate of the Management of Archaeological Sites in 2010, and instructions for the proper use of tourism sites, 2014, by the Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities (MoTA). The study has revealed that the management of the archaeological and tourism sites under the pretext of improvement of services for tourists and visitors to Jordan would allow access to so-called polarization tourism and facilitate tourism development that would be sustainable economically and provide attractive returns. The data required have been collected through conducting interviews with 18 specialists. The main findings of the study are that management is new in Jordan, and has become a vital and dynamic force in Jordan after 2000 but that there have also been many mistakes, with sustainability of the sites being ignored and a lack of awareness among local communities surrounding these sites. Management of the sites has also suffered from a lack of organizational vision, with no instructions for practical application and no legislative provisions which cater for the efficient management of the sites. All of this needs to be amended to remove gaps, overlaps and ambiguities, so that the authorities responsible for the rehabilitation and promotion, development and management of these sites can overcome the problems, such as lack of human resources (specialists) and financial resources.

Keywords: Jordan, management, archaeological sites, tourism, challenges

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953 The Relationship between HR Disclosure and Employee’s Turnover: Study on the Telecommunication Sector in Jordan

Authors: Dina Ahmed Alkhodary

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Human Resources are the individual skills, knowledge, attitude, capabilities and experience collected to produce wealth to the company. Human Resource disclosure is the process of involving, reporting, and sharing the Investments made in the Human Resources of an Organization that such as organizations short goals and objectives, employees creation value, training and development plan are presently not accounted for in the conventional accounting practices which is importance nowadays to reduce the employee`s turnover. For the purpose of the study 3 telecommunications companies in Jordan have been selected. Telecommunication industry has been chosen for this study since it is a successful sector in Jordan and Human resource disclosure practices were adopted in all the selected companies and companies was aware to the HR practices. The objective of the study is to find out the HR disclosures practices of the telecommunication Companies in Jordan and to find the relationship between the HR Disclosures practices and employees’ turnover which has been measured by leaver proficiencies, remaining member proficiencies and the new comers proficiencies. The researcher has used the questioner to collect data for the research purpose. Results reveal that There are human resource disclosure practices in telecommunication companies in Jordan but in some areas only and has found There that there is a significant relationship between the human resource disclosure practices of the telecommunication companies in Jordan and Employees turnover. It is important to the companies to disclose more information and it’s important to the researchers to study the HR disclosure in the other industries in Jordan to increase the awareness about it.

Keywords: HR, disclosure, employee, turnover

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952 Economic Implications of the Arrival of Syrian Refugees in Jordan

Authors: Ammar Z. Alwrekiat, Sara Ojeda Gonzalez, Maria Jose Miranda Martel, Antonio Mihi-Ramirez

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This paper analyses the economic situation in Jordan, which has been the political asylum destination for Syrians since 2011. We analyze the effects of the Jordanian situation through the following indicators: international aid, gross domestic product, remittances, and unemployment. A correlation analysis has been used to identify the main connections of these parameters with the reception of refugees. Although the economic effects of Syrian refugees in Jordan are uncertain, it involves an important challenge in the development of migration policies. Jordan has a special economic situation and limited capacities, but the country has provided humanitarian assistance to Syrian refugees. In this case, the support of the international community is of particular importance, taking an important role in the negotiation of international agreements on refugees.

Keywords: correlation analysis, economic implications, migration, refugees

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951 The Impact of Developing Tourism on the Spatial Pattern in Jordan

Authors: Khries Sawsan

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the phenomenon of urbanization is considered as one of the most important tourism resources that differ from one country to another and from one region to another in the same country. Our concern in tourism accommodation is explained by the fact that their location is directly related to the movement to tourist sites .Besides, these constructions comport security considered as the most important motivation for tourists in their choice of any destination. Hotels are the most representative expression of tourism. This is due to their physical prominence in the landscape and being the sole urban component totally unique to tourism. This study sheds light on the impact of tourism development on the spatial pattern in Jordan. It describes the linkages between existing tourism development policies and the spatial development patterns that have occurred as a result throughout Jordan, particularly looking at the impact that tourism has had on the physical environment of major tourism destinations. It puts an illustrative plan of the impact of the augmentation of tourism accommodations in Jordan in the past 40 years ago. The findings of this study help us to understand better the operation of Jordan’ dynamic changes in the location An intensive analysis is then applied on a representative case study in three regions: Amman, Petra and Aqaba. The study proceeds from an historical perspective to, show the evolution of the current development patterns an increase of tourism’s impact on spatial, in the presence of factors as political and economic stability, is expected.

Keywords: spatial patterns, urbanisation, spatial transformations, tourism planning, Jordan

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950 Design of Distribution Network for Gas Cylinders in Jordan

Authors: Hazem J. Smadi

Abstract:

Performance of a supply chain is directly related to a distribution network that entails the location of storing materials or products and how products are delivered to the end customer through different stages in the supply chain. This study analyses the current distribution network used for delivering gas cylinders to end customer in Jordan. Evaluation of current distribution has been conducted across customer service components. A modification on the current distribution network in terms of central warehousing in each city in the country improves the response time and customer experience. 

Keywords: distribution network, gas cylinder, Jordan, supply chain

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949 Proposed Model to Assess E-Government Readiness in Jordan

Authors: Hadeel Abdulatif, Maha Alkhaffaf

Abstract:

E-government is the use of Information and Communication Technology to enrich the access to and delivery of government services to citizens, business partners and employees, Policy makers and regulatory bodies have to be cognizant of the degree of readiness of a populace in order to design and implement efficient e-government programs. This paper aims to provide a transparent situation analyses for the case of e-government official website in Jordan, it focuses on assessing e-government in Jordan; web site assessment by using international criteria for assessing e-government websites, However, the study analyses the environmental factor consisting of cultural and business environment factors. By reviewing the literature the researchers found that government's efforts towards e-government may vary according to the country's readiness and other key implementation factors which will lead to diverse e-government experience; thus, there is a need to study the impact of key factors to implement e-government in Jordan.

Keywords: e-government, environmental factors, website assessment, readiness

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948 Identification of Ideal Plain Sufu (Fermented Soybean Curds) Based on Ideal Profile Method and Assessment of the Consistency of Ideal Profiles Obtained from Consumers

Authors: Yan Ping Chen, Hau Yin Chung

Abstract:

The Ideal Profile Method (IPM) is a newly developed descriptive sensory analysis conducted by consumers without previous training. To perform this test, both the perceived and the ideal intensities from the judgements of consumers on products’ attributes, as well as their hedonic ratings were collected for formulating an ideal product (the most liked one). In addition, Ideal Profile Analysis (IPA) was conducted to check the consistency of the ideal data at both the panel and consumer levels. In this test, 12 commercial plain sufus bought from Hong Kong local market were tested by 113 consumers according to the IPM, and rated on 22 attributes. Principal component analysis was used to profile the perceived and the ideal spaces of tested products. The consistency of ideal data was then checked by IPA. The result showed that most consumers shared a common ideal. It was observed that the sensory product space and the ideal product space were structurally similar. Their first dimensions all opposed products with intense fermented related aroma to products with less fermented related aroma. And the predicted ideal profile (the estimated liking score around 7.0 in a 9.0-point scale) got higher hedonic score than the tested products (the average liking score around 6.0 in a 9.0-point scale). For the majority of consumers (95.2%), the stated ideal product considered as a potential ideal through checking the R2 coefficient value. Among all the tested products, sample-6 was the most popular one with consumer liking percentage around 30%. This product with less fermented and moldy flavour but easier to melt in mouth texture possessed close sensory profile according to the ideal product. This experiment validated that data from untrained consumers could be guided as useful information. Appreciated sensory characteristics could be served as reference in the optimization of the commercial plain sufu.

Keywords: ideal profile method, product development, sensory evaluation, sufu (fermented soybean curd)

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947 Evaluation of the Level of Knowledge about Probiotics amongst Community Pharmacy Staff in Jordan

Authors: Feras Darwish Elhajji, Alberto Berardi, Manal Ayyash, Iman Basheti

Abstract:

The concept of the use of probiotics for humans now has been known for decades however, their intake by the Jordanian population seems to be less common when compared to population in the developed countries. Community pharmacy is the main supplier of probiotics, however, after conducting an extensive literature review, not any published research article could be found talking about the role, knowledge, and practice of the pharmacists in the area of probiotics. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the level of knowledge about probiotics and their dispensing practice in community pharmacies in Jordan. Community pharmacy staff (pharmacists and technicians) in Amman and north of Jordan were randomly selected to complete an anonymous questionnaire that had been pre-tested and validated. Ethical approval was obtained from the university ethics committee. The questionnaire included the following sections: demographics, knowledge and perceptions about probiotics, and role of the pharmacist Pharmacists and technicians were visited and interviewed in 281 community pharmacies. Asking about probiotics, 90.4% of them said that they know what probiotics are, although only 29.5% agreed that pharmacy staff in Jordan have good knowledge about probiotics, and 88.3% agreed that pharmacy staff in Jordan need more training and knowledge about probiotics. Variables that were significantly related to knowledge about probiotics were being a pharmacist (ρ= 0.012), area of the community pharmacy (ρ= 0.019), and female staff (ρ= 0.031) after conducting logistic regression statistical analysis. More than two-thirds of the participants thought that probiotics are classified as dietary supplements by Jordan Food and Drug Administration (JFDA). Of those who knew probiotics, the majority of them – 76.8% and 91.7% – agreed that probiotics are effective and safe, respectively. Believing in efficacy of the probiotics was significantly associated with answering their use to be with or after antibiotic administration and to increase normal flora gut population (ρ= 0.007). Efficacy was also significantly associated with recommending probiotics to consumers by the pharmacist (ρ< 0.001) and by the doctor (ρ= 0.041). At the same time, the concept of safety was mainly associated with their use for flatulence and gases (ρ= 0.048). Level of knowledge about probiotics and their uses, efficacy and safety amongst community pharmacy staff in Jordan is found to be good. However, this level can be raised in the future, especially knowledge about uses of probiotics.

Keywords: community pharmacy, Jordan, prebiotics, probiotics

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946 Analysis of Pharmaceuticals in Influents of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants in Jordan

Authors: O. A. Al-Mashaqbeh, A. M. Ghrair, D. Alsafadi, S. S. Dalahmeh, S. L. Bartelt-Hunt, D. D. Snow

Abstract:

Grab samples were collected in the summer to characterize selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the influent of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Jordan. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) was utilized to determine the concentrations of 18 compounds of PPCPs. Among all of the PPCPs analyzed, eight compounds were detected in the influent samples (1,7-dimethylxanthine, acetaminophen, caffeine, carbamazepine, cotinine, morphine, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim). However, five compounds (amphetamine, cimetidine, diphenhydramine, methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and sulfachloropyridazine) were not detected in collected samples (below the detection limits <0.005 µg/l). Moreover, the results indicated that the highest concentration levels detected in collected samples were caffeine, acetaminophen, 1,7-dimethylxanthine, cotinine and carbamazepine at concentration of 182.5 µg/L, 28.7 µg/l, 7.47 µg/l, 4.67 µg/l and 1.54 µg/L, respectively. In general, most of compounds concentrations measured in wastewater in Jordan are within the range for wastewater previously reported in India wastewater except caffeine.

Keywords: pharmaceuticals, personal care products, wastewater, Jordan

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945 Incentive Policies to Promote Green Infrastructure in Urban Jordan

Authors: Zayed Freah Zeadat

Abstract:

The wellbeing of urban dwellers is strongly associated with the quality and quantity of green infrastructure. Nevertheless, urban green infrastructure is still lagging in many Arab cities, and Jordan is no exception. The capital city of Jordan, Amman, is becoming more urban dense with limited green spaces. The unplanned urban growth in Amman has caused several environmental problems such as urban heat islands, air pollution, and lack of green spaces. This study aims to investigate the most suitable drivers to leverage the implementation of urban green infrastructure in Jordan through qualitative and quantitative analysis. The qualitative research includes an extensive literature review to discuss the most common drivers used internationally to promote urban green infrastructure implementation in the literature. The quantitative study employs a questionnaire survey to rank the suitability of each driver. Consultants, contractors, and policymakers were invited to fill the research questionnaire according to their judgments and opinions. Relative Importance Index has been used to calculate the weighted average of all drivers and the Kruskal-Wallis test to check the degree of agreement among groups. This study finds that research participants agreed that indirect financial incentives (i.e., tax reductions, reduction in stormwater utility fee, reduction of interest rate, density bonus, etc.) are the most effective incentive policy whilst granting sustainability certificate policy is the least effective driver to ensure widespread of UGI is elements in Jordan.

Keywords: urban green infrastructure, relative importance index, sustainable urban development, urban Jordan

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944 The Effects of Quality of Web-Based Applications on Competitive Advantage: An Empirical Study in Commercial Banks in Jordan

Authors: Faisal Asad Aburub

Abstract:

Many organizations are investing in web applications and technologies in order to be competitive, some of them could not achieve its goals. The quality of web-based applications could play an important role for organizations to be competitive. So the aim of this study is to investigate the impact of quality of web-based applications to achieve a competitive advantage. A new model has been developed. An empirical investigation was performed on a banking sector in Jordan to test the new model. The results show that impact of web-based applications on competitive advantage is significant. Finally, further work is planned to validate and evaluate the proposed model using several domains.

Keywords: competitive advantage, web-based applications, empirical investigation, commercial banks in Jordan

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943 System of Linear Equations, Gaussian Elimination

Authors: Rabia Khan, Nargis Munir, Suriya Gharib, Syeda Roshana Ali

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In this paper linear equations are discussed in detail along with elimination method. Gaussian elimination and Gauss Jordan schemes are carried out to solve the linear system of equation. This paper comprises of matrix introduction, and the direct methods for linear equations. The goal of this research was to analyze different elimination techniques of linear equations and measure the performance of Gaussian elimination and Gauss Jordan method, in order to find their relative importance and advantage in the field of symbolic and numeric computation. The purpose of this research is to revise an introductory concept of linear equations, matrix theory and forms of Gaussian elimination through which the performance of Gauss Jordan and Gaussian elimination can be measured.

Keywords: direct, indirect, backward stage, forward stage

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942 Environmental Impact Assessment of Ceramic Tile Materials Used in Jordan on Indoor Radon Level

Authors: Mefleh Hamideen

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In this investigation, the activity concentrations of ²²⁶Ra, ²³²Th, and ⁴⁰K, of some ceramic tile materials used in the local market of Jordan for interior decoration were determined by making use of High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. Twenty samples of the different countries of origin and sizes used in Jordan were analyzed. The concentration values of the last-mentioned radionuclides ranged from 30 Bq.kg⁻¹ (Sample from Jordan) to 98 Bq.kg⁻¹ (Sample from China) for ²²⁶Ra, 31 Bq.kg⁻¹ (Sample from Italy) to 98 Bq.kg⁻¹ (Sample from China) for ²³²Th, and 129 Bq.kg⁻¹ (Sample from Spain) to 679 Bq.kg⁻¹ (Sample from Italy) for ⁴⁰K. Based on the calculated activity concentrations, some radiological parameters have been calculated to test the radiation hazards in the ceramic tiles. In this work, the following parameters: Total absorbed dose rate (DR), Annual effective dose rate (HR), Radium equivalent activity (Raeq), Radon emanation coefficient F (%) and Radon mass exhalation rate (Em) were calculated for all ceramic tiles and listed in the body of the work. Fortunately, the average calculated values of all parameters are less than the recommended values for each parameter. Consequently, almost all the examined ceramic materials appear to have low radon emanation coefficients. As a result of that investigation, no problems on people can appear by using those ceramic tiles in Jordan.

Keywords: radon emanation coefficient, radon mass exhalation rate, total annual effective dose, radon level

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941 An Evaluative Study of Services Provided in Community Based Rehabilitation Centres in Jordan

Authors: Wesam Darawsheh

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Purpose: There is an absence of studies directed to evaluate the effectiveness of Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR) programs in Jordan. This research study is aimed at investigating the effectiveness of the services of CBR programmes in Jordan. Method: A questionnaire anonymized survey was carried out with forty-seven participants (stakeholders and volunteers) from four CBR centres in Jordan. It comprised eighteen questions that collected both qualitative and quantitative data with both closed- and open-ended questions. The survey assessed participants’ knowledge of CBR and perception of the effectiveness of services provided. The quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS Version 22.0 (2016, IBM Corporation New York). Qualitative data were analyzed through thematic content and analysis and open coding to identify emergent themes. Results: The ROC curve revealed that the AUC for questions of the survey to be (AUC=0.846) which indicated a good specificity and sensitivity of the questions of the survey. The MANOVA revealed insignificant results in the effect of the CBR site (p= 0.157), and the level of education of participants (p=0.549), on the perception of the effectiveness of CBR services. There were insignificant differences between the scores of PWDs and volunteers (p=0.781). 40.4% evaluated the effectiveness of CBR services to be low. This mainly stemmed out from the lack of efforts of the CBR programmes to raise the knowledge of the local community about CBR, disability and the role toward PWDs. Conclusions: A speculation for priorities of CBR programmes in Jordan was offered where efforts need to be directed at promoting livelihood and the empowerment components, in order to actualize the main three principles of CBR mainly by promoting multispectral collaboration as a way of operation.

Keywords: community based rehabilitation (CBR), people with disabilities (PWDS), CBR centres, rehabilitation services, Jordan, mixed-methods, evaluative study

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940 GSM Based Smart Patient Monitoring System

Authors: Ayman M. Mansour

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In this paper, we propose an intelligent system that is used for monitoring the health conditions of Patients. Monitoring the health condition of Patients is a complex problem that involves different medical units and requires continuous monitoring especially in rural areas because of inadequate number of available specialized physicians. The proposed system will Improve patient care and drive costs down comparing to the existing system in Jordan. The proposed system will be the start point to Faster and improve the communication between different units in the health system in Jordan. Connecting patients and their physicians beyond hospital doors regarding their geographical area is an important issue in developing the health system in Jordan. The propose system will provide an intelligent system that will generate initial diagnosing to the patient case. This will assist and advice clinicians at the point of care. The decision is based on demographic data and laboratory test results of patient data. Using such system with the ability of making medical decisions, the quality of medical care in Jordan and specifically in Tafial is expected to be improved. This will provide more accurate, effective, and reliable diagnoses and treatments especially if the physicians have insufficient knowledge.

Keywords: GSM, SMS, patient, monitoring system, fuzzy logic, multi-agent system

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939 Private Law, Public Justice: Another Look at Imprisonment for Debt under the Jordanian Law

Authors: Haitham A. Haloush

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Debtors' imprisonment in Jordan is a problematic issue since it impinges upon required financial guarantees that are presumably offered by debtors on the one hand, and infringes flagrantly the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights on the other hand. Jordan lacks regulatory provisions in this respect and debtors' imprisonment is indirectly exercised in Jordan without giving a special legal attention to this concern. From this perspective, this research reviews the available regulations, standard laws and codes of conduct that might guide the implementation of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights in the Jordanian context. Furthermore, this article will examine the suitability of the Jordanian legal system in providing sufficient protection for debtors. The author argues that there are serious obstacles in this aspect.

Keywords: the Jordanian civil code, the Jordanian execution law, imprisonment for debt, good faith, the Jordanian constitution, the international covenant on civil and political rights

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938 Cultural Resources Management of the Early Hospitals in Jordan between: 1890-1950

Authors: Jawdat Goussous, Samer Abu Ghazaleh

Abstract:

Heritage is closely linked with the national identity and because Jordan is a rich country of heritage where many civilizations had lived from early beginning of history ,therefore the conservation of this heritage is national task that gives many benefits as correlation between local inhabitance and enhance the linked with spirit of place . This study takes into account the most important concentration on some of old hospitals in Jordan ,which were constructed between 1890-1950 ,looking in their historical and architectural heritage values gained by their architectural distinguished ,longevity and their linked with events that happened in the region. then Focus on the study and analysis of some of them in terms of conservation methodology that have been followed to conserve the early hospitals such as preservation ,maintenance ,adaptive reuse , And their positive effects on these buildings, emphasize the importance of these buildings because of their historical and architectural values.

Keywords: evangelical missionary, early hospitals, medical services, renovation

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937 Factors Affecting eHealth Literacy among Nursing Students in Jordan

Authors: Laila Habiballah, Ahmad Tubaishat

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Background: with the development of information and communication technology, using the internet as a source to obtain health information is increasing. Nursing students as future health care providers should have the skills of locating, evaluating and using online health information. This will enable them to help their patients and families to make informed decisions. Aim: this study has a two-fold aim. The first is to assess the eHealth literacy among nursing students in Jordan. The second aim is to explore the factors that have an effect on the eHealth literacy. Methods: this is a descriptive cross-sectional survey that conducted in two universities in Jordan; public and private one. A number of 541 students from both universities were completed the eHEALS scale, which is an instrument designed to measure the eHealth literacy. Some additional personal and demographical variable were collected to explore its effect on eHealth literacy. Results: Students have a high perceived level of e-Health literacy (M=3.62, SD=0.58). They are aware of the available online health resources, know how to search, locate, and use these resources. But, they do not have the skills to evaluate these resources and cannot differentiate between the high and low-quality resources. The results showed as well that type of university, type of students' admission, academic level, students' skills of using the internet, and the perception of usefulness and importance of internet have an effect on the eHealth literacy. While the age, gender, GPA, and the frequency of using the internet was no significant factors. Conclusion: This study represents a baseline reference for the eHealth literacy in Jordan. Students have some skills of eHealth literacy and other skills need to be improved. Nursing educators and administrators should integrate and incorporate the skills of eHealth literacy in the curriculum.

Keywords: eHealth, literacy, nursing, students, Jordan

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936 Assessment of the Photovoltaic and Solar Thermal Potential Installation Area on Residential Buildings: Case Study of Amman, Jordan

Authors: Jenan Abu Qadourah

Abstract:

The suitable surface areas for the ST and PV installation are determined based on incident solar irradiation on different surfaces, shading analysis and suitable architectural area for integration considering limitations due to the constructions, available surfaces area and use of the available surfaces for other purposes. The incident solar radiation on the building surfaces and the building solar exposure analysis of the location of Amman, Jordan, is performed with Autodesk Ecotect analysis 2011 simulation software. The building model geometry within the typical urban context is created in “SketchUp,” which is then imported into Ecotect. The hourly climatic data of Amman, Jordan selected are the same ones used for the building simulation in IDA ICE and Polysun simulation software.

Keywords: photovoltaic, solar thermal, solar incident, simulation, building façade, solar potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
935 Jordan Water District Interactive Billing and Accounting Information System

Authors: Adrian J. Forca, Simeon J. Cainday III

Abstract:

The Jordan Water District Interactive Billing and Accounting Information Systems is designed for Jordan Water District to uplift the efficiency and effectiveness of its services to its customers. It is designed to process computations of water bills in accurate and fast way through automating the manual process and ensures that correct rates and fees are applied. In addition to billing process, a mobile app will be integrated into it to support rapid and accurate water bill generation. An interactive feature will be incorporated to support electronic billing to customers who wish to receive water bills through the use of electronic mail. The system will also improve, organize and avoid data inaccuracy in accounting processes because data will be stored in a database which is designed logically correct through normalization. Furthermore, strict programming constraints will be plunged to validate account access privilege based on job function and data being stored and retrieved to ensure data security, reliability, and accuracy. The system will be able to cater the billing and accounting services of Jordan Water District resulting in setting forth the manual process and adapt to the modern technological innovations.

Keywords: accounting, bill, information system, interactive

Procedia PDF Downloads 183