Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4079

Search results for: ‎‎primary ideal

4079 Zero Divisor Graph of a Poset with Respect to Primal Ideals

Authors: Hossein Pourali

Abstract:

In this paper, we extend the concepts of primal and weakly primal ideals for posets. Further, the diameter of the zero divisor graph of a poset with respect to a non-primal ideal is determined. The relation between primary and primal ideals in posets is also studied.

Keywords: ‎associated prime ideal, ‎‎ideal, ‎‎primary ideal, primal ideal‎, prime‎ ‎ideal, semiprime ideal, ‎weakly primal ideal, zero divisors graph

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4078 Fuzzy Ideal Topological Spaces

Authors: Ali Koam, Ismail Ibedou, S. E. Abbas

Abstract:

In this paper, it is introduced the notion of r-fuzzy ideal separation axioms Tᵢi = 0; 1; 2 based on a fuzzy ideal I on a fuzzy topological space (X; τ). An r-fuzzy ideal connectedness related to the fuzzy ideal I is introduced which has relations with a previous r-fuzzy fuzzy connectedness. An r-fuzzy ideal compactness related to Ι is introduced which has also relations with many other types of fuzzy compactness.

Keywords: fuzzy ideal, fuzzy separation axioms, fuzzy compactness, fuzzy connectedness

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
4077 Fuzzy Implicative Pseudo-Ideals of Pesudo-BCK Algebras

Authors: Alireza Gilani

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the fuzzification of implicative pseudo-ideal in a pseudo-BCK algebra, and then we investigate some of their properties. We prove that the family of fuzzy implicative pseudo-ideal is completely distributive lattice.

Keywords: BCK-algebra, pseudo-BCK algebra, pseudo-ideal, implicative pseudo-ideal

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4076 Fluoride as Obturating Material in Primary Teeth

Authors: Syed Ameer Haider Jafri

Abstract:

The primary goal of a root canal treatment in deciduous teeth is to eliminate infection and to retain the tooth in a functional state until it gets physiologically exfoliated and replaced by permanent successor. Important requisite of a root canal filling material for primary teeth is that, it should resorb at a similar rate as the roots of primary tooth, be harmless to the periapical tissue and to the permanent tooth germ, resorb readily if pushed beyond the apex, be antiseptic, radio-opaque, should not shrink, adhere to the walls, not discolor the tooth and easy to fill & remove, if required at any stage. Presently available, commonly used obturating materials for primary teeth are zinc oxide eugenol, calcium hydroxide and iodoform based pastes. None of these materials so far meet the ideal requirement of root canal filling material. So in search of ideal obturating material, this study was planed, in which mixture of calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide & sodium fluoride and mixture of calcium hydroxide & sodium fluoride was compared clinically and radiographically with calcium hydroxide for the obturation of root canals of 75 carious exposed primary mandibular second molars of 59 children aged 4-9 years. All the three material shows good results, but after a follow-up of 9 months mixture of calcium hydroxide, two percent sodium fluoride & zinc oxide powder closely follow the resorption of root, mixture of calcium hydroxide, two percent sodium fluoride follow resorption of root in the beginning but later on majority of cases shows faster resorption whereas calcium hydroxide starts depleting from the canal from the beginning even as early as 3 months. Thus mixture of calcium hydroxide, two percent sodium fluoride & zinc oxide found to be best obturaring material for primary tooth.

Keywords: obturating material, primary teeth, root canal treatment, success rate

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4075 Identification of Ideal Plain Sufu (Fermented Soybean Curds) Based on Ideal Profile Method and Assessment of the Consistency of Ideal Profiles Obtained from Consumers

Authors: Yan Ping Chen, Hau Yin Chung

Abstract:

The Ideal Profile Method (IPM) is a newly developed descriptive sensory analysis conducted by consumers without previous training. To perform this test, both the perceived and the ideal intensities from the judgements of consumers on products’ attributes, as well as their hedonic ratings were collected for formulating an ideal product (the most liked one). In addition, Ideal Profile Analysis (IPA) was conducted to check the consistency of the ideal data at both the panel and consumer levels. In this test, 12 commercial plain sufus bought from Hong Kong local market were tested by 113 consumers according to the IPM, and rated on 22 attributes. Principal component analysis was used to profile the perceived and the ideal spaces of tested products. The consistency of ideal data was then checked by IPA. The result showed that most consumers shared a common ideal. It was observed that the sensory product space and the ideal product space were structurally similar. Their first dimensions all opposed products with intense fermented related aroma to products with less fermented related aroma. And the predicted ideal profile (the estimated liking score around 7.0 in a 9.0-point scale) got higher hedonic score than the tested products (the average liking score around 6.0 in a 9.0-point scale). For the majority of consumers (95.2%), the stated ideal product considered as a potential ideal through checking the R2 coefficient value. Among all the tested products, sample-6 was the most popular one with consumer liking percentage around 30%. This product with less fermented and moldy flavour but easier to melt in mouth texture possessed close sensory profile according to the ideal product. This experiment validated that data from untrained consumers could be guided as useful information. Appreciated sensory characteristics could be served as reference in the optimization of the commercial plain sufu.

Keywords: ideal profile method, product development, sensory evaluation, sufu (fermented soybean curd)

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4074 Some Properties in Jordan Ideal on 3-Prime Near-Rings

Authors: Abdelkarim Boua, Abdelhakim Chillali

Abstract:

The study of non-associative structures in algebraic structures has become a separate entity; for, in the case of groups, their corresponding non-associative structure i.e. loops is dealt with separately. Similarly there is vast amount of research on the nonassociative structures of semigroups i.e. groupoids and that of rings i.e. nonassociative rings. However it is unfortunate that we do not have a parallel notions or study of non-associative near-rings. In this work we shall attempt to generalize a few known results and study the commutativity of Jordan ideal in 3-prime near-rings satisfying certain identities involving the Jordan ideal. We study the derivations satisfying certain differential identities on Jordan ideals of 3-prime near-rings. Moreover, we provide examples to show that hypothesis of our results are necessary. We give some new results and examples concerning the existence of Jordan ideal and derivations in near-rings. These near-rings can be used to build a new codes.

Keywords: 3-prime near-rings, near-rings, Jordan ideal, derivations

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4073 A Study on the Ideal and Actual Coping Responses of Public and Private College School Teachers on Job-Related Stress

Authors: Zaralyn Bernardo, Dante Boac, Annabelle Del Rosario

Abstract:

Professional individuals who are in a primary role to impart learning with the new generation are alarmingly tend to have a vast decrease in their workforce due to stress at work. Thus, the study used mixed method research design to explore the ideal and actual coping patterns of college school teachers, both private and public, using Coping Response Inventory-Adult (CRI-Adult). It was suggested that in order for coping to be effective there must be a congruence or good match between coping efforts and preferred coping style. Results basically provided the same information on sources of teacher stress. However, workload and low salary were more likely heightened, for public and private school, respectively. There is also a significant difference between the ideal and actual coping style of college school teachers. Though the public school teachers leaned towards problem-focused as their ideal way of coping, both public and private teachers are somewhat inclined to use emotion-focused coping in actual situation. Results of FGD identified the factors that contribute to the incongruence or mismatch in their preferred style of coping and actual efforts to cope. Identified factors based on thematic analysis (TA) are clustered into themes such as affectivity and rehearsal of the preferred coping responses, sensitivity to pressure impairs coping efficacy, seeking for social acceptance and approval, indefinite appraisal of perceived stress, emotional dysregulation, and impulsivity, immediate desire to terminate negative emotion and adversity. Most of the factors somewhat provide partial elucidation on the engagement of the respondents on emotion-focused coping.

Keywords: coping responses subtypes, appraisal, teacher stress, ideal and actual coping

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4072 Breastfeeding Experiences of Nutritionist who are Mothers in Quito- Ecuador

Authors: Maria Jose Mendoza Gordillo

Abstract:

Introduction: Research regarding breastfeeding is devoted to how essential breastfeeding is to guarantee wellbeing for the mother and the baby from a medical standpoint relegating the cultural, material and social barriers for breastfeeding. Consequently, worldwide breastfeeding rates are low, and Ecuador is not the exception, especially among working mothers. Worldwide, health care providers have low rates of breastfeeding due to several barriers to lactation, such as the work schedule, a lack of private places for pumping while at work, and negative emotions. Goals and Methods: This study aimed to explore how do Ecuadorian women embrace their identities as nutritionists and mothers within their breastfeeding experience. The primary data come from 20 synchronous semi-structured interviews, which follow a topic guide. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data analysis followed the Phronetic Iterative Approach. Results: Women shifted the preconceived idea of the ideal breastfeeding that came from the medicalized discourse of breastfeeding, and that was constructed in their training as nutritionists. Although these women believe that breast milk and breastfeeding is the best way to feed a baby, the internalized ideal of breastfeeding shifted through the experience of motherhood. When these women developed their identity as mothers, they understood that the ideal breastfeeding is different from the medicalized discourse. Although they have that clash between the ideal and the external reality, they continued breastfeeding their babies and those experiences made them improve their professional practice. Conclusions: The narratives that women shared illustrate how complex it was to manage the different roles and identities that they wanted to fulfill to keep their identity of a good mother who breastfeeds her baby and, at the same time, a good healthcare provider identity. The process of breastfeeding for this group of women who are mothers and healthcare professionals appears to be a unique relational and identity negotiation process.

Keywords: breastfeeding, identity, nutritionist, qualitative

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4071 Analytical Design of IMC-PID Controller for Ideal Decoupling Embedded in Multivariable Smith Predictor Control System

Authors: Le Hieu Giang, Truong Nguyen Luan Vu, Le Linh

Abstract:

In this paper, the analytical tuning rules of IMC-PID controller are presented for the multivariable Smith predictor that involved the ideal decoupling. Accordingly, the decoupler is first introduced into the multivariable Smith predictor control system by a well-known approach of ideal decoupling, which is compactly extended for general nxn multivariable processes and the multivariable Smith predictor controller is then obtained in terms of the multiple single-loop Smith predictor controllers. The tuning rules of PID controller in series with filter are found by using Maclaurin approximation. Many multivariable industrial processes are employed to demonstrate the simplicity and effectiveness of the presented method. The simulation results show the superior performances of presented method in compared with the other methods.

Keywords: ideal decoupler, IMC-PID controller, multivariable smith predictor, Padé approximation

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4070 Ideal School of the Future from the Parents´ View: Quantitative Research of Faculty of Education of the University of Hradec Králové

Authors: Yveta Pohnětalová

Abstract:

The topic of possible forms of future schools according to rapid changes of life in the 21st century has become to reach several economic and social prognoses. In our research, we have tried to find out what the future school form is according to pupils’ parent’s view. School is a part of life of each person and based on own experience there is a certain individual picture created about a possible look of future education. The aim of our quantitative research was to find out how parents of first grade primary school pupils see the ideal school of the future. The quantitative research realized at the Faculty of Education of the University of Hradec Králové (Czech Republic). By statistical analysis of gained data from 120 respondents, there have been several views of schools of future identified in terms of mission and also the way of education. But a common indicator according to addressed parents would be more focused on the overall personality development rather than the field practice which is related to a realistic idea that school of the future is not and will not be the only source of education.

Keywords: parents’ approach, school of the future, survey, ways of education

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4069 Probability-Based Damage Detection of Structures Using Model Updating with Enhanced Ideal Gas Molecular Movement Algorithm

Authors: M. R. Ghasemi, R. Ghiasi, H. Varaee

Abstract:

Model updating method has received increasing attention in damage detection structures based on measured modal parameters. Therefore, a probability-based damage detection (PBDD) procedure based on a model updating procedure is presented in this paper, in which a one-stage model-based damage identification technique based on the dynamic features of a structure is investigated. The presented framework uses a finite element updating method with a Monte Carlo simulation that considers the uncertainty caused by measurement noise. Enhanced ideal gas molecular movement (EIGMM) is used as the main algorithm for model updating. Ideal gas molecular movement (IGMM) is a multiagent algorithm based on the ideal gas molecular movement. Ideal gas molecules disperse rapidly in different directions and cover all the space inside. This is embedded in the high speed of molecules, collisions between them and with the surrounding barriers. In IGMM algorithm to accomplish the optimal solutions, the initial population of gas molecules is randomly generated and the governing equations related to the velocity of gas molecules and collisions between those are utilized. In this paper, an enhanced version of IGMM, which removes unchanged variables after specified iterations, is developed. The proposed method is implemented on two numerical examples in the field of structural damage detection. The results show that the proposed method can perform well and competitive in PBDD of structures.

Keywords: enhanced ideal gas molecular movement (EIGMM), ideal gas molecular movement (IGMM), model updating method, probability-based damage detection (PBDD), uncertainty quantification

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4068 Delivery System Design of the Local Part to Reduce the Logistic Costs in an Automotive Industry

Authors: Alesandro Romero, Inaki Maulida Hakim

Abstract:

This research was conducted in an automotive company in Indonesia to overcome the problem of high logistics cost. The problem causes high of additional truck delivery. From the breakdown of the problem, chosen one route, which has the highest gap value, namely for RE-04. Research methodology will be started from calculating the ideal condition, making simulation, calculating the ideal logistic cost, and proposing an improvement. From the calculation of the ideal condition, box arrangement was done on the truck; the average efficiency was 97,4 % with three trucks delivery per day. Route simulation making uses Tecnomatix Plant Simulation software as a visualization for the company about how the system is occurred on route RE-04 in ideal condition. Furthermore, from the calculation of logistics cost of the ideal condition, it brings savings of Rp53.011.800,00 in a month. The last step is proposing improvements on the area of route RE-04. The route arrangement is done by Saving Method and sequence of each supplier with the Nearest Neighbor. The results of the proposed improvements are three new route groups, where was expected to decrease logistics cost Rp3.966.559,40 per day, and increase the average of the truck efficiency 8,78% per day.

Keywords: efficiency, logistic cost, milkrun, saving methode, simulation

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4067 Outcome Analysis of Various Management Strategies for Ileal Perforation

Authors: Ashvamedh, Chandra Bhushan Singh, Anil Kumar Sarda

Abstract:

Introduction: Ileal perforation is a common cause for peritonitis in developing countries. Surgery is the ideal treatment as it eliminates soilage of peritoneal cavity in an effort to lessen the toxaemia and enhance the recovery of the patient. However, there is no uniformity of standardized operative procedure that is most effective for management. Material and method: The study was conducted on 66 patients of perforation peritonitis from November 2013 to February 2015 in Lok Nayak Hospital. Data of each patient were recorded on a pre-determined proforma. The methods used for repair were Primary repair, Resection anastomosis (RA) and Ileostomy. Result: Male preponderance was noticed among the patients with majority in their third decade. Of all perforations 40.9% were tubercular and 34.8% were typhoid. Amongst operated cases 27.3% underwent primary repair, RA was performed in 45.5%, Ileostomy in 27.3%patients. The average time taken for RA and ileostomy was more than primary repair. The type of repair bear no significance to size or no of perforation but was significant statistically for distance from I/C valve(P=.005) and edema of bowel wall(p=.002) when analysed for post op complications. Wound infection, dehiscence, intra-abdominal collections were complications observed bearing no significance to type of repair. Ileostomy per se has its own complications peristomal skin excoriation seen in 83.3%, electrolyte imbalance in 33.3%, duration for closure averaged 188 days (median 150 days, range 85-400 days). Conclusion: Primary closure is preferable in patients with single, small perforations. RA is advocated in patients with multiple or large perforation, perforation proximal to stricture. Ileostomy should not be considered as primary definitive procedure and reserved only for moribund patients as a lifesaving procedure. It has more morbidity and requires a second surgery for closure increasing the cost of treatment as well.

Keywords: ileal perforation, ileostomy, perforation peritonitis, typhoid perforation management

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4066 The Relationship among Personality, Culture Personality and Ideal Tourist/Business Destinations

Authors: Tamás Gyulavári, Erzsébet Malota

Abstract:

The main purpose of our study was to investigate the effect of congruence between the perceived self and perceived culture personality on the evaluation of the examined countries as ideal business/tourist destinations. A measure of Culture Personality (CP) has been developed and implemented to assess the perception of French and Turkish culture. Results show that very similar personality structure of both cultures can be extracted along the dimensions of Competence, Interpersonal approach, Aura, Life approach and Rectitude. Regarding the congruence theory, we found that instead of the effect of similarity between the perceived culture personality and actual self, the more positively culture personality is perceived relative to the perceived self, the more positive attitude the individual has toward the country as business and tourist destination.

Keywords: culture personality, ideal business/tourist destination, personality, scale development

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4065 Gender Differences in Attitudes to Technology in Primary Education

Authors: Radek Novotný, Martina Maněnová

Abstract:

This article presents a summary of reviews on gender differences in perception of information and communication technology (ICT) by pupils in primary education. The article outlines the meaning of ICT in primary education then summarizes different studies of the use of ICT in primary education from the point of view of gender. The article also presents the specific differences of gender in the knowledge of modalities of use of specialized digital tools and the perception and value assigned to ICT, accordingly the article provides insight into the background of gender differences in performance in relation to ICT to determinate the complex meaning of pupils attitudes to the ICT.

Keywords: ICT in primary education, attitudes to ICT, gender differences, gender and ICT

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4064 Body Mass Hurts Adolescent Girls More than Thin-Ideal Images

Authors: Javaid Marium, Ahmad Iftikhar

Abstract:

This study was aimed to identify factors that affect negative mood and body image dissatisfaction in women. positive and negative affect, self esteem, body image satisfaction and figure rating scale was administered to 97 female undergraduate students. This served as a base line data for correlation analysis in the first instance. One week later participants who volunteered to appear in the second phase of the study (N=47) were shown thin- ideal images as an intervention and soon after they completed positive and negative affect schedule and body image states scale again as a post test. Results indicated body mass as a strong negative predictor of body image dis/satisfaction, self esteem was a moderate predictor and mood was not a significant predictor. The participants whose actual body shape was markedly discrepant with the ideally desired body shape had significantly low level of body image satisfaction (p < .001) than those with low discrepancy. Similar results were found for self esteem (p < .004). Both self esteem and body mass predicted body satisfaction about equally and significantly. However, on viewing thin-ideal images, the participants of different body weight showed no change in their body image satisfaction than before. Only the overweight participants were significantly affected on negative mood as a short term reaction after viewing the thin ideal images. Comparing the three groups based on their body mass, one-way ANOVA revealed significant difference on negative mood as well as body image satisfaction. This reveals body mass as a potent and stable factor that consistently and strongly affected body satisfaction not the transient portrayal of thin ideal images.

Keywords: body image satisfaction, thin-ideal images, media, mood affects, self esteem

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4063 A Resolution on Ideal University Teachers Perspective of Turkish Students

Authors: Metin Özkan

Abstract:

In the last decade, Turkish higher education has been expanded dramatically. With this expansion, Turkey has come a long way in establishing an efficient system of higher education which is moving into a ‘mass’ system with institutions spanning the whole country. This expansion as a quantitative target leads to questioning the quality of higher education services. Especially, the qualities of higher education services depend on mainly quality of educators. Qualities of educators are most important in Turkish higher education system due to rapid rise in the number of universities and students. Therefore, it is seen important that reveals the portrait of ideal university teacher from the point of view student enrolled in Turkish higher education system. The purpose of this current study is to determine the portrait of ideal university teacher according to the views of Turkish Students. This research is carried out with descriptive scanning method and combined and mixed of qualitative and quantitative methodologies. Research data of qualitative section were collected at Gaziantep University with the participation of 45 students enrolled in 15 different faculties. Quantitative section was performed on 217 students. The data were obtained through semi-structured interview and “Ideal University Teacher Assessment” form developed by the researcher. The interview form consists of basically two parts. The first part of the interview was about personal information, the second part included questions about the characteristic of ideal university teacher. The questions which constitute the second part of the interview are; "what is a good university teacher like?” and “What human qualities and professional skills should a university teacher have? ". Assessment form which was created from the qualitative data obtained from interviews was used to attain scaling values for pairwise comparison and ranking judgment. According to study results, it has been found that ideal university teacher characteristics include the features like patient, tolerant, comprehensive and tolerant. Ideal university teacher, besides, implement the teaching methods like encouraging the students’ critical thinking, accepting the students’ recommendations on how to conduct the lesson and making use of the new technologies etc. Motivating and respecting the students, adopting a participative style, adopting a sincere way of manner also constitute the ideal university features relationships with students.

Keywords: faculty, higher education, ideal university teacher, teacher behavior

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4062 The Efficacy of an Ideal RGP Fitting on Higher Order Aberrations (HOA) in 65 Keratoconus Patients

Authors: Ghandehari-Motlagh, Mohammad

Abstract:

Purpose: To evaluate of the effect of an ideal fit of RGPs on HOA and keratoconus indices. Methods: In this cohort study, 65 keratoconus eyes with more than 3 lines(Snellen)improvement between BSCVA and BCVA(RGP) were imaged with Pentacam HR and their topometric and Zernike analysis findings without RGP were recorded. After 6 months or later of RGP fitting (Rose-K,Boston XO2), imaging with pentacam was repeated and the above information were recorded. Results: 65 different grades of keratoconus eyes with mean age of 27.32 yrs/old(SD +_5.51)enrolled including M 28(43.1%) and F 37(56.9%). 44(67.7%) with family Hx of Kc and 21(31.25%)without any Kc in their families. 54 (83.1%) with and 11 (16.9%) without any ocular allergy Hx. Maximum percent of age of onset of kc was 15 ys/old(29.2%).This study showed there are meaningful correlations between with and without RGP Pentacam indices and HOA in each grade of Kc.92.3% of patients had foreign body sensation but 96.9% had 11-20 hours/day RGP wear that confirms on psychologic effect of an ideal fit on patient’s motivation. Conclusion: With the three points touch principle of RGP fitting in Kc corneas, the patients will have a decrease in HOA and so delayed need for PK or LK.

Keywords: keratoconus, rigid gas permeable lens, aberration, fitting

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4061 On Consolidated Predictive Model of the Natural History of Breast Cancer Considering Primary Tumor and Primary Distant Metastases Growth

Authors: Ella Tyuryumina, Alexey Neznanov

Abstract:

Finding algorithms to predict the growth of tumors has piqued the interest of researchers ever since the early days of cancer research. A number of studies were carried out as an attempt to obtain reliable data on the natural history of breast cancer growth. Mathematical modeling can play a very important role in the prognosis of tumor process of breast cancer. However, mathematical models describe primary tumor growth and metastases growth separately. Consequently, we propose a mathematical growth model for primary tumor and primary metastases which may help to improve predicting accuracy of breast cancer progression using an original mathematical model referred to CoM-IV and corresponding software. We are interested in: 1) modelling the whole natural history of primary tumor and primary metastases; 2) developing adequate and precise CoM-IV which reflects relations between PT and MTS; 3) analyzing the CoM-IV scope of application; 4) implementing the model as a software tool. The CoM-IV is based on exponential tumor growth model and consists of a system of determinate nonlinear and linear equations; corresponds to TNM classification. It allows to calculate different growth periods of primary tumor and primary metastases: 1) ‘non-visible period’ for primary tumor; 2) ‘non-visible period’ for primary metastases; 3) ‘visible period’ for primary metastases. The new predictive tool: 1) is a solid foundation to develop future studies of breast cancer models; 2) does not require any expensive diagnostic tests; 3) is the first predictor which makes forecast using only current patient data, the others are based on the additional statistical data. Thus, the CoM-IV model and predictive software: a) detect different growth periods of primary tumor and primary metastases; b) make forecast of the period of primary metastases appearance; c) have higher average prediction accuracy than the other tools; d) can improve forecasts on survival of BC and facilitate optimization of diagnostic tests. The following are calculated by CoM-IV: the number of doublings for ‘nonvisible’ and ‘visible’ growth period of primary metastases; tumor volume doubling time (days) for ‘nonvisible’ and ‘visible’ growth period of primary metastases. The CoM-IV enables, for the first time, to predict the whole natural history of primary tumor and primary metastases growth on each stage (pT1, pT2, pT3, pT4) relying only on primary tumor sizes. Summarizing: a) CoM-IV describes correctly primary tumor and primary distant metastases growth of IV (T1-4N0-3M1) stage with (N1-3) or without regional metastases in lymph nodes (N0); b) facilitates the understanding of the appearance period and manifestation of primary metastases.

Keywords: breast cancer, exponential growth model, mathematical modelling, primary metastases, primary tumor, survival

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4060 Some Investigations of Primary Slurry Used for Production of Ceramic Shells

Authors: Balwinder Singh

Abstract:

In the current competitive environment, casting industry has several challenges such as production of intricate castings, near net shape castings, decrease lead-time from product design to production, improved casting quality and to control costs. The raw materials used to make ceramic shell play an important role in determining the overall final ceramic shell characteristics. In this work, primary slurries were formulated using various combinations of zircon flour, fused silica and aluminosilicate powders as filler, colloidal silica as binder along with wetting and antifoaming agents (Catalyst). Taguchi’s parameter design strategy has been applied to investigate the effect of primary slurry parameters on the viscosity of the slurry and primary coating of shell. The result reveals that primary coating with low viscosity slurry has produced a rough surface of the shell due to stucco penetration.

Keywords: ceramic shell, primary slurry, filler, slurry viscosity, surface roughness

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4059 English Reading Preferences among Primary Pupils

Authors: Jezza Mae T. Francisco, Marianet R. Delos Santos, Crisjame C. Toribio

Abstract:

This study aims to determine the reading preference for English enrichment and reading comprehension among primary students and the difference in the reading preference and comprehension for English enrichment among primary students. This study employed a Descriptive-Quantitative Correlational Research Design. This study yielded the following findings: (1) It reveals that primary students got fair on their reading comprehension, and (2) It shows that there is no significant relationship between the reading preference for English enrichment and reading comprehension of the students. It is safe to conclude that the students’ reading preference is growing evidently in various milieus. This can inform the English department curriculum planners to consider their students’ text preferences that interest them to maximize engagement within a dynamic interactive learning process.

Keywords: reading preferences, reading comprehension, primary student, English enrichment

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4058 Real, Ideal, or False Self- Presentation among Young Adult and Middle Adult Facebook Users

Authors: Maria Joan Grafil, Hannah Wendam, Christine Joyce Yu

Abstract:

The use of social networking sites had been a big part of life of most people. One of the most popular among these is Facebook. Users range from young adults to late adults. While it is more popular among emerging and young adults, this social networking site gives people opportunities to express the self. Via Facebook, people have the opportunity to think about what they prefer to show others. This study identified which among the multiple facets of the self (real self, false self or ideal self) is dominantly presented by young adults and middle adults in using the social networking site Facebook. South Metro Manila was the locale of this study where 100 young adult participants (aged 18-25) were students from nearby universities and the 100 middle adult participants (aged 35-45) were working residents within the area. Participants were comprised of 53% females and 47% males. The data was gathered using a self-report questionnaire to determine which online self-presentation (real self-presentation, false self-presentation, or ideal self-presentation) of the participants has greater extent when engaging in the social networking site Facebook. Using means comparison, results showed that both young adults and middle adults engaged primarily in real self-presentation.

Keywords: false self, ideal self, middle adult, real self, self presentation, young adult

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4057 Primary Care Physicians in Urgent Care Centres of the United Kingdom

Authors: Mohammad Ansari, Ahmed Ismail, Satinder Mann

Abstract:

Overcrowding in Emergency departments (ED) of United Kingdom has become a common problem. Urgent Care centres were developed nearly a decade ago to reduce pressure on EDs. Unfortunately, the development of Urgent Care centres has failed to produce the projected effects. It was thought that nearly 40% patients attending ED would go to Urgent Care centres and these would be staffed by Primary care Physicians. Data reveals that no more than 20% patients were seen by Primary Care Physicians even when the Urgent Care Centre was based in the ED. This study was carried out at the ED of George Eliot Hospital, Nuneaton, UK where the Urgent Care centre was based in the ED and employed Primary Care Physicians with special interest in trauma for nearly one year. This was then followed by a Primary Care Physician and Advanced Nurse Practitioner. We compared the number of patients seen during these periods and the cost-effectiveness of the service.We randomly selected a week of patients seen by Primary Care Physicians with special interest in Trauma and by Primary Care Physicians and the Advanced Nurse Practitioner. We compared the number and type of patients seen during these two periods. Nearly 38% patients were seen by Primary care Physician with special interest in Trauma, whilst only 14.3% patients were seen by the Primary care Physician and Advanced Nurse Practitioner. The Primary Care Physicians with special interest in trauma were paid less. Our study confirmed that unless Primary Care Physicians are able to treat minor trauma and interpret x-rays, the urgent care service is not going to be cost effective. Numerous previous studies have shown that 15 to 20% patients attending ED can be treated by Primary Care Physicians who do not require any investigations for their management. It is advantageous to have Urgent Care Centres within the ED because if the patient deteriorates they can be transferred to ED. We recommend that the Urgent care Centres should be a part of ED. Our study shows that Urgent care Centres in the ED can be helpful and cost effective if staffed by either senior Emergency Physicians or Primary Care Physicians with special interest and experience in the management of minor trauma.

Keywords: urgent care centres, primary care physician, advanced nurse practitioner, trauma

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4056 E-Learning in Primary Science: Teachers versus Students

Authors: Winnie Wing Mui So, Yu Chen

Abstract:

This study investigated primary school teachers’ and students’ perceptions of science learning in an e-learning environment. This study used a multiple case study design and involved eight science teachers and their students from four Hong Kong primary schools. The science topics taught included ‘season and weather’ ‘force and movement’, ‘solar and lunar eclipse’ and ‘living things and habitats’. Data were collected through lesson observations, interviews with teachers, and interviews with students. Results revealed some differences between the teachers’ and the students’ perceptions regarding the usefulness of e-learning resources, the organization of student-centred activities, and the impact on engagement and interactions in lessons. The findings have implications for the more effective creation of e-learning environments for science teaching and learning in primary schools.

Keywords: e-learning, science education, teacher' and students' perceptions, primary schools

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4055 Education for Sustainable Development and Primary Education in China: A Case Study

Authors: Ronghui (Kevin) Zhou

Abstract:

This research intends to explore the enactment of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), in term of the ESD concept, in primary schools in China, and investigate the factors that have positively or negatively impacted the outcome of ESD in urban primary schools in China. The proposed research question is: how is the ESD concept perceived and enacted by the local education stakeholders. This research is conducted in multiple primary schools in China and has questionnaired and interviewed multiple education stakeholders, including school principals, school teachers, and bureau from the municipal Ministry of Education. Factor analysis, regression analysis, and critical discourse analysis are adopted to interpret and analyze the data. The preliminary findings suggest that contested ESD definition, education system pressures, education policy enforcement, and power dynamics between stakeholders are the key factors that have determined to what degree is ESD enacted, and to what extent is ESD practiced in primary schools in China.

Keywords: education for sustainable development, China, primary education, case study

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4054 Relationship between Body Mass Composition and Primary Dysmenorrhoea

Authors: Snehalata Tembhurne

Abstract:

Introduction: A healthy menstrual cycle is a sign of women’s sound health.Various variables may influence the length and regularity of menstrual cycle.Studies have revealed that menstrual cycle abnormalities may be associated with psychological stress,lack of physical exercise, alteration in body composition,endocrine disturbances,higher estrogen levels as seen in obese females.Hence there is an urgent need to find out the relationship between variations in body mass composition(BMI & body fat%) with menstrual abnormalities like primary dysmenorrhoea. Aim: To find out the relationship between body mass composition and primary dysmenorrhea. Objectives: 1.To check whether there is any association between body mass index and primary dysmenorrhoea.2.To check whether there is any association between body fat percentage and primary dysmenorrhoea. NULL HYPOTHESES-There is no relationship between body mass composition and primary dysmenorrhea. Hypothesis: There exists a relationship between body mass composition and primary dysmenorrhea. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted over a period of 6 months with 90 samples selected on random basis. The procedure was explained to the participant and a written consent was taken thereafter. The participant was made to stand on the BODY COMPOSITION SCANNING MONITOR, which scanned the physical profile of the participant (height, weight, BMI, body fat percentage and visceral fat).Thereafter, the candidate was asked about her menstrual irregularities and was asked to grade her level of dysmenorrhoea (if present) using the Verbal Dimensional Dysmenorrhea Scale. Results: Chi square test of association was used to find out the association between body mass composition(body mass index,body fat percentage) and primary dysmenorrhea.The chi-square value for association between body mass index and primary dysmenorrhea was 38.63 p<0.001 which was statistically significant.The chi-square value for the association of body fat % & primary dysmenorrhea was 30.09,p<0.001which was statistically significant. Conclusion: Study shows that there exists a significant relationship between body mass composition and primary dysmenorrhea and as the value of Body mass index and body fat percentages goes on increasing in females, the severity of primary dysmenorrhea also increases.

Keywords: body mass index, body composition screening monitor, primary dysmenorrhea, verbal dimensional dysmenorrhea scale

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4053 A Straightforward Approach for Determining the Weights of Decision Makers Based on Angle Cosine and Projection Method

Authors: Qiang Yang, Ping-An Du

Abstract:

Group decision making with multiple attribute has attracted intensive concern in the decision analysis area. This paper assumes that the contributions of all the decision makers (DMs) are not equal to the decision process based on different knowledge and experience in group setting. The aim of this paper is to develop a novel approach to determine weights of DMs in the group decision making problems. In this paper, the weights of DMs are determined in the group decision environment via angle cosine and projection method. First of all, the average decision of all individual decisions is defined as the ideal decision. After that, we define the weight of each decision maker (DM) by aggregating the angle cosine and projection between individual decision and ideal decision with associated direction indicator μ. By using the weights of DMs, all individual decisions are aggregated into a collective decision. Further, the preference order of alternatives is ranked in accordance with the overall row value of collective decision. Finally, an example in a chemical company is provided to illustrate the developed approach.

Keywords: angel cosine, ideal decision, projection method, weights of decision makers

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4052 A Comparative Study on Primary Productivity in Fish Cage Culture Unit and Fish Pond in Relation to Different Level of Water Depth

Authors: Pawan Kumar Sharma, J. Stephan Sampath Kumar, D. Manikandavelu, V. Senthil Kumar

Abstract:

The total amount of productivity in the system is the gross primary productivity. The present study was carried out to understand the relationship between productivity in the cages and water depth. The experiment was conducted in the fish cages installed in the pond at the Directorate of Sustainable Aquaculture, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu Dr. J. Jayalalithaa Fisheries University, Tamil Nadu (10° 47' 13.1964'' N; 79° 8' 16.1700''E). Primary productivity was estimated by light and dark bottle method. The measurement of primary productivity was done at different depths viz., 20 cm, 40 cm, and 60 cm. Six Biological Oxygen Demand bottles of 300 ml capacity were collected and tagged. The productivity was obtained in mg O2/l/hr. The maximum dissolved oxygen level at 20 cm depth was observed 5.62 ± 0.22 mg/l/hr in the light bottle in pond water while the minimum dissolved oxygen level at 20 cm depth in a cage was observed 3.62 ± 0.18 mg/l/hr in dark bottle. In the same way, the maximum and minimum value of dissolved oxygen was observed at 40, and 60 cm depth and results were compared. A slight change in pH was observed in the cage and pond. The maximum gross primary productivity observed was 1.97 mg/l/hr in pond at 20 cm depth while minimum gross primary productivity observed was 0.82±0.16 mg/l/hr in a cage at 60 cm depth. The community respiration was also variable with the depth in both cage and pond. Maximum community respiration was found 1.50±0.19 mg/l/hr in pond at 20 cm depth. A strong positive linear relationship was observed between primary productivity and fish yields in ponds. The pond primary productivity can contribute substantially to the nutrition of farm-raised aquaculture species, including shrimp. The growth of phytoplankton’s is dependent on the sun light, availability of primary nutrients (N, P, and K) in the water body and transparency, so to increase the primary productivity fertilization through organic manure may be done that will clean to the pond environment also.

Keywords: cage aquaculture, water depth, net primary productivity, gross primary productivity, community respiration

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4051 The Lexical Eidos as an Invariant of a Polysemantic Word

Authors: S. Pesina, T. Solonchak

Abstract:

Phenomenological analysis is not based on natural language, but ideal language which is able to be a carrier of ideal meanings – eidos representing typical structures or essences. For this purpose, it’s necessary to release from the spatio-temporal definiteness of a subject and then state its noetic essence (eidos) by means of free fantasy generation. Herewith, as if a totally new objectness is created - the universal, confirming the thesis that thinking process takes place in generalizations passing by numerous means through the specific to the general and from the general through the specific to the singular.

Keywords: lexical eidos, phenomenology, noema, polysemantic word, semantic core

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4050 The Place of Instructional Materials in Quality Education at Primary School Level in Katsina State, Nigeria

Authors: Murtala Sale

Abstract:

The use of instructional materials is an indispensable tool that enhances qualitative teaching and learning especially at the primary level. Instructional materials are used to facilitate comprehension of ideas in the learners as well as ensure long term retention of ideas and topics taught to pupils. This study examined the relevance of using instructional materials in primary schools in Katsina State, Nigeria. It employed survey design using cluster sampling technique. The questionnaire was used to gather data for analysis, and statistical and frequency tables were used to analyze the data gathered. The results show that teachers and students alike have realized the effectiveness of modern instructional materials in teaching and learning for the attainment of set objectives in the basic primary education policy. It also discovered that reluctance in the use of instructional materials will hamper the achievement of qualitative primary education. The study therefore suggests that there should be the provision of adequate and up-to-date instructional materials to all primary schools in Katsina State for effective teaching and learning process.

Keywords: instructional materials, effective teaching, learning quality, indispensable aspect

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