Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2796

Search results for: structured packed column

2796 Hydrodynamic Simulation of Co-Current and Counter Current of Column Distillation Using Euler Lagrange Approach

Authors: H. Troudi, M. Ghiss, Z. Tourki, M. Ellejmi

Abstract:

Packed columns of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consists of separating the liquid mixture of propane and butane to pure gas components by the distillation phenomenon. The flow of the gas and liquid inside the columns is operated by two ways: The co-current and the counter current operation. Heat, mass and species transfer between phases represent the most important factors that influence the choice between those two operations. In this paper, both processes are discussed using computational CFD simulation through ANSYS-Fluent software. Only 3D half section of the packed column was considered with one packed bed. The packed bed was characterized in our case as a porous media. The simulations were carried out at transient state conditions. A multi-component gas and liquid mixture were used out in the two processes. We utilized the Euler-Lagrange approach in which the gas was treated as a continuum phase and the liquid as a group of dispersed particles. The heat and the mass transfer process was modeled using multi-component droplet evaporation approach. The results show that the counter-current process performs better than the co-current, although such limitations of our approach are noted. This comparison gives accurate results for computations times higher than 2 s, at different gas velocity and at packed bed porosity of 0.9.

Keywords: co-current, counter-current, Euler-Lagrange model, heat transfer, mass transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
2795 Bio-Surfactant Production and Its Application in Microbial EOR

Authors: A. Rajesh Kanna, G. Suresh Kumar, Sathyanaryana N. Gummadi

Abstract:

There are various sources of energies available worldwide and among them, crude oil plays a vital role. Oil recovery is achieved using conventional primary and secondary recovery methods. In-order to recover the remaining residual oil, technologies like Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) are utilized which is also known as tertiary recovery. Among EOR, Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a technique which enables the improvement of oil recovery by injection of bio-surfactant produced by microorganisms. Bio-surfactant can retrieve unrecoverable oil from the cap rock which is held by high capillary force. Bio-surfactant is a surface active agent which can reduce the interfacial tension and reduce viscosity of oil and thereby oil can be recovered to the surface as the mobility of the oil is increased. Research in this area has shown promising results besides the method is echo-friendly and cost effective compared with other EOR techniques. In our research, on laboratory scale we produced bio-surfactant using the strain Pseudomonas putida (MTCC 2467) and injected into designed simple sand packed column which resembles actual petroleum reservoir. The experiment was conducted in order to determine the efficiency of produced bio-surfactant in oil recovery. The column was made of plastic material with 10 cm in length. The diameter was 2.5 cm. The column was packed with fine sand material. Sand was saturated with brine initially followed by oil saturation. Water flooding followed by bio-surfactant injection was done to determine the amount of oil recovered. Further, the injection of bio-surfactant volume was varied and checked how effectively oil recovery can be achieved. A comparative study was also done by injecting Triton X 100 which is one of the chemical surfactant. Since, bio-surfactant reduced surface and interfacial tension oil can be easily recovered from the porous sand packed column.

Keywords: bio-surfactant, bacteria, interfacial tension, sand column

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
2794 Treatment of a Galvanization Wastewater in a Fixed-Bed Column Using L. hyperborean and P. canaliculata Macroalgae as Natural Cation Exchangers

Authors: Tatiana A. Pozdniakova, Maria A. P. Cechinel, Luciana P. Mazur, Rui A. R. Boaventura, Vitor J. P. Vilar.

Abstract:

Two brown macroalgae, Laminaria hyperborea and Pelvetia canaliculata, were employed as natural cation exchangers in a fixed-bed column for Zn(II) removal from a galvanization wastewater. The column (4.8 cm internal diameter) was packed with 30-59 g of previously hydrated algae up to a bed height of 17-27 cm. The wastewater or eluent was percolated using a peristaltic pump at a flow rate of 10 mL/min. The effluent used in each experiment presented similar characteristics: pH of 6.7, 55 mg/L of chemical oxygen demand and about 300, 44, 186 and 244 mg/L of sodium, calcium, chloride and sulphate ions, respectively. The main difference was nitrate concentration: 20 mg/L for the effluent used with L. hyperborean and 341 mg/L for the effluent used with P. canaliculata. The inlet zinc concentration also differed slightly: 11.2 mg/L for L. hyperborean and 8.9 mg/L for P. canaliculata experiments. The breakthrough time was approximately 22.5 hours for both macroalgae, corresponding to a service capacity of 43 bed volumes. This indicates that 30 g of biomass is able to treat 13.5 L of the galvanization wastewater. The uptake capacities at the saturation point were similar to that obtained in batch studies (unpublished data) for both algae. After column exhaustion, desorption with 0.1 M HNO3 was performed. Desorption using 9 and 8 bed volumes of eluent achieved an efficiency of 100 and 91%, respectively for L. hyperborean and P. canaliculata. After elution with nitric acid, the column was regenerated using different strategies: i) convert all the binding sites in the sodium form, by passing a solution of 0.5 M NaCl, until achieve a final pH of 6.0; ii) passing only tap water in order to increase the solution pH inside the column until pH 3.0, and in this case the second sorption cycle was performed using protonated algae. In the first approach, in order to remove the excess of salt inside the column, distilled water was passed through the column, leading to the algae structure destruction and the column collapsed. Using the second approach, the algae remained intact during three consecutive sorption/desorption cycles without loss of performance.

Keywords: biosorption, zinc, galvanization wastewater, packed-bed column

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
2793 Experimental and Simulation Results for the Removal of H2S from Biogas by Means of Sodium Hydroxide in Structured Packed Columns

Authors: Hamadi Cherif, Christophe Coquelet, Paolo Stringari, Denis Clodic, Laura Pellegrini, Stefania Moioli, Stefano Langè

Abstract:

Biogas is a promising technology which can be used as a vehicle fuel, for heat and electricity production, or injected in the national gas grid. It is storable, transportable, not intermittent and substitutable for fossil fuels. This gas produced from the wastewater treatment by degradation of organic matter under anaerobic conditions is mainly composed of methane and carbon dioxide. To be used as a renewable fuel, biogas, whose energy comes only from methane, must be purified from carbon dioxide and other impurities such as water vapor, siloxanes and hydrogen sulfide. Purification of biogas for this application particularly requires the removal of hydrogen sulfide, which negatively affects the operation and viability of equipment especially pumps, heat exchangers and pipes, causing their corrosion. Several methods are available to eliminate hydrogen sulfide from biogas. Herein, reactive absorption in structured packed column by means of chemical absorption in aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions is considered. This study is based on simulations using Aspen Plus™ V8.0, and comparisons are done with data from an industrial pilot plant treating 85 Nm3/h of biogas which contains about 30 ppm of hydrogen sulfide. The rate-based model approach has been used for simulations in order to determine the efficiencies of separation for different operating conditions. To describe vapor-liquid equilibrium, a γ/ϕ approach has been considered: the Electrolyte NRTL model has been adopted to represent non-idealities in the liquid phase, while the Redlich-Kwong equation of state has been used for the vapor phase. In order to validate the thermodynamic model, Henry’s law constants of each compound in water have been verified against experimental data. Default values available in Aspen Plus™ V8.0 for the properties of pure components properties as heat capacity, density, viscosity and surface tension have also been verified. The obtained results for physical and chemical properties are in a good agreement with experimental data. Reactions involved in the process have been studied rigorously. Equilibrium constants for equilibrium reactions and the reaction rate constant for the kinetically controlled reaction between carbon dioxide and the hydroxide ion have been checked. Results of simulations of the pilot plant purification section show the influence of low temperatures, concentration of sodium hydroxide and hydrodynamic parameters on the selective absorption of hydrogen sulfide. These results show an acceptable degree of accuracy when compared with the experimental data obtained from the pilot plant. Results show also the great efficiency of sodium hydroxide for the removal of hydrogen sulfide. The content of this compound in the gas leaving the column is under 1 ppm.

Keywords: biogas, hydrogen sulfide, reactive absorption, sodium hydroxide, structured packed column

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
2792 Mechanical Behavior of CFTR Column Joint under Pull out Testing

Authors: Nasruddin Junus

Abstract:

CFTR column is one of the improvements CFT columns by inserting reinforcing steel bars into infill concrete. The presence of inserting reinforcing steel bars is increasing the excellent structural performance of the CFT column, especially on the fire-resisting performance. Investigation on the mechanical behavior of CFTR column connection is summarized in the three parts; column to column joint, column to beam connection, and column base. Experiment that reported in this paper is concerned on the mechanical behavior of CFTR column joint under pull out testing, especially on its stress transfer mechanism. A number series of the pull out test on the CFT with inserting reinforcing steel bar are conducted. Ten test specimens are designed, constructed, and tested to examine experimentally the effect of the size of square steel tube, size of the bearing plate, length of embedment steel bars, kind of steel bars, and the numbers of rib plate.

Keywords: CFTR column, pull out, stress, transfer mechanism

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
2791 ANN Modeling for Cadmium Biosorption from Potable Water Using a Packed-Bed Column Process

Authors: Dariush Jafari, Seyed Ali Jafari

Abstract:

The recommended limit for cadmium concentration in potable water is less than 0.005 mg/L. A continuous biosorption process using indigenous red seaweed, Gracilaria corticata, was performed to remove cadmium from the potable water. The process was conducted under fixed conditions and the breakthrough curves were achieved for three consecutive sorption-desorption cycles. A modeling based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was employed to fit the experimental breakthrough data. In addition, a simplified semi empirical model, Thomas, was employed for this purpose. It was found that ANN well described the experimental data (R2>0.99) while the Thomas prediction were a bit less successful with R2>0.97. The adjusted design parameters using the nonlinear form of Thomas model was in a good agreement with the experimentally obtained ones. The results approve the capability of ANN to predict the cadmium concentration in potable water.

Keywords: ANN, biosorption, cadmium, packed-bed, potable water

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
2790 Comparison of Adsorbents for Ammonia Removal from Mining Wastewater

Authors: F. Al-Sheikh, C. Moralejo, M. Pritzker, W. A. Anderson, A. Elkamel

Abstract:

Ammonia in mining wastewater is a significant problem, and treatment can be especially difficult in cold climates where biological treatment is not feasible. An adsorption process is one of the alternative processes that can be used to reduce ammonia concentrations to acceptable limits, and therefore a LEWATIT resin strongly acidic H+ form ion exchange resin and a Bowie Chabazite Na form AZLB-Na zeolite were tested to assess their effectiveness. For these adsorption tests, two packed bed columns (a mini-column constructed from a 32-cm long x 1-cm diameter piece of glass tubing, and a 60-cm long x 2.5-cm diameter Ace Glass chromatography column) were used containing varying quantities of the adsorbents. A mining wastewater with ammonia concentrations of 22.7 mg/L was fed through the columns at controlled flowrates. In the experimental work, maximum capacities of the LEWATIT ion exchange resin were 0.438, 0.448, and 1.472 mg/g for 3, 6, and 9 g respectively in a mini column and 1.739 mg/g for 141.5 g in a larger Ace column while the capacities for the AZLB-Na zeolite were 0.424, and 0.784 mg/g for 3, and 6 g respectively in the mini column and 1.1636 mg/g for 38.5 g in the Ace column. In the theoretical work, Thomas, Adams-Bohart, and Yoon-Nelson models were constructed to describe a breakthrough curve of the adsorption process and find the constants of the above-mentioned models. In the regeneration tests, 5% hydrochloric acid, HCl (v/v) and 10% sodium hydroxide, NaOH (w/v) were used to regenerate the LEWATIT resin and AZLB-Na zeolite with 44 and 63.8% recovery, respectively. In conclusion, continuous flow adsorption using a LEWATIT ion exchange resin and an AZLB-Na zeolite is efficient when using a co-flow technique for removal of the ammonia from wastewater. Thomas, Adams-Bohart, and Yoon-Nelson models satisfactorily fit the data with R2 closer to 1 in all cases.

Keywords: AZLB-Na zeolite, continuous adsorption, Lewatit resin, models, regeneration

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
2789 Brown Macroalgae L. hyperborea as Natural Cation Exchanger and Electron Donor for the Treatment of a Zinc and Hexavalent Chromium Containing Galvanization Wastewater

Authors: Luciana P. Mazur, Tatiana A. Pozdniakova, Rui A. R. Boaventura, Vitor J. P. Vilar

Abstract:

The electroplating industry requires a lot of process water, which generates a large volume of wastewater loaded with heavy metals. Two different wastewaters were collected in a company’s wastewater treatment plant, one after the use of zinc in the metal plating process and the other after the use of chromium. The main characteristics of the Zn(II) and Cr(VI) wastewaters are: pH = 6.7/5.9; chemical oxygen demand = 55/<5 mg/L; sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium ions concentrations of 326/28, 4/28, 11/7 and 46/37 mg/L, respectively; zinc(II) = 11 mg/L and Cr(VI) = 39 mg/L. Batch studies showed that L. hyperborea can be established as a natural cation exchanger for heavy metals uptake mainly due to the presence of negatively charged functional groups in the surface of the biomass. Beyond that, L. hyperborea can be used as a natural electron donor for hexavalent chromium reduction to trivalent chromium at acidic medium through the oxidation of the biomass, and Cr(III) can be further bound to the negatively charged functional groups. The uptake capacity of Cr(III) by the oxidized biomass after Cr(VI) reduction was higher than by the algae in its original form. This can be attributed to the oxidation of the biomass during Cr(VI) reduction, turning other active sites available for Cr(III) binding. The brown macroalgae Laminaria hyperborea was packed in a fixed-bed column in order to evaluate the feasibility of the system for the continuous treatment of the two galvanization wastewaters. The column, with an internal diameter of 4.8 cm, was packed with 59 g of algae up to a bed height of 27 cm. The operation strategy adopted for the treatment of the two wastewaters consisted in: i) treatment of the Zn(II) wastewater in the first sorption cycle; ii) desorption of pre-loaded Zn(II) using an 1.0 M HCl solution; iii) treatment of the Cr(VI) wastewater, taking advantage of the acidic conditions of the column after the desorption cycle, for the reduction of the Cr(VI) to Cr(III), in the presence of the electrons resulting from the biomass oxidation. This cycle ends when all the oxidizing groups are used.

Keywords: biosorption, brown marine macroalgae, zinc, chromium

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
2788 Comparative Study of Stone Column with and without Encasement Using Waste Aggregate

Authors: V. K. Stalin, V. Paneerselvam, M. Bharath, M. Kirithika

Abstract:

In developing countries like India due to the rapid urbanization, large amount of waste materials are produced every year. These waste materials can be utilized in the improvement of problematic soils. Stone column is one of the best methods to improve soft clay deposits. In this study, load tests were conducted to ensure the suitability of waste as column materials. The variable parameters studied are material, number of column and encasement. The materials used for the study are stone aggregate, copper slag, construction waste, for one, two and three number of columns with geotextile and geogrid encasement. It was found that the performance of waste as column material are comparable to that of conventional stone column with and without encasement. Hence, it is concluded that the copper slag and construction waste may be used as a column material in place of conventional stone aggregate to improve the soft clay advantage being utilization of waste.

Keywords: stone column, geocomposite, construction waste, copper slag

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
2787 Entropy Analysis in a Bubble Column Based on Ultrafast X-Ray Tomography Data

Authors: Stoyan Nedeltchev, Markus Schubert

Abstract:

By means of the ultrafast X-ray tomography facility, data were obtained at different superficial gas velocities UG in a bubble column (0.1 m in ID) operated with an air-deionized water system at ambient conditions. Raw reconstructed images were treated by both the information entropy (IE) and the reconstruction entropy (RE) algorithms in order to identify the main transition velocities in a bubble column. The IE values exhibited two well-pronounced minima at UG=0.025 m/s and UG=0.085 m/s identifying the boundaries of the homogeneous, transition and heterogeneous regimes. The RE extracted from the central region of the column’s cross-section exhibited only one characteristic peak at UG=0.03 m/s, which was attributed to the transition from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous flow regime. This result implies that the transition regime is non-existent in the core of the column.

Keywords: bubble column, ultrafast X-ray tomography, information entropy, reconstruction entropy

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
2786 Numerical Investigation of the Jacketing Method of Reinforced Concrete Column

Authors: S. Boukais, A. Nekmouche, N. Khelil, A. Kezmane

Abstract:

The first intent of this study is to develop a finite element model that can predict correctly the behavior of the reinforced concrete column. Second aim is to use the finite element model to investigate and evaluate the effect of the strengthening method by jacketing of the reinforced concrete column, by considering different interface contact between the old and the new concrete. Four models were evaluated, one by considering perfect contact, the other three models by using friction coefficient of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5. The simulation was carried out by using Abaqus software. The obtained results show that the jacketing reinforcement led to significant increase of the global performance of the behavior of the simulated reinforced concrete column.

Keywords: strengthening, jacketing, rienforced concrete column, Abaqus, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
2785 Study on Shelf Life and Textural Properties of Minimal Processed Mixed Fruits

Authors: Kaavya Rathnakumar

Abstract:

Minimally processed fruits have the attributes of convenience and fresh like quality. In minimally processed products, the cells of the tissue are alive, and the essential nutrients and flavours are retained. Some of the procedures include washing, trimming, sorting, cutting, slicing and shredding. Fruits such as pineapple and guava were taken for the study of textural properties for a period of five days. After the performance of various unit operations 50g cubes of pineapple and guava has been weighed. For determining the textural properties, samples were taken in which set of 12 samples were treated by using 1% citric acid solution and dried for 5 minutes the remaining set of 12 samples were untreated. In set of treated samples 6 were vacuum packed and stored in the refrigerator, and the other sample was normally stored. For untreated samples was done in a similar way. In texture profile analysis the force required for 1cm penetration of 2mm cylindrical needle inside the fruits were recorded for all packages. It was observed that guava the fresh sample had a force of penetration of 3250mm and as the days increased the force decreased to 357.4 mm for vacuum packed refrigerated storage. In the case of pineapple, the force of penetration of the fresh sample was 2325mm which was decreased to 26.3mm on the fourth day and very low at the fifth day for vacuum packed refrigerated storage. But in case of untreated samples, the fruits were spoiled may be because of no pre-treatment and packaging. Comparatively, it was found that vacuum packed refrigerated samples had higher shelf life than normal packed samples in ambient conditions.

Keywords: 1% citric acid solution, normal packed, refrigerated storage, vacuum packed

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
2784 Effect of Tube Thickness on the Face Bending for Blind-Bolted Connection to Concrete Filled Tubular Structures

Authors: Mohammed Mahmood, Walid Tizani, Carlo Sansour

Abstract:

In this paper, experimental testing and numerical analysis were used to investigate the effect of tube thickness on the face bending for concrete filled hollow sections connected to other structural members using Extended Hollobolts. Six samples were tested experimentally by applying pull-out load on the bolts. These samples were designed to fail by column face bending. The main variable in all tests is the column face thickness. Finite element analyses were also performed using ABAQUS 6.11 to extend the experimental results and to quantify the effect of column face thickness. Results show that, the column face thickness has a clear impact on the connection strength and stiffness. However, the amount of improvement in the connection stiffness by changing the column face thickness from 5 mm to 6.3 mm seems to be higher than that when increasing it from 6.3 mm to 8 mm. The displacement at which the bolts start pulling-out from their holes increased with the use of thinner column face due to the high flexibility of the section. At the ultimate strength, the yielding of the column face propagated to the column corner and there was no yielding in its walls. After the ultimate resistance is reached, the propagation of the yielding was mainly in the column face with a miner yielding in the walls.

Keywords: anchored bolted connection, Extended Hollobolt, column faces bending, concrete filled hollow sections

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
2783 Muslim Consumer Purchase Behavior on Doubtful Halal Packed Food

Authors: Aliffaizi Arsat, Nur Ida Fatihah, Che Shalifullizam

Abstract:

Malaysia is well known as a Muslim country and is quickly becoming a Global Halal-hub of Halal business in promoting Halal food products in both Muslim countries and non-Muslim countries. The objective of this study is to analyse the Muslim consumer purchased behaviour on doubtful Halal packed food by using theory of planned behaviour, to examine the mediating effects between certification, and Muslim consumer purchased behaviour on doubtful Halal packed food. The relevant questionnaires have been distributed in Kuala Selangor. Among the 300 Muslim participants from Kuala Selangor, Selangor, Malaysia, only 107 of them have returned the questionnaire with complete answers. The respondent’s rate was discovered to be at 35.67%. The data have been analysed by using SPSS version 22 and Structural equation modelling Partial Least Square SEM-PLS. There are three dimensions needed to identify Muslim consumer purchased behaviour on doubtful Halal packed food. They are attitude towards behaviour, subjective norm and perceived behavioural. All the results from this study show that the hypothesis has been supported. However, subjective norm had shown that there is a negative relationship towards Muslim consumer purchased behaviour on doubtful Halal packed food.

Keywords: Muslim consumer purchase behaviour, theory planned behaviour, doubtful Halal, certification

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
2782 Experiment and Analytical Study on Fire Resistance Performance of Slot Type Concrete-Filled Tube

Authors: Bum Yean Cho, Heung-Youl Kim, Ki-Seok Kwon, Kang-Su Kim

Abstract:

In this study, a full-scale test and analysis (numerical analysis) of fire resistance performance of bare CFT column on which slot was used instead of existing welding method to connect the steel pipe on the concrete-filled tube were conducted. Welded CFT column is known to be vulnerable to high or low temperature because of low brittleness of welding part. As a result of a fire resistance performance test of slot CFT column after removing the welding part and fixing it by a slot which was folded into the tube, slot type CFT column indicated the improved fire resistance performance than welded CFT column by 28% or more. And as a result of conducting finite element analysis of slot type column using ABAQUS, analysis result proved the reliability of the test result in predicting the fire behavior and fire resistance hour.

Keywords: CFT (concrete-filled tube) column, fire resistance performance, slot, weld

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
2781 Influence of Bed Depth on Performance of Wire Screen Packed Bed Solar Air Heater

Authors: Vimal Kumar Chouksey, S. P. Sharma

Abstract:

This paper deals with theoretical analysis of performance of solar air collector having its duct packed with blackened wire screen matrices. The heat transfer equations for two-dimensional fully developed fluid flows under quasi-steady-state conditions have been developed in order to analyze the effect of bed depth on performance. A computer programme is developed in C++ language to estimate the temperature rise of entering air for evaluation of performance by solving the governing equations numerically using relevant correlations for heat transfer coefficient for packed bed systems. Results of air temperature rise and thermal efficiency obtained from the analysis have been compared with available experimental results and results have been found fairly in closed agreement. It has been found that there is considerable enhancement in performance with packed bed collector upto a certain total bed depth. Effect of total bed depth on efficiency show that there is an upper limiting value of total bed depth beyond which the thermal efficiency begins to fall again and this type of characteristics behavior is observed at all mass flow rate.

Keywords: plane collector, solar air heater, solar energy, wire screen packed bed

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
2780 The Purification of Waste Printing Developer with the Fixed Bed Adsorption Column

Authors: Kiurski S. Jelena, Ranogajec G. Jonjaua, Kecić S. Vesna, Oros B. Ivana

Abstract:

The present study investigates the effectiveness of newly designed clayey pellets (fired clay pellets diameter sizes of 5 and 8 mm, and unfired clay pellets with the diameter size of 15 mm) as the beds in the column adsorption process. The adsorption experiments in the batch mode were performed before the column experiment with the purpose to determine the order of adsorbent package in the column which was to be designed in the investigation. The column experiment was performed by using a known mass of the clayey beds and the volume of the waste printing developer, which was purified. The column was filled in the following order: fired clay pellets of the diameter size of 5 mm, fired clay pellets of the diameter size of 8 mm, and unfired clay pellets of the diameter size of 15 mm. The selected order of the adsorbents showed a high removal efficiency for zinc (97.8%) and copper (81.5%) ions. These efficiencies were better than those in the case of the already existing mode adsorption. The obtained experimental data present a good basis for the selection of an appropriate column fill, but further testing is necessary in order to obtain more accurate results.

Keywords: clay materials, fix bed adsorption column, metal ions, printing developer

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
2779 Investigation on an Innovative Way to Connect RC Beam and Steel Column

Authors: Ahmed H. El-Masry, Mohamed A. Dabaon, Tarek F. El-Shafiey, Abd El-Hakim A. Khalil

Abstract:

An experimental study was performed to investigate the behavior and strength of proposed technique to connect reinforced concrete (RC) beam to steel or composite columns. This approach can practically be used in several types of building construction. In this technique, the main beam of the frame consists of a transfer part (part of beam; Tr.P) and a common reinforcement concrete beam. The transfer part of the beam is connected to the column, whereas the rest of the beam is connected to the transfer part from each side. Four full-scale beam-column connections were tested under static loading. The test parameters were the length of the transfer part and the column properties. The test results show that using of the transfer part technique leads to modify the deformation capabilities for the RC beam and hence it increases its resistance against failure. Increase in length of the transfer part did not necessarily indicate an enhanced behavior. The test results contribute to the characterization of the connection behavior between RC beam - steel column and can be used to calibrate numerical models for the simulation of this type of connection.

Keywords: composite column, reinforced concrete beam, steel column, transfer part

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
2778 Hysteretic Behavior of the Precast Concrete Column with Head Splice Sleeve Connection

Authors: Seo Soo-Yeon, Kim Sang-Ku, Noh Sang-Hyun, Lee Ji-Eun, Kim Seol-Ki, Lim Jong-Wook

Abstract:

This paper presents a test result to find the structural capacity of Hollow-Precast Concrete (HPC) column with Head-Splice Sleeve (HSS) for the connection of bars under horizontal cyclic load. Two Half-scaled HPC column specimens were made with the consideration of construction process in site. The difference between the HPC specimens is the location of HSS for bar connection. The location of the first one is on the bottom slab or foundation while the other is above the bottom slab or foundation. Reinforced concrete (RC) column was also made for the comparison. In order to evaluate the hysteretic behavior of the specimens, horizontal cyclic load was applied to the top of specimen under constant axial load. From the test, it is confirmed that the HPC columns with HSS have enough structural capacity that can be emulated to RC column. This means that the HPC column with HSS can be used in the moment resisting frame system.

Keywords: structural capacity, hollow-precast concrete column, head-splice sleeve, horizontal cyclic load

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
2777 Numerical Analysis of Geosynthetic-Encased Stone Columns under Laterally Loads

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, M. Hossein Zade

Abstract:

Out of all methods for ground improvement, stone column became more popular these days due to its simple construction and economic consideration. Installation of stone column especially in loose fine graded soil causes increasing in load bearing capacity and settlement reduction. Encased granular stone columns (EGCs) are commonly subjected to vertical load. However, they may also be subjected to significant amount of shear loading. In this study, three-dimensional finite element (FE) analyses were conducted to estimate the shear load capacity of EGCs in sandy soil. Two types of different cases, stone column and geosynthetic encased stone column were studied at different normal pressures varying from 15 kPa to 75 kPa. Also, the effect of diameter in two cases was considered. A close agreement between the experimental and numerical curves of shear stress - horizontal displacement trend line is observed. The obtained result showed that, by increasing the normal pressure and diameter of stone column, higher shear strength is mobilized by soil; however, in the case of encased stone column, increasing the diameter had more dominated effect in mobilized shear strength.

Keywords: encased stone column, laterally load, ordinary stone column, validation

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
2776 Effect of Packaging Methods and Storage Time on Oxidative Stability of Traditional Fermented Sausage

Authors: Vladimir M. Tomović, Branislav V. Šojić, Predrag M. Ikonić, Ljiljana S. Petrović, Anamarija I. Mandić, Natalija R. Džinić, Snežana B. Škaljac, Tatjana A. Tasić, Marija R. Jokanović

Abstract:

In this paper influence of packaging method (vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging) on lipid oxidative stability and sensory properties of odor and taste of the traditional sausage Petrovská klobása were examined. These parameters were examined during storage period (7 months). In the end of storage period, vacuum packed sausage showed better oxidative stability. Propanal content was significantly lower (P<0.05) in vacuum packed sausage compared to these values in unpacked and modified atmosphere packaging sausage. Hexanal content in vacuum packed sausage was 1.85 µg/g, in MAP sausage 2.98 µg/g and in unpacked sausage 4.94 µg/g. After 2 and 7 months of storage, sausages packed in vacuum had the highest grades for sensory properties of odor and taste.

Keywords: lipid oxidation, MAP, sensory properties, traditional sausage, vacuum

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
2775 Construction and Analysis of Partially Balanced Sudoku Design of Prime Order

Authors: Abubakar Danbaba

Abstract:

Sudoku squares have been widely used to design an experiment where each treatment occurs exactly once in each row, column or sub-block. For some experiments, the size of row (or column or sub-block) may be larger than the number of treatments. Since each treatment appears only once in each row (column or sub-block) with an additional empty cell such designs are partially balanced Sudoku designs (PBSD) with NP-complete structures. This paper proposed methods for constructing PBSD of prime order of treatments by a modified Kronecker product and swap of matrix row (or column) in cyclic order. In addition, linear model and procedure for the analysis of data for PBSD are proposed.

Keywords: sudoku design, partial sudoku, NP-complete, Kronecker product, row and column swap

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
2774 Methylene Blue Removal Using NiO nanoparticles-Sand Adsorption Packed Bed

Authors: Nedal N. Marei, Nashaat Nassar

Abstract:

Many treatment techniques have been used to remove the soluble pollutants from wastewater as; dyes and metal ions which could be found in rich amount in the used water of the textile and tanneries industry. The effluents from these industries are complex, containing a wide variety of dyes and other contaminants, such as dispersants, acids, bases, salts, detergents, humectants, oxidants, and others. These techniques can be divided into physical, chemical, and biological methods. Adsorption has been developed as an efficient method for the removal of heavy metals from contaminated water and soil. It is now recognized as an effective method for the removal of both organic and inorganic pollutants from wastewaters. Nanosize materials are new functional materials, which offer high surface area and have come up as effective adsorbents. Nano alumina is one of the most important ceramic materials widely used as an electrical insulator, presenting exceptionally high resistance to chemical agents, as well as giving excellent performance as a catalyst for many chemical reactions, in microelectronic, membrane applications, and water and wastewater treatment. In this study, methylene blue (MB) dye has been used as model dye of textile wastewater in order to synthesize a synthetic MB wastewater. NiO nanoparticles were added in small percentage in the sand packed bed adsorption columns to remove the MB from the synthetic textile wastewater. Moreover, different parameters have been evaluated; flow of the synthetic wastewater, pH, height of the bed, percentage of the NiO to the sand in the packed material. Different mathematical models where employed to find the proper model which describe the experimental data and help to analyze the mechanism of the MB adsorption. This study will provide good understanding of the dyes adsorption using metal oxide nanoparticles in the classical sand bed.

Keywords: adsorption, column, nanoparticles, methylene

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2773 Nonlinear Finite Element Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Flat Plate-Inclined Column Connection

Authors: Rabab Allouzi, Amer Alkloub

Abstract:

As the complex shaped buildings become a popular trend for architects, this paper is presented to investigate the performance of reinforced concrete flat plate-inclined column connection. The studies on the inclined column and flat plate connections are not sufficient in comparison to those on the conventional structures. The effect of column angle of inclination on the punching shear strength is found significant and studied herein. This paper presents a non-linear finite element based modeling approach to estimate behavior of RC flat plate inclined column connection. Results from simulations of RC flat plate-straight column connection show good agreement with experimental response of specimens tested by other researchers. The model is further used to study the response of inclined columns to punching at various ranges of inclination angles. The inclination angle can be included in the punching shear strength provisions provided by ACI 318-14 to account for the effect of column inclination.

Keywords: punching shear, non-linear finite element, inclined columns, reinforced concrete connection

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
2772 A Simple Design Procedure for Calculating the Column Ultimate Load of Steel Frame Structures

Authors: Abdul Hakim Chikho

Abstract:

Calculating the ultimate load of a column in a sway framed structure involves, in the currently used design method, the calculation of the column effective length and utilizing the interaction formulas or tables. Therefore, no allowance is usually made for the effects of the presence of semi rigid connections or the presence of infill panels. In this paper, a new and simple design procedure is recommend to calculate the ultimate load of a framed Column allowing for the presence of rotational end restraints, semi rigid connections, the column end moments resulted from the applied vertical and horizontal loading and infill panels in real steel structure. In order to verify the accuracy of the recommended method to predict good and safe estimations of framed column ultimate loads, several examples have been solved utilizing the recommended procedure, and the results were compared to those obtained using a second order computer program, and good correlation had been obtained. Therefore, the accuracy of the proposed method to predict the Behaviour of practical steel columns in framed structures has been verified.

Keywords: column ultimate load, semi rigid connections, steel column, infill panel, steel structure

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2771 Comparison Study between Deep Mixed Columns and Encased Sand Column for Soft Clay Soil in Egypt

Authors: Walid El Kamash

Abstract:

Sand columns (or granular piles) can be employed as soil strengthening for flexible constructions such as road embankments, oil storage tanks in addition to multistory structures. The challenge of embedding the sand columns in soft soil is that the surrounding soft soil cannot avail the enough confinement stress in order to keep the form of the sand column. Therefore, the sand columns which were installed in such soil will lose their ability to perform needed load-bearing capacity. The encasement, besides increasing the strength and stiffness of the sand column, prevents the lateral squeezing of sands when the column is installed even in extremely soft soils, thus enabling quicker and more economical installation. This paper investigates the improvement in load capacity of the sand column by encasement through a comprehensive parametric study using the 3-D finite difference analysis for the soft clay of soil in Egypt. Moreover, the study was extended to include a comparison study between encased sand column and Deep Mixed columns (DM). The study showed that confining the sand by geosynthetic resulted in an increment of shear strength. That result paid the attention to use encased sand stone rather than deep mixed columns due to relative high permeability of the first material.

Keywords: encased sand column, Deep mixed column, numerical analysis, improving soft soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
2770 Effects of Packaging Method, Storage Temperature and Storage Time on the Quality Properties of Cold-Dried Beef Slices

Authors: Elif Aykın Dinçer, Mustafa Erbaş

Abstract:

The effects of packaging method (modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and aerobic packaging (AP)), storage temperature (4 and 25°C) and storage time (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 days) on the chemical, microbiological and sensory properties of cold-dried beef slices were investigated. Beef slices were dried at 10°C and 3 m/s after pasteurization with hot steam and then packaged in order to determine the effect of different storage conditions. As the storage temperature and time increased, it was determined that the amount of CO2 decreased in the MAP packed samples and that the amount of O2 decreased while the amount of CO2 increased in the AP packed samples. The water activity value of stored beef slices decreased from 0.91 to 0.88 during 90 days of storage. The pH, TBARS and NPN-M values of stored beef slices were higher in the AP packed samples and pH value increased from 5.68 to 5.93, TBARS increased from 25.25 to 60.11 μmol MDA/kg and NPN-M value increased from 4.37 to 6.66 g/100g during the 90 days of storage. It was determined that the microbiological quality of MAP packed samples was higher and the mean counts of TAMB, TPB, Micrococcus/Staphylococcus, LAB and yeast-mold were 4.10, 3.28, 3.46, 2.99 and 3.14 log cfu/g, respectively. As a result of sensory evaluation, it was found that the quality of samples packed MAP and stored at low temperature was higher and the shelf life of samples was 90 days at 4°C and 75 days at 25°C for MAP treatment, and 60 days at 4°C and 45 days at 25°C for AP treatment.

Keywords: cold drying, dried meat, packaging, storage

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
2769 Ductility of Slab-Interior Column Connections Transferring Shear and Moment

Authors: Omar M. Ben-Sasi

Abstract:

Ductility of slab-column connections of flat slab structures is a desirable property that should be considered when designing such connections which are susceptible to punching failure around their columns. Tests to failure on six half-scale specimens were conducted for slab-interior column connections transferring shear force and unbalanced moment. The influences on connection ductility of four parameters; namely, the moment to shear force ratio, the ratio of column side length to slab effective depth, the aspect ratio of the column cross section, and the presence of four square openings located next to column corners were investigated. The study revealed marked effects of these parameters on connection ductility. Increasing the first and second parameters, were found to be in favor of increasing connection ductility, while the third and fourth parameters were found to have negative effects on the connection ductility. These findings should, hopefully, help in designing interior connections of flat slab structures.

Keywords: ductility, flat slab, failure, shear force, moment, unbalanced moment, punching failure, connection, interior-column connection

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
2768 Behaviour of Rc Column under Biaxial Cyclic Loading-State of the Art

Authors: L. Pavithra, R. Sharmila, Shivani Sridhar

Abstract:

Columns severe structural damage needs proportioning a significant portion of earthquake energy can be dissipated yielding in the beams. Presence of axial load along with cyclic loading has a significant influence on column. The objective of this paper is to present the analytical results of columns subjected to biaxial cyclic loading.

Keywords: RC column, Seismic behaviour, cyclic behaviour, biaxial testing, ductile behaviour

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
2767 Optimization Studies on Biosorption of Ni(II) and Cd(II) from Wastewater Using Pseudomonas putida in a Packed Bed Bioreactor

Authors: K.Narasimhulu, Y. Pydi Setty

Abstract:

The objective of this present study is the optimization of process parameters in biosorption of Ni(II) and Cd(II) ions by Pseudomonas putida using Response Surface Methodology in a Packed bed bioreactor. The experimental data were also tested with theoretical models to find the best fit model. The present paper elucidates RSM as an efficient approach for predictive model building and optimization of Ni(II) and Cd(II) ions using Pseudomonas putida. In packed bed biosorption studies, comparison of the breakthrough curves of Ni(II) and Cd(II) for Agar immobilized and PAA immobilized Pseudomonas putida at optimum conditions of flow rate of 300 mL/h, initial metal ion concentration of 100 mg/L and bed height of 20 cm with weight of biosorbent of 12 g, it was found that the Agar immobilized Pseudomonas putida showed maximum percent biosorption and bed saturation occurred at 20 minutes. Optimization results of Ni(II) and Cd(II) by Pseudomonas putida from the Design Expert software were obtained as bed height of 19.93 cm, initial metal ion concentration of 103.85 mg/L, and flow rate of 310.57 mL/h. The percent biosorption of Ni(II) and Cd(II) is 87.2% and 88.2% respectively. The predicted optimized parameters are in agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: packed bed bioreactor, response surface mthodology, pseudomonas putida, biosorption, waste water

Procedia PDF Downloads 378