Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6047

Search results for: type 1 diabetes

6047 The Control of Type 2 Diabetes with Specific References to Dietary Factors

Authors: Reham Algheshairy

Abstract:

The purpose of this research study is to identify the beneficial effects of Nigella sativa seeds, cherries and Ajwah dates on blood glucose levels among people with type 2 diabetes in the KSA population and healthy people in the UK. My hypothesis questions whether or not people with type 2 diabetes can lead a healthier life using these dietary supplements.

Keywords: diabetes type 2, cherry, nigella seeds, Ajwa date

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
6046 The Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Glycemic Control in Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Chun-Chin Huang

Abstract:

Individuals with prediabetes increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Exercise is a potent stimulator of skeletal muscle glucose uptake and thus good for maintaining glucose homeostasis. That could be a conducive method to improve blood glucose regulation and prevent type 2 diabetes without medication intake. The aim of this study was to summarize mechanisms of insulin resistance and investigate the beneficial effects of acute and chronic aerobic exercise on glycemic control in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Aerobic exercise regulates glucose homeostasis and reduces blood glucose, insulin concentrations. Therefore, the type of aerobic exercise brings positive effects to prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: insulin resistance, glucose sensitivity, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
6045 Pattern Of Polymorphism SLC22A1 Gene In Children With Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Authors: Elly Usman, S. Dante, Diah Purnamasari

Abstract:

Type 2 diabetes mellitus ( T2DM ) is a syndrome characterized by a state of increased blood sugar levels due to chronic disorders of insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells and insulin action or a combination of both. The organic cation transporter 1, encoded by the SLC22A1 gene, responsible for the uptake of the antihyperglycemic drug, metformin, in the hepatocyte. We assessed whether a genetic variation in the SLC22A1 gene was associated with the glucose - lowering effect of metformin. Method case study research design. Samples are children with type 2 diabetes mellitus who meet the inclusion criteria. The results proportions SLC22A1 gene polymorphisms in children with diabetes mellitus type 2 amounted to 52.04 % at position 400T/C, there is one heterozygous and one at position 595T/C Conclusion The presence of SLC22A1 gene polymorphisms in children with diabetes mellitus type 2.

Keywords: diabetes Mellitus type 2, metformin, organic cation transporter 1, pharmacogenomics

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6044 A Retrospective Study on the Age of Onset for Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis

Authors: Mohamed A. Hammad, Dzul Azri Mohamed Noor, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman, Majed Ahmed Al-Mansoub, Muhammad Qamar

Abstract:

There is a progressive increase in the prevalence of early onset Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Early detection of Type 2 diabetes enhances the length and/or quality of life which might result from a reduction in the severity, frequency or prevent or delay of its long-term complications. The study aims to determine the onset age for the first diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. A retrospective study conducted in the endocrine clinic at Hospital Pulau Pinang in Penang, Malaysia, January- December 2016. Records of 519 patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus were screened to collect demographic data and determine the age of first-time diabetes mellitus diagnosis. Patients classified according to the age of diagnosis, gender, and ethnicity. The study included 519 patients with age (55.6±13.7) years, female 265 (51.1%) and male 254 (48.9%). The ethnicity distribution was Malay 191 (36.8%), Chinese 189 (36.4%) and Indian 139 (26.8%). The age of Type 2 diabetes diagnosis was (42±14.8) years. The female onset of diabetes mellitus was at age (41.5±13.7) years, while male (42.6±13.7) years. Distribution of diabetic onset by ethnicity was Malay at age (40.7±13.7) years, Chinese (43.2±13.7) years and Indian (42.3±13.7) years. Diabetic onset was classified by age as follow; ≤20 years’ cohort was 33 (6.4%) cases. Group >20- ≤40 years was 190 (36.6%) patients, and category >40- ≤60 years was 270 (52%) subjects. On the other hand, the group >60 years was 22 (4.2%) patients. The range of diagnosis was between 10 and 73 years old. Conclusion: Malay and female have an earlier onset of diabetes than Indian, Chinese and male. More than half of the patients had diabetes between 40 and 60 years old. Diabetes mellitus is becoming more common in younger age <40 years. The age at diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes mellitus has decreased with time.

Keywords: age of onset, diabetes diagnosis, diabetes mellitus, Malaysia, outpatients, type 2 diabetes, retrospective study

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6043 IL-21 Production by CD4+ Effector T Cells and Frequency of Circulating Follicular Helper T Cells Are Increased in Type 1 Diabetes Patients

Authors: Ferreira RC, Simons HZ, Thompson WS, Cutler AJ, Dopico XC, Smyth DJ, Mashar M, Schuilenburg H, Walker NM, Dunger DB, Wallace C, Todd JA, Wicker LS, Pekalski ML

Abstract:

Type 1 diabetes is caused by autoimmune destruction of insulin-secreting beta cells in the pancreas. T cells are known to play an important role in this immune-mediated destruction; however, there is no general consensus regarding alterations in cytokine production or T cell subsets in peripheral blood of patients with type 1 diabetes. Using polychromatic flow cytometry of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), we assessed production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-21, IFN-γ and IL-17 by memory CD4 T effector (Teff) cells in 69 patients with type 1 diabetes and 61 healthy donors. We found a 21.9% (95% CI 5.8, 40.2; p = 3.9 × 10(-3)) higher frequency of IL-21(+) CD45RA(-) memory CD4(+) Teffs in patients with type 1 diabetes (geometric mean 5.92% [95% CI 5.44, 6.44]) compared with healthy donors (geometric mean 4.88% [95% CI 4.33, 5.50]). In a separate cohort of 30 patients with type 1 diabetes and 32 healthy donors, we assessed the frequency of circulating T follicular helper (Tfh) cells in whole blood. Consistent with the increased production of IL-21, we also found a 14.9% increase in circulating Tfh cells in the patients with type 1 diabetes (95% CI 2.9, 26.9; p = 0.016). Analysis of IL-21 production by PBMCs from a subset of 46 of the 62 donors immunophenotyped for Tfh showed that frequency of Tfh cells was associated with the frequency of IL-21+ cells (r2 = 0.174, p = 0.004). These results indicate that increased IL-21 production is likely to be an aetiological factor in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes that could be considered as a potential therapeutic target.

Keywords: T follicular helper cell, IL-21, IL-17, type 1 diabetes

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6042 An Early Detection Type 2 Diabetes Using K - Nearest Neighbor Algorithm

Authors: Ng Liang Shen, Ngahzaifa Abdul Ghani

Abstract:

This research aimed at developing an early warning system for pre-diabetic and diabetics by analyzing simple and easily determinable signs and symptoms of diabetes among the people living in Malaysia using Particle Swarm Optimized Artificial. With the skyrocketing prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in Malaysia, the system can be used to encourage affected people to seek further medical attention to prevent the onset of diabetes or start managing it early enough to avoid the associated complications. The study sought to find out the best predictive variables of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, developed a system to diagnose diabetes from the variables using Artificial Neural Networks and tested the system on accuracy to find out the patent generated from diabetes diagnosis result in machine learning algorithms even at primary or advanced stages.

Keywords: diabetes diagnosis, Artificial Neural Networks, artificial intelligence, soft computing, medical diagnosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
6041 The Descriptions of vBloggers with Type 1 Diabetes about Overcoming Diabetes Burnout

Authors: Samereh Abdoli, Amit Vora, Anusha Vora

Abstract:

Background: Diabetes burnout is one of the most common contributors to decreased quality of life, poor psychosocial well-being, and increased morbidity, mortality and diabetes cost. While the term diabetes burnout is widely accepted particularly in type 1 diabetes (T1D), the state of the science on diabetes burnout is lacking a systematic approach to overcome diabetes burnout. Objective: The study aimed to explore the strategies to overcome burnout by integrating the voices of individuals with T1D. Methods: In this study, we applied a descriptive qualitative design using YouTube videos produced by individuals with T1D. Seven YouTube videos (Austria= 1, U.S=6) with the highest rate of views which met the inclusion criteria were analyzed using a qualitative content analysis approach. Results: Participants verbalized overcoming diabetes burnout as a 'difficult hole to climb out of' which make them empowered. Themes that describes their strategies to overcome burnout in T1D, in general, include; 'make plan and take action', 'start with small steps', 'ask for help', 'get engage in diabetes community' and 'do not be perfect'. Future Work: These findings can begin the examination of different strategies to overcome diabetes burnout, which may change the course of action for diabetes care and management to improve quality of diabetes care and quality of life.

Keywords: diabetes burnout, type 1 diabetes, qualitative research, YouTube videos

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6040 Glycemic Control on Self-Efficacy and Self-Care Behaviors among Omani Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Melba Sheila D'Souza, Anandhi Amirtharaj, Shreedevi Balachandran

Abstract:

Background: Type 2 diabetes has a significant impact on individuals’ health and well-being. Glycemic control may influence self-efficacy and self-care behaviors, and reduce the risk of complications among adults with type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes has substantial morbidity and mortality and 60% of adults’ poor self-care. Glycemic control is associated with reported self-efficacy and self-care behavior. Adults with type 2 diabetes with less information were less likely to take diabetes self-care. Aim: To examine the relationship between glycemic control, demographic factors, clinical factors on self-efficacy, self-care behaviors among Omani adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A correlational, descriptive study was used. Omani adults with type 2 diabetes (n=140) were recruited from a public hospital in Oman. The data were collected during January-March 2015. Ethical approval was given by the college research and ethics committee, College of Nursing, and the Hospital, Sultan Qaboos University Data was collected on self-efficacy, self-care behaviors and glycemic control. The study was approved by the Institution Ethics and Research Committee. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results: Most adults had a fasting blood glucose >7.2mmol/L (90.7%), with the majority demonstrating ‘uncontrolled or poor HbA1c of > 8%’ (65%). Variance of self-care behavior (20.6%) and 31.3% of the variance of the self-efficacy was explained by the age, duration of diabetes, medication, HbA1c and prevention of activities of living. Adults with type 2 diabetes with poor glycemic control were more likely to have poor self-efficacy and poor self-care behaviors. Conclusion: This study confirms that self-efficacy model on outcome predicts self-efficacy and self-care behavior. Higher understanding of diabetes, prevention of normal daily activities, higher ability to fit diabetes life in a positive manner and high patient-physician communication were significant with self-efficacy and self-care behaviors. Hence, glycemic control has a high effect on improving self-care behaviors like diet, exercise, medication, foot care and self-efficacy among type 2 diabetes. Implications: Using these findings to improve self-efficacy, individualized self-care management is recommended for better self-efficacy and self-care behaviors among adults with type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: self-efficacy, self-care behaviors, self-care management, glycemic control, type 2 diabetes, nurse

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6039 C-Reactive Protein in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Athar Hussain Memon

Abstract:

Objectives: We tried to determine the frequency of raised C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study of six months study was conducted at Liaquat University Hospital Hyderabad from March 2013 to August 2013. All diabetic patients of ≥35 years age of either gender for >01 year duration visited at OPD were evaluated for C-reactive protein and their glycemic status by hemoglobin A1c. The data was analyzed in SPSS and the frequency and percentage were calculated. Results: During six month study period, total 100 diabetic patients were evaluated for C-reactive protein. The majority of patients were from urban areas 75/100 (75%). The mean ±SD for age of patients with diabetes mellitus was 51.63±7.82. The mean age ±SD of patient with raised CRP was 53±7.21. The mean ±SD for HbA1c in patients with raised CRP is 9.55±1.73. The mean random blood sugar level in patients with raised CRP was 247.42 ± 6.62. The majority of subjects were of 50-69 years of age group with female predominance (p=0.01) while the CRP was raised in 70 (70%) patients in relation to age (p=0.02) and gender (p=0.01), respectively. Both HbA1c and CRP were raised in 64.9% (p=0.04) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mean ±SD of CRP was 5.8±1.21 while for male and female individuals with raised CRP was 3.52±1.22 and 5.7±1.63, respectively. Conclusions: The raised CRP was observed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, C-reactive protein, hemoglobin A1c, diabetes and metabolism

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6038 Predictors of Non-Adherence to Pharmacological Therapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Anan Jarab, Riham Almrayat, Salam Alqudah, Maher Khdour, Tareq Mukattash, Sharell Pinto

Abstract:

Background: The prevalence of diabetes in Jordan is among the highest in the world, making it a particularly alarming health problem there. It has been indicated that poor adherence to the prescribed therapy lead to poor glycemic control and enhance the development of diabetes complications and unnecessary hospitalization. Purpose: To explore factors associated with medication non-adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes in Jordan. Materials and Methods: Variables including socio-demographics, disease and therapy factors, diabetes knowledge, and health-related quality of life in addition to adherence assessment were collected for 171 patients with type 2 diabetes using custom-designed and validated questionnaires. Logistic regression was performed to develop a model with variables that best predicted medication non-adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes in Jordan. Results: The majority of the patients (72.5%) were non-adherent. Patients were found four times less likely to adhere to their medications with each unit increase in the number of prescribed medications (OR = 0.244, CI = 0.08-0.63) and nine times less likely to adhere to their medications with each unit increase in the frequency of administration of diabetic medication (OR = 0.111, CI = 0.04-2.01). Patients in the present study were also approximately three times less likely (OR = 0.362, CI = 0.24-0.87) to adhere to their medications if they reported having concerns about side effects and twice more likely to adhere to medications (OR = 0.493, CI = 0.08-1.16) if they had one or more micro-vascular complication. Conclusion: The current study revealed low adherence rate to the prescribed therapy among Jordanians with type 2 diabetes. Simplifying dosage regimen, selecting treatments with lower side effects along with an emphasis on diabetes complications should be taken into account when developing care plans for patients with type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes, adherence, glycemic control, clinical pharmacist, Jordan

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
6037 Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in the Western North Part of Libya

Authors: Mustafa Ali Abugila

Abstract:

A total of 13807 diabetic patients [(males 5893(42.68%), females 7914 (57.32%)] were on the registered in diabetic clinics in the western north of Libya at the end of 2012. Of the total clinic population, 865 patients had Type 1 IDDM (6.26%) and the rest cases had Type 2 NIDDM (93.74%). Diabetes mellitus was higher in females than in males (57.32% , 42.68%), the male to female ratio was (0.74 : 1).

Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus (DM), gestational diabetes mellitus, North Western of Libya,

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
6036 Effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on Acupoints in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Blood Glucose Analysis

Authors: Asif Arsalan

Abstract:

The mortality rate of type 2 diabetes increasing day by day at an alarming rate. Changing lifestyle and environment have contributory effect in increase rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study introduces a new method in physiotherapy field of treating a disease like diabetes, and gives the new way to control the diabetes without medicines.50 patients were selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria and were assigned to receive either TENS (group A) on the bilateral ST36 acupoints at a frequency of 25 Hz with intensity of 9 mA or placebo (group B) treatment for 5 minutes for 7 days. The blood glucose level was measured at both pre and post stimulation. Stimulation was given after 3 hours of food on every day regularly on stipulated time.There was significant improvement (P<0.05) in random blood sugar level of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has been found TENS on bilateral ST36 acupoints have an effect to control plasma glucose level for type 2 diabetic mellitus patients and can be used without having any side effect. This study gives new idea to treat the type 2 diabetes conservatively with the TENS. As there are some study that TENS had been used to treat nausea, spasticity etc. condition by stimulating the acupoint but it is the very first time that TENS has been used to treat diabetes like disease. This study help the physiotherapy community to spread the physiotherapy treatment in other branches of the medical field and this gives a new identity for the physiotherapy. This also gives the benefit to patients to take a safe and cost effective treatment for the diabetes, and make the new use of TENS to treat other condition rather than pain.

Keywords: acupoint, plasma glucose level, type 2 diabetic mellitus, TENS

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6035 Parents of Kids with Type 1 Diabetes Sleep with Open Eyes

Authors: Samereh Abdoli, Amit Vora, Anusha Vora

Abstract:

Aim: To qualitatively investigate diabetes burnout in parents of children with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) who shared their experiences through YouTube videos in order to inform future interventions and improve diabetes practice. Methods: A qualitative descriptive approach was used to explore YouTube videos. Of the 568 videos that were identified, only 9 videos met the inclusion criteria of the study. Results: After the videos were transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis, it was revealed that parents shared common concerns and experiences and they translated into three main themes: I do not ever get a break, I am exhausted, I can’t burn out, and I just need a break Conclusion: All in all, the literature revealed that there are negative psychosocial outcomes associated with caring for a child with T1D, but there is a lack of information on diabetes burnout and how parents’ well-being are affected. Reports of self-neglect and sleep deprivation only confirm the need for intervention for parents of children with T1D. The hope with this study is that burnout can be recognized early on and appropriate interventions put in place to help parents cope with the stressors of caring for a child with a chronic disease.

Keywords: Diabetes burnout, type 1 diabetes, qualitative research, parents

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6034 The Distribution of rs5219 Polymorphism in the Non-Diabetic Elderly Jordanian Subject

Authors: Foad Alzoughool

Abstract:

Conflicting studies on the association between the rs5219 polymorphism and type 2 diabetes, some studies have confirmed a strong relationship between this variant and type2 diabetes, on the other hand, many studies denied the existence of this association. This study aimed to provide evidence about whether the rs5219 polymorphism has or hasn't a role as a risk factor for diabetes and meta-analysis to investigate the role of the control age group in the association. Genotyping of the rs5219 polymorphism was performed in a cohort of 266 healthy elderly subjects with a mean age (60.2 ± 5.1) with no history of diabetes (HbA1c < 6%) using standard Sanger sequencing methods. Lys/Lys alleles were detected in 20 persons (7.5%), Lys/Glu alleles in 96 persons (36.1%), and Glu/Glu in 150 persons (56.4%). The genotype distribution was consistent with Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (P =0.7). Meta-analysis notably indicates no association between rs5219 polymorphism and type 2 diabetes in all studies used the younger age of the control group compared to the patient's age. In conclusion, our study sheds light on the importance of age factor among the control group recruited in case-control studies.

Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, rs5219 polymorphism, E23K, KCNJ11 gene

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6033 Comparison of Statins Dose Intensity on HbA1c Control in Outpatients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Cohort Study

Authors: Mohamed A. Hammad, Dzul Azri Mohamed Noor, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman, Ahmed A. Khamis, Abeer Kharshid, Nor Azizah Aziz

Abstract:

The effect of statins dose intensity (SDI) on glycemic control in patients with existing diabetes is unclear. Also, there are many contradictory findings were reported in the literature; thus, it is limiting the possibility to draw conclusions. This project was designed to compare the effect of SDI on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c%) control in outpatients with Type 2 diabetes in the endocrine clinic at Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, between July 2015 and August 2016. A prospective cohort study was conducted, where records of 345 patients with Type 2 diabetes (Moderate-SDI group 289 patients and high-SDI cohort 56 patients) were reviewed to identify demographics and laboratory tests. The target of glycemic control (HbA1c < 7% for patient < 65 years, and < 8% for patient ≥ 65 years) was estimated, and the results were presented as descriptive statistics. From 289 moderate-SDI cohorts with a mean age of 57.3 ± 12.4 years, only 86 (29.8%) cases were shown to have controlled glycemia, while there were 203 (70.2%) cases with uncontrolled glycemia with confidence interval (CI) of 95% (6.2–10.8). On the other hand, the high-SDI group of 56 patients with Type 2 diabetes with a mean age 57.7±12.4 years is distributed among 11 (19.6%) patients with controlled diabetes, and 45 (80.4%) of them had uncontrolled glycemia, CI: 95% (7.1–11.9). The study has demonstrated that the relative risk (RR) of uncontrolled glycemia in patients with Type 2 diabetes that used high-SDI is 1.15, and the excessive relative risk (ERR) is 15%. The absolute risk (AR) is 10.2%, and the number needed to harm (NNH) is 10. Outpatients with Type 2 diabetes who use high-SDI of statin have a higher risk of uncontrolled glycemia than outpatients who had been treated with a moderate-SDI.

Keywords: cohort study, diabetes control, dose intensity, HbA1c, Malaysia, statin, type 2 diabetes mellitus, uncontrolled glycemia

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6032 An Antidiabetic Dietary Defence Weapon: Oats and Milk Based Probiotic Fermented Product

Authors: Rameshwar Singh Seema

Abstract:

In today’s world where diabetes has become an epidemic, our aim was to potentiate the effect of probiotics by integrating probiotics with cereals to formulate composite foods using Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Lactobacillus casei NCDC19 against type 2 diabetes. After optimizing the product by Response Surface Methodology, it was studied for their effect on induction and progression of type 2 diabetes in HFD-fed Wistar rats. After 9 weeks study, best results were shown by the group fed with oat and milk based product fermented with LGG and L. casei NCDC19 which resulted in a significant decrease in blood glucose, HBA1c, improved OGTT, oxidative stress, cholesterol and triglycerides level during progression study of type 2 diabetes. During induction study also, there was significant reduction in blood glucose level, oxidative stress, cholesterol level and triglycerides level but slightly less as compared to progression study. Real time PCR gene expression studies were done for 5 genes (GLUT-4, IRS-2, ppar-γ, TNF-α, IL-6) whose expression is directly related to type 2 diabetes. The relative fold change expression was increased in case of GLUT-4, IRS-2, ppar-γ and decreased in case of TNF-α and IL-6 during both induction and progression study of diabetes but more significantly during progression study. Hence it was concluded that oat and milk based probiotic fermented product showed the synergistic effect of probiotics and oats especially in case of progression of type 2 diabetes. The benefits of these probiotic formulations may be further validated by clinical trials.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes, LGG, L.casei NCDC19, food science

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6031 A Review of Type 2 Diabetes and Diabetes-Related Cardiovascular Disease in Zambia

Authors: Mwenya Mubanga, Sula Mazimba

Abstract:

Background: In Zambia, much of the focus on nutrition and health has been on reducing micronutrient deficiencies, wasting and underweight malnutrition and not on the rising global projections of trends in obesity and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review was to identify and collate studies on the prevalence of obesity, diabetes and diabetes-related cardiovascular disease conducted in Zambia, to summarize their findings and to identify areas that need further research. Methods: The Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (MEDLINE) database was searched for peer-reviewed articles on the prevalence of, and factors associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and diabetes-related cardiovascular disease amongst Zambian residents using a combination of search terms. The period of search was from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2016. We expanded the search terms to include all possible synonyms and spellings obtained in the search strategy. Additionally, we performed a manual search for other articles and references of peer-reviewed articles. Results: In Zambia, the current prevalence of Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is estimated at 13%-16% and 2.0 – 3.0% respectively. Risk factors such as the adoption of western dietary habits, the social stigmatization associated with rapid weight loss due to Tuberculosis and/ or the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and rapid urbanization have all been blamed for fueling the increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, unlike traditional Western populations, those with no formal education were less likely to be obese than those who attained secondary or tertiary level education. Approximately 30% of those surveyed were unaware of their diabetes diagnosis and more than 60% were not on treatment despite a known diabetic status. Socio-demographic factors such as older age, female sex, urban dwelling, lack of tobacco use and marital status were associated with an increased risk of obesity, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. We were unable to identify studies that specifically looked at diabetes-related cardiovascular disease. Conclusion: Although the prevalence of Obesity and Type 2 diabetes in Zambia appears low, more representative studies focusing on parts of the country outside of the main industrial zone need to be conducted. There also needs to be research on diabetes-related cardiovascular disease. National surveillance, monitoring and evaluation on all non-communicable diseases need to be prioritized and policies that address underweight, obesity and type 2 diabetes developed.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes, Zambia, obesity, cardiovascular disease

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
6030 Parameter Estimation of Additive Genetic and Unique Environment (AE) Model on Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Using Bayesian Method

Authors: Andi Darmawan, Dewi Retno Sari Saputro, Purnami Widyaningsih

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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease in human that occurred if pancreas cannot produce enough of insulin hormone or the body uses ineffectively insulin hormone which causes increasing level of glucose in the blood, or it was called hyperglycemia. In Indonesia, DM is a serious disease on health because it can cause blindness, kidney disease, diabetic feet (gangrene), and stroke. The type of DM criteria can also be divided based on the main causes; they are DM type 1, type 2, and gestational. Diabetes type 1 or previously known as insulin-independent diabetes is due to a lack of production of insulin hormone. Diabetes type 2 or previously known as non-insulin dependent diabetes is due to ineffective use of insulin while gestational diabetes is a hyperglycemia that found during pregnancy. The most one type commonly found in patient is DM type 2. The main factors of this disease are genetic (A) and life style (E). Those disease with 2 factors can be constructed with additive genetic and unique environment (AE) model. In this article was discussed parameter estimation of AE model using Bayesian method and the inheritance character simulation on parent-offspring. On the AE model, there are response variable, predictor variables, and parameters were capable of representing the number of population on research. The population can be measured through a taken random sample. The response and predictor variables can be determined by sample while the parameters are unknown, so it was required to estimate the parameters based on the sample. Estimation of AE model parameters was obtained based on a joint posterior distribution. The simulation was conducted to get the value of genetic variance and life style variance. The results of simulation are 0.3600 for genetic variance and 0.0899 for life style variance. Therefore, the variance of genetic factor in DM type 2 is greater than life style.

Keywords: AE model, Bayesian method, diabetes mellitus type 2, genetic, life style

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6029 Stress as Risk Factor for Onset of Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus in Visakhapatnam Tribal Community of Andhra Pradesh, India

Authors: Vijaya Nirmala Pangi, K. V. Subhramanyam, C. Vijay Lakshmi

Abstract:

Background: The prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is increasing drastically at a vigorous rate all over the world population. Aim: The present study aims to determine the prevalence of type-2 diabetes mellitus in Paderu tribal area population of Visakhapatnam district, located in northeastern region of Andhra Pradesh. Methods: A random sampling method was followed in 1025 subjects including controls (n=25) and determined 75-g oral glucose tolerance test to assess the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The effect of anthropometric factors like age, gender, literacy, socio economic status, and environmental risk factors such as body fat response, hypertension and psychophysical stress response were determined in the studied subjects. Results: 78 (7.8%) were diabetic. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus was found to be comparable between the two genders. Prevalence of diabetes was observed to be high in illiterate, low economic status subjects. Body fat response was comparable between control and diabetic subjects. However hypertension, stress associated enzymes showed significant (p < 0.05) decrease in diabetic subjects compared to controls in both the genders. Conclusion: It appears that there is a rising pattern in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in tribal area, Paderu, Andhra Pradesh, India compared to previous rural studies.

Keywords: anthropometric studies, hypertension, oral glucose tolerance test, stress enzymes, type-2 diabetes mellitus

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6028 Feasibility of Risk Assessment for Type 2 Diabetes in Community Pharmacies Using Two Different Approaches: A Pilot Study in Thailand

Authors: Thitaporn Thoopputra, Tipaporn Pongmesa, Shuchuen Li

Abstract:

Aims: To evaluate the application of non-invasive diabetes risk assessment tool in community pharmacy setting. Methods: Thai diabetes risk score was applied to assess individuals at risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Interactive computer-based risk screening (IT) and paper-based risk screening (PT) tools were applied. Participants aged over 25 years with no known diabetes were recruited in six participating pharmacies. Results: A total of 187 clients, mean aged (+SD) was 48.6 (+10.9) years. 35% were at high risk. The mean value of willingness-to-pay for the service fee in IT group was significantly higher than PT group (p=0.013). No significant difference observed for the satisfaction between groups. Conclusions: Non-invasive risk assessment tool, whether paper-based or computerized-based can be applied in community pharmacy to support the enhancing role of pharmacists in chronic disease management. Long term follow up is needed to determine the impact of its application in clinical, humanistic and economic outcomes.

Keywords: community pharmacy, intervention, prevention, risk assessment, type 2 diabetes

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
6027 Altered L-Type Calcium Channel Activity in Atrioventricular Nodal Myocytes from Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Type I Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Kathryn H. Yull, Lina T. Al Kury, Frank Christopher Howarth

Abstract:

Cardiovascular diseases are frequently reported in patients with Type-1 Diabetes mellitus (DM). In addition to changes in cardiac muscle inotropy, electrical abnormalities are also commonly observed in these patients. In the present study, using streptozotocin (STZ) rat model of Type-1 DM, we have characterized the changes in L-type calcium channel activity in single atrioventricular nodal (AVN) myocytes. Ionic currents were recorded from AVN myocytes isolated from the hearts of control rats and from those with STZ-induced diabetes. Patch-clamp recordings were used to assess changes in cellular electrical activity in individual myocytes. Type-1 DM significantly altered the cellular characteristics of L-type calcium current (ICaL). A reduction in peak ICaL density was observed, with no corresponding changes in the activation parameters of the current. ICaL also exhibited faster time-dependent inactivation in AVN myocytes from diabetic rats. A negative shift in the voltage dependence of inactivation was also evident. These findings demonstrate that experimentally–induced type-1 DM significantly alters AVN L-type calcium channel cellular electrophysiology. The changes in ion channel activity may underlie the abnormalities in the cardiac electrical function that contribute to the high mortality levels in patients with DM.

Keywords: cardiac, ion-channel, diabetes, atrioventricular node, calcium channel

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6026 Effects of Six Weeks of Moderate-Intensity Aerobic Training with a Pomegranate Juice on Plasma Leptin in Women with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: M. Golzade Gangraj, A. Abdi, H.faraji

Abstract:

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of six weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise with pomegranate juice (PJ) on plasma leptin in adult women selection of type-2 diabetes. Methods: Survey postmenopausal diabetic women aged 45 to 60 years in the city of Babylon, who coordinated Diabetes Association presented the city, among them 34 were selected as subjects were randomly divided into four groups: control, PJ, practice and PJ. Experimental groups consisted of 6 weeks of aerobic exercise training program three times a week for at least 45 minutes per meeting. Two days before and after the training period in the fasting state (12 h) blood samples from the brachial vein was performed in a sitting position. Results: Results showed that aerobic exercise with consumption of pomegranate juice alone and interaction with each significantly decrease levels of leptin plasma in older women with type 2 diabetes compared to control group. Conclusion: According to the research findings can be stated the exercise with pomegranate juice beneficially effects fat tissue and decreases plasma leptin in adult women with type 2 diabetes and thereby reduce risk of cardiovascular disease.

Keywords: aerobic exercise, pomegranate, leptin, diabetes

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
6025 The Role of Defense Mechanisms in Treatment Adherence in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Exploratory Study

Authors: F. Marchini, A. Caputo, J. Balonan, F. Fedele, A. Napoli, V. Langher

Abstract:

Aim: The present study aims to explore the specific role of defense mechanisms in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus in treatment adherence. Materials and methods: A correlational study design was employed. Thirty-two persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled and assessed with Defense Mechanism Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Toronto Alexithymia Scale and Self-Care Inventory-Revised. Bivariate correlation and two-step regression analyses were performed. Results: Treatment adherence negatively correlates with hetero-directed hostility (r= -.537; p < .01), whereas it is positively associated with principalization (r= .407; p < .05). These two defense mechanisms overall explain an incremental variance of 26.9% in treatment adherence (ΔF=4.189, df1=2, df2 =21, p < .05), over and above the control variables for depression and alexithymia. However, only higher hetero-directed hostility is found to be a solid predictor of a decreased treatment adherence (β=-.497, p < .05). Conclusions: Despite providing preliminary results, this pilot study highlights the original contribution of defense mechanisms in adherence to type 2 diabetes regimens. Specifically, hetero-directed hostility may relate to an unconscious process, according to which disease-related painful feelings are displaced onto care relationships with negative impacts on adherence.

Keywords: alexithymia, defense mechanisms, treatment adherence, type 2 diabetes mellitus

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
6024 Hypoglycemic Coma in Elderly Patients with Diabetes mellitus

Authors: D. Furuya, H. Ryujin, S. Takahira, Y. Sekine, Y. Oya, K. Sonoda, H. Ogawa, Y. Nomura, R. Maruyama, H. Kim, T. Kudo, A. Nakano, T. Saruta, S. Sugita, M. Nemoto, N. Tanahashi

Abstract:

Purpose: To study the clinical characteristics of hypoglycemic coma in adult patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: Participants in this retrospective study comprised 91 patients (54 men, 37 women; mean age ± standard deviation, 71.5 ± 12.6 years; range, 42-97 years) brought to our emergency department by ambulance with disturbance of consciousness in the 7 years from April 2007 to March 2014. Patients with hypoglycemia caused by alcoholic ketoacidosis, nutrition disorder, malignancies and psychological disorder were excluded. Results: Patients with type 1 (8 of 91) or type 2 DM (83 of 91) were analyzed. Mean blood sugar level was 31.6 ± 10.4 in all patients. A sulfonylurea (SU) was more commonly used in elderly (>75 years old; n=44)(70.5%) than in younger patients (36.2%, p < 0.05). Cases showing prolonged unconsciousness (range, 1 hour to 21 days; n=30) included many (p < 0.05) patients with dementia (13.3%; 0.5% without dementia) and fewer (p < 0.05) patients with type 1 DM (0%; 13.1% in type 2 DM). Specialists for DM (n=33) used SU less often (24.2%) than general physicians (69.0%, p < 0.05). Conclusion: In cases of hypoglycemic coma, SU was frequently used in elderly patients with DM.

Keywords: hypoglycemic coma, Diabetes mellitus, unconsciousness, elderly patients

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
6023 The Examination of Parents’ Perceptions and Motivations Regarding Type 1 Diabetes Management Technologies

Authors: Maria Dora Horvath, Norbert Buzas, Zsanett Tesch

Abstract:

Diabetes management poses many unique challenges for children and their parents. The use of a diabetes management device should not be one of these challenges as the purpose of these devices is to make the management more convenient. The objective of our study was to examine how demographical, psychological and diabetes-related factors determine the choices parents make regarding their child’s diabetes management technologies and how they perceive advanced devices. We conducted the study using an online questionnaire with 318 parents (mostly mothers). The questions of the survey were about demographical, diabetes-related and psychological factors (diabetes management problems, diabetes management competence). In addition, we asked the parents opinions about advanced diabetes management devices. We expanded our data with semi-structured in-depth interviews. 61 % of the participants Self-Monitored Blood Glucose (SMBG), and 39 % used a Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGM). Considering insulin administration, 58 % used Multiple Daily Insulin Injections (MDII) and 42 % used Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CSII). Parents who used diverse combinations of diabetes management devices showed significant differences in age (parents’ and child’s), the monthly cost of diabetes, the duration of diabetes, the highest level of education and average monthly household income. CGM users perceived diabetes management problems significantly more severe than SMBG users and CSII users felt significantly more competent in diabetes management than MDII users. Avoiding CGM use due to lack of financial resources was determined by diagnosis duration. While avoiding its use by the cause of the child rejecting, it was determined by the child’s age and diabetes competence. Using MDII instead of CSII because of the child’s rejection was determined by the monthly cost of diabetes and child’s age. We conducted a complex empirical study in which we examined perceptions and experiences of advanced and less advanced diabetes management technologies comprehensively. Our study highlights the factors that fundamentally influence parents’ motivations and choices about diabetes management technologies. These results could contribute to developing diabetes management technologies more suitable for children living with type 1 diabetes and their parents.

Keywords: advanced diabetes management technologies, children living with type 1 diabetes, diabetes management, motivation, parents

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
6022 Effect of Saffron Extract and Aerobic Exercises on Troponin T and Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein in Men with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Ahmad Abdi, M. Golzadeh Gangeraj, Alireza Barari, S. Shirali, S. Amini

Abstract:

Aims: Diabetes is one of the common metabolic diseases in the world that has the dire adverse effects such as nephropathy, retinopathy and cardiovascular problems. Pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical strategies for control and treatment of diabetes are provided. Exercise and nutrition as non-drug strategies for the prevention and control of diabetes are considered. Exercises may increase oxidative stress and myocardium injury, thus it is necessary to take nutrition strategies to help diabetic athletes. Methods: This study was a semi-experimental research. Therefore, 24 men with type 2 diabetes were selected and randomly divided in four groups (1. control, 2. saffron extract, 3. aerobic exercises, 4. compound aerobic exercises and saffron extract). Saffron extract with 100 mg/day was used. Aerobic exercises, three days a week, for eight weeks, with 55-70% of maximum heart rate were performed. At the end, levels of Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (HFABP) and Troponin T were measured. Data were analyzed by Paired t, One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: The serum Troponin T increased significantly in saffron extract, aerobic exercises and compound saffron extract -aerobic exercises in type 2 diabetic men(P=0.024, P =0.013, P=0.005 respectively). Saffron extract consumption (100 mg/day) and aerobic exercises did not significantly influence the serum HFABP (P =0.365, P =0.188 respectively). But serum HFABP decreased significantly in compound saffron extract -aerobic exercises group (P =0.003). Conclusions: Raised cardiac Troponin T and HFABP concentration accepted as the standard biochemical markers for the diagnosis of cardiac injury. Saffron intake may beneficially protect the myocardium from injuries. Compound saffron extract -aerobic exercises can decrease levels of Troponin T and HFABP in men with type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: Saffron, aerobic exercises, type 2 diabetes, HFABP, troponin T

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
6021 Whey Protein in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Zyrah Lou R. Samar, Genecarlo Liwanag

Abstract:

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is the more prevalent type, caused by a combination of insulin resistance and inadequate insulin response to hyperglycemia1. Aside from pharmacologic interventions, medical nutrition therapy is an integral part of the management of patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Whey protein, which is one of the best protein sources, has been investigated for its applicability in improving glycemic control in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to measure the magnitude of the effect of whey protein on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this review is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of whey protein in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: A systematic electronic search for studies in the PubMed and Cochrane Collaboration database was done. Included in this review were randomized controlled trials of whey protein enrolling patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Three reviewers independently searched, assessed, and extracted data from the individual studies. Results: A systematic literature search on online databases such as Cochrane Central Registry, PubMed, and Herdin Plus was conducted in April to September 2021 to identify eligible studies. The search yielded 21 randomized controlled trials after removing duplicates. Only 5 articles were included after reviewing the full text, which met the criteria for selection. Conclusion: Whey protein supplementation significantly reduced fasting blood glucose. However, it did not reduce post-prandial blood glucose, HbA1c level, and weight when compared with the placebo. There has been a considerate heterogeneity across all studies, which may have contributed/confounded its effects. A larger sample size and better inclusion, and a more specific study may be included in the future reviews.

Keywords: whey protein, diabetes, nutrition, fasting blood sugar, postprandial glucose, HbA1c, weight reduction

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6020 Risk of Type 2 Diabetes among Female College Students in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Noor A. Hakim

Abstract:

Several studies in the developed countries investigated the prevalence of diabetes and obesity among individuals from different socioeconomic levels and suggested lower rates among the higher socioeconomic groups. However, studies evaluating diabetes risk and prevalence of obesity among the population of middle- to high-income status in developing countries are limited. The aim of this study is to evaluate the risk of developing type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the weight status of female students in private universities in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia. This is a cross-sectional study of 121 female students aged ≤ 25 years old was conducted; participants were recruited from two private universities. Diabetes risk was evaluated using the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score. Anthropometric measurements were assessed, and body-mass-index (BMI) was calculated. Diabetes risk scores indicated that 35.5% of the female students had a slightly elevated risk, and 10.8% had a moderate to high risk to develop T2DM. One-third of the females (29.7%) were overweight or obese. The majority of the normal weight and underweight groups were classified to have a low risk of diabetes, 22.2% of the overweight participants were classified to have moderate to high risk, and over half of the obese participants (55.5%) were classified to be at the moderate to high-risk category. Conclusions: Given that diabetes risk is alarming among the population in Saudi Arabia, healthcare providers should utilize a simple screening tool to identify high-risk individuals and initiate diabetes preventive strategies to prevent, or delay, the onset of T2DM and improve the quality of life.

Keywords: risk of type 2 diabetes, weight status, college students, socioeconomic status

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6019 The Microflora Assessment of the Urethra Area of Children with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes

Authors: Ewa Rusak, Sebastian Seget, Aleksandra Mroskowiak, Mirosław Partyka, Ewa Samulska, Julia Strózik, Anna Wilk, Przemysława Jarosz-Chobot

Abstract:

Introduction: Children suffering from Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) are more prone to various infections. Results: There were 42 microbial species isolated in the collected materials. 2 patients were cultured negatively (3.2%). There were statistical correlations between the type of colonisation and patients’ sex and HbA1C value. Conclusions: It is extremely important to examine the urethral area at the time of diagnosis of T1D in order to detect inflammation and to undertake appropriate and effective intervention.

Keywords: diabetology, skin disorders, microbiology, microflora

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
6018 A Randomised Controlled Trial on the Nurse-Led Smartphone-Based Self-Management Programme for Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Poor Glycemic Control

Authors: Wenru Wang

Abstract:

Over the past decades, Asia has emerged as the ‘diabetes epicentre’ in the world due to rapid economic development, urbanization and nutrition transition. There is an urgent need to develop more effective and cost-effective care management strategies in response to this rising diabetes epidemic. This study aims to develop and compare a nurse-led smartphone-based self-management programme with an existing nurse-led diabetes service on health-related outcomes among type 2 diabetes patients with poor glycemic control in Singapore. We proposed a randomized controlled trial with pre- and repeated post-tests control group design. A total of 128 type 2 diabetes patients with poor glycemic control will be recruited from the diabetes clinic of an acute public hospital in Singapore through convenience sampling. Study participants will be either randomly allocated to the experimental group or control group. Outcome measures used will include the 10-item General Self-Efficacy Scale, 11-item Revised Summary of Diabetes Self-care Activities, and 19-item Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life. Data will be collected at 3-time points: baseline, three months and six months from the baseline, respectively. It is expected that this programme will be an alternative offered to diabetes patients to master their self-care management skills, in addition to the existing diabetes service provided in diabetes clinics in Singapore hospitals. Also, the self-supporting and less resource-intensive nature of this programme, through the use of smartphone app as a mode of intervention delivery, will greatly reduce nurses’ direct contact time with patients and allow more time to be allocated to those who require more attention. The study has been registered with clinicaltrials.gov. The trial registration number is NCT03088475.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes, poor glycaemic control, nurse-led, smartphone-based, self-management, health-relevant outcomes

Procedia PDF Downloads 93