Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: chalcolithic

6 The Study of Indigenous Communities in Sefidkuh Makran, the Showcase of Prehistoric Societies in the 21st Century, Based on Ethnoarchaeological Studies

Authors: Hossein Vahedi, Zahra Soleymani Fard


SefidKuh area in Baluchistan, Iran, is one of the impossible areas which the focused archeological investigations have not been on it. In the Sefidkuh area, there are colonies as if they were stopped in the Neolithic and Chalcolithic ages. These colonies exhibit culturally specific behaviors, which their study can reveal much of the cultural nature of the Neolithic, Chalcolithic inhabitants of the region. In the villages of this area, still, circular architecture is used in different types. The political management of the villages in the region is also the responsibility of Khan, whose characteristics can be compared to the prehistoric era. These people's livelihoods include hunting, animal husbandry, horticulture, and limited crop storage. Residents of Sefidkuh use the exchange of goods to obtain needed supplies that they themselves cannot produce. In this area, there are central location villages that are quite similar to the cluster model, and the Great Khan leads the surrounding villages.

Keywords: archaeology, social structure, neolithic, chalcolithic, Sefidkuh, Baluchistan

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5 Human and Environment Coevolution: The Chalcolithic Tell Settlements from Muntenia and Dobrogea, South-Eastern Romania

Authors: Constantin Haita


The chalcolithic tell settlements from south-eastern Romania, attributed to Gumelnița culture, are characterised by a well-defined surface, marked often by delimitation structures, a succession of many layers of construction, destruction, and rebuilding, and a well-structured area of occupation: built spaces, passage areas, waste zones. Settlements of tell type are located in the river valleys –on erosion remnants, alluvial bars or small islands, at the border of the valleys– on edges or prominences of Pleistocene terraces, lower Holocene terraces, and banks of lakes. This study integrates data on the geographical position, the morphological background, and the general stratigraphy of these important settlements. The correlation of the spatial distribution with the geomorphological units of each area of evolution creates an image of the natural landscape in which they occurred. The sedimentological researches achieved in the floodplain area of Balta Ialomiței showed important changes in the alluvial activity of Danube, after the Chalcolithic period (ca. 6500 - 6000 BP), to Iron Age and Middle Ages. The micromorphological analysis, consisting in thin section interpretation, at the microscopic scale, of sediments and soils in an undisturbed state, allowed the interpretation of the identified sedimentary facies, in terms of mode of formation and anthropic activities. Our studied cases reflect some distinct situations, correlating either with the geomorphological background or with the vertical development, the presence of delimiting structures and the internal organization. The characteristics of tells from this area bring significant information about the human habitation of Lower Danube in Prehistory.

Keywords: chalcolithic, micromorphology, Romania, sedimentology, tell settlements

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4 Historical Geography of Lykaonia Region

Authors: Asuman Baldiran, Erdener Pehlivan


In this study, the root of the name Lykaonia and the geographical area defined as Lykaonia Region are mentioned. In this context, information concerning the settlements of Paleolithic Age, Neolithic Age and Chalcolithic Age are given place. Particularly the settlements belonging to Classical Age are localized and brief information about the history of these settlements is provided. In the light of this information, roads of Antique period in the region are evaluated.

Keywords: ancient cities, central anatolia, historical geography, Lykaonia region

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3 The Canaanite Trade Network between the Shores of the Mediterranean Sea

Authors: Doaa El-Shereef


The Canaanite civilization was one of the early great civilizations of the Near East, they influenced and been influenced from the civilizations of the ancient world especially the Egyptian and Mesopotamia civilizations. The development of the Canaanite trade started from the Chalcolithic Age to the Iron Age through the oldest trade route in the Middle East. This paper will focus on defining the Canaanites and from where did they come from and the meaning of the term Canaan and how the Ancient Manuscripts define the borders of the land of Canaan and this essay will describe the Canaanite trade route and their exported goods such as cedar wood, and pottery.

Keywords: archaeology, bronze age, Canaanite, colonies, Massilia, pottery, shipwreck, vineyards

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2 Theory about the Gebel El-Arak Knife: Egyptian Knife with Canaanite Relief

Authors: Doaa El-Shereef


This paper will focus on proving a theory that it is an Egyptian knife with Canaanite relief and will discuss the nature of the Gebel el-Arak Knife and the civilization to which it belongs and the relationship of the Canaanite deity with Mount Abydos in Egypt, and the influence between the ancient Egyptian religion and the Canaanite religion and their effect on each other. Finally, the paper will discuss in full detail the engraving of the two faces of the knife handle and analyze the register on the front face, which is the scene of the two lions engraved, and between them, an old man symbolized as the deity in the middle and compared it with other drawings similar in the Egyptian civilization. The paper will also discuss the registers on the back face, which are the engravings of a battle, soldiers, uniforms, and boats, and how the back face describes a water battle between three Egyptian boats and two foreign ships. In addition, it will prove that those foreign ships were not Mesopotamian ships because, in the period to which the knife of Gebel Al-Arak belongs, between 3300-3100 BC, there were no battles or trade exchanges between Egypt and Mesopotamia on sea routes. However, there was already a strong land and sea trade between Canaan and Egypt during Chalcolithic Age (4500-3500 BC), as described in many primary sources.

Keywords: Canaan, Egypt, Gebel el-Arak Knife, Louvre

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1 Identification of the Usage of Some Special Places in the Prehistoric Site of Tapeh Zagheh through Multi-Elemental Chemical Analysis of the Soil Samples

Authors: Iraj Rezaei, Kamal Al Din Niknami


Tapeh Zagheh is an important prehistoric site located in the central plateau of Iran, which has settlement layers of the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods. For this research, 38 soil samples were collected from different parts of the site, as well as two samples from its outside as witnesses. Then the samples were analyzed by XRF. The purpose of this research was to identify some places with special usage for human activities in Tapeh Zagheh by measuring the amount of some special elements in the soil. The result of XRF analysis shows a significant amount of P and K in samples No.3 (fourth floor) and No.4 (third floor), probably due to certain activities such as food preparation and consumption. Samples No.9 and No.10 can be considered suitable examples of the hearths of the prehistoric period in the central plateau of Iran. The color of these samples was completely darkened due to the presence of ash, charcoal, and burnt materials. According to the XRF results, the soil of these hearths has very high amounts of elements such as P, Ca, Mn, S, K, and significant amounts of Ti, Fe, and Na. In addition, the elemental composition of sample No. 14, which was taken from a home waster, also has very high amounts of P, Mn, Mg, Ti, and Fe and high amounts of K and Ca. Sample No. 11, which is related to soil containing large amounts of waster of the kiln, along with a very strong increase in Cl and Na, the amount of elements such as K, Mg, and S has also increased significantly. It seems that the reason for the increase of elements such as Ti and Fe in some Tapeh Zagheh floors (for example, samples number 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) was the use of materials such as ocher mud or fire ash in the composition of these floors. Sample No. 13, which was taken from an oven located in the FIX trench, has very high amounts of Mn, Ti, and Fe and high amounts of P and Ca. Sample No. 15, which is related to House No. VII (probably related to a pen or a place where animals were kept) has much more phosphate compared to the control samples, which is probably due to the addition of animal excrement and urine to the soil. Sample No. 29 was taken from the north of the industrial area of Zagheh village (place of pottery kilns). The very low amount of index elements in sample No. 29 shows that the industrial activities did not extend to the mentioned point, and therefore, the range of this point can be considered as the boundary between the residential part of the Zagheh village and its industrial part.

Keywords: prehistory, multi-elemental analysis, Tapeh Zagheh, XRF

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