Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5574

Search results for: surface finishing

5574 Enhancement of Material Removal Rate of Complex Featured Surfaces in Vibratory Finishing

Authors: Kunal Ahluwalia, Ampara Aramcharoen, Chan Wai Luen, Swee Hock Yeo

Abstract:

The different process engineering applications of vibratory finishing technology have led to its versatile use in the development of aviation components. The most noteworthy applications of vibratory finishing include deburring and imparting the required surface finish. In this paper, vibratory finishing has been used to study its effectiveness in removal of laser shock peened (LSP) layers from Titanium workpieces. A vibratory trough operating at a frequency of 25 Hz, amplitude 3.5 mm and titanium specimens (Ti-6Al-4V, Grade 5) of dimensions 50 x 50 x 10 mm³ were utilized for the experiments. A vibrating fixture operating at 200 Hz was used to provide vibration to the test piece and was immersed in the vibratory trough. It was evident that there is an increase in efficiency of removal of the complex featured layer and smoother surface finish with the introduction of the vibrating fixture in the vibratory finishing setup as compared to the conventional vibratory finishing setup wherein the fixture is not vibrating.

Keywords: laser shock peening, material removal, surface roughness, vibrating fixture, vibratory finishing

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
5573 The Interaction between Hydrogen and Surface Stress in Stainless Steel

Authors: Osamu Takakuwa, Yuta Mano, Hitoshi Soyama

Abstract:

This paper reveals the interaction between hydrogen and surface stress in austenitic stainless steel by X-ray diffraction stress measurement and thermal desorption analysis before and after being charged with hydrogen. The surface residual stress was varied by surface finishing using several disc polishing agents. The obtained results show that the residual stress near surface had a significant effect on hydrogen absorption behavior, that is, tensile residual stress promoted the hydrogen absorption and compressive one did opposite. Also, hydrogen induced equi-biaxial stress and this stress has a linear correlation with hydrogen content.

Keywords: hydrogen embrittlement, residual stress, surface finishing, stainless steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
5572 Influence of Selected Finishing Technologies on the Roughness Parameters of Stainless Steel Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting Method

Authors: J. Hajnys, M. Pagac, J. Petru, P. Stefek, J. Mesicek, J. Kratochvil

Abstract:

The new progressive method of 3D metal printing SLM (Selective Laser Melting) is increasingly expanded into the normal operation. As a result, greater demands are placed on the surface quality of the parts produced in this way. The article deals with research of selected finishing methods (tumbling, face milling, sandblasting, shot peening and brushing) and their impact on the final surface roughness. The 20 x 20 x 7 mm produced specimens using SLM additive technology on the Renishaw AM400 were subjected to testing of these finishing methods by adjusting various parameters. Surface parameters of roughness Sa, Sz were chosen as the evaluation criteria and profile parameters Ra, Rz were used as additional measurements. Optical measurement of surface roughness was performed on Alicona Infinite Focus 5. An experiment conducted to optimize the surface roughness revealed, as expected, that the best roughness parameters were achieved through a face milling operation. Tumbling is particularly suitable for 3D printing components, as tumbling media are able to reach even complex shapes and, after changing to polishing bodies, achieve a high surface gloss. Surface quality after tumbling depends on the process time. Other methods with satisfactory results are shot peening and tumbling, which should be the focus of further research.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, selective laser melting, SLM, surface roughness, stainless steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
5571 Investigation of Chip Formation Characteristics during Surface Finishing of HDPE Samples

Authors: M. S. Kaiser, S. Reaz Ahmed

Abstract:

Chip formation characteristics are investigated during surface finishing of high density polyethylene (HDPE) samples using a shaper machine. Both the cutting speed and depth of cut are varied continually to enable observations under various machining conditions. The generated chips are analyzed in terms of their shape, size, and deformation. Their physical appearances are also observed using digital camera and optical microscope. The investigation shows that continuous chips are obtained for all the cutting conditions. It is observed that cutting speed is more influential than depth of cut to cause dimensional changes of chips. Chips curl radius is also found to increase gradually with the increase of cutting speed. The length of continuous chips remains always smaller than the job length, and the corresponding discrepancies are found to be more prominent at lower cutting speed. Microstructures of the chips reveal that cracks are formed at higher cutting speeds and depth of cuts, which is not that significant at low depth of cut.

Keywords: HDPE, surface-finishing, chip formation, deformation, roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
5570 Learning Materials of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process: Turning Hydrophilic Surface to Hydrophobic

Authors: C.W. Kan

Abstract:

This paper investigates the use of atmospheric pressure plasma for improving the surface hydrophobicity of polyurethane synthetic leather with tetramethylsilane (TMS). The atmospheric pressure plasma treatment with TMS is a single-step process to enhance the hydrophobicity of polyurethane synthetic leather. The hydrophobicity of the treated surface was examined by contact angle measurement. The physical and chemical surface changes were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The purpose of this paper is to provide learning materials for understanding how to use atmospheric pressure plasma in the textile finishing process to transform a hydrophilic surface to hydrophobic.

Keywords: Learning materials, atmospheric pressure plasma treatment, hydrophobic, hydrophilic, surface

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
5569 Integrated Finishing of Textiles

Authors: Geetal Mahajan, R. V. Adivarekar

Abstract:

In this research, an attempt has been made to develop integrated finish on textile fabrics. The demand for mosquito repellent, flame retardant, and water repellent finished fabric has increased. Integrated finishing was done using commercially available products. These finishing agents were first assessed individually for their functional properties and then used in combination with other agents. Dip-air dry and pad-dry-cure (PDC) were two different methods used for fabric finishing. The finished fabric was assessed using spray test, limiting oxygen index and mosquito repellence test. Integrated finished fabric is in great demand by the customers as it increases the aesthetic as well as the functional properties of the fabric with added benefit of water and energy conservation.

Keywords: flame retardant, integrated finishing, mosquito repellent, textiles, water repellent

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
5568 Burnishing of Aluminum-Magnesium-Graphite Composites

Authors: Mohammed T. Hayajneh, Adel Mahmood Hassan, Moath AL-Qudah

Abstract:

Burnishing is increasingly used as a finishing operation to improve surface roughness and surface hardness. This can be achieved by applying a hard ball or roller onto metallic surfaces under pressure, in order to achieve many advantages in the metallic surface. In the present work, the feed rate, speed and force have been considered as the basic burnishing parameters to study the surface roughness and surface hardness of metallic matrix composites. The considered metal matrix composites were made from Aluminum-Magnesium-Graphite with five different weight percentage of graphite. Both effects of burnishing parameters mentioned above and the graphite percentage on the surface hardness and surface roughness of the metallic matrix composites were studied. The results of this investigation showed that the surface hardness of the metallic composites increases with the increase of the burnishing force and decreases with the increase in the burnishing feed rate and burnishing speed. The surface roughness of the metallic composites decreases with the increasing of the burnishing force, feed rate, and speed to certain values, then it starts to increase. On the other hand, the increase in the weight percentage of the graphite in the considered composites causes a decrease in the surface hardness and an increase in the surface roughness.

Keywords: burnishing process, Al-Mg-Graphite composites, surface hardness, surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
5567 Analysis of the Theoretical Values of Several Characteristic Parameters of Surface Topography in Rotational Turning

Authors: J. Kundrák, I. Sztankovics, K. Gyáni

Abstract:

In addition to the increase of the material removal rate or surface rate, or the improvement of the surface quality, which are the main aims of the development of manufacturing technology, a growing number of other manufacturing requirements have appeared in the machining of workpiece surfaces. Among these, it is becoming increasingly dominant to generate a surface topography in finishing operations which meet more closely the needs of operational requirements. These include the examination of the surface periodicity and/or ensuring that the twist structure values are within the limits (or even preventing its occurrence) in specified cases such as on the sealing surfaces of rotating shafts or on the inside working surfaces of needle roller bearings. In the view of the measurement, the twist has different parameters from surface roughness, which must be determined for the machining procedures. Therefore in this paper the alteration of the theoretical values of the parameters determining twist structure are studied as a function of the kinematic properties.

Keywords: kinematic parameters, rotational turning, surface topography, twist structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
5566 Surface Coatings of Boards Made from Alternative Materials

Authors: Stepan Hysek, Petra Gajdacova

Abstract:

In recent years, alternative materials, such as annual plants or recycled and waste materials are becoming more and more popular input material for the production of composite materials. They can be used for the production of insulation boards, construction boards or furniture boards. Surface finishing of those boards is essential for utilization in furniture. However, some difficulties could occur during coating of boards from alternative materials; physical and chemical differences from conventional particleboards need to be considered. From the physical aspects, surface soundness and surface roughness mainly determine the quality of the surface. Since surface layers of boards from alternative materials have often lower density, these characteristics could be deteriorated and thus the production process needs to be optimized. Also, chemical reactions of board’s material with coating could be undesirable. The objective of this study is to evaluate the parameters affecting the surface quality of boards made form alternative materials and to find possibilities of the coating of these boards. In this study, boards of particles from rapeseed stems were produced using a laboratory press. Surface soundness, as representatives of mechanical properties and surface roughness, as representative of physical properties, were measured on boards from rapeseed stems. Results clearly indicated that produced boards had lower surface quality than commercially produced particle boards from wood. Therefore, higher thickness of surface coating on rapeseed based boards is needed.

Keywords: coating, surface, annual plant, composites, particleboard

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
5565 Mechanical Characterization and CNC Rotary Ultrasonic Grinding of Crystal Glass

Authors: Ricardo Torcato, Helder Morais

Abstract:

The manufacture of crystal glass parts is based on obtaining the rough geometry by blowing and/or injection, generally followed by a set of manual finishing operations using cutting and grinding tools. The forming techniques used do not allow the obtainment, with repeatability, of parts with complex shapes and the finishing operations use intensive specialized labor resulting in high cycle times and production costs. This work aims to explore the digital manufacture of crystal glass parts by investigating new subtractive techniques for the automated, flexible finishing of these parts. Finishing operations are essential to respond to customer demands in terms of crystal feel and shine. It is intended to investigate the applicability of different computerized finishing technologies, namely milling and grinding in a CNC machining center with or without ultrasonic assistance, to crystal processing. Research in the field of grinding hard and brittle materials, despite not being extensive, has increased in recent years, and scientific knowledge about the machinability of crystal glass is still very limited. However, it can be said that the unique properties of glass, such as high hardness and very low toughness, make any glass machining technology a very challenging process. This work will measure the performance improvement brought about by the use of ultrasound compared to conventional crystal grinding. This presentation is focused on the mechanical characterization and analysis of the cutting forces in CNC machining of superior crystal glass (Pb ≥ 30%). For the mechanical characterization, the Vickers hardness test provides an estimate of the material hardness (Hv) and the fracture toughness based on cracks that appear in the indentation. Mechanical impulse excitation test estimates the Young’s Modulus, shear modulus and Poisson ratio of the material. For the cutting forces, it a dynamometer was used to measure the forces in the face grinding process. The tests were made based on the Taguchi method to correlate the input parameters (feed rate, tool rotation speed and depth of cut) with the output parameters (surface roughness and cutting forces) to optimize the process (better roughness using the cutting forces that do not compromise the material structure and the tool life) using ANOVA. This study was conducted for conventional grinding and for the ultrasonic grinding process with the same cutting tools. It was possible to determine the optimum cutting parameters for minimum cutting forces and for minimum surface roughness in both grinding processes. Ultrasonic-assisted grinding provides a better surface roughness than conventional grinding.

Keywords: CNC machining, crystal glass, cutting forces, hardness

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
5564 Effects of Milling Process Parameters on Cutting Forces and Surface Roughness When Finishing Ti6al4v Produced by Electron Beam Melting

Authors: Abdulmajeed Dabwan, Saqib Anwar, Ali Al-Samhan

Abstract:

Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is a metal powder bed-based Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology, which uses computer-controlled electron beams to create fully dense three-dimensional near-net-shaped parts from metal powder. It gives the ability to produce any complex parts directly from a computer-aided design (CAD) model without tools and dies, and with a variety of materials. However, the quality of the surface finish in EBM process has limitations to meeting the performance requirements of additively manufactured components. The aim of this study is to investigate the cutting forces induced during milling Ti6Al4V produced by EBM as well as the surface quality of the milled surfaces. The effects of cutting speed and radial depth of cut on the cutting forces, surface roughness, and surface morphology were investigated. The results indicated that the cutting speed was found to be proportional to the resultant cutting force at any cutting conditions while the surface roughness improved significantly with the increase in cutting speed and radial depth of cut.

Keywords: electron beam melting, additive manufacturing, Ti6Al4V, surface morphology

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
5563 Resin Finishing of Cotton: Teaching and Learning Materials

Authors: C. W. Kan

Abstract:

Cotton is the most commonly used material for apparel purpose because of its durability, good perspiration absorption characteristics, comfort during wear and dyeability. However, proneness to creasing and wrinkling give cotton garments a poor rating during actual wear. Resin finishing is a process to bring out crease or wrinkle free/resistant effect to cotton fabric. Thus, the aim of this study is to illustrate the proper application of resin finishing to cotton fabric, and the results could provide guidance note to the students in learning this topic. Acknowledgment: Authors would like to thank the financial support from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University for this work.

Keywords: learning materials, resin, textiles, wrinkle

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
5562 Obtaining Composite Cotton Fabric by Cyclodextrin Grafting

Authors: U. K. Sahin, N. Erdumlu, C. Saricam, I. Gocek, M. H. Arslan, H. Acikgoz-Tufan, B. Kalav

Abstract:

Finishing is an important part of fabric processing with which a wide range of features are imparted to greige or colored fabrics for various end-uses. Especially, by the addition or impartation of nano-scaled particles to the fabric structure composite fabrics, a kind of composite materials can be acquired. Composite materials, generally shortened as composites or in other words composition materials, are engineered or naturally occurring materials made from two or more component materials with significantly different physical, mechanical or chemical characteristics remaining separate and distinctive at the macroscopic or microscopic scale within the end product structure. Therefore, the technique finishing which is one of the fundamental methods to be applied on fabrics for obtainment of composite fabrics with many functionalities was used in the current study with the same purpose. However, regardless of the finishing materials applied, the efficient life of finished product on offering desired feature is low, since the durability of finishes on the material is limited. Any increase in durability of these finishes on textiles would enhance the life of use for textiles, which will result in happier users. Therefore, in this study, since higher durability was desired for the finishing materials fixed on the fabrics, nano-scaled hollow structured cyclodextrins were chemically imparted by grafting to the structure of conventional cotton fabrics by the help of finishing technique in order to be fixed permanently. By this way, a processed and functionalized base fabric having potential to be treated in the subsequent processes with many different finishing agents and nanomaterials could be obtained. Henceforth, this fabric can be used as a multi-functional fabric due to the encapturing ability of cyclodextrins to molecules/particles via physical/chemical means. In this study, scoured and rinsed woven bleached plain weave 100% cotton fabrics were utilized because textiles made of cotton are the most demanded textile products in the textile market by the textile consumers in daily life. Cotton fabric samples were immersed in treating baths containing β-cyclodextrin and 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid and to reduce the curing temperature the catalyst sodium hypophosphite monohydrate was used. All impregnated fabric samples were pre-dried. The reaction of grafting was performed in dry state. The treated and cured fabric samples were rinsed with warm distilled water and dried. The samples were dried for 4 h and weighed before and after finishing and rinsing. Stability and durability of β-cyclodextrins on fabric surface against external factors such as washing as well as strength of functionalized fabric in terms of tensile and tear strength were tested. Presence and homogeneity of distribution of β-cyclodextrins on fabric surface were characterized.

Keywords: cotton fabric, cyclodextrine, improved durability, multifunctional composite textile

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
5561 Softening Finishing: Teaching and Learning Materials

Authors: C.W. Kan

Abstract:

Softening applied on textile products based on several reasons. First, the synthetic detergent removes natural oils and waxes, thus lose the softness. Second, compensate the harsh handle of resin finishing. Also, imitate natural fibres and improve the comfort of fabric are the reasons to apply softening. There are different types of softeners for softening finishing of textiles, nonionic softener, anionic softener, cationic softener and silicone softener. The aim of this study is to illustrate the proper application of different softeners and their final softening effect in textiles. The results could also provide guidance note to the students in learning this topic. Acknowledgment: Authors would like to thank the financial support from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University for this work.

Keywords: learning materials, softening, textiles, effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
5560 Burnishing Effect on the Mechanical Characteristics of 100C6

Authors: Ouahiba Taamallah, Tarek Litim

Abstract:

This work relates to the physico-geometrical aspect of the surface layers of 100C6 steel having undergone the burnishing treatment by hard steel ball. The application of tip diamond burnishing promotes better roughness compared to turning. In addition, it allows the surface layers to be consolidated by work hardening phenomena. The optimal effects are closely related to the parameters of the treatment and the active part of the device. With an 80% improvement in roughness resulting from the treatment, burnishing can be defined as a finishing operation within the machining range. With a 40% gain in consolidation rate, this treatment is an efficient process for material consolidation.

Keywords: 100C6 steel, burnishing, hardening, roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
5559 Adopting Precast Insulated Concrete Panels for Building Envelope in Hot Climate Zones

Authors: Mohammed Sherzad

Abstract:

The absorbedness of solar radiation within the concrete building is higher than other buildings type, especially in hot climate zones. However, one of the primary issues of architects and the owners in hot climate zones is the building’s exterior plastered and painted finishing which is commonly used are fading and peeling adding a high cost on maintenance. Case studies of different exterior finishing’ treatments used in vernacular and contemporary dwellings in the United Arab Emirates were surveyed. The traditional plastered façade treatment was more sustainable than new buildings. In addition, using precast concrete insulated sandwich panels with the exposed colored aggregate surface in contemporary designed dwellings sustained the extensive heat reducing the overall cost of maintenance and contributed aesthetically to the buildings’ envelope in addition to its thermal insulation property.

Keywords: precast concrete panels, façade treatment, hot climate

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
5558 Cutting Tools in Finishing Operations for CNC Rapid Manufacturing Processes: Experimental Studies

Authors: M. N. Osman Zahid, K. Case, D. Watts

Abstract:

This paper reports an advanced approach in the application of CNC machining for rapid manufacturing processes (CNC-RM). The aim of this study is to improve the quality of machined parts by introducing different cutting tools during finishing operations. As the cutting is performed in different directions, the surfaces presented on part can be classified into several categories. Therefore, suitable cutting tools are assigned to machine particular surfaces and to improve the quality. Experimental studies have been carried out by fabricating several parts based on the suggested approach. The results provide further support for implementing this approach in rapid machining processes.

Keywords: CNC machining, end mill tool, finishing operation, rapid manufacturing

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
5557 Fiber Release from Fabrics with Various Weave Parameters and Finishing Treatments during Washing and Their Marine Biodegradation

Authors: Seoyoun Kim, Chunghee Park

Abstract:

Microplastics have recently become an issue due to their potentially harmful effects on the marine environment and the human body. The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation of fiber emissions during the home laundering with the fabric parameters such as yarn density, warp/weft density, and weave structure. Also, the effect of finishing treatments such as reactive dyeing, water-repellent finish, peach skin finish on fiber emissions was evaluated. Furthermore, we studied the biodegradability of fibers in the marine environment compared to those in soil burial and the impact of finishing treatment on the biodegradability. Biodegradability was evaluated by measuring BOD values and tensile strength reduction. The results showed that more fibers were released in the thicker yarn, lower weave density. Also, a weave structure which has less compactness, released more fibers. Peach skin finish with microfibers exposed on the surface caused more fiber release, whereas water-repellent finish reduced the fiber emission. In addition, the biodegradability of the fabrics submerged in the marine environment were lower compared with those buried in the soil. Also, the water-repellent fabric was less biodegradable than the untreated one. Further research is suggested considering the fabrics with various chemical components or geometry and their fouling behavior in the marine environment.

Keywords: biodegradation, fibers, microplastic, pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
5556 Multi-Objective Optimization and Effect of Surface Conditions on Fatigue Performance of Burnished Components Made of AISI 52100 Steel

Authors: Ouahiba Taamallah, Tarek Litim

Abstract:

The study deals with the burnishing effect of AISI 52100 steel and parameters influence (Py, i and f on surface integrity. The results show that the optimal effects are closely related to the treatment parameters. With a 92% improvement in roughness, SB can be defined as a finishing operation within the machining range. Due to 85% gain in consolidation rate, this treatment constitutes an efficient process for work-hardening of material. In addition, a statistical study based on regression and Taguchi's design has made it possible to develop mathematical models to predict output responses according to the studied burnishing parameters. Response Surface Methodology RSM showed a simultaneous influence of the burnishing parameters and to observe the optimal parameters of the treatment. ANOVA Analysis of results led to validate the prediction model with a determination coefficient R2=94.60% and R2=93.41% for surface roughness and micro-hardness, respectively. Furthermore, a multi-objective optimization allowed to identify a regime characterized by P=20 Kgf, i=5 passes and f=0.08 mm.rev-1, which favors minimum surface roughness and a maximum of micro-hardness. The result was validated by a composite desirability D_i=1 for both surface roughness and microhardness, respectively. Applying optimal parameters, burnishing showed its beneficial effects in fatigue resistance, especially for imposed loading in the low cycle fatigue of the material where the lifespan increased by 90%.

Keywords: AISI 52100 steel, burnishing, Taguchi, fatigue

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
5555 The Effect of Tool Path Strategy on Surface and Dimension in High Speed Milling

Authors: A. Razavykia, A. Esmaeilzadeh, S. Iranmanesh

Abstract:

Many orthopedic implants like proximal humerus cases require lower surface roughness and almost immediate/short lead time surgery. Thus, rapid response from the manufacturer is very crucial. Tool path strategy of milling process has a direct influence on the surface roughness and lead time of medical implant. High-speed milling as promised process would improve the machined surface quality, but conventional or super-abrasive grinding still required which imposes some drawbacks such as additional costs and time. Currently, many CAD/CAM software offers some different tool path strategies to milling free form surfaces. Nevertheless, the users must identify how to choose the strategies according to cutting tool geometry, geometry complexity, and their effects on the machined surface. This study investigates the effect of different tool path strategies for milling a proximal humerus head during finishing operation on stainless steel 316L. Experiments have been performed using MAHO MH700 S vertical milling machine and four machining strategies, namely, spiral outward, spiral inward, and radial as well as zig-zag. In all cases, the obtained surfaces were analyzed in terms of roughness and dimension accuracy compared with those obtained by simulation. The findings provide evidence that surface roughness, dimensional accuracy, and machining time have been affected by the considered tool path strategy.

Keywords: CAD/CAM software, milling, orthopedic implants, tool path strategy

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
5554 Lightweight Materials for Building Finishing

Authors: Sarka Keprdova, Nikol Zizkova

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the presentation of results which were obtained as a part of the project FR-TI 3/742: “System of Lightweight Materials for Finishing of Buildings with Waste Raw Materials”. Attention was paid to the lightweighting of polymer-modified mortars applicable as adhesives, screeds and repair mortars. In terms of repair mortars, they were ones intended for the sanitation of aerated concrete.

Keywords: additives, light aggregates, lightweight materials, lightweight mortars, polymer-modified mortars

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
5553 RPM-Synchronous Non-Circular Grinding: An Approach to Enhance Efficiency in Grinding of Non-Circular Workpieces

Authors: Matthias Steffan, Franz Haas

Abstract:

The production process grinding is one of the latest steps in a value-added manufacturing chain. Within this step, workpiece geometry and surface roughness are determined. Up to this process stage, considerable costs and energy have already been spent on components. According to the current state of the art, therefore, large safety reserves are calculated in order to guarantee a process capability. Especially for non-circular grinding, this fact leads to considerable losses of process efficiency. With present technology, various non-circular geometries on a workpiece must be grinded subsequently in an oscillating process where X- and Q-axis of the machine are coupled. With the approach of RPM-Synchronous Noncircular Grinding, such workpieces can be machined in an ordinary plung grinding process. Therefore, the workpieces and the grinding wheels revolutionary rate are in a fixed ratio. A non-circular grinding wheel is used to transfer its geometry onto the workpiece. The authors use a worldwide unique machine tool that was especially designed for this technology. Highest revolution rates on the workpiece spindle (up to 4500 rpm) are mandatory for the success of this grinding process. This grinding approach is performed in a two-step process. For roughing, a highly porous vitrified bonded grinding wheel with medium grain size is used. It ensures high specific material removal rates for efficiently producing the non-circular geometry on the workpiece. This process step is adapted by a force control algorithm, which uses acquired data from a three-component force sensor located in the dead centre of the tailstock. For finishing, a grinding wheel with a fine grain size is used. Roughing and finishing are performed consecutively among the same clamping of the workpiece with two locally separated grinding spindles. The approach of RPM-Synchronous Noncircular Grinding shows great efficiency enhancement in non-circular grinding. For the first time, three-dimensional non-circular shapes can be grinded that opens up various fields of application. Especially automotive industries show big interest in the emerging trend in finishing machining.

Keywords: efficiency enhancement, finishing machining, non-circular grinding, rpm-synchronous grinding

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5552 Developments and Implementation of Biomaterials in Textile Coating and Finishing

Authors: David De Smet, Myriam Vanneste

Abstract:

There is a constant need for the improvement of materials applied in textile industries. Nowadays there is a tendency for “bio, eco, natural and environmental friendly” consciousness of the consumer resulting in various textile labels. Materials, totally based on CO2-neutral renewable resources (biopolymers), respond very well to this tendency. Proteins and PLA were evaluated as binders for textile coatings. Much attention is paid to the functionalization of textiles, therefore bio-additves are examined to introduce abrasion resistance, antimicrobial and flame retardant properties.

Keywords: biomaterial, textile, coating, finishing

Procedia PDF Downloads 607
5551 Effects of Surface Topography on Roughness of Glazed Ceramic Substrates

Authors: R. Sarjahani, M. Sheikhattar, S. Javadpour, B. Hashemi

Abstract:

Glazes and their surface characterization is an important subject for ceramic industries. Fabrication of a super smooth surface resistant to stains is a big improvement for those industries. In this investigation, surface topography of popular glazes such as Zircon and Titania based opaque glazes, calcium based matte glaze and transparent glaze has been analyzed by Marsurf M300, SEM, EDS and XRD. Results shows that surface roughness of glazes seriously depends on surface crystallinity, crystal size and shapes.

Keywords: crystallinity, glaze, surface roughness, topography

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
5550 The Effects of the Parent Training Program for Obesity Reduction on Child Waist Circumference and Health Behaviors of Pre-School Children at the Samut-Songkhram Kindergarten School, Samut-Songkhram Province, Thailand

Authors: Muntanavadee Maytapattana

Abstract:

This research aims to study the effects of the Parent Training Program for Obesity Reduction (PTPOR) on child waist circumference and health behaviors of pre-school children at the Samut-Songkhram kindergarten school, Samut-Songkhram province, Thailand. The objective of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the PTPOR on child waist circumference and health behaviors of the pre-school children. The conceptual framework of this study is developed on the basis of the Ecological Systems Theory (EST), not only do the individual factors such as child characteristics and child risk factors contribute to the child’s weight status, but also other factors such as parenting style and family characteristics, as well as community and demographic factors. This research is a quasi-experimental study. Participants were pre-school overweight and obese children and their parents. Forty-one parent-child dyads were recruited into the program. Parents participated in two sessions including an educational session and a group discussion session. Research methodology uses Paired-Samples t-test to determine the difference between groups in the mean scores of the outcome variables of the children and parents. The research results show that there was significant difference between child waist circumferences mean score at the baseline and finishing the program at the 0.01 level (p = 0.001), mean score of the child waist circumference was decrease after finishing the program. And there was no significant difference between child exercise health behaviors mean score at the baseline and finishing the program at the 0.05 level; however, mean score of the child exercise behavior was increase after finishing the program. Meanwhile, there was significant difference between child dietary health behavior mean score at the baseline and finishing the program at the 0.01 level (p = 0.001), mean score of the child dietary was increase after finishing the program.

Keywords: PTPOR, child waist circumference, child health behaviors, pre-school children

Procedia PDF Downloads 488
5549 Design of Roller Compacting Concrete Pavement

Authors: O. Zarrin, M. Ramezan Shirazi

Abstract:

The quality of concrete is usually defined by compressive strength, but flexural strength is the most important characteristic of concrete in a pavement which control the mix design of concrete instead of compressive strength. Therefore, the aggregates which are selected for the pavements are affected by higher flexural strength. Roller Compacting Concrete Pavement (RCCP) is not a new construction method. The other characteristic of this method is no bleeding and less shrinkage due to the lower amount of water. For this purpose, a roller is needed for placing and compacting. The surface of RCCP is not smooth; therefore, the most common use of this pavement is in an industrial zone with slower traffic speed which requires durable and tough pavement. For preparing a smoother surface, it can be achieved by asphalt paver. RCCP decrease the finishing cost because there are no bars, formwork, and the lesser labor need for placing the concrete. In this paper, different aspect of RCCP such as mix design, flexural, compressive strength and focus on the different part of RCCP on detail have been investigated.

Keywords: flexural strength, compressive strength, pavement, asphalt

Procedia PDF Downloads 512
5548 Long Time Oxidation Behavior of Machined 316 Austenitic Stainless Steel in Primary Water Reactor

Authors: Siyang Wang, Yujin Hu, Xuelin Wang, Wenqian Zhang

Abstract:

Austenitic stainless steels are widely used in nuclear industry to manufacture critical components owing to their excellent corrosion resistance at high temperatures. Almost all the components used in nuclear power plants are produced by surface finishing (surface cold work) such as milling, grinding and so on. The change of surface states induced by machining has great influence on the corrosion behavior. In the present study, long time oxidation behavior of machined 316 austenitic stainless steel exposed to simulated pressure water reactor environment was investigated considering different surface states. Four surface finishes were produced by electro-polishing (P), grinding (G), and two milling (M and M1) processes respectively. Before oxidation, the surface Vickers micro-hardness, surface roughness of each type of sample was measured. Corrosion behavior of four types of sample was studied by using oxidation weight gain method for six oxidation periods. The oxidation time of each period was 120h, 216h, 336h, 504h, 672h and 1344h, respectively. SEM was used to observe the surface morphology of oxide film in several period. The results showed that oxide film on austenitic stainless steel has a duplex-layer structure. The inner oxide film is continuous and compact, while the outer layer is composed of oxide particles. The oxide particle consisted of large particles (nearly micron size) and small particles (dozens of nanometers to a few hundred nanometers). The formation of oxide particle could be significantly affected by the machined surface states. The large particle on cold worked samples (grinding and milling) appeared earlier than electro-polished one, and the milled sample has the largest particle size followed by ground one and electro-polished one. For machined samples, the large particles were almost distributed along the direction of machining marks. Severe exfoliation was observed on one milled surface (M) which had the most heavily cold worked layer, while rare local exfoliation occurred on the ground sample (G) and the other milled sample (M1). The electro-polished sample (P) entirely did not exfoliate.

Keywords: austenitic stainless steel, oxidation, machining, SEM

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5547 Water Repellent Finishing of Cotton: Teaching and Learning Materials

Authors: C. W. Kan

Abstract:

Fabrics can be treated to equip them with certain functional properties in which water repellency is one of the important functional effects. In this study, commercial water repellent agent was used under different application conditions to cotton fabric. Finally, the water repellent effect was evaluated by standard testing method. Thus, the aim of this study is to illustrate the proper application of water repellent finishing to cotton fabric and the results could provide guidance note to the students in learning this topic. Acknowledgment: Authors would like to thank the financial support from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University for this work.

Keywords: learning materials, water repellent, textiles, cotton

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5546 Improvement on a CNC Gantry Machine Structure Design for Higher Machining Speed Capability

Authors: Ahmed A. D. Sarhan, S. R. Besharaty, Javad Akbaria, M. Hamdi

Abstract:

The capability of CNC gantry milling machines in manufacturing long components has caused the expanded use of such machines. On the other hand, the machines’ gantry rigidity can reduce under severe loads or vibration during operation. Indeed, the quality of machining is dependent on the machine’s dynamic behavior throughout the operating process. For this reason, this type of machines has always been used prudently and are non efficient. Therefore, they can usually be employed for rough machining and may not produce adequate surface finishing. In this paper, a CNC gantry milling machine with the potential to produce good surface finish has been designed and analyzed. The lowest natural frequency of this machine is 202 Hz at all motion amplitudes with a full range of suitable frequency responses. Meanwhile, the maximum deformation under dead loads for the gantry machine is 0.565µm, indicating that this machine tool is capable of producing higher product quality.

Keywords: frequency response, finite element, gantry machine, gantry design, static and dynamic analysis

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5545 Effect of Jet Diameter on Surface Quenching at Different Spatial Locations

Authors: C. Agrawal, R. Kumar, A. Gupta, B. Chatterjee

Abstract:

An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the cooling of a hot horizontal Stainless Steel surface of 3 mm thickness, which has 800±10 °C initial temperature. A round water jet of 22 ± 1 °C temperature was injected over the hot surface through straight tube type nozzles of 2.5-4.8 mm diameter and 250 mm length. The experiments were performed for the jet exit to target surface spacing of 4 times of jet diameter and jet Reynolds number of 5000-24000. The effect of change in jet Reynolds number on the surface quenching has been investigated form the stagnation point to 16 mm spatial location.

Keywords: hot-surface, jet impingement, quenching, stagnation point

Procedia PDF Downloads 504