Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Search results for: Stefano Langè

34 True Detective as a Southern Gothic: A Study of Its Music-Lyrics

Authors: Divya Sharma

Abstract:

Nic Pizzolatto’s True Detective offers profound mythological and philosophical ramblings for audiences with literary sensibilities. An American Sothern Gothic with its bayon landscape of the Gulf Coast of Louisiana, where two detectives Rustin Cohle and Martin Hart begin investigating the isolated murder of Dora Lange, only to discover an entrenched network of perversion and corruption, offers an existential outlook. The proposed research paper shall attempt to investigate the pervasive themes of gothic and existentialism in the music of the first season of the series.

Keywords: gothic, music, existentialism, mythology, philosophy

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33 Explantation of Osseo-Integrated Implant Using Electrosurgery and Ultrasonic Instrumentation

Authors: Stefano Andrea Denes

Abstract:

The use of dental implants to rehabilitate edentulous patients has become a well-established and effective treatment option; however, despite its high success rate, this treatment is not free of complications. The fracture of implant body is a rare cause of failure but when it does occur it can present technical challenges. In this article, we report the complete removal of a fractured osseointegrated implant using electrosurgery and ultrasonic instrumentation. The postoperative course was uneventful, no bleeding, infection, or hematoma formation was observed.

Keywords: dental implant, oral surgery, electrosurgery, piezosurgery

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32 Experimental and Simulation Results for the Removal of H2S from Biogas by Means of Sodium Hydroxide in Structured Packed Columns

Authors: Hamadi Cherif, Christophe Coquelet, Paolo Stringari, Denis Clodic, Laura Pellegrini, Stefania Moioli, Stefano Langè

Abstract:

Biogas is a promising technology which can be used as a vehicle fuel, for heat and electricity production, or injected in the national gas grid. It is storable, transportable, not intermittent and substitutable for fossil fuels. This gas produced from the wastewater treatment by degradation of organic matter under anaerobic conditions is mainly composed of methane and carbon dioxide. To be used as a renewable fuel, biogas, whose energy comes only from methane, must be purified from carbon dioxide and other impurities such as water vapor, siloxanes and hydrogen sulfide. Purification of biogas for this application particularly requires the removal of hydrogen sulfide, which negatively affects the operation and viability of equipment especially pumps, heat exchangers and pipes, causing their corrosion. Several methods are available to eliminate hydrogen sulfide from biogas. Herein, reactive absorption in structured packed column by means of chemical absorption in aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions is considered. This study is based on simulations using Aspen Plus™ V8.0, and comparisons are done with data from an industrial pilot plant treating 85 Nm3/h of biogas which contains about 30 ppm of hydrogen sulfide. The rate-based model approach has been used for simulations in order to determine the efficiencies of separation for different operating conditions. To describe vapor-liquid equilibrium, a γ/ϕ approach has been considered: the Electrolyte NRTL model has been adopted to represent non-idealities in the liquid phase, while the Redlich-Kwong equation of state has been used for the vapor phase. In order to validate the thermodynamic model, Henry’s law constants of each compound in water have been verified against experimental data. Default values available in Aspen Plus™ V8.0 for the properties of pure components properties as heat capacity, density, viscosity and surface tension have also been verified. The obtained results for physical and chemical properties are in a good agreement with experimental data. Reactions involved in the process have been studied rigorously. Equilibrium constants for equilibrium reactions and the reaction rate constant for the kinetically controlled reaction between carbon dioxide and the hydroxide ion have been checked. Results of simulations of the pilot plant purification section show the influence of low temperatures, concentration of sodium hydroxide and hydrodynamic parameters on the selective absorption of hydrogen sulfide. These results show an acceptable degree of accuracy when compared with the experimental data obtained from the pilot plant. Results show also the great efficiency of sodium hydroxide for the removal of hydrogen sulfide. The content of this compound in the gas leaving the column is under 1 ppm.

Keywords: biogas, hydrogen sulfide, reactive absorption, sodium hydroxide, structured packed column

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31 An Approach to Physical Performance Analysis for Judo

Authors: Stefano Frassinelli, Alessandro Niccolai, Riccardo E. Zich

Abstract:

Sport performance analysis is a technique that is becoming every year more important for athletes of every level. Many techniques have been developed to measure and analyse efficiently the performance of athletes in some sports, but in combat sports these techniques found in many times their limits, due to the high interaction between the two opponents during the competition. In this paper the problem will be framed. Moreover the physical performance measurement problem will be analysed and three different techniques to manage it will be presented. All the techniques have been used to analyse the performance of 22 high level Judo athletes.

Keywords: sport performance, physical performance, judo, performance coefficients

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30 Element Content in Some Wild Agaricus and Agrocybe Taxa from Marmara Region (Turkey)

Authors: Murad Aydin Şanda, Hasan Hüseyi̇n Doğan

Abstract:

Twenty-two element contents were analyzed in five wild Agaricus and Agrocybe taxa [Agaricus bresadolanus Bohus, Agaricus essettei Bon, Agaricus xanthoderma Genev. Agrocybe paludosa (J.E. Lange) Kühner & Romagn. Ex Bon and Agrocybe praecox (Pers.) Fayod] from Marmara region of Turkey by ICP-AES equipment. The element uptake levels were observed at different amounts in each Agaricus and Agrocybe species. The highest Pb and P concentrations were determined as 16.74 and 1.501 mg.kg-1 in A. essettei and A.bresadolanus respectively. Ag, P, and Hg concentrations were determined as 30685, 1,501, and 5978 mg.kg-1 in A. bresadolanus respectively. A. essettei has highest Ni, Cu, and Mn concentrations as 37.1, 43.63 and 1476 mg.kg-1 respectively, whereas A. praecox has highest Mo, Ni and P as 0.54, 10.20 and 27.9 mg.kg-1 respectively. A. paludosa has highest Zn, Cd, and Ba concentration as 336.8, 2.26 and 571.5 mg.kg-1 respectively. The highest K concentration was found in A. xanthoderma with 5.31 mg.kg-1. According to Who and FAO critters, identified metals in Agaricus and Agrocybe genera are not harmful to People if they would be consumed.

Keywords: agaricus, element, macrofungi, Turkey

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29 The Buccal Fat Pad for Closure of Oroantral Communication

Authors: Stefano A. Denes, Riccardo Tieghi, Giovanni Elia

Abstract:

The buccal fat pad is a well-established tool in oral and maxillofacial surgery and its use has proved of value for the closure of oroantral communications. Oroantral communication may be a common complication after sequestrectomy in "Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws". We report a clinical case of a 70-year-old female patient in bisphosphonate therapy presented with right maxillary sinusitis and oroantral communication after implants insertion. The buccal fat pad was used to close the defect. The case had an uneventful postoperative healing without dehiscence, infection and necrosis. We postulate that the primary closure of the site with buccal fat pad may ensure a sufficient blood supply and adequate protection for an effective bone-healing response to occur.

Keywords: buccal fat pad, oroantral communication, oral surgery, dehiscence

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28 Market Acceptance of Irradiated Food in the City of Piracicaba, Brazil

Authors: Vanessa de Cillos Silva, Fabrício José Piacente, Sônia Maria De Stefano Piedade, Valter Arthur

Abstract:

The increasing concern in relation to safety and hygiene of food consumption makes it so that food conservation is studied. Food radiation is a technique used for conservation, but many consumers associate this technique with dangers such as environmental contamination and development of diseases. This research had the objective of evaluating the acceptance of radiated products by the consumer market in the city of Piracicaba/SP-Brasil. The methodology adopted was the application of a questionnaire in the city’s supermarkets. After the application, the data was tabulated and analyzed. It was observed that the majority of interviewees would not eat irradiated food. The unfamiliarity and questions about the safety of irradiated food were the main causes of your rejection.

Keywords: irradiation, questionnaire, storage, market acceptance

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27 Vibrations of Springboards: Mode Shape and Time Domain Analysis

Authors: Stefano Frassinelli, Alessandro Niccolai, Riccardo E. Zich

Abstract:

Diving is an important Olympic sport. In this sport, the effective performance of the athlete is related to his capability to interact correctly with the springboard. In fact, the elevation of the jump and the correctness of the dive are influenced by the vibrations of the board. In this paper, the vibrations of the springboard will be analyzed by means of typical tools for vibration analysis: Firstly, a modal analysis will be done on two different models of the springboard, then, these two model and another one will be analyzed with a time analysis, done integrating the equations of motion od deformable bodies. All these analyses will be compared with experimental data measured on a real springboard by means of a 6-axis accelerometer; these measurements are aimed to assess the models proposed. The acquired data will be analyzed both in frequency domain and in time domain.

Keywords: springboard analysis, modal analysis, time domain analysis, vibrations

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26 Investigation on the stability of rock slopes subjected to tension cracks via limit analysis

Authors: Weigao. Wu, Stefano. Utili

Abstract:

Based on the kinematic approach of limit analysis, a full set of upper bound solutions for the stability of homogeneous rock slopes subjected to tension cracks are obtained. The generalized Hoek-Brown failure criterion is employed to describe the non-linear strength envelope of rocks. In this paper, critical failure mechanisms are determined for cracks of known depth but unspecified location, cracks of known location but unknown depth, and cracks of unspecified location and depth. It is shown that there is a nearly up to 50% drop in terms of the stability factors for the rock slopes intersected by a tension crack compared with intact ones. Tables and charts of solutions in dimensionless forms are presented for ease of use by practitioners.

Keywords: Hoek-Brown failure criterion, limit analysis, rock slope, tension cracks

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25 Machine Learning Methods for Flood Hazard Mapping

Authors: Stefano Zappacosta, Cristiano Bove, Maria Carmela Marinelli, Paola di Lauro, Katarina Spasenovic, Lorenzo Ostano, Giuseppe Aiello, Marco Pietrosanto

Abstract:

This paper proposes a novel neural network approach for assessing flood hazard mapping. The core of the model is a machine learning component fed by frequency ratios, namely statistical correlations between flood event occurrences and a selected number of topographic properties. The proposed hybrid model can be used to classify four different increasing levels of hazard. The classification capability was compared with the flood hazard mapping River Basin Plans (PAI) designed by the Italian Institute for Environmental Research and Defence, ISPRA (Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale). The study area of Piemonte, an Italian region, has been considered without loss of generality. The frequency ratios may be used as a standalone block to model the flood hazard mapping. Nevertheless, the mixture with a neural network improves the classification power of several percentage points, and may be proposed as a basic tool to model the flood hazard map in a wider scope.

Keywords: flood modeling, hazard map, neural networks, hydrogeological risk, flood risk assessment

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24 In Search of Zero Beta Assets: Evidence from the Sukuk Market

Authors: Andrea Paltrinieri, Alberto Dreassi, Stefano Miani, Alex Sclip

Abstract:

The financial crises caused a collapse in prices of most asset classes, raising the attention on alternative investments such as Sukuk, a smaller, fast growing but often misunderstood market. We study diversification benefits of Sukuk, their correlation with other asset classes and the effects of their inclusion in investment portfolios of institutional and retail investors, through a comprehensive comparison of their risk/return profiles during and after the financial crisis. We find a beneficial performance adjusted for the specific volatility together with a lower correlation especially during the financial crisis. The distribution of Sukuk returns is positively skewed and leptokurtic, with a risk/return profile similarly to high yield bonds. Overall, our results suggest that Sukuk present diversification opportunities, a significant volatility-adjusted performance and lower correlations especially during the financial crisis. Our findings are relevant for a number of institutional investors. Long term investors, such as life insurers would benefit from Sukuk’s protective features during financial crisis yet keeping return and growth opportunities, whereas banks would gain due to their role of placers, advisors, market makers or underwriters.

Keywords: sukuk, zero beta asset, asset allocation, sukuk market

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23 Advanced Seismic Retrofit of a School Building by a DFP Base Isolation Solution

Authors: Stefano Sorace, Gloria Terenzi

Abstract:

The study of a base isolation seismic retrofit solution for a reinforced concrete school building is presented in this paper. The building was assumed as a benchmark structure for a Research Project financed by the Italian Department of Civil Protection, and is representative of several similar public edifices designed with earlier Technical Standards editions, in Italy as well as in other earthquake-prone European countries. The structural characteristics of the building, and a synthesis of the investigation campaigns developed on it, are initially presented. The mechanical parameters, dimensions, locations and installation details of the base isolation system, incorporating double friction pendulum sliding bearings as protective devices, are then illustrated, along with the performance assessment analyses carried out in original and rehabilitated conditions according to a full non-linear dynamic approach. The results of the analyses show a remarkable enhancement of the seismic response capacities of the structure in base-isolated configuration. This allows reaching the high performance levels postulated in the rehabilitation design with notably lower costs and architectural intrusion as compared to traditional retrofit interventions designed for the same objectives.

Keywords: seismic retrofit, seismic assessment, r/c structures, school buildings, base isolation

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22 Evaluating the Validity of CFD Model of Dispersion in a Complex Urban Geometry Using Two Sets of Experimental Measurements

Authors: Mohammad R. Kavian Nezhad, Carlos F. Lange, Brian A. Fleck

Abstract:

This research presents the validation study of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model developed to simulate the scalar dispersion emitted from rooftop sources around the buildings at the University of Alberta North Campus. The ANSYS CFX code was used to perform the numerical simulation of the wind regime and pollutant dispersion by solving the 3D steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations on a building-scale high-resolution grid. The validation study was performed in two steps. First, the CFD model performance in 24 cases (eight wind directions and three wind speeds) was evaluated by comparing the predicted flow fields with the available data from the previous measurement campaign designed at the North Campus, using the standard deviation method (SDM), while the estimated results of the numerical model showed maximum average percent errors of approximately 53% and 37% for wind incidents from the North and Northwest, respectively. Good agreement with the measurements was observed for the other six directions, with an average error of less than 30%. In the second step, the reliability of the implemented turbulence model, numerical algorithm, modeling techniques, and the grid generation scheme was further evaluated using the Mock Urban Setting Test (MUST) dispersion dataset. Different statistical measures, including the fractional bias (FB), the geometric mean bias (MG), and the normalized mean square error (NMSE), were used to assess the accuracy of the predicted dispersion field. Our CFD results are in very good agreement with the field measurements.

Keywords: CFD, plume dispersion, complex urban geometry, validation study, wind flow

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21 Physiotherapy Assessment of People with Neurological Conditions in Australia: A National Survey of Clinical Practice

Authors: Jill Garner, Belinda Lange, Sheila Lennon, Maayken van den Berg

Abstract:

Currently, there are approximately one billion people worldwide affected by a neurological condition. Many of whom are assessed and treated by a physiotherapist in a variety of settings. There is a lack of consensus in the literature related to what is clinically assessed by physiotherapists in people with neurological conditions. This study aimed to explore assessment in people with neurological conditions, including how health care setting, experience, and therapeutic approach, may influence neurological assessment. A national survey targeted Australian physiotherapists who assess adults with neurological conditions as part of their clinical practice. The survey consisted of 39 questions and was distributed to physiotherapists through the Australian Physiotherapy Association, and Chief Allied Health Officers across Australia and advertised on the National Neurological Physiotherapy Facebook page. In total, 395 respondents consented to the survey from all states within Australia. Most respondents were female (85.4%) with a mean (SD) age of 35.7 years. Respondents reported working clinically in acute, community, outpatients, and community settings. Stroke was the most assessed condition (58.0%). There is variability in domains assessed by Australian physiotherapists, with common inclusions of balance, muscle strength, gait, falls and safety, function, goal setting, range of movement, pain, coordination, activity tolerance, postural alignment and symmetry and upper limb. There is little evidence to support what physiotherapists assess in practice, in different settings, and in different states within Australia and not enough information to develop a decision tree regarding what is important for assessment in different settings. Further research is needed to explore this area and develop a consensus around best practices.

Keywords: physiotherapy, neurological, assessment, domains

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20 Direct Visualization of Shear Induced Structures in Wormlike Micellar Solutions by Microfluidics and Advanced Microscopy

Authors: Carla Caiazza, Valentina Preziosi, Giovanna Tomaiuolo, Denis O'Sullivan, Vincenzo Guida, Stefano Guido

Abstract:

In the last decades, wormlike micellar solutions have been extensively used to tune the rheological behavior of home care and personal care products. This and other successful applications underlie the growing attention that both basic and applied research are devoting to these systems, and to their unique rheological and flow properties. One of the key research topics is the occurrence of flow instabilities at high shear rates (such as shear banding), with the possibility of appearance of flow induced structures. In this scenario, microfluidics is a powerful tool to get a deeper insight into the flow behavior of a wormlike micellar solution, as the high confinement of a microfluidic device facilitates the onset of the flow instabilities; furthermore, thanks to its small dimensions, it can be coupled with optical microscopy, allowing a direct visualization of flow structuring phenomena. Here, the flow of a widely used wormlike micellar solution through a glass capillary has been studied, by coupling the microfluidic device with μPIV techniques. The direct visualization of flow-induced structures and the flow visualization analysis highlight a relationship between solution structuring and the onset of discontinuities in the velocity profile.

Keywords: flow instabilities, flow-induced structures, μPIV, wormlike micelles

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19 Oxygenation in Turbulent Flows over Block Ramps

Authors: Thendiyath Roshni, Stefano Pagliara

Abstract:

Block ramps (BR) or rock chutes are eco-friendly natural river restoration structures. BR are made of ramp of rocks and flows over BR develop turbulence and helps in the entrainment of ambient air. These act as natural aerators in river flow and therefore leads to oxygenation of water. As many of the hydraulic structures in rivers, hinders the natural path for aquatic habitat. However, flows over BR ascertains a natural rocky flow and ensures safe and natural movement for aquatic habitat. Hence, BR is considered as a better alternative for drop structures. As water quality is concerned, turbulent and aerated flows over BR or macro-roughness conditions improves aeration and thereby oxygenation. Hence, the objective of this paper is to study the oxygenation in the turbulent flows over BR. Experimental data were taken for a slope (S) of 27.5% for three discharges (Q = 9, 15 and 21 lps) conditions. Air concentration were measured with the help of air concentration probe for three different discharges in the uniform flow region. Oxygen concentration is deduced from the air concentration as ambient air is entrained in the flows over BR. Air concentration profiles and oxygen profiles are plotted in the uniform flow region for three discharges and found that air concentration and oxygen concentration does not show any remarkable variation in properties in the longitudinal profile in uniform flow region. An empirical relation is developed for finding the average oxygen concentration (Oₘ) for S = 27.5% in the uniform flow region for 9 < Q < 21 lps. The results show that as the discharge increases over BR, there is a reduction of oxygen concentration in the uniform flow region.

Keywords: aeration, block ramps, oxygenation, turbulent flows

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18 Corrosion Mitigation in Gas Facilities Piping Through the Use of FBE Coated Pipes and Corrosion Resistant Alloy Girth Welds

Authors: Fadi Chammas, Saad Alkhaldi, Tariq Alghamdi, Stefano Alexandirs

Abstract:

The operating conditions and corrosive nature of the process fluid in the Haradh and Hawiyah areas are subjecting facility piping to undesirable corrosion phenomena. Therefore, production headers inside remote headers have been internally cladded with high alloy material to mitigate the corrosion damage mechanism. Corrosion mitigation in the jump-over lines, constructed between the existing flowlines and the newly constructed facilities to provide operational flexibility, is proposed. This corrosion mitigation system includes the application of fusion bond epoxy (FBE) coating on the internal surface of the pipe and depositing corrosion-resistant alloy (CRA) weld layers at pipe and fittings ends to protect the carbon steel material. In addition, high alloy CRA weld material is used to deposit the girth weld between the 90-degree elbows and mating internally coated segments. A rigorous testing and qualification protocol was established prior to actual adoption at the Haradh and Hawiyah Field Gas Compression Program, currently being executed by Saudi Aramco. The proposed mitigation system, aimed at applying the cladding at the ends of the internally FBE coated pipes/elbows, will resolve field joint coating challenges, eliminate the use of approximately (1700) breakout flanges, and prevent the potential hydrocarbon leaks.

Keywords: pipelines, corrosion, cost-saving, project completion

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17 Incorporation of Growth Factors onto Hydrogels via Peptide Mediated Binding for Development of Vascular Networks

Authors: Katie Kilgour, Brendan Turner, Carly Catella, Michael Daniele, Stefano Menegatti

Abstract:

In vivo, the extracellular matrix (ECM) provides biochemical and mechanical properties that are instructional to resident cells to form complex tissues with characteristics to develop and support vascular networks. In vitro, the development of vascular networks can be guided by biochemical patterning of substrates via spatial distribution and display of peptides and growth factors to prompt cell adhesion, differentiation, and proliferation. We have developed a technique utilizing peptide ligands that specifically bind vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), erythropoietin (EPO), or angiopoietin-1 (ANG1) to spatiotemporally distribute growth factors to cells. This allows for the controlled release of each growth factor, ultimately enhancing the formation of a vascular network. Our engineered tissue constructs (ETCs) are fabricated out of gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA), which is an ideal substrate for tailored stiffness and bio-functionality, and covalently patterned with growth factor specific peptides. These peptides mimic growth factor receptors, facilitating the non-covalent binding of the growth factors to the ETC, allowing for facile uptake by the cells. We have demonstrated in the absence of cells the binding affinity of VEGF, EPO, and ANG1 to their respective peptides and the ability for each to be patterned onto a GelMA substrate. The ability to organize growth factors on an ETC provides different functionality to develop organized vascular networks. Our results demonstrated a method to incorporate biochemical cues into ETCs that enable spatial and temporal control of growth factors. Future efforts will investigate the cellular response by evaluating gene expression, quantifying angiogenic activity, and measuring the speed of growth factor consumption.

Keywords: growth factor, hydrogel, peptide, angiogenesis, vascular, patterning

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16 Optimum Turbomachine Preliminary Selection for Power Regeneration in Vapor Compression Cool Production Plants

Authors: Sayyed Benyamin Alavi, Giovanni Cerri, Leila Chennaoui, Ambra Giovannelli, Stefano Mazzoni

Abstract:

Primary energy consumption and emissions of pollutants (including CO2) sustainability call to search methodologies to lower power absorption for unit of a given product. Cool production plants based on vapour compression are widely used for many applications: air conditioning, food conservation, domestic refrigerators and freezers, special industrial processes, etc. In the field of cool production, the amount of Yearly Consumed Primary Energy is enormous, thus, saving some percentage of it, leads to big worldwide impact in the energy consumption and related energy sustainability. Among various techniques to reduce power required by a Vapour Compression Cool Production Plant (VCCPP), the technique based on Power Regeneration by means of Internal Direct Cycle (IDC) will be considered in this paper. Power produced by IDC reduces power need for unit of produced Cool Power by the VCCPP. The paper contains basic concepts that lead to develop IDCs and the proposed options to use the IDC Power. Among various selections for using turbo machines, Best Economically Available Technologies (BEATs) have been explored. Based on vehicle engine turbochargers, they have been taken into consideration for this application. According to BEAT Database and similarity rules, the best turbo machine selection leads to the minimum nominal power required by VCCPP Main Compressor. Results obtained installing the prototype in “ad hoc” designed test bench will be discussed and compared with the expected performance. Forecasts for the upgrading VCCPP, various applications will be given and discussed. 4-6% saving is expected for air conditioning cooling plants and 15-22% is expected for cryogenic plants.

Keywords: Refrigeration Plant, Vapour Pressure Amplifier, Compressor, Expander, Turbine, Turbomachinery Selection, Power Saving

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15 A Study on Relationship of Lifestyle and Socio-Economic Status with Obesity in Indian Children

Authors: Sushma Ghildyal, Sanjay Kumar Singh

Abstract:

The present study was undertaken with the purpose to understand the relationship of lifestyle and Socio-Economic status with child obesity among 1000 boys aged from 16 to 18 years of Varanasi District of Uttar Pradesh State in India. The study was conducted in both urban and rural area of the District. Ten schools i.e. five from urban area and five from rural area were selected by using purposive sampling. Healthy boys of class 10th, 11th and 12th were taken as subjects for the study. Prior consent was obtained from school authority. Anthropometric measurements were taken from each subject. Anthropometric measurements were Standing Height, Weight, Biceps skin folds, Triceps skin folds, Sub-scapular skin folds and Supra-iliac skin folds taken by Lange’s skin fold caliper. Lifestyle and Socio-Economic Status were obtained by questionnaires. In order to assess the BMI, Body fat %, Lifestyle and Socio-Economic Status; descriptive analyses were done. To find out the significant association of obesity with lifestyle and Socio-Economic Status Chi-square test was used. To find out significant difference between obesity of Urban and Rural children t-test was applied. Level of significance was set at 0.05 level. The conclusions drawn were: (1) The result showed that in urban area Varanasi District of Uttar Pradesh 0.6% children were in very high level adaptive lifestyle, 6.2% were in high level adaptive lifestyle, 25.4% above average level adaptive lifestyle, 47.8% moderately adaptive lifestyle, 3.6% and 0.4% low and very low level adaptive lifestyle. (2) In rural area Varanasi District of Uttar Pradesh 0.00% children were in very high level adaptive lifestyle, 9.4% were in high level adaptive lifestyle, 24.8% average level adaptive lifestyle, 47.0% moderately adaptive lifestyle, 15.2% below average and 3.0% very low level adaptive lifestyle.(3) In urban area 12.8% were in upper class Socio-Economic Status, 56.6% in upper middle class Socio-Economic Status, 30.2% in middle class Socio-Economic Status and 0.2% in lower middle class Socio-Economic Status. (4) In rural area 1.4% were in upper class Socio-Economic Status, 15.2% in upper middle class Socio-Economic Status, 51.6% in middle class Socio-Economic Status and 0.8% in lower middle class Socio-Economic Status. (5) In urban area 21.2% children of 16-18 years were obese. (6) In rural area 0.2% children of 16-18 years were obese. (7) In overall Varanasi District of Uttar Pradesh 10.7% children of 16-18 years were obese. (8) There was no significant relationship of obesity with Lifestyle of urban area children of 16-18 years. (9) There was significant relationship of obesity with Socio-Economic Status of urban area children of 16-18 years (10) There was no significant relationship of obesity with Lifestyle of rural area children of 16-18 years of Varanasi District Uttar Pradesh. (11) There was significant relationship of obesity with Socio-Economic Status of rural area children of 16-18 years. (12) Results showed significant difference between urban and rural area children of 16-18 years in respect to obesity of Varanasi District of Uttar Pradesh.

Keywords: lifestyle, obesity, rural area, socio-economic status, urban area

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14 Seismic Retrofit of Reinforced Concrete Structures by Highly Dissipative Technologies

Authors: Stefano Sorace, Gloria Terenzi, Giulia Mazzieri, Iacopo Costoli

Abstract:

The prolonged earthquake sequence that struck several urban agglomerations and villages in Central Italy, starting from 24 August 2016 through January 2017, highlighted once again the seismic vulnerability of pre-normative reinforced concrete (R/C) structures. At the same time, considerable damages were surveyed in recently retrofitted R/C buildings too, one of which also by means of a dissipative bracing system. The solution adopted for the latter did not expressly take into account the performance of non-structural elements, and namely of infills and partitions, confirming the importance of their dynamic interaction with the structural skeleton. Based on this consideration, an alternative supplemental damping-based retrofit solution for this representative building, i.e., a school with an R/C structure situated in the municipality of Norcia, is examined in this paper. It consists of the incorporation of dissipative braces equipped with pressurized silicone fluid viscous (FV) dampers, instead of the BRAD system installed in the building, the delayed activation of which -caused by the high stiffness of the constituting metallic dampers- determined the observed non-structural damages. Indeed, the alternative solution proposed herein, characterized by dissipaters with mainly damping mechanical properties, guarantees an earlier activation of the protective system. A careful assessment analysis, preliminarily carried out to simulate and check the case study building performance in originally BRAD-retrofitted conditions, confirms that the interstorey drift demand related to the Norcia earthquake's mainshock and aftershocks is beyond the response capacity of infills. The verification analyses developed on the R/C structure, including the FV-damped braces, highlight their higher performance, giving rise to a completely undamaged response both of structural and non-structural elements up to the basic design earthquake normative level of seismic action.

Keywords: dissipative technologies, performance assessment analysis, concrete structures, seismic retrofit

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13 As Evolved Mechanisms and Cultural Modeling Affect Child Gender Attribution

Authors: Stefano Federici, Alessandro Lepri, Antonella Carrera

Abstract:

Kessler and McKenna in the seventies, and recently Federici and Lepri investigated how an individual attributes gender to a person. By administering nudes of human figures, the scholars have found that the penis more than the vagina and the male sexual characteristics more than the female ones are significantly more salient in the gender attribution process. Federici and Lepri suggested that the asymmetrical salience of sexual characteristics is attributable to evolved decision-making processes for the solution of gender attribution problems to avoid the greatest danger of an (angry) adult male. The present study has observed the behaviour of 60 children, aged between 3 and 6 years, and their parents verifying whether the child gender attribution mechanisms are permeable to cultural stereotypes. The participating children were asked to make a male or a female on a tablet by combining 12 human physical characteristics (long hair, short hair, wide hips, narrow hips, breasts, flat chest, body hair, hairless body, penis, vagina, male face, and female face) and four cloths (male t-shirt, female t-shirt, pants, and skirt) by superimposing one or more of them on a sexually neutral manikin. On the tablet was installed an App, created by authors, to replicate the Kessler and McKenna and Federici and Lepri previous studies. One of the parents of each of the participating children was asked to make a male or a female using the same apparatus used by children. In addition, the participating parents were asked to complete a test, as proposed by Federici and Lepri in their previous study, to compare adult and child processes of gender attribution. The results suggested that children are affected both by evolved mechanisms as adults were (e.g., taking less time to make a male than a female, using the penis more often than the vagina), and by cultural modeling of parental and environmental gender stereotypes (e.g., the genitals were often covered with pants in case the delivery was to make a male and a skirt in the case was to make a female).

Keywords: biological sex, cognitive biases, cultural modeling, gender attribution, evolved decision-making processes

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12 Improved Signal-To-Noise Ratio by the 3D-Functionalization of Fully Zwitterionic Surface Coatings

Authors: Esther Van Andel, Stefanie C. Lange, Maarten M. J. Smulders, Han Zuilhof

Abstract:

False outcomes of diagnostic tests are a major concern in medical health care. To improve the reliability of surface-based diagnostic tests, it is of crucial importance to diminish background signals that arise from the non-specific binding of biomolecules, a process called fouling. The aim is to create surfaces that repel all biomolecules except the molecule of interest. This can be achieved by incorporating antifouling protein repellent coatings in between the sensor surface and it’s recognition elements (e.g. antibodies, sugars, aptamers). Zwitterionic polymer brushes are considered excellent antifouling materials, however, to be able to bind the molecule of interest, the polymer brushes have to be functionalized and so far this was only achieved at the expense of either antifouling or binding capacity. To overcome this limitation, we combined both features into one single monomer: a zwitterionic sulfobetaine, ensuring antifouling capabilities, equipped with a clickable azide moiety which allows for further functionalization. By copolymerizing this monomer together with a standard sulfobetaine, the number of azides (and with that the number of recognition elements) can be tuned depending on the application. First, the clickable azido-monomer was synthesized and characterized, followed by copolymerizing this monomer to yield functionalizable antifouling brushes. The brushes were fully characterized using surface characterization techniques like XPS, contact angle measurements, G-ATR-FTIR and XRR. As a proof of principle, the brushes were subsequently functionalized with biotin via strain-promoted alkyne azide click reactions, which yielded a fully zwitterionic biotin-containing 3D-functionalized coating. The sensing capacity was evaluated by reflectometry using avidin and fibrinogen containing protein solutions. The surfaces showed excellent antifouling properties as illustrated by the complete absence of non-specific fibrinogen binding, while at the same time clear responses were seen for the specific binding of avidin. A great increase in signal-to-noise ratio was observed, even when the amount of functional groups was lowered to 1%, compared to traditional modification of sulfobetaine brushes that rely on a 2D-approach in which only the top-layer can be functionalized. This study was performed on stoichiometric silicon nitride surfaces for future microring resonator based assays, however, this methodology can be transferred to other biosensor platforms which are currently being investigated. The approach presented herein enables a highly efficient strategy for selective binding with retained antifouling properties for improved signal-to-noise ratios in binding assays. The number of recognition units can be adjusted to a specific need, e.g. depending on the size of the analyte to be bound, widening the scope of these functionalizable surface coatings.

Keywords: antifouling, signal-to-noise ratio, surface functionalization, zwitterionic polymer brushes

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11 Radical Scavenging Activity of Protein Extracts from Pulse and Oleaginous Seeds

Authors: Silvia Gastaldello, Maria Grillo, Luca Tassoni, Claudio Maran, Stefano Balbo

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Antioxidants are nowadays attractive not only for the countless benefits to the human and animal health, but also for the perspective of use as food preservative instead of synthetic chemical molecules. In this study, the radical scavenging activity of six protein extracts from pulse and oleaginous seeds was evaluated. The selected matrices are Pisum sativum (yellow pea from two different origins), Carthamus tinctorius (safflower), Helianthus annuus (sunflower), Lupinus luteus cv Mister (lupin) and Glycine max (soybean), since they are economically interesting for both human and animal nutrition. The seeds were grinded and proteins extracted from 20mg powder with a specific vegetal-extraction kit. Proteins have been quantified through Bradford protocol and scavenging activity was revealed using DPPH assay, based on radical DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) absorbance decrease in the presence of antioxidants molecules. Different concentrations of the protein extract (1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500 µg/ml) were mixed with DPPH solution (DPPH 0,004% in ethanol 70% v/v). Ascorbic acid was used as a scavenging activity standard reference, at the same six concentrations of protein extracts, while DPPH solution was used as control. Samples and standard were prepared in triplicate and incubated for 30 minutes in dark at room temperature, the absorbance was read at 517nm (ABS30). Average and standard deviation of absorbance values were calculated for each concentration of samples and standard. Statistical analysis using t-students and p-value were performed to assess the statistical significance of the scavenging activity difference between the samples (or standard) and control (ABSctrl). The percentage of antioxidant activity has been calculated using the formula [(ABSctrl-ABS30)/ABSctrl]*100. The obtained results demonstrate that all matrices showed antioxidant activity. Ascorbic acid, used as standard, exhibits a 96% scavenging activity at the concentration of 500 µg/ml. At the same conditions, sunflower, safflower and yellow peas revealed the highest antioxidant performance among the matrices analyzed, with an activity of 74%, 68% and 70% respectively (p < 0.005). Although lupin and soybean exhibit a lower antioxidant activity compared to the other matrices, they showed a percentage of 46 and 36 respectively. All these data suggest the possibility to use undervalued edible matrices as antioxidants source. However, further studies are necessary to investigate a possible synergic effect of several matrices as well as the impact of industrial processes for a large-scale approach.

Keywords: antioxidants, DPPH assay, natural matrices, vegetal proteins

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10 A Comparative Study between Japan and the European Union on Software Vulnerability Public Policies

Authors: Stefano Fantin

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The present analysis outcomes from the research undertaken in the course of the European-funded project EUNITY, which targets the gaps in research and development on cybersecurity and privacy between Europe and Japan. Under these auspices, the research presents a study on the policy approach of Japan, the EU and a number of Member States of the Union with regard to the handling and discovery of software vulnerabilities, with the aim of identifying methodological differences and similarities. This research builds upon a functional comparative analysis of both public policies and legal instruments from the identified jurisdictions. The result of this analysis is based on semi-structured interviews with EUNITY partners, as well as by the participation of the researcher to a recent report from the Center for EU Policy Study on software vulnerability. The European Union presents a rather fragmented legal framework on software vulnerabilities. The presence of a number of different legislations at the EU level (including Network and Information Security Directive, Critical Infrastructure Directive, Directive on the Attacks at Information Systems and the Proposal for a Cybersecurity Act) with no clear focus on such a subject makes it difficult for both national governments and end-users (software owners, researchers and private citizens) to gain a clear understanding of the Union’s approach. Additionally, the current data protection reform package (general data protection regulation), seems to create legal uncertainty around security research. To date, at the member states level, a few efforts towards transparent practices have been made, namely by the Netherlands, France, and Latvia. This research will explain what policy approach such countries have taken. Japan has started implementing a coordinated vulnerability disclosure policy in 2004. To date, two amendments can be registered on the framework (2014 and 2017). The framework is furthermore complemented by a series of instruments allowing researchers to disclose responsibly any new discovery. However, the policy has started to lose its efficiency due to a significant increase in reports made to the authority in charge. To conclude, the research conducted reveals two asymmetric policy approaches, time-wise and content-wise. The analysis therein will, therefore, conclude with a series of policy recommendations based on the lessons learned from both regions, towards a common approach to the security of European and Japanese markets, industries and citizens.

Keywords: cybersecurity, vulnerability, European Union, Japan

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9 Planning a European Policy for Increasing Graduate Population: The Conditions That Count

Authors: Alice Civera, Mattia Cattaneo, Michele Meoli, Stefano Paleari

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Despite the fact that more equal access to higher education has been an objective public policy for several decades, little is known about the effectiveness of alternative means for achieving such goal. Indeed, nowadays, high level of graduate population can be observed both in countries with the high and low level of fees, or high and low level of public expenditure in higher education. This paper surveys the extant literature providing some background on the economic concepts of the higher education market, and reviews key determinants of demand and supply. A theoretical model of aggregate demand and supply of higher education is derived, with the aim to facilitate the understanding of the challenges in today’s higher education systems, as well as the opportunities for development. The model is validated on some exemplary case studies describing the different relationship between the level of public investment and levels of graduate population and helps to derive general implications. In addition, using a two-stage least squares model, we build a macroeconomic model of supply and demand for European higher education. The model allows interpreting policies shifting either the supply or the demand for higher education, and allows taking into consideration contextual conditions with the aim of comparing divergent policies under a common framework. Results show that the same policy objective (i.e., increasing graduate population) can be obtained by shifting either the demand function (i.e., by strengthening student aid) or the supply function (i.e., by directly supporting higher education institutions). Under this theoretical perspective, the level of tuition fees is irrelevant, and empirically we can observe high levels of graduate population in both countries with high (i.e., the UK) or low (i.e., Germany) levels of tuition fees. In practice, this model provides a conceptual framework to help better understanding what are the external conditions that need to be considered, when planning a policy for increasing graduate population. Extrapolating a policy from results in different countries, under this perspective, is a poor solution when contingent factors are not addressed. The second implication of this conceptual framework is that policies addressing the supply or the demand function needs to address different contingencies. In other words, a government aiming at increasing graduate population needs to implement complementary policies, designing them according to the side of the market that is interested. For example, a ‘supply-driven’ intervention, through the direct financial support of higher education institutions, needs to address the issue of institutions’ moral hazard, by creating incentives to supply higher education services in efficient conditions. By contrast, a ‘demand-driven’ policy, providing student aids, need to tackle the students’ moral hazard, by creating an incentive to responsible behavior.

Keywords: graduates, higher education, higher education policies, tuition fees

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8 Investigation of a Single Feedstock Particle during Pyrolysis in Fluidized Bed Reactors via X-Ray Imaging Technique

Authors: Stefano Iannello, Massimiliano Materazzi

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Fluidized bed reactor technologies are one of the most valuable pathways for thermochemical conversions of biogenic fuels due to their good operating flexibility. Nevertheless, there are still issues related to the mixing and separation of heterogeneous phases during operation with highly volatile feedstocks, including biomass and waste. At high temperatures, the volatile content of the feedstock is released in the form of the so-called endogenous bubbles, which generally exert a “lift” effect on the particle itself by dragging it up to the bed surface. Such phenomenon leads to high release of volatile matter into the freeboard and limited mass and heat transfer with particles of the bed inventory. The aim of this work is to get a better understanding of the behaviour of a single reacting particle in a hot fluidized bed reactor during the devolatilization stage. The analysis has been undertaken at different fluidization regimes and temperatures to closely mirror the operating conditions of waste-to-energy processes. Beechwood and polypropylene particles were used to resemble the biomass and plastic fractions present in waste materials, respectively. The non-invasive X-ray technique was coupled to particle tracking algorithms to characterize the motion of a single feedstock particle during the devolatilization with high resolution. A high-energy X-ray beam passes through the vessel where absorption occurs, depending on the distribution and amount of solids and fluids along the beam path. A high-speed video camera is synchronised to the beam and provides frame-by-frame imaging of the flow patterns of fluids and solids within the fluidized bed up to 72 fps (frames per second). A comprehensive mathematical model has been developed in order to validate the experimental results. Beech wood and polypropylene particles have shown a very different dynamic behaviour during the pyrolysis stage. When the feedstock is fed from the bottom, the plastic material tends to spend more time within the bed than the biomass. This behaviour can be attributed to the presence of the endogenous bubbles, which drag effect is more pronounced during the devolatilization of biomass, resulting in a lower residence time of the particle within the bed. At the typical operating temperatures of thermochemical conversions, the synthetic polymer softens and melts, and the bed particles attach on its outer surface, generating a wet plastic-sand agglomerate. Consequently, this additional layer of sand may hinder the rapid evolution of volatiles in the form of endogenous bubbles, and therefore the establishment of a poor drag effect acting on the feedstock itself. Information about the mixing and segregation of solid feedstock is of prime importance for the design and development of more efficient industrial-scale operations.

Keywords: fluidized bed, pyrolysis, waste feedstock, X-ray

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7 Gender Specific Differences in Clinical Outcomes of Knee Osteoarthritis Treated with Micro-Fragmented Adipose Tissue

Authors: Tiffanie-Marie Borg, Yasmin Zeinolabediny, Nima Heidari, Ali Noorani, Mark Slevin, Angel Cullen, Stefano Olgiati, Alberto Zerbi, Alessandro Danovi, Adrian Wilson

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Knee Osteoarthritis (OA) is a critical cause of disability globally. In recent years, there has been growing interest in non-invasive treatments, such as intra-articular injection of micro-fragmented fat (MFAT), showing great potential in treating OA. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), originating from pericytes of micro-vessels in MFAT, can differentiate into mesenchymal lineage cells such as cartilage, osteocytes, adipocytes, and osteoblasts. Secretion of growth factor and cytokines from MSCs have the capability to inhibit T cell growth, reduced pain and inflammation, and create a micro-environment that through paracrine signaling, can promote joint repair and cartilage regeneration. Here we have shown, for the first time, data supporting the hypothesis that women respond better in terms of improvements in pain and function to MFAT injection compared to men. Historically, women have been underrepresented in studies, and studies with both sexes regularly fail to analyse the results by sex. To mitigate this bias and quantify it, we describe a technique using reproducible statistical analysis and replicable results with Open Access statistical software R to calculate the magnitude of this difference. Genetic, hormonal, environmental, and age factors play a role in our observed difference between the sexes. This observational, intention-to-treat study included the complete sample of 456 patients who agreed to be scored for pain (visual analogue scale (VAS)) and function (Oxford knee score (OKS)) at baseline regardless of subsequent changes to adherence or status during follow-up. We report that a significantly larger number of women responded to treatment than men: [90% vs. 60% change in VAS scores with 87% vs. 65% change in OKS scores, respectively]. Women overall had a stronger positive response to treatment with reduced pain and improved mobility and function. Pre-injection, our cohort of women were in more pain with worse joint function which is quite common to see in orthopaedics. However, during the 2-year follow-up, they consistently maintained a lower incidence of discomfort with superior joint function. This data clearly identifies a clear need for further studies to identify the cell and molecular biological and other basis for these differences and be able to utilize this information for stratification in order to improve outcome for both women and men.

Keywords: gender differences, micro-fragmented adipose tissue, knee osteoarthritis, stem cells

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6 Regeneration of Cesium-Exhausted Activated Carbons by Microwave Irradiation

Authors: Pietro P. Falciglia, Erica Gagliano, Vincenza Brancato, Alfio Catalfo, Guglielmo Finocchiaro, Guido De Guidi, Stefano Romano, Paolo Roccaro, Federico G. A. Vagliasindi

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Cesium-137 (¹³⁷Cs) is a major radionuclide in spent nuclear fuel processing, and it represents the most important cause of contamination related to nuclear accidents. Cesium-137 has long-term radiological effects representing a major concern for the human health. Several physico-chemical methods have been proposed for ¹³⁷Cs removal from impacted water: ion-exchange, adsorption, chemical precipitation, membrane process, coagulation, and electrochemical. However, these methods can be limited by ionic selectivity and efficiency, or they present very restricted full-scale application due to equipment and chemical high costs. On the other hand, adsorption is considered a more cost-effective solution, and activated carbons (ACs) are known as a low-cost and effective adsorbent for a wide range of pollutants among which radionuclides. However, adsorption of Cs onto ACs has been investigated in very few and not exhaustive studies. In addition, exhausted activated carbons are generally discarded in landfill, that is not an eco-friendly and economic solution. Consequently, the regeneration of exhausted ACs must be considered a preferable choice. Several alternatives, including conventional thermal-, solvent-, biological- and electrochemical-regeneration, are available but are affected by several economic or environmental concerns. Microwave (MW) irradiation has been widely used in industrial and environmental applications and it has attracted many attentions to regenerating activated carbons. The growing interest in MW irradiation is based on the passive ability of the irradiated medium to convert a low power irradiation energy into a rapid and large temperature increase if the media presents good dielectric features. ACs are excellent MW-absorbers, with a high mechanical strength and a good resistance towards heating process. This work investigates the feasibility of MW irradiation for the regeneration of Cs-exhausted ACs. Adsorption batch experiments were carried out using commercially available granular activated carbon (GAC), then Cs-saturated AC samples were treated using a controllable bench-scale 2.45-GHz MW oven and investigating different adsorption-regeneration cycles. The regeneration efficiency (RE), weight loss percentage, and textural properties of the AC samples during the adsorption-regeneration cycles were also assessed. Main results demonstrated a relatively low adsorption capacity for Cs, although the feasibility of ACs was strictly linked to their dielectric nature, which allows a very efficient thermal regeneration by MW irradiation. The weight loss percentage was found less than 2%, and an increase in RE after three cycles was also observed. Furthermore, MW regeneration preserved the pore structure of the regenerated ACs. For a deeper exploration of the full-scale applicability of MW regeneration, further investigations on more adsorption-regeneration cycles or using fixed-bed columns are required.

Keywords: adsorption mechanisms, cesium, granular activated carbons, microwave regeneration

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5 Multilocal Youth and the Berlin Digital Industry: Productive Leisure as a Key Factor in European Migration

Authors: Stefano Pelaggi

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The research is focused on youth labor and mobility in Berlin. Mobility has become a common denominator in our daily lives but it does not primarily move according to monetary incentives. Labor, knowledge and leisure overlap on this point as cities are trying to attract people who could participate in production of the innovations while the new migrants are experiencing the lifestyle of the host cities. The research will present the project of empirical study focused on Italian workers in the digital industry in Berlin, trying to underline the connection between pleasure, leisure with the choice of life abroad. Berlin has become the epicenter of the European Internet start-up scene, but people suitable to work for digital industries are not moving in Berlin to make a career, most of them are attracted to the city for different reasons. This point makes a clear exception to traditional migration flows, which are always originated from a specific search of employment opportunities or strong ties, usually families, in a place that could guarantee success in finding a job. Even the skilled migration has always been originated from a specific need, finding the right path for a successful professional life. In a society where the lack of free time in our calendar seems to be something to be ashamed, the actors of youth mobility incorporate some categories of experiential tourism within their own life path. Professional aspirations, lifestyle choices of the protagonists of youth mobility are geared towards meeting the desires and aspirations that define leisure. While most of creative work places, in particular digital industries, uses the category of fun as a primary element of corporate policy, virtually extending the time to work for the whole day; more and more people around the world are deciding their path in life, career choices on the basis of indicators linked to the realization of the self, which may include factors like a warm climate, cultural environment. All indicators that are usually eradicated from the hegemonic approach to labor. The interpretative framework commonly used seems to be mostly focused on a dualism between Florida's theories and those who highlight the absence of conflict in his studies. While the flexibility of the new creative industries is minimizing leisure, incorporating elements of leisure itself in work activities, more people choose their own path of life by placing great importance to basic needs, through a gaze on pleasure that is only partially driven by consumption. The multi localism is the co-existence of different identities and cultures that do not conflict because they reject the bind on territory. Local loses its strength of opposition to global, with an attenuation of the whole concept of citizenship, territory and even integration. A similar perspective could be useful to search a new approach to all the studies dedicated to the gentrification process, while studying the new migrations flow.

Keywords: brain drain, digital industry, leisure and gentrification, multi localism

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