Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: husbandry

30 Extracting Polyhydroxyalkanoates from Waste Sludge of Husbandry Industry Wastewater Treatment Plants

Authors: M. S. Lu, Y. P. Tsai, H. Shu, K. F. Chen, L. L. Lai

Abstract:

This study used sodium hypochlorite/sodium dodecyl sulfate method to successfully extract polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) from the wasted sludge of a husbandry industry wastewater treatment plant. We investigated the optimum operational conditions of three key factors with respect to effectively extract PHAs from husbandry industry wastewater sludge, including the sodium hypochlorite concentration, liquid-solid ratio, and reaction time. The experimental results showed the optimum operational conditions for polyhydroxyalkanoate recovery as follows: (1) being digested by the sodium hypochlorite/sodium dodecyl sulfate solution with 15% (v/v) of hypochlorite concentration, (2) being operated at the condition of 1.25 mLmg-1 of liquid-solid ratio, and (3) being reacted for more than 60 min. Under these conditions, the content of the recovered PHAs was about 53.2±0.66 mgPHAs/gVSS, and the purity of the recovered PHAs was about 78.5±6.91 wt%. The recovered PHAs were further used to produce biodegradable plastics for decomposition test buried in soils. The decomposition test showed 66.5% of the biodegradable plastics produced in the study remained after being buried in soils for 49 days. The cost for extracting PHAs is about 10.3 US$/kgPHAs and is lower than those produced by pure culture methods (12-15 US$/kgPHAs).

Keywords: biodegradable plastic, biopolymers, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), waste sludge

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29 Haematological Alterations in Anemic Bali Cattle Raised in Semi-Intensive Husbandry System

Authors: Jully Handoko, B. Kuntoro, E. Saleh, Sadarman

Abstract:

Most farmers in Bangkinang Seberang sub district raise Bali cattle in semi-intensive husbandry system. The farmers believe that raising such a way is economical and quite effective. The farmers do not need to provide forage and plant feed crops. Furthermore, the raising method is considered not to interfere with the main job. Screening for anemia in Bali cattle of Bangkinang Seberang subdistrict, Kampar regency, Riau, Indonesia, had been conducted. The aim of the study was to analyze hematological alterations in the anemic Bali cattle. A number of 75 Bali cattle were screened for anemia on the basis of Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration. The other hematological parameters that were measured including packed cell volume (PCV), total erythrocyte count (TEC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The screening showed that 18 (24.00%) of Bali cattle were anemic. Levels of Hb, PCV, TEC, MCV, MCH and MCHC in anemic Bali cattle were 7.15±1.61 g/dl, 21.15±4.16%, 3.72±1.10x106/µl, 52.75±4.13 fl, 17.31±1.86 pg and 32.77±1.69 g/dl respectively. Hematological values of Hb, PCV, TEC, MCV, MCH and MCHC were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in anemic Bali cattle compared to non-anemic Bali cattle.

Keywords: anemia, Bali cattle, alterations, hematology

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28 Determining the Presence of Brucella abortus Antibodies by the Indirect Elisa Method in Bovine Bulk Milk and Risk Factors in the Peri-Urban Zones of Bamenda Cameroon

Authors: Cha-ah C. N., Awah N. J., Mouiche M. M. M.

Abstract:

Brucellosis is a neglected zoonotic disease of animals and man caused by bacteria of genus Brucella. Though eradicated in some parts of the world, it remains endemic in sub-Saharan Africa including Cameroon. The aim of this study was to contribute to the epidemiology of brucellosis in the North-West region of Cameroon by detecting the presence of anti-Brucella antibodies in bovine bulk milk as this serves as a route of transmission from animals to man. A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Brucella abortus antibodies in bovine bulk milk in the peri-urban zones of Bamenda. One hundred bulk milk samples were collected from 100 herds and tested by milk I-ELISA test. The conducted study revealed the presence of anti-Brucella abortus antibodies in bovine bulk milk. The study revealed that bovine brucellosis is widespread in animal production systems in this area. The animal infection pressure in these systems has remained strong due to movement of livestock in search of pasture, co-existence of animal husbandry, communal sharing of grazing land, concentration of animals around water points, abortions in production systems, locality of production systems and failure to quarantine upon introduction of new animals. The circulation of Brucella abortus antibodies in cattle farms recorded in the study revealed potential public health implication and suggest economic importance of brucellosis to the cattle industry in the Northwest region of Cameroon. The risk for re-emergence and transmission of brucellosis is evident as a result of the co-existence of animal husbandry activities and social-cultural activities that promote brucellosis transmission. Well-designed countrywide, evidence-based studies of brucellosis are needed. These could help to generate reliable frequency and potential impact estimates, to identify Brucella reservoirs, and to propose control strategies of proven efficacy.

Keywords: brucellosis, bulk milk, northwest region Cameroon, prevalence

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27 Reorientation of Sustainable Livestock Management: A Case Study Applied to Wastes Management in Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Padjadjaran University, Indonesia

Authors: Raka Rahmatulloh, Mohammad Ilham Nugraha, Muhammad Ifan Fathurrahman

Abstract:

The agricultural sector covers a wide area, one of them is livestock subsector that supply needs of the food source of animal protein. Animal protein is produced by the main livestock production such as meat, milk, eggs, etc. Besides the main production, livestock would produce metabolic residue, so called livestock wastes. Characteristics of livestock wastes can be either solid (feces), liquid (urine), and gas (methane) which turned out to be useful and has economical value when well-processed and well-controlled. Nowadays, this livestock wastes is considered as a source of pollutants, especially water pollution. If the source of pollutants used in an integrated way, it will have a positive impact on organic farming and a healthy environment. Management of livestock wastes can be integrated with the farming sector to the planting and caring that rely on fertilizers. Most Indonesian farmers still use chemical fertilizers, where the use of it in the long term will disturb the ecological balance of the environment. One of the main efforts is to use organic fertilizers instead of chemical fertilizer that conducted by the Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Padjadjaran University. The method is to use the solid waste of livestock and agricultural wastes into liquid organic fertilizer, feed additive, biogas and vermicompost through decomposition. The decomposition takes as long as 14 days including aeration and extraction process using water as a nutrients solvent media which contained in decomposes and disinfection media to release pathogenic microorganisms in decomposes. Liquid organic fertilizer has highly efficient for the farmers to have a ratio of carbon/nitrogen (C/N) 25/1 to 30/1 and neutral pH (6.5-7.5) which is good for plant growth. Feed additive may be given to improve the digestibility of feed so that substances can be easily absorbed by the body for production. Biogas contains methane (CH4), which has a high enough heat to produce electricity. Vermicompost is an overhaul of waste organic material that has excellent structure, porosity, aeration, drainage, and moisture holding capacity. Based on the case study above, an integrated livestock wastes management program strongly supports the Indonesian government in the achievement of sustainable livestock development.

Keywords: integrated, livestock wastes, organic fertilizer, sustainable livestock development

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26 Influence of European Funds on the Sector of Bovine Milk and Meat in Romania in the Period 2007-2013

Authors: Andrei-Marius Sandu

Abstract:

This study aims to analyze the bovine meat and milk sector for the period 2007-2013. For the period analyzed, it is known that Romania has benefited from EU funding through the National Rural Development Programme 2007-2013. In this programme, there were measures that addressed exclusively the animal husbandry sector in Romania. This paper presents data on bovine production of meat, milk and livestock in Romania, but also data on the price and impact the European Funds implementation had on them.

Keywords: European funds, measures, national rural development programme, price

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25 Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Polymorphism and Disease Resistance

Authors: Oya Bulut, Oguzhan Avci, Zafer Bulut, Atilla Simsek

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Livestock breeders have focused on the improvement of production traits with little or no attention for improvement of disease resistance traits. In order to determine the association between the genetic structure of the individual gene loci with possibility of the occurrence and the development of diseases, MHC (major histocompatibility complex) are frequently used. Because of their importance in the immune system, MHC locus is considered as candidate genes for resistance/susceptibility against to different diseases. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play a critical role in both innate and adaptive immunity and have been considered candidate molecular markers of an association between polymorphisms and resistance/susceptibility to diseases. The purpose of this study is to give some information about MHC genes become an important area of study in recent years in terms of animal husbandry and determine the relation between MHC genes and resistance/susceptibility to disease.

Keywords: MHC, polymorphism, disease, resistance

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24 Sacidava and Its Role of Military Outpost in the Moesian Sector of the Danube Limes: Animal Food Resources and Landscape Reconstruction

Authors: Margareta Simina Stanc, Aurel Mototolea, Tiberiu Potarniche

Abstract:

Sacidava archeological site is located in Dobrudja region, Romania, on a hill on the right bank of the Danube - the Musait point, located at about 5 km north-east from Dunareni village. The place-name documents the fact that, prior to the Roman conquest, in the area, there was a Getic settlement. The location of the Sacidava was made possible by corroborating the data provided by the ancient sources with the epigraphic documents (the milial pillar during the time of Emperor Decius). The tegular findings attest that an infantry unit, cohors I Cilicum milliaria equitata, as well as detachments from Legio V Macedonica and Legio XI Claudia, were confined to Sacidava. During the period of the Dominion, the garrison of the fortification is the host of a cavalry unit: cuneus equitum scutariorum. In the immediate vicinity to the Roman fortress, to the east, were identified two other fortifications: a Getic settlement (4th-1st century B.C.) and an Early Medieval settlement (9th-10th century A.C.). The archaeological material recovered during the research is represented by ceramic forms such as amphoras, jugs, pots, cups, plates, to which are added oil lamps, some of them typologically new at the time of discovery. Local ceramic shapes were also founded, worked by hand or by wheel, considered un-Romanized or in the course of Romanization. During the time of the Principality, Sacidava it represented an important military outpost serving mainly the city of Tropaeum Traiani, controlling also the supply and transport on the Danube limes in the Moesic sector. This role will determine the development of the fortress and the appearance of extramuros civil structures, thus becoming an important landmark during the 5th-6th centuries A.C., becoming a representation of power of the Roman empire in an area of continuous conflict. During recent archaeological researches, faunal remains were recovered, and their analysis allowed to estimate the animal resources and subsistence practices (animal husbandry, hunting, fishing) in the settlement. The methodology was specific to archaeozoology, mainly consisting of anatomical, taxonomical, and taphonomical identifications, recording, and quantification of the data. The remains of domestic mammals have the highest proportion indicating the importance of animal husbandry; the predominant species are Bos taurus, Ovis aries/Capra hircus, and Sus domesticus. Fishing and hunting were of secondary importance in the subsistence economy of the community. Wild boar and the red deer were the most frequently hunted species. Just a few fish bones were recovered. Thus, the ancient city of Sacidava is proving to be an important element of cultural heritage of the south-eastern part of Romania, for whose conservation and enhancement efforts must be made, especially by landscape reconstruction.

Keywords: archaeozoology, landscape reconstruction, limes, military outpost

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23 A Review: Global Crisis Effects on Agriculture and Animal Production in Turkey

Authors: Muhittin Fatih Demirhan, Sibel Alapala Demirhan

Abstract:

Agriculture, is also regarded as the primary activity area in all economies. When international comparisons are made Turkey has comparative advantages in agricultural potential. However, it is diffi cult to say that Turkey's agricultural productivity and use of technology is well developed in terms of sufficieny. Turkey, in terms of agricultural production, is one of the rare self-sufficient countries, but for supplying excessive demand of its domesticproduction to foreign markets to obtain the necessary income it is rather insufficient. On the basis of wrong policies implemented during the crisis and found that bottlenecks in agriculture and animal husbandry or agriculture policies of the IMF and World Bank are imposed on countries like Turkey. The IMF and the World Bank, the reduction of support in the agricultural and livestock Turkey, is known to put pressure for the abolition. Under these circumstances, our farmers, livestock producers and breeders of, not a chance to compete in the same market with EU producers. Animal products that capture the productivity levels of developed countries, seems to be our chance to compete with the quality and hygiene criteria. Thus, the discussion of the issue must be raised as for the sector's contribution to the economy in terms of further increasing production of the existing potential in mobilization.

Keywords: agricultural development, animal production, competition, economic crisis, food supply

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22 Closed Greenhouse Production Systems for Smart Plant Production in Urban Areas

Authors: U. Schmidt, D. Dannehl, I. Schuch, J. Suhl, T. Rocksch, R. Salazar-Moreno, E. Fitz-Rodrigues, A. Rojano Aquilar, I. Lopez Cruz, G. Navas Gomez, R. A. Abraham, L. C. Irineo, N. G. Gilberto

Abstract:

The integration of agricultural production systems into urban areas is a challenge for the coming decades. Because of increasing greenhouse gas emission and rising resource consumption as well as costs in animal husbandry, the dietary habits of people in the 21st century have to focus on herbal foods. Intensive plant cultivation systems in large cities and megacities require a smart coupling of information, material and energy flow with the urban infrastructure in terms of Horticulture 4.0. In recent years, many puzzle pieces have been developed for these closed processes at the Humboldt University. To compile these for an urban plant production, it has to be optimized and networked with urban infrastructure systems. In the field of heat energy production, it was shown that with closed greenhouse technology and patented heat exchange and storage technology energy can be provided for heating and domestic hot water supply in the city. Closed water circuits can be drastically reducing the water requirements of plant production in urban areas. Ion sensitive sensors and new disinfection methods can help keep circulating nutrient solutions in the system for a longer time in urban plant production greenhouses.

Keywords: semi closed, greenhouses, urban farming, solar heat collector, closed water cycles, aquaponics

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21 Evaluation of Groundwater Quality in North-West Region of Punjab, India

Authors: Jeevan Jyoti Mohindroo, Umesh Kumar Garg

Abstract:

The district of Tarntaran is located25 km south of Amritsar city in Punjab State of Northwestern India. It is 5059 Sq. Km in area. It is surrounded by Amritsar in the North, Kapurthala in the East, and Ferozepur in the South and Pakistan in the West. Patti Town is a municipal council of the Tarntaran district of the Indian state of Punjab, located 45 km from Amritsar its geographical coordinates are 310 16' 51" north to 740 51' 25" East Longitude. The town spreads over an area of 50sq. Km. Moisture content is very less in the air, falling within the semiarid region and frequently facing water scarcity as well as water quality problems. The major sources of employment are agriculture, horticulture and animal husbandry engaging almost 80% of the workforce. Water samples are collected from 400 locations in 20 villages on the Patti –Khem Karan highway with 20 samples from each village, and were subjected to analysis of chemical characteristics. The type of water that predominates in the study area is Ca-Mg-HCO3 type, based on hydro-chemical analysis. Besides, suitability of water for irrigation is evaluated based on the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate, sodium percent and salinity hazard. Other Physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TDS, conductance, etc. were also determined using a water analysis kit. Analysis of water samples for heavy metal analysis was also carried out in the present study.

Keywords: groundwater, chemical classification, SAR, RSC, USSL diagram

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20 Evaluation And New Modeling Improvement Of Water Quality

Authors: Sebahat Seker

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Since there is a parallel connection between drinking water quality and public health, studies on drinking and domestic water are of vital importance. Ardahan Province is one of the provinces located in the Northeast Anatolian Region, where animal husbandry and agriculture are carried out economically. City mains water uses underground spring water as a source and is chlorinated and given to the city center by gravity. However, mains water cannot be used outside the central district of the city, and the majority of the people meet their drinking and utility water needs from the wells they have opened individually. The water element, which is vital for all living things, is the most important substance that sustains life for humans. Under normal conditions, a healthy person consumes approximately 1.8-2 liters of water. The quality and use of potable water is one of the most important issues in terms of health. The quality parameters of drinking and utility water have been revealed by the scientific world. Scientific studies on drinking water quality in the world and its impact on public health are among the most popular topics. Although our country is surrounded by water on three sides, potable water resources are very few. In the Eastern Anatolia Region, it is difficult for the public to access drinking and utility water due to the difficult conditions both climatically and geographically. In this study, samples taken from drinking and utility water at certain intervals from the stations determined, and water quality parameters will be determined. The fact that such a study has not been carried out in the region before and the knowledge of the local people about water quality is very important in terms of its original and widespread effect.

Keywords: water quality, modelling, evaluation, northeastern anatolia

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19 The Prevalence of Verocytotoxin-Producing Escherichia Coli O157 (VTEC) in Dairy Cattle in Tripoli Area, Libya

Authors: Imad Buishi, Almabrouk Fares, Hallowma Helmi

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Infection with verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 in humans can lead to mild or bloody diarrhea with the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) as a possible complication. Cattle appear to be important reservoirs for VTEC O157. Epidemiologic studies on the prevalence of VTEC O157 in dairy cattle in Libya have never been conducted. To investigate the prevalence and the risk factors associated with VTEC O157 on dairy farms in Tripoli region, fecal samples from 200 apparently healthy cows were collected once from 15 randomly selected dairy farms in the period July 2010 through September 2010. All fecal samples were examined for the prevalence of VTEC O157 by conventional plating using Sorbitol-MacConkey agar (SMAC). Isolated of E. coli were subjected to slide agglutination test using E. coli O157 antiserum. The results pointed out that the prevalence within-herd and among herds were 9% and 60% respectively. The prevalence of VTEC O157 in fecal samples of dairy cattle was significantly associated with husbandry practices on farm-level such as signs of diarrhoea (p=0.02, OR=3.2) and sharing water trough (p= 0.03, OR=3.0). It was concluded that dairy cattle in Tripoli area are important reservoirs of VTEC O157 strains that are potentially pathogenic for humans. When aiming at reducing risks for human by intervention at farm-level, it is of importance to reduce the number of positive animals and farms. For this, more research is needed to devise mitigation strategies that will reduce the on-farm contamination of VTEC O157.

Keywords: VTEC O157, prevalence, dairy cattle, tripoli

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18 Impact of Extension Services Pastoralists’ Vulnerability to Climate Change in Northern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria

Authors: Sidiqat A. Aderinoye-Abdulwahab, Lateef L. Adefalu, Jubril O. Animashaun

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Pastoralists in Nigeria are situated in dry regions - where water and pasture for livestock are particularly scarce, as well as areas with poor availability of social amenities and infrastructure. This study therefore explored how extension service could be used to reduce the exposure of nomads to effects of seasonality, climate change, and the poor environmental conditions. The study was carried out in Northern guinea Savannah region of Nigeria because pastoralists have settled there in large numbers due to desertification and low rainfall in the arid regions. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to arrive at the selection of two states (Kwara and Nassarawa) in the region. A total of 63 respondents were randomly chosen using simple random sampling. Focus group discussions and questionnaire were used to gather information while the data was analysed using content analysis. The facilities required by the sampled households are milking machine, cheese making machine, and preservatives to increase the shelf life of cheese. Whilst, the extension service required are demonstration on cheese making, training and seminars on animal husbandry. Additionally, livestock of pastoralists often encroach on farmers’ plots which usually result in pastoralist-farmer conflicts. The study thus recommends diversification of economic activity from livestock to non-livestock related activities as well as creation of grazing routes to reduce pastoralist/farmer conflict.

Keywords: arid region, coping strategies, livestock, livelihood

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17 Marketing of Non Timber Forest Products and Forest Management in Kaffa Biosphere Reserve, Ethiopia

Authors: Amleset Haile

Abstract:

Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are harvested for both subsistence and commercial use and play a key role in the livelihoods of millions of rural people. Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are important in rural southwest Ethiopia, Kaffa as a source of household income. market players at various levels in marketing chains are interviewed to getther information on elements of marketing system–products, product differentiation, value addition, pricing, promotion, distribution, and marketing chains. The study, therefore, was conducted in Kaffa Biosphere reserve of southwest Ethiopia with the main objective of assessing and analyzing the contribution of NTFPs to rural livelihood and to the conservation of the biosphere reserve and to identify factors influencing in the marketing of the NTFP. Five villages were selected based on their proximity gradient from Bonga town and availability of NTFP. Formal survey was carried out on rural households selected using stratified random sampling. The results indicate that Local people practice diverse livelihood activities mainly crops cultivation (cereals and cash crops) and livestock husbandry, gather forest products and off-farm/off-forest activities for surviva. NTFP trade is not a common phenomenon in southwest Ethiopia. The greatest opportunity exists for local level marketing of spices and other non timber forest products. Very little local value addition takes place within the region,and as a result local market players have little control. Policy interventions arc required to enhance the returns to local collectors, which will also contribute to sustainable management of forest resources in Kaffa biosphere reserve.

Keywords: forest management, biosphere reserve, marketing, local people

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16 Assessing Two Protocols for Positive Reinforcement Training in Captive Olive Baboons (Papio anubis)

Authors: H. Cano, P. Ferrer, N. Garcia, M. Popovic, J. Zapata

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Positive Reinforcement Training is a well-known methodology which has been reported frequently to be used in captive non-human primates. As a matter of fact, it is an invaluable tool for different purposes related with animal welfare, such as primate husbandry and environmental enrichment. It is also essential to perform some cognitive experiments. The main propose of this pilot study was to establish an efficient protocol to train captive olive baboons (Papio anubis). This protocol seems to be vital in the context of a larger research program in which it will be necessary to train a complete population of around 40 baboons. Baboons were studied at the Veterinary Research Farm of the University of Murcia. Temporally isolated animals were trained to perform three basic tasks. Firstly, they were required to take food prices directly from the researchers’ hands. Then a clicker sound or bridge stimulus was added each time the animal acceded to the reinforcement. Finally, they were trained to touch a target, consisted of a whip with a red ball in its end, with their hands or their nose. When the subject completed correctly this task, it was also exposed to the bridge stimulus and awarded with a food price, such as a portion of banana, orange, apple, peach or a raisin. Two protocols were tested during this experiment. In both of them, there were 6 series of 2min training periods each day. However, in the first protocol, the series consisted in 3 trials, whereas in the second one, in each series there were 5 trials. A reliable performance was obtained with only 6 days of training in the case of the 5-trials protocol. However, with the 3-trials one, 26 days of training were needed. As a result, the 5-trials protocol seems to be more effective than the 3-trials one, in order to teach these three basic tasks to olive baboons. In consequence, it will be used to train the rest of the colony.

Keywords: captive primates, olive baboon, positive reinforcement training, Papio anubis, training

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15 The Role of Institutions in Community Wildlife Conservation in Zimbabwe

Authors: Herbert Ntuli, Edwin Muchapondwa

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This study used a sample of 336 households and community level data from 30 communities around the Gonarezhou National Park in Zimbabwe to analyse the association between ability to self-organize or cooperation and institutions on one hand and the relationship between success of biodiversity outcomes and cooperation on the other hand. Using both the ordinary least squares and instrumental variables estimation with heteroskedasticity-based instruments, our results confirmed that sound institutions are indeed an important ingredient for cooperation in the respective communities and cooperation positively and significantly affects biodiversity outcomes. Group size, community level trust, the number of stakeholders and punishment were found to be important variables explaining cooperation. From a policy perspective, our results show that external enforcement of rules and regulations does not necessarily translate into sound ecological outcomes but better outcomes are attainable when punishment is rather endogenized by local communities. This seems to suggest that communities should rather be supported in such a way that robust institutions that are tailor made to suit the needs of local condition will emerge that will in turn facilitate good environmental husbandry. Cooperation, training, benefits, distance from the nearest urban canter, distance from the fence, social capital average age of household head, fence and information sharing were found to be very important variables explaining the success of biodiversity outcomes ceteris paribus. Government programmes should target capacity building in terms of institutional capacity and skills development in order to have a positive impact on biodiversity. Hence, the role of stakeholders (e.g., NGOs) in capacity building and government effort should complement each other to ensure that the necessary resources are mobilized and all communities receive the necessary training and resources.

Keywords: institutions, self-organize, common pool resources, wildlife, conservation, Zimbabwe

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14 Interaction or Conflict: Addressing Modern Trans-Himalayan Pastoralism and Wildlife

Authors: Amit Kaushik

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Equus kiang kiang is an indigenous large-bodied herbivore species, and in India, it is restricted to limited geographies of Ladakh. One of such areas is the Tsokar Basin. With the rise in global pashmina demand, the livestock numbers have grown significantly. Previous studies have reported conflict between a nomadic pastoral community, the Changpas, and kiang. Absentee pastoralism (in lieu of pure pastoralism) and tourism are two major economic activities among the local people. However, the social, economic, political, and ecological changes are inevitable in such a contemporary system. The study examines several factors influencing the local pastoral economy and focuses on the presence of two non-human cohabitants, kiang, and the wolf. This study used semi-structured interviews and vehicle count method in four different seasons. The results show that people perceived kiang as a threat but also reveal a level of tolerance towards them. The locals predicted high kiang numbers ranging from 200-3000 in the basin and contrastingly ranked them behind wolves, which are very few in numbers. Due to a lack of scientific pieces of evidence, the kiang population status remains obscure, and local peoples’ concerns remain unaddressed. But how this competitive dysfunctionality does take place? On one side, the rural development or the animal husbandry department aims at developing the area by providing stall-feed and tourism, whereas, on another side, the wildlife department emphasizes wildlife conservation. Therefore, the managers and planners may need to be cautious about the local socio-ecological complexities and may require inter-departmental communications. The study concludes that an interdisciplinary inquiry may be an important tool in understanding such a precarious situation and may be used in the policy-making processes.

Keywords: coexistence, human-livestock-wildlife interactions, interdisciplinary approach, kiang, policymaking, tsokar.

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13 Comparative Study on the Social Behaviour of Sambar Deer (Rusa unicolor) in Captive Facilities in Peninsular Malaysia

Authors: Kushaal Selvarajah, Geetha Annavi, Mohd Noor Hisham Mohd Nadzir

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Sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) was uplisted from Least Concern to Vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red list in 2015 due to drastic population decline in the wild throughout its geographical range. Sambar deer is a valued prey for the highly endangered species such as the Malayan tiger. Ex-situ conservation efforts, i.e., captive breeding, initiated by local government to boost sambar deer numbers in captivity and to reintroduce into the wild to support a higher number of tigers, consistent with the goal of our National Tiger Conservation Action Plan. The reproductive success of sambar deer and their welfare management practices in captivity are important components for effective captive breeding programs. However, there is a lack of study carried out on sambar deer in recent years and their behavior in captivity. Three captive sites (Zoo Negara, Zoo Taiping, and Sungkai Conservation Centre) were selected and observed for an average of 40 days each site (6 hours/day). A Generalized Linear Model (GLM) was used to determine the correlation between social behavior and extrinsic parameters. A comparison between all three captive sites showed the strongest correlation in behavioral variability, followed by a time of observation. This proves that there is a difference between in behavioral consistency and frequency between herds across captive sites rising to the possibility of external factors that are influential. Time of day of observation also had significant influence on certain extrinsic parameters being skewed to morning observations and this could be due to an adaptive behavior to the feeding time in the captive sites being in the morning which caused the deer to be resting towards the afternoon. Extensive study need to be done on sambar deer to pinpoint the specifics and better understanding of these possible influential factors in their behavior.

Keywords: behaviour ecology, captivity, ex-situ conservation, husbandry

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12 Yield and Sward Composition Responses of Natural Grasslands to Treatments Meeting Sustainability

Authors: D. Díaz Fernández, I. Csízi, K. Pető, G. Nagy

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An outstanding part of the animal products are based on the grasslands, due to the fact that the grassland ecosystems can be found all over the globe. In places where economical and successful crop production cannot be managed, the grassland based animal husbandry can be an efficient way of food production. In addition, these ecosystems have an important role in carbon sequestration, and with their rich flora – and fauna connected to it – in conservation of biodiversity. The protection of nature, and the sustainable agriculture is getting more and more attention in the European Union, but, looking at the consumers’ needs, the production of healthy food cannot be neglected either. Because of these facts, the effects of two specific composts - which are officially authorized in organic farming, in Agri-environment Schemes and Natura 2000 programs – on grass yields and sward compositions were investigated in a field trial. The investigation took place in Hungary, on a natural grassland based on solonetz soil. Three rates of compost (10 t/ha, 20 t/ha, 30 t/ha) were tested on 3 m X 10 m experimental plots. Every treatment had four replications and both type of compost had four-four control plots too, this way 32 experimental plots were included in the investigations. The yield of the pasture was harvested two-times (in May and in September) and before cutting the plots, measurements on botanical compositions were made. Samples for laboratory analysis were also taken. Dry matter yield of pasture showed positive responses to the rates of composts. The increase in dry matter yield was partly due to some positive changes in sward composition. It means that the proportions of grass species with higher yield potential increased in ground cover of the sward without depressing out valuable native species of diverse natural grasslands. The research results indicate that the use of organic compost can be an efficient way to increase grass yields in a sustainable way.

Keywords: compost application, dry matter yield, native grassland, sward composition

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11 Management Practices in Holding Pens in Pig’s Slaughterhouses in the Valle De Aburrá, Antioquia and Animal Welfare

Authors: Natalia Uribe Corrales, Santiago Henao Villegas

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Introduction: The management of pigs in the holding pens at the slaughterhouses is a key point to minimize levels of stress and fear, improve efficiency, maintain a good quality of meat and avoid economic losses. Holding pens should guarantee drinking water continuously, a minimum space of 1.2 m2/ animal; As well as an adequate management in the conduction of the animals towards stun. Objective: To characterize the management practices in holding pens in slaughterhouses in the Valle de Aburrá. Methods: A descriptive cross - sectional study was carried out in Valle de Aburrá benefit plants, which were authorized by National Institute for Food and Medicine Surveillance (INVIMA). Variables such as management mechanisms to the pens, time of housing, water supply, load density, vocalization, slips and falls of the animals in the pens and mechanism of conduction towards desensitization were analyzed. Results: 225 pigs were analyzed, finding that 35.6% were lowered with slaps from the trucks to the waiting pens; The lairage time was greater than 10 hours in 16% of the animals; 12.9% of pigs had no water permanently; 40.9% was subjected to a high load density, while 19.6% had a low load density. Regarding aspects of animal welfare, 37.3% presented high vocalizations; 29.3% and 14.2% presented slips or falls respectively. Regarding the mechanism of conduction towards desensitization, slapping was used in 56% and electrical prod in 4%. Conclusions: It is necessary to continue promoting the learning of the densities of load, since both high and low densities generate inconveniences in animal welfare, favoring the appearance of lesions and stress in the animals. Also, to promote the rule of permanent water in the pens and a time of housing less than 10 hours. In relation to the driving mechanisms, it is necessary to continue animal husbandry campaigns, encouraging the use of other alternatives such as boards or panels to assist the movement of pigs.

Keywords: animal welfare, quality of meat, swine, waiting pens

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10 Integrated Livestock and Cropping System and Sustainable Rural Development in India: A Case Study

Authors: Nizamuddin Khan

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Integrated livestock and cropping system is very old agricultural practice since antiquity. It is an eco-friendly and sustainable farming system in which both the resources are optimally and rationally utilized through the recycling and re-utilization of their by-products. Indian farmers follow in- farm integrated farming system unlike in developed countries where both farm and off-farm system prevailed. The data on different components of the integrated farming system is very limited and that too is not widely available in published form. The primary source is the only option for understanding the mechanism, process, evaluation and performance of integrated livestock cropping system. Researcher generated data through the field survey of sampled respondents from sampled villages from Bulandshahr district of Uttar Pradesh. The present paper aims to understand the component group of system, degree, and level of integration, level of generation of employment, income, improvement in farm ecology, the economic viability of farmers and check in rural-urban migration. The study revealed that area witnessed intra farm integration in which both livestock and cultivation of crops take place on the same farm. Buffalo, goat, and poultry are common components of integration. Wheat, paddy, sugarcane and horticulture are among the crops. The farmers are getting 25% benefit more than those who do not follow the integrated system. Livestock husbandry provides employment and income through the year, especially during agriculture offseason. 80% of farmers viewed that approximately 35% of the total expenditure incurred is met from the livestock sector. Landless, marginal and small farmers are highly benefited from agricultural integration. About 70% of farmers acknowledged that using wastes of animals and crops the soil ecology is significantly maintained. Further, the integrated farming system is helpful in reducing rural to urban migration. An incentive with credit facilities, assured marketing, technological aid and government support is urgently needed for sustainable development of agriculture and farmers.

Keywords: integrated, recycle, employment, soil ecology, sustainability

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9 Influence of Ammonia Emissions on Aerosol Formation in Northern and Central Europe

Authors: A. Aulinger, A. M. Backes, J. Bieser, V. Matthias, M. Quante

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High concentrations of particles pose a threat to human health. Thus, legal maximum concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in ambient air have been steadily decreased over the years. In central Europe, the inorganic species ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate make up a large fraction of fine particles. Many studies investigate the influence of emission reductions of sulfur- and nitrogen oxides on aerosol concentration. Here, we focus on the influence of ammonia (NH3) emissions. While emissions of sulphate and nitrogen oxides are quite well known, ammonia emissions are subject to high uncertainty. This is due to the uncertainty of location, amount, time of fertilizer application in agriculture, and the storage and treatment of manure from animal husbandry. For this study, we implemented a crop growth model into the SMOKE emission model. Depending on temperature, local legislation, and crop type individual temporal profiles for fertilizer and manure application are calculated for each model grid cell. Additionally, the diffusion from soils and plants and the direct release from open and closed barns are determined. The emission data was used as input for the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Comparisons to observations from the EMEP measurement network indicate that the new ammonia emission module leads to a better agreement of model and observation (for both ammonia and ammonium). Finally, the ammonia emission model was used to create emission scenarios. This includes emissions based on future European legislation, as well as a dynamic evaluation of the influence of different agricultural sectors on particle formation. It was found that a reduction of ammonia emissions by 50% lead to a 24% reduction of total PM2.5 concentrations during winter time in the model domain. The observed reduction was mainly driven by reduced formation of ammonium nitrate. Moreover, emission reductions during winter had a larger impact than during the rest of the year.

Keywords: ammonia, ammonia abatement strategies, ctm, seasonal impact, secondary aerosol formation

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8 Management Practices and Economic Performance of Smallholder Dairy Cattle Farms in Southern Vietnam

Authors: Ngoc-Hieu Vu

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Although dairy production in Vietnam is a relatively new agricultural activity, milk production increased remarkably in recent years. Smallholders are still the main drivers for this development, especially in the southern part of the country. However, information on the farming practices is very limited. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize husbandry practices, educational experiences, decision-making practices, constraints, income and expenses of smallholder dairy farms in Southern Vietnam. A total of 200 farms, located in the regions Ho Chi Minh (HCM, N=80 farms), Lam Dong (N=40 farms), Binh Duong (N=40 farms) and Long An (N=40 farms) were included. Between October 2013 and December 2014 farmers were interviewed twice. On average, farms owned 3.200m2, 2.000m2, and 193m2 of pasture, cropping and housing area, respectively. The number of total, milking and dry cows, heifers, and calves were 20.4, 11.6, 4.7, 3.3, and 2.9 head. The number of lactating dairy cows was higher (p<0.001) in HCM (15.5) and Lam Dong (14.7) than in Binh Duong (6.7) and Long An (10.7). Animals were mainly crossbred Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows with at least 75% HF origin (84%), whereas a higher (P<0.001) percentage of purebred HF was found in HCM and Lam Dong and crossbreds in Binh Duong and Long An. Animals were mainly raised in tie-stalls (94%) and machine-milked (80%). Farmers used their own replacement animals (76%), and both genetic and phenotypic information (67%) for selecting sires. Farmers were predominantly educated at primary school level (53%). Major constraints for dairy farming were the lack of capital (43%), diseases (17%), marketing (22%), lack of knowledge (8%) and feed (7%). Monthly profit per lactating cow was superior in Lam Dong (2,817 thousand VND) and HCM (2,798 thousand VND) compared to other regions in Long An (2,597 thousand VND), and Binh Duong (1,775 thousand VND). Regional differences may be mainly attributed to environmental factors, urbanization, and particularly governmental support and the availability of extension and financial institutions. Results from this study provide important information on farming practices of smallholders in Southern Vietnam that are useful in determining regions that need to be addressed by authorities in order to improve dairy production.

Keywords: dairy farms, milk yield, Southern Vietnam, socio-economics

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7 Livestock Depredation by Large Predators: Patterns, Perceptions and Implications for Conservation and Livelihoods in Karakoram Mountain Ranges

Authors: Muhammad Zafar Khan, Babar Khan, Muhammad Saeed Awan, Farida Begum

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Livestock depredation has greater significance in pastoral societies like Himalaya-Karakoram-Hindu Kush mountain ranges. The dynamics of depredation by large predators (snow leopard and wolf) and its implications for conservation and livelihoods of local people was investigated by household surveys in Hushey valley of Central Karakoram National Park, Pakistan. We found that, during five years (2008-12) 90% of the households in the valley had lost their livestock to snow leopard and wolf, accounting for 4.3% of the total livestock holding per year. On average each household had to bear a loss of 0.8 livestock head per year, equivalent to Pak Rupees 9,853 (US$ 101), or 10% of the average annual cash income. Majority of the predation incidences occurred during late summer in alpine pastures, mostly at night when animals were not penned properly. The prey animals in most of the cases were females or young ones. Of the total predation incidences, 60% were attributed to snow leopard, 37% to wolf, while in 3% the predator was unknown. The fear of snow leopard is greater than that of wolf. As immediate response on predation, majority of the local people (64%, n=99) preferred to report the case to their village conservation committee, 32% had no response while only 1% tended to kill the predator. The perceived causes of predation were: poor guarding practices (77%); reduction in wild prey (13%) and livestock being the favourite food of predators (10%). The most preferred strategies for predator management, according to the respondents were improved and enhanced guarding of livestock (72%), followed by increasing wild prey (18%) and lethal control (10%). To strike a balance between predator populations and pastoral livelihoods, better animal husbandry practices should be promoted including: improved guarding through collective hiring of skilled shepherds; corral improvement and use of guard dogs.

Keywords: Panthera unica, Canis lupus, Karakoram, human-carnivore conflict, predation

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6 Prevalence and Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolated from Mastitic Dairy Cattle in Canada

Authors: Satwik Majumder, Dongyun Jung, Jennifer Ronholm, Saji George

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Bovine mastitis is the most common infectious disease in dairy cattle, with major economic implications for the dairy industry worldwide. Continuous monitoring for the emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among bacterial isolates from dairy farms is vital not only for animal husbandry but also for public health. In this study, the prevalence of AMR in 113 Escherichia coli isolates from cases of bovine clinical mastitis in Canada was investigated. Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test with 18 antibiotics and microdilution method with three heavy metals (copper, zinc, and silver) was performed to determine the antibiotic and heavy-metal susceptibility. Resistant strains were assessed for efflux and ß-lactamase activities besides assessing biofilm formation and hemolysis. Whole-genome sequences for each of the isolates were examined to detect the presence of genes corresponding to the observed AMR and virulence factors. Phenotypic analysis revealed that 32 isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics, and 107 showed resistance against at least one heavy metal. Quinolones and silver were the most efficient against the tested isolates. Among the AMR isolates, AcrAB-TolC efflux activity and ß-lactamase enzyme activities were detected in 13 and 14 isolates, respectively. All isolates produced biofilm but with different capacities, and 33 isolates showed α-hemolysin activity. A positive correlation (Pearson r = +0.89) between efflux pump activity and quantity of biofilm was observed. Genes associated with aggregation, adhesion, cyclic di-GMP, quorum sensing were detected in the AMR isolates, corroborating phenotype observations. This investigation showed the prevalence of AMR in E. coli isolates from bovine clinical mastitis. The results also suggest the inadequacy of antimicrobials with a single mode of action to curtail AMR bacteria with multiple mechanisms of resistance and virulence factors. Therefore, it calls for combinatorial therapy for the effective management of AMR infections in dairy farms and combats its potential transmission to the food supply chain through milk and dairy products.

Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, E. coli, bovine mastitis, antibiotics, heavy-metals, efflux pump, ß-lactamase enzyme, biofilm, whole-genome sequencing

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5 Serological Evidence of Enzootic Bovine Leukosis in Dairy Cattle Herds in the United Arab Emirates

Authors: Nabeeha Hassan Abdel Jalil, Lulwa Saeed Al Badi, Mouza Ghafan Alkhyeli, Khaja Mohteshamuddin, Ahmad Al Aiyan, Mohamed Elfatih Hamad, Robert Barigye

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The present study was done to elucidate the prevalence of enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) in the UAE, the seroprevalence rates of EBL in dairy herds from the Al Ain area, Abu Dhabi (AD) and indigenous cattle at the Al Ain livestock market (AALM) were assessed. Of the 949 sera tested by ELISA, 657 were from adult Holstein-Friesians from three farms and 292 from indigenous cattle at the AALM. The level of significance between the proportions of seropositive cattle were analyzed by the Marascuilo procedure and questionnaire data on husbandry and biosecurity practices evaluated. Overall, the aggregated farm and AALM data demonstrated a seroprevalence of 25.9%, compared to 37.0% for the study farms, and 1.0% for the indigenous cattle. Additionally, the seroprevalence rates at farms #1, #2 and #3 were 54.7%, 0.0%, and 26.3% respectively. Except for farm #2 and the AALM, statistically significant differences were noted between the proportions of seropositive cattle for farms #1 and #2 (Critical Range or CR=0.0803), farms #1 and #3 (p=0.1069), and farms #2 and #3 (CR=0.0707), farm #1 and the AALM (CR=0.0819), and farm #3 and the AALM (CR=0.0726). Also, the proportions of seropositive animals on farm #1 were 9.8%, 59.8%, 29.3%, and 1.2% in the 12-36, 37-72, 73-108, and 109-144-mo-old age groups respectively compared to 21.5%, 60.8%, 15.2%, and 2.5% in the respective age groups for farm #2. On both farms and the AALM, the 37-72-mo-old age group showed the highest EBL seroprevalence rate while all the 57 cattle on farm #2 were seronegative. Additionally, farms #1 and #3 had 3,130 and 2,828 intensively managed Holstein-Friesian cattle respectively, and all animals were routinely immunized against several diseases except EBL. On both farms #1 and #3, artificial breeding was practiced using semen sourced from the USA, and USA and Canada respectively, all farms routinely quarantined new stock, and farm #1 previously imported dairy cattle from an unspecified country, and farm #3 from the Netherlands, Australia and South Africa. While farm #1 provided no information on animal nutrition, farm #3 cited using hay, concentrates, and ad lib water. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first serological evidence of EBL in the UAE and as previously reported, the seroprevalence rates are comparatively higher in the intensively managed dairy herds than in indigenous cattle. As two of the study farms previously sourced cattle and semen from overseas, biosecurity protocols need to be revisited to avoid inadvertent EBL incursion and the possibility of regional transboundary disease spread also needs to be assessed. After the proposed molecular studies have adduced additional data, the relevant UAE animal health authorities may need to develop evidence-based EBL control policies and programs.

Keywords: cattle, enzootic bovine leukosis, seroprevalence, UAE

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4 Toxicity and Biodegradability of Veterinary Antibiotic Tiamulin

Authors: Gabriela Kalcikova, Igor Bosevski, Ula Rozman, Andreja Zgajnar Gotvajn

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Antibiotics are extensively used in human medicine and also in animal husbandry to prevent or control infections. Recently, a lot of attention has been put on veterinary antibiotics, because their global consumption is increasing and it is expected to be 106.600 tons in 2030. Most of veterinary antibiotics are introduced into the environment via animal manure, which is used as fertilizer. One of such veterinary antibiotics is tiamulin. It is used the form of fumarate for treatment of pig and poultry. It is used against prophylaxis of dysentery, pneumonia and mycroplasmal infections, but its environmental impact is practically unknown. Tiamulin has been found very persistent in animal manure and thus it is expected that can be, during rainfalls, transported into the aquatic environment and affect various organisms. For assessment of its environmental impact, it is necessary to evaluate its biodegradability and toxicity to various organisms from different levels of a food chain. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate ready biodegradability and toxicity of tiamulin fumarate to various organisms. Bioassay used included luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri heterotrophic and nitrifying microorganisms of activated sludge, water flea Daphnia magna and duckweed Lemna minor. For each species, EC₅₀ values were calculated. Biodegradability test was used for determination of ready biodegradability and it provides information about biodegradability of tiamulin under the most common environmental conditions. Results of our study showed that tiamulin differently affects selected organisms. The most sensitive organisms were water fleas with 48hEC₅₀ = 14.2 ± 4.8 mg/L and duckweed with 168hEC₅₀ = 22.6 ± 0.8 mg/L. Higher concentrations of tiamulin (from 10 mg/L) significantly affected photosynthetic pigments content in duckweed and concentrations above 80 mg/L cause visible chlorosis. It is in agreement with previous studies showing significant effect of tiamulin on green algae and cyanobacteria. Tiamuline has a low effect on microorganisms. The lower toxicity was observed for heterotrophic microorganisms (30minEC₅₀ = 1656 ± 296 mg/L), than Vibrio fisheri (30minEC₅₀ = 492 ± 21) and the most sensitive organisms were nitrifying microorganisms (30minEC₅₀ = 183 ± 127 mg/L). The reason is most probably the mode of action of tiamulin being effective to gram-positive bacteria while gram-negative (e.g., Vibrio fisheri) are more tolerant to tiamulin. Biodegradation of tiamulin was very slow with a long lag-phase being 20 days. The maximal degradation reached 40 ± 2 % in 43 days of the test and tiamulin as other antibiotics (e.g. ciprofloxacin) are not easily biodegradable. Tiamulin is widely used antibiotic in veterinary medicine and thus present in the environment. According to our results, tiamulin can have negative effect on water fleas and duckweeds, but the concentrations are several magnitudes higher than that found in any environmental compartment. Tiamulin is low toxic to tested microorganisms, but it is very low biodegradable and thus possibly persistent in the environment.

Keywords: antibiotics, biodegradability, tiamulin, toxicity

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3 A Drop of Water for the Thirsty Ground: Implementing Drip-Irrigation System as an Alternative to the Existing System to Promote Sustainable Livelihoods in the Archipelagic Dryland East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia

Authors: F. L. Benu, I. W. Mudita, R. L. Natonis

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East Nusa Tenggara, together with part of East Java, West Nusa Tenggara, and Maluku, has been included as part of global drylands defined according to the ratio of annual precipitation (P) and annual potential evaporation (PET) and major vegetation types of grassland and savannah ecosystems. These tropical drylands are unique because, whereas drylands in other countries are mostly continental, here they are archipelagic. These archipelagic drylands are also unique in terms of being included because of more on their major vegetation types than of their P/PET ratio. Slash-and-burn cultivation and free roaming animal husbandry are two major livelihoods being widely practiced, along with alternative seasonal livelihood such as traditional fishing. Such livelihoods are vulnerable in various respects, especially because of drought, which becomes more unpredictable in the face of climate changes. To cope with such vulnerability, semi-intensive farming using drip irrigation is implemented as an appropriate technology with the goal of promoting a more sustainable alternative to the existing livelihoods. The implementation was started in 2016 with a pilot system at the university field laboratory in Kupang in which various designs of installation were tested. The modified system consisting of an uplifted water reservoir and solar-powered pump was tested in Papela, the District of Rote-Ndao, in 2017 to convince fishermen who had been involved in illegal fishing in Australia-Indonesia transboundary waters, to adopt small-scale farming as a more sustainable alternative to their existing livelihoods. The system was again tested in a larger coverage in Oesena, the District of Kupang, in 2018 to convince slash-and-burn cultivators to adopt an environmentally friendlier cultivation system. From the implementation of the modified system in both sites, the participating fishermen in Papela were able to manage the system under tight water supply to grow chili pepper, tomatoes, and watermelon and the slash-and-burn cultivators in Oesena to grow chili pepper in a more efficient water use than water use in a conventional irrigation system. The gross margin obtained from growing chili pepper, tomatoes, and watermelon in Papela and from growing chili pepper in Oesena showed that small-scale farming using drip irrigation system was a promising alternative to local people in generating cash income to support their livelihoods. However, before promoting this appropriate technology as a more sustainable alternative to the existing livelihoods elsewhere in the region, better understanding on social-related contexts of the implementation is needed.

Keywords: archipelagic drylands, drip irrigation system, East Nusa Tenggara, sustainable livelihoods

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2 Association of Ovine Lymphocyte Antigen (OLA) with the Parasitic Infestation in Kashmiri Sheep Breeds

Authors: S. A. Bhat, Ahmad Arif, Muneeb U. Rehman, Manzoor R Mir, S. Bilal, Ishraq Hussain, H. M Khan, S. Shanaz, M. I Mir, Sabhiya Majid

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Background: Geologically Climatic conditions of the state range from sub-tropical (Jammu), temperate (Kashmir) to cold artic (Ladakh) zones, which exerts significant influence on its agro-climatic conditions. Gastrointestinal parasitism is a major problem in sheep production worldwide. Materials and Methods: The present study was to evaluate the resistance status of sheep breeds reared in Kashmir Valley for natural resistance against Haemonchus contortus by natural pasture challenge infection. Ten microsatellite markers were used in the study for evaluation of association of Ovar-MHC with parasitic resistance in association with biochemical and parasitological parameters. Following deworming, 500 animals were subjected to selected contaminated pastures in a vicinity of the livestock farms of SKUAST-K and Sheep Husbandry Kashmir. For each animal about 10-15 ml blood was collected aseptically for molecular and biochemical analysis. Weekly fecal samples (3g) were taken, directly from the rectum of all experimental animals and examined for Fecal egg count (FEC) with modified McMaster technique. Packed cell volume (PCV) was determined within 2-5 h of blood collection, all the biochemical parameters were determined in serum by semi automated analyzer. DNA was extracted from all the blood samples with phenol-chloroform method. Microsatellite analysis was done by denaturing sequencing gel electrophoresis Results: Overall sheep from Bakerwal breed followed by Corriediale breed performed relatively better in the trial; however difference between breeds remained low. Both significant (P<0.05) and non-significant differences with respect to resistance against haemonchosis were noted at different intervals in all the parameters.. All the animals were typed for the microsatellites INRA132, OarCP73, DRB1 (U0022), OLA-DQA2, BM1818, TFAP2A, HH56, BM1815, IL-3 and BM-1258. An association study including the effect of FEC, PCV, TSP, SA, LW, and the number of alleles within each marker was done. All microsatellite markers showed degree of heterozygosity of 0.72, 0.72, 0.75, 0.62, 0.84, 0.69, 0.66, 0.65, 0.73 and 0.68 respectively. Significant association between alleles and the parameters measured were only found for the OarCP73, OLA-DQA2 and BM1815 microsatellite marker. Standard alleles of the above markers showed significant effect on the TP, SA and body weight. The three sheep breeds included in the study responded differently to the nematode infection, which may be attributed to their differences in their natural resistance against nematodes. Conclusion: Our data confirms that some markers (OarCP73, OLA-DQA2 and BM1815) within Ovar-MHC are associated with phenotypic parameters of resistance and suggest superiority of Bakerwal sheep breed in natural resistance against Haemonchus contortus.

Keywords: Ovar-Mhc, ovine leukocyte antigen (OLA), sheep, parasitic resistance, Haemonchus contortus, phenotypic & genotypic markers

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1 Traditional Practices of Conserving Biodiversity: A Case Study around Jim Corbett National Park, Uttarakhand, India

Authors: Rana Parween, Rob Marchant

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With the continued loss of global biodiversity despite the application of modern conservation techniques, it has become crucial to investigate non-conventional methods. Accelerated destruction of ecosystems due to altered land use, climate change, cultural and social change, necessitates the exploration of society-biodiversity attitudes and links. While the loss of species and their extinction is a well-known and well-documented process that attracts much-needed attention from researchers, academics, government and non-governmental organizations, the loss of traditional ecological knowledge and practices is more insidious and goes unnoticed. The growing availability of 'indirect experiences' such as the internet and media are leading to a disaffection towards nature and the 'Extinction of Experience'. Exacerbated by the lack of documentation of traditional practices and skills, there is the possibility for the 'extinction' of traditional practices and skills before they are fully recognized and captured. India, as a mega-biodiverse country, is also known for its historical conservation strategies entwined in traditional beliefs. Indigenous communities hold skillsets, knowledge, and traditions that have accumulated over multiple generations and may play an important role in conserving biodiversity today. This study explores the differences in knowledge and attitudes towards conserving biodiversity, of three different stakeholder groups living around Jim Corbett National Park, based on their age, traditions, and association with the protected area. A triangulation designed multi-strategy investigation collected qualitative and quantitative data through a questionnaire survey of village elders, the general public, and forest officers. Following an inductive approach to analyzing qualitative data, the thematic content analysis was followed. All coding and analysis were completed using NVivo 11. Although the village elders and some general public had vast amounts of traditional knowledge, most of it was related to animal husbandry and the medicinal value of plants. Village elders were unfamiliar with the concept of the term ‘biodiversity’ albeit their way of life and attitudes ensured that they care for the ecosystem without having the scientific basis underpinning biodiversity conservation. Inherently, village elders were keen to conserve nature; the superimposition of governmental policies without any tangible benefit or consultation was seen as detrimental. Alienating villagers and consequently the village elders who are the reservoirs of traditional knowledge would not only be damaging to the social network of the area but would also disdain years of tried and tested techniques held by the elders. Forest officers advocated for biodiversity and conservation education for women and children. Women, across all groups, when questioned about nature conservation, showed more interest in learning and participation. Biodiversity not only has an ethical and cultural value, but also plays a role in ecosystem function and, thus, provides ecosystem services and supports livelihoods. Therefore, underpinning and using traditional knowledge and incorporating them into programs of biodiversity conservation should be explored with a sense of urgency.

Keywords: biological diversity, mega-biodiverse countries, traditional ecological knowledge, society-biodiversity links

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