Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: Nastaran Hazrati

11 In-Situ Synthesis of Zinc-Containing MCM-41 and Investigation of Its Capacity for Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide from Crude Oil

Authors: Nastaran Hazrati, Ali Akbar Miran Beigi, Majid Abdouss, Amir Vahid

Abstract:

Hydrogen sulfide is the most toxic gas of crude oil. Adsorption is an energy-efficient process used to remove undesirable compounds such as H2S in gas or liquid streams by passing the stream through a media bed composed of an adsorbent. In this study, H2S of Iran crude oil was separated via cold stripping then zinc incorporated MCM-41 was synthesized via an in-situ method. ZnO functionalized mesoporous silica samples were characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption and TEM. The obtained results of adsorption of H2S showed superior ability of all the materials and with an increase in ZnO amount adsorption was increased.

Keywords: MCM-41, ZnO, H2S removal, adsorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
10 Calculation of the Added Mass of a Submerged Object with Variable Sizes at Different Distances from the Wall via Lattice Boltzmann Simulations

Authors: Nastaran Ahmadpour Samani, Shahram Talebi

Abstract:

Added mass is an important quantity in analysis of the motion of a submerged object ,which can be calculated by solving the equation of potential flow around the object . Here, we consider systems in which a square object is submerged in a channel of fluid and moves parallel to the wall. The corresponding added mass at a given distance from the wall d and for the object size s (which is the side of square object) is calculated via lattice Blotzmann simulation . By changing d and s separately, their effect on the added mass is studied systematically. The simulation results reveal that for the systems in which d > 4s, the distance does not influence the added mass any more. The added mass increases when the object approaches the wall and reaches its maximum value as it moves on the wall (d -- > 0). In this case, the added mass is about 73% larger than which of the case d=4s. In addition, it is observed that the added mass increases by increasing of the object size s and vice versa.

Keywords: Lattice Boltzmann simulation , added mass, square, variable size

Procedia PDF Downloads 368
9 Application of Post-Stack and Pre-Stack Seismic Inversion for Prediction of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs in a Persian Gulf Gas Field

Authors: Nastaran Moosavi, Mohammad Mokhtari

Abstract:

Seismic inversion is a technique which has been in use for years and its main goal is to estimate and to model physical characteristics of rocks and fluids. Generally, it is a combination of seismic and well-log data. Seismic inversion can be carried out through different methods; we have conducted and compared post-stack and pre- stack seismic inversion methods on real data in one of the fields in the Persian Gulf. Pre-stack seismic inversion can transform seismic data to rock physics such as P-impedance, S-impedance and density. While post- stack seismic inversion can just estimate P-impedance. Then these parameters can be used in reservoir identification. Based on the results of inverting seismic data, a gas reservoir was detected in one of Hydrocarbon oil fields in south of Iran (Persian Gulf). By comparing post stack and pre-stack seismic inversion it can be concluded that the pre-stack seismic inversion provides a more reliable and detailed information for identification and prediction of hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Keywords: density, p-impedance, s-impedance, post-stack seismic inversion, pre-stack seismic inversion

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
8 The Effect of Bacteria on Mercury's Biological Removal

Authors: Nastaran Soltani

Abstract:

Heavy metals such as Mercury are toxic elements that enter the environment through different ways and endanger the environment, plants, animals, and humans’ health. Microbial activities reduce the amount of heavy metals. Therefore, an effective mechanism to eliminate heavy metals in the nature and factory slops, is using bacteria living in polluted areas. Karun River in Khuzestan Province in Iran has been always polluted by heavy metals as it is located among different industries in the region. This study was performed based on the data from sampling water and sediments of four stations across the river during the four seasons of a year. The isolation of resistant bacteria was performed through enrichment and direct cultivation in a solid medium containing mercury. Various bacteria such as Pseudomonas sp., Serratia Marcescens, and E.coli were identified as mercury-resistant bacteria. The power of these bacteria to remove mercury varied from 28% to 86%, with strongest power belonging to Pseudomonas sp. isolated in spring making a good candidate to be used for mercury biological removal from factory slops.

Keywords: bacteria, Karun River, mercury, biological removal, mercury-resistant

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
7 Steps towards Changing Students' Attitudes to Disability

Authors: Farzaneh Yazdani, Nastaran Yazdani, Laya Nobakht

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to explore the changes that may happen in students attitudes regarding disability after attending the module ‘Disability: theories, nature and experiences’ designed around reflective self-awareness exercises. Literature indicates enhanced knowledge does not automatically lead to changes in attitude. Health care professionals are the most significant people to instil hope in their clients to pursue a happy life. As an advocate for people with disability, health care professionals need to believe themselves in people with disability being able to pursue a happy life as an abled body does. Researchers aimed to explore the impact of the ‘Disability’ module using discussion and reflective exercises, on students’ way of thinking and possible changes in attitude towards disability. Students were asked to write stories from the beginning and after completing the module. A thematic analysis was applied to identify the students’ way of communicating their thoughts and feelings about disable-bodied /disability before and after the module. Three major themes were identified to represent the differences before and after attending the module as: problem /solution oriented approach towards perceived problems, separating/ integrating disable/able-bodied, passive/ active role of disable-bodied and society.

Keywords: qualitative study, reflection, rehabilitation, thematic analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
6 Use of a New Multiplex Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Based Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Neisseria Meningitidis, Escherichia Coli K1, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae

Authors: Nastaran Hemmati, Farhad Nikkhahi, Amir Javadi, Sahar Eskandarion, Seyed Mahmuod Amin Marashi

Abstract:

Neisseria meningitidis, Escherichia coli K, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae cause 90% of bacterial meningitis. Almost all infected people die or have irreversible neurological complications. Therefore, it is essential to have a diagnostic kit with the ability to quickly detect these fatal infections. The project involved 212 patients from whom cerebrospinal fluid samples were obtained. After total genome extraction and performing multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), the presence or absence of each infectious factor was determined by comparing with standard strains. The specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value calculated were 100%, 92.9%, 50%, and 100%, respectively. So, due to the high specificity and sensitivity of the designed primers, they can be used instead of bacterial culture that takes at least 24 to 48 hours. The remarkable benefit of this method is associated with the speed (up to 3 hours) at which the procedure could be completed. It is also worth noting that this method can reduce the personnel unintentional errors which may occur in the laboratory. On the other hand, as this method simultaneously identifies four common factors that cause bacterial meningitis, it could be used as an auxiliary method diagnostic technique in laboratories particularly in cases of emergency medicine.

Keywords: cerebrospinal fluid, meningitis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, simultaneous detection, diagnosis testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
5 Sub-Lethal Effects of Thiamethoxam and Pirimicarb on Life-Table Parameters of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Parasitoid of Lipaphis erysimi (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

Authors: Nastaran Rezaei, Mohammad Saeed Mossadegh, Farhan Kocheyli, Khalil Talebi Jahromi, Aurang Kavousi

Abstract:

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) aims to combine biological and chemical strategies and measures, hence highlighting the study of acute toxicity and sub-lethal effects of pesticides comprehensively. The present research focused on the side effects of thiamethoxam and pirimicarb sub-lethal concentrations on demographic parameters of Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh Laboratory) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Adult parasitoids were exposed to LC25 of insecticides as well as distilled water as the control. The results showed that thiamethoxam adversely affected population parameters (r, λ, R0, T), adults' longevity, females' oviposition period and mean fecundity, and a similar trend was obtained for pirimicarb with the exception of generation time (T), the latter did not significantly change compared to the control. The intrinsic rate of increase (r) in the control and those treated with pirimicarb and thiamethoxam were 0.2801, 0.2064, 0.1525 days-1, respectively, and the sex ratio was biased toward females in all treatments. Furthermore, none of the insecticides influenced total pre-oviposition period (TPOP) and offspring emergence rate. In general, these results indicated that both insecticides potentially distort the demographic parameters of the parasitoid even at sub-lethal concentrations, and then they should not be considered for IPM program in the presence of D. rapae.

Keywords: Diaeretiella rapae, Lipaphis erysimi, life-table study, pirimicarb, thiamethoxam

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
4 Peripheral Nerves Cross-Sectional Area for the Diagnosis of Diabetic Polyneuropathy: A Meta-Analysis of Ultrasonographic Measurements

Authors: Saeed Pourhassan, Nastaran Maghbouli

Abstract:

1) Background It has been hypothesized that, in individuals with diabetes mellitus, the peripheral nerve is swollen due to sorbitol over-accumulation. Additionally growing evidence supported electro diagnostic study of diabetes induced neuropathy as a method having some challenges. 2) Objective To examine the performance of sonographic cross-sectional area (CSA) measurements in the diagnosis of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN). 3) Data Sources Electronic databases, comprising PubMed and EMBASE and Google scholar, were searched for the appropriate studies before Jan 1, 2020. 4) Study Selection Eleven trials comparing different peripheral nerve CSA measurements between participants with and without DPN were included. 5) Data Extraction Study design, participants' demographic characteristics, diagnostic reference of DPN, and evaluated peripheral nerves and methods of CSA measurement. 6) Data Synthesis Among different peripheral nerves, Tibial nerve diagnostic odds ratios pooled from five studies (713 participants) were 4.46 (95% CI, 0.35–8.57) and the largest one with P<0.0001, I²:64%. Median nerve CSA at wrist and mid-arm took second and third place with ORs= 2.82 (1.50-4.15), 2.02(0.26-3.77) respectively. The sensitivities and specificities pooled from two studies for Sural nerve were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.68–0.89), and 0.68 (95% CI, 0.53–0.74). Included studies for other nerves were limited to one study. The largest sensitivity was for Sural nerve and the largest specificity was for Tibial nerve. 7) Conclusions The peripheral nerves CSA measured by ultrasound imaging is useful for the diagnosis of DPN and is most significantly different between patients and participants without DPN at the Tibial nerve. Because the Tibial nerve CSA in healthy participants, at various locations, rarely exceeds 24 mm2, this value can be considered as a cutoff point for diagnosing DPN.

Keywords: diabetes, diagnosis, polyneuropathy, ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
3 Extended Intuitionistic Fuzzy VIKOR Method in Group Decision Making: The Case of Vendor Selection Decision

Authors: Nastaran Hajiheydari, Mohammad Soltani Delgosha

Abstract:

Vendor (supplier) selection is a group decision-making (GDM) process, in which, based on some predetermined criteria, the experts’ preferences are provided in order to rank and choose the most desirable suppliers. In the real business environment, our attitudes or our choices would be made in an uncertain and indecisive situation could not be expressed in a crisp framework. Intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IFSs) could handle such situations in the best way. VIKOR method was developed to solve multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problems. This method, which is used to determine the compromised feasible solution with respect to the conflicting criteria, introduces a multi-criteria ranking index based on the particular measure of 'closeness' to the 'ideal solution'. Until now, there has been a little investigation of VIKOR with IFS, therefore we extended the intuitionistic fuzzy (IF) VIKOR to solve vendor selection problem under IF GDM environment. The present study intends to develop an IF VIKOR method in a GDM situation. Therefore, a model is presented to calculate the criterion weights based on entropy measure. Then, the interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy weighted geometric (IFWG) operator utilized to obtain the total decision matrix. In the next stage, an approach based on the positive idle intuitionistic fuzzy number (PIIFN) and negative idle intuitionistic fuzzy number (NIIFN) was developed. Finally, the application of the proposed method to solve a vendor selection problem illustrated.

Keywords: group decision making, intuitionistic fuzzy set, intuitionistic fuzzy entropy measure, vendor selection, VIKOR

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
2 Comparison of the Anthropometric Obesity Indices in Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease Risk: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Authors: Saeed Pourhassan, Nastaran Maghbouli

Abstract:

Statement of the problem: The relationship between obesity and cardiovascular diseases has been studied widely(1). The distribution of fat tissue gained attention in relation to cardiovascular risk factors during lang-time research (2). American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) is widely and the most reliable tool to be used as a cardiovascular risk (CVR) assessment tool(3). This study aimed to determine which anthropometric index is better in discrimination of high CVR patients from low risks using ACC/AHA score in addition to finding the best index as a CVR predictor among both genders in different races and countries. Methodology & theoretical orientation: The literature in PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched by two independent investigators using the keywords "anthropometric indices," "cardiovascular risk," and "obesity." The search strategy was limited to studies published prior to Jan 2022 as full-texts in the English language. Studies using ACC/AHA risk assessment tool as CVR and those consisted at least 2 anthropometric indices (ancient ones and novel ones) are included. Study characteristics and data were extracted. The relative risks were pooled with the use of the random-effect model. Analysis was repeated in subgroups. Findings: Pooled relative risk for 7 studies with 16,348 participants were 1.56 (1.35-1.72) for BMI, 1.67(1.36-1.83) for WC [waist circumference], 1.72 (1.54-1.89) for WHR [waist-to-hip ratio], 1.60 (1.44-1.78) for WHtR [waist-to-height ratio], 1.61 (1.37-1.82) for ABSI [A body shape index] and 1.63 (1.32-1.89) for CI [Conicity index]. Considering gender, WC among females and WHR among men gained the highest RR. The heterogeneity of studies was moderate (α²: 56%), which was not decreased by subgroup analysis. Some indices such as VAI and LAP were evaluated just in one study. Conclusion & significance: This meta-analysis showed WHR could predict CVR better in comparison to BMI or WHtR. Some new indices like CI and ABSI are less accurate than WHR and WC. Among women, WC seems to be a better choice to predict cardiovascular disease risk.

Keywords: obesity, cardiovascular disease, risk assessment, anthropometric indices

Procedia PDF Downloads 16
1 Cultural Identity and Self-Censorship in Social Media: A Qualitative Case Study

Authors: Nastaran Khoshsabk

Abstract:

The evolution of communication through the Internet has influenced shaping and reshaping the self-presentation of social media users. Online communities both connect people and give voice to the voiceless allowing them to present themselves nationally and globally. People all around the world are experiencing censorship in different aspects of their life. Censorship can be externally imposed because of the political situations, or it can be self-imposed. Social media users choose the content they want to share and decide about the online audiences with whom they want to share this content. Most social media networks, such as Facebook, enable their users to be selective about the shared content and its availability to other people. However, sometimes instead of targeting a specific audience, users self-censor themselves or decide not to share various forms of information. These decisions are of particular importance in countries such as Iran where Internet is not the arena of free self-presentation and people are encouraged to stay away from political participation in the country and acting against the Islamic values. Facebook and some other social media tools are blocked in countries such as Iran. This project investigates the importance of social media in the life of Iranians to explore how they present themselves and construct their digital selves. The notion of cultural identity is applied in this research to explore the educational and informative role of social media in the identity formation and cultural representation of Facebook users. This study explores the self-censorship of Iranian adult Facebook users through their online self-representation and communication on the Internet. The data in this qualitative multiple case study have been collected through individual synchronous online interviews with the researcher’s Facebook friends and through the analysis of the participants’ Facebook profiles and activities over a period of six months. The data is analysed with an emphasis on the identity formation of participants through the recognition of the underlying themes. The exploration of online interviews is on the basis of participants’ personal accounts of self-censorship and cultural understanding through using social media. The driven codes and themes have been categorised considering censorship and place of culture on representation of self. Participants were asked to explain their views about censorship and conservatism through using social media. They reported their thoughts about deciding which content to share on Facebook and which to self-censor and their reasons behind these decisions. The codes and themes have been categorised considering censorship and its role in representation of idealised self. The ‘actual self’ showed to be hidden by an individual for different reasons such as its influence on their social status, academic achievements and job opportunities. It is hoped that this research will have implications for education contexts in countries that are experiencing social media filtering by offering an increased understanding of the importance of online communities; which can provide an educational environment to talk and learn about social taboos and constructing adults’ identity in virtual environment and through cultural self-presentation.

Keywords: cultural identity, identity formation, online communities, self-censorship

Procedia PDF Downloads 173