Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 923

Search results for: ex-situ conservation

923 Snow Leopard Conservation in Nepal: Peoples` Perception on the Verge of Rural Livelihood

Authors: Bishnu Prasad Devkota

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Peoples` perception is reflected in their attitudes and presumably their behavior towards wildlife conservation. The success of wildlife conservation initiatives in the mountains of Nepal is heavily dependent on local people. Therefore, Nepal has emphasized the involvement of local people in wildlife conservation, especially in the mountainous region. Local peoples` perception towards snow leopard conservation in six mountainous protected area of Nepal was carried out conducting 300 household surveys and 90 face to face key informant interviews. The average livestock holding was 27.74 animals per household with depredation rate of 10.6 % per household per annum. Livestock was the source of 32.74% of the total mean annual income of each household. In average, the economic loss per household per annum due to livestock depredation was US $ 490. There was significant difference in people´s perception towards snow leopard conservation in protected areas of mountainous region of Nepal. These differences were due to economic, educational and cultural factors. 54.4% local people showed preference for snow leopard conservation. The perception of local people toward snow leopard was significantly difference by the economic status of local people. Involvement of local people in conservation activities had positive impact towards wildlife conservation in the mountain region of Nepal. Timely introducing incentive programs can be a supportive way for sustaining the conservation of snow leopards in the Nepalese Himalayas.

Keywords: economic loss, livestock depredation, local people, perception, snow leopard

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922 Transformation of the Traditional Landscape of Kabul Old City: A Study for Its Conservation

Authors: Mohammad Umar Azizi, Tetsuya Ando

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This study investigates the transformation of the traditional landscape of Kabul Old City through an examination of five case study areas. Based on physical observation, three types of houses are found: traditional, mixed and modern. Firstly, characteristics of the houses are described according to construction materials and the number of stories. Secondly, internal and external factors are considered in order to implement a conservation plan. Finally, an adaptive conservation plan is suggested to protect the traditional landscape of Kabul Old City.

Keywords: conservation, district 1, Kabul Old City, landscape, transformation, traditional houses

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921 Maintaining Biodiversity Through Environmental Conservation Awareness Program in Nigeria School Sectors

Authors: Oluwasegun A. Oke, Mayowa A. Abolaji, Oluwaseun A. Adefila

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Environmental problems have become a priority on the world political agenda for the last two decades and this is inevitably linked with the general degradation of our environment which calls for ultimate attention. Therefore, this study searched for better and more involving methods of imparting environmental knowledge to average learner with the view of creating awareness, increasing knowledge as well as changing their attitude positively towards conservation of the environment. The study also investigated the effectiveness of conservation club in creating awareness (among students) about environmental conservation. About 240 Students were randomly selected for data collection using validated instruments (questionnaires). T-test statistics, chi-square and simple percentage were the major statistical tools employed in data analysis. This study revealed that environmental conservation club plays a vital role in creating awareness as well as promoting students understanding of environmental issues to promote positive attitude towards natural environment.

Keywords: environmental conservation, biodiversity, awareness program, environmental disasters

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920 Implementation-Oriented Discussion for Historical and Cultural Villages’ Conservation Planning

Authors: Xing Zhang

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Since the State Council of China issued the Regulations on the Conservation of Historical Cultural Towns and Villages in 2008, formulation of conservation planning has been carried out in national, provincial and municipal historical and cultural villages for protection needs, which provides a legal basis for inheritance of historical culture and protection of historical resources. Although the quantity and content of the conservation planning are continually increasing, the implementation and application are still ambiguous. To solve the aforementioned problems, this paper explores methods to enhance the implementation of conservation planning from the perspective of planning formulation. Specifically, the technical framework of "overall objectives planning - sub-objectives planning - zoning guidelines - implementation by stages" is proposed to implement the planning objectives in different classifications and stages. Then combined with details of the Qiqiao historical and cultural village conservation planning project in Ningbo, five sub-objectives are set, which are implemented through the village zoning guidelines. At the same time, the key points and specific projects in the near-term, medium-term and long-term work are clarified, and the spatial planning is transformed into the action plan with time scale. The proposed framework and method provide a reference for the implementation and management of the conservation planning of historical and cultural villages in the future.

Keywords: conservation planning, planning by stages, planning implementation, zoning guidelines

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919 Barriers to Competitive Tenders in Building Conservation Works

Authors: Yoke-Mui Lim, Yahaya Ahmad

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Conservation works in Malaysia that is procured by public organisation usually follow the traditional approach where the works are tendered based on Bills of Quantities (BQ). One of the purposes of tendering is to enable the selection of a competent contractor that offers a competitive price. While competency of the contractors are assessed by their technical knowledge, experience and track records, the assessment of pricing will be dependent on the tender amount. However, the issue currently faced by the conservation works sector is the difficulty in assessing the competitiveness and reasonableness of the tender amount due to the high variance between the tenders amount. Thus, this paper discusses the factors that cause difficulty to the tenderers in pricing competitively in a bidding exercise for conservation tenders. Data on tendering is collected from interviews with conservation works contractors to gain in-depth understanding of the barriers faced in pricing tenders of conservation works. Findings from the study lent support to the contention that the variance of tender amount is very high amongst tenderers. The factors identified in the survey are the format of BQ, hidden works, experience and labour and material costs.

Keywords: building conservation, Malaysia, bill of quantities, tender

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918 A Geospatial Analysis of Residential Conservation-Attitude, Intention and Behavior

Authors: Prami Sengupta, Randall A. Cantrell, Tracy Johns

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A typical US household consumes more energy than households in other countries and is directly responsible for a considerable proportion of the atmospheric concentration of the greenhouse gases. This makes U.S. household a vital target group for energy conservation studies. Positive household behavior is central to residential energy conservation. However, for individuals to conserve energy they must not only know how to conserve energy but be also willing to do so. That is, a positive attitude towards residential conservation and an intention to conserve energy are two of the most important psychological determinants for energy conservation behavior. Most social science studies, to date, have studied the relationships between attitude, intention, and behavior by building upon socio-psychological theories of behavior. However, these frameworks, including the widely used Theory of Planned Behavior and Social Cognitive Theory, lack a spatial component. That is, these studies fail to capture the impact of the geographical locations of homeowners’ residences on their residential energy consumption and conservation practices. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore geospatial relationships between homeowners’ residential energy conservation-attitudes, conservation-intentions, and consumption behavior. The study analyzes residential conservation-attitudes and conservation-intentions of homeowners across 63 counties in Florida and compares it with quantifiable measures of residential energy consumption. Empirical findings revealed that the spatial distribution of high and/or low values of homeowners’ mean-score values of conservation-attitudes and conservation-intentions are more spatially clustered than would be expected if the underlying spatial processes were random. On the contrary, the spatial distribution of high and/or low values of households’ carbon footprints was found to be more spatially dispersed than assumed if the underlying spatial process were random. The study also examined the influence of potential spatial variables, such as urban or rural setting and presence of educational institutions and/or extension program, on the conservation-attitudes, intentions, and behaviors of homeowners.

Keywords: conservation-attitude, conservation-intention, geospatial analysis, residential energy consumption, spatial autocorrelation

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917 Investigating the Invalidity of the Law of Energy Conservation Based on Waves Interference Phenomenon Inside a Ringed Waveguide

Authors: M. Yusefzad

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Law of energy conservation is one of the fundamental laws of physics. Energy is conserved, and the total amount of energy is constant. It can be transferred from one object to another and changed from one state to another. However, in the case of wave interference, this law faces important contradictions. Based on the presented mathematical relationship in this paper, it seems that validity of this law depends on the path of energy wave, like light, in which it is located. In this paper, by using some fundamental concepts in physics like the constancy of the electromagnetic wave speed in a specific media and wave theory of light, it will be shown that law of energy conservation is not valid in every condition and in some circumstances, it is possible to increase energy of a system with a determined amount of energy without any input.

Keywords: power, law of energy conservation, electromagnetic wave, interference, Maxwell’s equations

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916 Analysis of Erosion Quantity on Application of Conservation Techniques in Ci Liwung Hulu Watershed

Authors: Zaenal Mutaqin

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The level of erosion that occurs in the upsteam watersheed will lead to limited infiltrattion, land degradation and river trivialisation and estuaries in the body. One of the watesheed that has been degraded caused by using land is the DA Ci Liwung Upstream. The high degradation that occurs in the DA Ci Liwung upstream is indicated by the hugher rate of erosion on the region, especially in the area of agriculture. In this case, agriculture cultivation intent to the agricultural land that has been applied conservation techniques. This study is applied to determine the quantity of erosion by reviewing Hidrologic Response Unit (HRU) in agricuktural cultivation land which is contained in DA Ci Liwung upstream by using the Soil and Water Assessmen Tool (SWAT). Conservation techniques applied are terracing, agroforestry and gulud terrace. It was concluded that agroforestry conservation techniques show the best value of erosion (lowest) compared with other conservation techniques with the contribution of erosion of 25.22 tonnes/ha/year. The results of the calibration between the discharge flow models with the observation that R²=0.9014 and NS=0.79 indicates that this model is acceptable and feasible applied to the Ci Liwung Hulu watershed.

Keywords: conservation, erosion, SWAT analysis, watersheed

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915 Conflicts between Conservation and Community Livelihoods: Lessons from KwaNibela and iSimangaliso Wetland Park, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Authors: Zwelakhe Maseko

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This chapter assesses the conflict arising from conservation between iSimangaliso Wetland Park and the community of KwaNibela, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. To achieve the aim of this study a qualitative research approach was adopted which included one-on-one in-depth interviews with fifty people from the community of KwaNibela who were randomly selected. In-depth interviews were further conducted with three officials from iSimangaliso Wetland Park who were purposely selected to understand their perceptions. The findings suggest that iSimangaliso Wetland Park conservation strategies have a negative impact on the socio-economic wellbeing of the people in KwaNibela due to limited access to natural resources and lack of economic opportunities. This has led to conflict between the stakeholders of iSimangaliso Wetland Park and the community. ISimangaliso Wetland Park generates income from tourists who visit the park, while the community of KwaNibela receives little to no benefits from both tourism and conservation. This has led to conflict since the community of KwaNibela feels that iSimangaliso is generating income from their traditional land and natural resources while they (the community) are left poverty-stricken. In order to achieve conservation that caters to the needs and livelihoods of local people, it is suggested that iSimangaliso Wetland Park includes the community of KwaNibela in their conservation efforts and creates economic opportunities for the same community through conservation and tourism.

Keywords: conservation, socio-economic development, protected areas, natural Resources

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914 Creative Thinking in Structural Design of Historic Constructions

Authors: Avraham Mosseri

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The architectural conservation process of the built heritage is a very complex process dealing with the integration of professional knowledge from many fields like history, sociology, economy, engineering, etc. One of the most important fields is the structural field, which has a great influence on the final architectural and aesthetic solution of the built heritage. In many cases, the ability to protect and save the heritage values of the historical buildings is an outcome of the structural creativity and conceptual design of the conservation engineers. This creativity is especially important when dealing with structural engineering of historic construction, where there are a lot of constraints and contradictions between different aspects like aesthetics, artistic values, culture, authenticity, structural performance, etc. But in spite of the importance of this creativity in conservation engineering, many research efforts are mainly devoted to the structural analysis of historic construction, which of course is very important and vital. But, in general, more attention can be paid to the creative process in the conceptual stage. In this situation there is a need, in parallel to analysis research, to devote more resources in order to improve the creative and conceptual theories in relation to conservation engineering. This paper focuses on the creativity aspects in the structural design process in the conservation of historic buildings as part of conservation theories.

Keywords: conservation, creativity, historic constructions, structural design

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913 Estimating Visitor’s Willingness to Pay for the Conservation Fund: Sustainable Financing Approach in Protected Areas in Ethiopia

Authors: Sintayehu Aynalem Aseres, Raminder Kaur Sira

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Increasingly, protected areas have been confronting with inadequate conservation funds that make it tough to antithesis the continuing of annihilation. The problem is even grave in developing countries, where Protected Areas (Pas) are mainly government-administered. Subsequently, it needs a strong effort to toughen the self-financing capability of PAs by ripening alternative sources of sustainable financing for realizing the conservation goals, in particular, to save the remaining natural planet. This study, therefore, designed to estimate visitors’ willingness to pay (WTP) for the additional conservation fees using a contingent valuation method. The effect relationship between WTP and both socio-demographic and non-economic factors was scrutinized by binary logistic regression. The mean WTP of foreign visitors has estimated at US$ 7.4 and for that of domestic visitors at US$1, with annual aggregate revenue of US$29, 200. The WTP was strongly influenced by income, satisfaction, environmental concern and attitude. The study has policy implications for the conservationists and park authorities to estimate the non-use values of PAs for developing market-based conservation instruments.

Keywords: conservation, ecotourism, sustainable financing, willingness to pay, protected areas, bale mountains national park

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912 The Influence of Wildlife Watching Experience on Tourists’ Connection to Wildlife Conservation Caring and Awareness

Authors: Fiffy Hanisdah Saikim, Bruce Prideaux

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One of the aims of wildlife tourism is to educate visitors about the threats facing wildlife, in general, and the actions needed to protect the environment and maintain biodiversity. Annually, millions of tourists visit natural areas and zoos primarily to view flagship species such as rhinos and elephants. Venues rely on the inherent charisma of these species to increase visitation and anchor conservation efforts. Expected visitor outcomes from the use of flagships include raised levels of awareness and pro-conservation behaviors. However, the role of flagships in wildlife tourism has been criticized for not delivering conservation benefits for species of interest or biodiversity and producing negative site impacts. Furthermore, little is known about how the connection to a species influences conservation behaviors. This paper addresses this gap in knowledge by extending previous work exploring wildlife tourism to include the emotional connection formed with wildlife species and pro-conservation behaviors for individual species and biodiversity. This paper represents a substantial contribution to the field because (a) it incorporates the role of the experience in understanding how tourists connect with a species and how this connection influences pro-conservation behaviors; and (b) is the first attempt to operationalize Conservation Caring as a measure of tourists’ connection with a species. Existing studies have investigated how specific elements, such as interpretation or species’ morphology may influence programmatic goals or awareness. However, awareness is a poor measure of an emotional connection with an animal. Furthermore, there has not been work done to address the holistic nature of the wildlife viewing experience, and its subsequent influence on behaviors. Results based on the structural equation modelling, support the validity of Conservation Caring as a factor; the ability of wildlife tourism to influence Conservation Caring; and that this connection is a strong predictor of conservation awareness behaviors. These findings suggest wildlife tourism can deliver conservation outcomes. The studies in this paper also provide a valuable framework for structuring wildlife tourism experiences to align with flagship related conservation outcomes, and exploring a wider assemblage of species as potential flagships.

Keywords: wildlife tourism, conservation caring, conservation awareness, structural equation modelling

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911 Defining Priority Areas for Biodiversity Conservation to Support for Zoning Protected Areas: A Case Study from Vietnam

Authors: Xuan Dinh Vu, Elmar Csaplovics

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There has been an increasing need for methods to define priority areas for biodiversity conservation since the effectiveness of biodiversity conservation in protected areas largely depends on the availability of material resources. The identification of priority areas requires the integration of biodiversity data together with social data on human pressures and responses. However, the deficit of comprehensive data and reliable methods becomes a key challenge in zoning where the demand for conservation is most urgent and where the outcomes of conservation strategies can be maximized. In order to fill this gap, the study applied an environmental model Condition–Pressure–Response to suggest a set of criteria to identify priority areas for biodiversity conservation. Our empirical data has been compiled from 185 respondents, categorizing into three main groups: governmental administration, research institutions, and protected areas in Vietnam by using a well - designed questionnaire. Then, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) theory was used to identify the weight of all criteria. Our results have shown that priority level for biodiversity conservation could be identified by three main indicators: condition, pressure, and response with the value of the weight of 26%, 41%, and 33%, respectively. Based on the three indicators, 7 criteria and 15 sub-criteria were developed to support for defining priority areas for biodiversity conservation and zoning protected areas. In addition, our study also revealed that the groups of governmental administration and protected areas put a focus on the 'Pressure' indicator while the group of Research Institutions emphasized the importance of 'Response' indicator in the evaluation process. Our results provided recommendations to apply the developed criteria for identifying priority areas for biodiversity conservation in Vietnam.

Keywords: biodiversity conservation, condition–pressure–response model, criteria, priority areas, protected areas

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910 Traditional Management Systems and the Conservation of Cultural and Natural Heritage: Multiple Case Studies in Zimbabwe

Authors: Nyasha Agnes Gurira, Petronella Katekwe

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Traditional management systems (TMS) are a vital source of knowledge for conserving cultural and natural heritage. TMS’s are renowned for their ability to preserve both tangible and intangible manifestations of heritage. They are a construct of the intricate relationship that exists between heritage and host communities, where communities are recognized as owners of heritage and so, set up management mechanisms to ensure its adequate conservation. Multiple heritage condition surveys were conducted to assess the effectiveness of using TMS in the conservation of both natural and cultural heritage. Surveys were done at Nharira Hills, Mahwemasimike, Dzimbahwe, Manjowe Rock art sites and Norumedzo forest which are heritage places in Zimbabwe. It assessed the state of conservation of the five case studies and assessed the role that host communities play in the management of these heritage places. It was revealed that TMS’s are effective in the conservation of natural heritage, however in relation to heritage forms with cultural manifestations, there are major disparities. These range from differences in appreciation and perception of value within communities leading to vandalism, over emphasis in the conservation of the intangible element as opposed to the tangible. This leaves the tangible element at risk. Despite these issues, TMS are a reliable knowledge base which enables more holistic conservation approaches for cultural and natural heritage.

Keywords: communities, cultural intangible, tangible heritage, traditional management systems, natural

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909 A Numerical Method for Diffusion and Cahn-Hilliard Equations on Evolving Spherical Surfaces

Authors: Jyh-Yang Wu, Sheng-Gwo Chen

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In this paper, we present a simple effective numerical geometric method to estimate the divergence of a vector field over a curved surface. The conservation law is an important principle in physics and mathematics. However, many well-known numerical methods for solving diffusion equations do not obey conservation laws. Our presented method in this paper combines the divergence theorem with a generalized finite difference method and obeys the conservation law on discrete closed surfaces. We use the similar method to solve the Cahn-Hilliard equations on evolving spherical surfaces and observe stability results in our numerical simulations.

Keywords: conservation laws, diffusion equations, Cahn-Hilliard equations, evolving surfaces

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908 Evaluation of a Biodiversity and Wildlife Conservation Education Camp in Thailand

Authors: Ms. Patamasuda Intuprapa , Professor Dr. Nancy Longnecker

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This research examines the impact of biodiversity and wildlife conservation messages on school children. It was designed to document science communication activities that relate to biodiversity and wildlife conservation in a residential camp held at Research Station X in Thailand. This research is one of the case studies in a PhD research project. The objectives of this research are to examine environmental program and ultimately develop a model of communicating biodiversity and wildlife conservation issues to Thai children. Observations and report of the surveys were used to examine the residential camp at Research Station X. There were 49 children and five camp leaders agreed to participate in this study. The results of the study show that the children enjoyed their stay at the camp and have positive attitudes toward wildlife and environment but not actually related them with their own well-being. The camp leaders were well prepared and enthusiastic on leading the camp but fail in related contents with the activities.

Keywords: informal education, environmental education, wildlife conservation, residential camp, excursion, Thailand

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907 Moroccan Mountains: Forest Ecosystems and Biodiversity Conservation Strategies

Authors: Mohammed Sghir Taleb

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Forest ecosystems in Morocco are subject increasingly to natural and human pressures. Conscious of this problem, Morocco set a strategy that focuses on programs of in-situ and ex-situ biodiversity conservation. This study is the result of a synthesis of various existing studies on biodiversity and forest ecosystems. It gives an overview of Moroccan mountain forest ecosystems and flora diversity. It also focuses on the efforts made by Morocco to conserve and sustainably manage biodiversity.

Keywords: mountain, ecosystems, conservation, Morocco

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906 Phyto Diversity and Conservation of Pulicat Lake-Andhra Pradesh

Authors: S. K. M. Basha

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Pulicat Lake is the second largest brackish water lagoon after Chilika Lake of Orissa along the east coast of India. Estuaries and lagoons have brackish water which shows high biological productivity than fresh or sea water. Hence it has wide range of aquatic, terrestrial flora and fauna. The World Wide Fund for Nature declared that it is a protected area. Present study aims to explore the flora and fauna of the lagoon along with the various threats for its eco-degradation which helps to plan necessary conservation methods.

Keywords: phytodiversity, Pulicat Lake, threats, conservation

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905 Urban Conservation Methodology for Heritage Areas Case Study "Qabel Street, Old Jeddah"

Authors: Hossam Elborombaly, Nader Y. Azab

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The Middle East region is rich with its architecture and urban settings. This makes it viable for exploring and applying different strategies that deal with conservation. Current context characterized by pollution, socioeconomic issues, behavioral problems, etc. affects architectural and urban heritage –literally- in all Middle Eastern countries. Although there have been numerous strategies in place to preserve and/ or rehabilitate heritage, all has been designed and implemented following political more than technical or methodical processes. This only resulted in more deterioration of the targeted areas. This paper explores different approaches in some selected Arab countries and relies on comparative analysis with some successful European experiences. The aim is to establish some solid basis for dealing with heritage areas; an approach that respects heritage and traditions without compromising sustainability or socioeconomic opportunities.

Keywords: conservation, heritage, identity, urban conservation methodology,

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904 Study on Conservation and Regeneration of the Industrial Buildings

Authors: Rungpansa Noichan, Bart Julian Dewancker

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The conservation and regeneration of historical industrial building is one of the most important issues to be solved in today’s urban development in the world. There are growing numbers of industrial building in which promoting heritage conservation maybe a helpful tool for a sustainable city in social, urban restructuring, environmental and economic component. This paper identifies the key attributes of conservation and regeneration industrial building from the literature, were discussed by reviewing its development at home and abroad. The authors have investigated 93 industrial buildings, which were used as industrial building before and reused into buildings with another function afterward. The data to be discussed below were mainly collected from various publications but also from available internet sources. This study focuses on green transformation, historical culture heritage, transformation techniques, and urban regeneration based on the empirical researches on the historical industrial building and site. Moreover, we focus on social, urban environment and sustainable development. The implications of the study provide suggestions for future improvements in the conservation and regeneration of historical industrial building, and inspire new ways of use, so the building becomes flexible and can consequently be adaptable to changes in order to survive time. Therefore, the building does not take into account only its future impact in the environment and society. Instead, it focuses on its entire life cycle.

Keywords: industrial building, heritage conservation, green transformation, regeneration, sustainable development

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903 Role of Geomatics in Architectural and Cultural Conservation

Authors: Shweta Lall

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The intent of this paper is to demonstrate the role of computerized auxiliary science in advancing the desired and necessary alliance of historians, surveyors, topographers, and analysts of architectural conservation and management. The digital era practice of recording architectural and cultural heritage in view of its preservation, dissemination, and planning developments are discussed in this paper. Geomatics include practices like remote sensing, photogrammetry, surveying, Geographic Information System (GIS), laser scanning technology, etc. These all resources help in architectural and conservation applications which will be identified through various case studies analysed in this paper. The standardised outcomes and the methodologies using relevant case studies are listed and described. The main component of geomatics methodology adapted in conservation is data acquisition, processing, and presentation. Geomatics is used in a wide range of activities involved in architectural and cultural heritage – damage and risk assessment analysis, documentation, 3-D model construction, virtual reconstruction, spatial and structural decision – making analysis and monitoring. This paper will project the summary answers of the capabilities and limitations of the geomatics field in architectural and cultural conservation. Policy-makers, urban planners, architects, and conservationist not only need answers to these questions but also need to practice them in a predictable, transparent, spatially explicit and inexpensive manner.

Keywords: architectural and cultural conservation, geomatics, GIS, remote sensing

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902 The Influence of Conservation Measures, Limiting Soil Degradation, on the Quality of Surface Water Resources

Authors: V. Sobotková, B. Šarapatka, M. Dumbrovský, J. Uhrová, M. Bednář

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The paper deals with the influence of implemented conservation measures on the quality of surface water resources. Recently, a new process of complex land consolidation in the Czech Republic has provided a unique opportunity to improve the quality of the environment and sustainability of crop production by means of better soil and water conservation. The most important degradation factor in our study area in the Hubenov drinking water reservoir catchment basin was water erosion together with loss of organic matter. Hubenov Reservoir water resources were monitored for twenty years (1990–2010) to collect water quality data for nitrate nitrogen (N-NO3-), total P, and undissolved substances. Results obtained from measurements taken before and after land consolidation indicated a decrease in the linear trend of N-NO3- and total P concentrations, this was achieved through implementation of conservation measures limiting soil degradation in the Hubenov reservoir catchment area.

Keywords: complex land consolidation, degradation, land use, soil and water conservation, surface water resources

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901 Conservation Importance of Independent Smallholdings in Safeguarding Biodiversity in Oil Palm Plantations

Authors: Arzyana Sunkar, Yanto Santosa

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The expansions of independent smallholdings in Indonesia are feared to increase the negative ecological impacts of oil palm plantation on biodiversity. Hence, research is required to identify the conservation importance of independent smallholder oil palm plantations on biodiversity. This paper discussed the role of independent smallholdings in the conservation of biodiversity in oil palm plantations and to compare it with High Conservation Value Forest as a conservation standard of RSPO. The research was conducted from March to April 2016. Data on biodiversity were collected on 16 plantations and 8 private oil palm plantations in the Districts of Kampar, Pelalawan, Kuantan, Singingi and Siak of Riau Province, Indonesia. In addition, data on community environmental perceptions of both smallholder plantation and High Conservation Value (HCV) Forest were also collected. Species that were observed were birds and earthworms. Data on birds were collected using transect method, while identification of earthworm was determine by taking some soil samples and counting the number of individual earthworm found for each worm species. The research used direct interview with oil palm owners and community members, as well as direct observation to examine the environmental conditions of each plantation. In general, field observation and measurement have found that birds species richness was higher in the forested HCV Forest. Nevertheless, if compared to non-forested HCV, bird’s species richness was higher in the independent smallholdings. On the other hand, different results were observed for earthworm, where the density was higher in the independent smallholdings than in the HCV. It can be concluded from this research that managing independent smallholder oil palm plantations and forested HCV forest could enhance biodiversity conservation. The results of this study justified the importance of retaining forested area to safeguard biodiversity in oil palm plantation.

Keywords: biodiversity conservation, high conservation value forest, independent smallholdings, oil palm plantations

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900 Community Perceptions towards Nature Conservation in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

Authors: Daniel Angwenyi

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Relationships between protected area managers and adjacent communities, as well as communities' attitudes, views and perceptions of these areas, are critical for the success of conservation efforts. It is, therefore, of utmost importance for protected area managers and administrators understand how local communities view these areas and their management, so that they can build sustainable working relationships. This paper is based on a survey of 375 semi-structured questionnaires administered to household heads, living at distances ranging from the edge of the reserves to 50 km away from the reserve boundary across Great Fish River, Mkambati, Hluleka, and Tsolwana in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The paper provides a longitudinal assessment of households’ knowledge on the role of reserves and how the reserves. In addition to households’ knowledge, the paper also provides an assessment of their attitudes towards the location and management, as well as views on the best way to manage the reserves. For 79% of community members reserves are important as they were seen to conserve biodiversity and valuable ecological systems necessary for sustaining life. Most (75%) respondents indicated that closely located reserves gave them opportunities to learn about nature conservation and to subsidize their incomes through tourism ventures. However, 58% had a problem with reserves’ staff, due to restrictions on resource use, which negatively impacted their livelihoods. Over half (51%) of the households were of the view that sustainable conservation can only be achieved through an integrated approach, where local communities’ and conservation needs are given equal weighting. Thus, it is concluded that reserve management should look at communities as active partners in the running of protected areas if sustainable conservation objectives are to be realised.

Keywords: nature conservation, conservation knowledge, local communities, views, protected areas

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899 An Environmentally Friendly Approach towards the Conservation of Vernacular Architecture

Authors: Maria Philokyprou, Aimilios Michael

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Contemporary theories of sustainability, concerning the natural and built environment, have recently introduced an environmental attitude towards the architectural design that, in turn, affects the practice of conservation and reuse of the existing building stock. This paper presents an environmentally friendly approach towards the conservation of vernacular architecture and it is based on the results of a research program which involved the investigation of sustainable design elements of traditional buildings in Cyprus. The research in question showed that Cypriot vernacular architecture gave more emphasis on cooling rather than heating strategies. Another notable finding of the investigation was the great importance given to courtyards as they enhance considerably, and in various ways, the microclimatic conditions of the immediate environment with favorable results throughout the year. Moreover, it was shown that the reduction in temperature fluctuation observed in the closed and semi-open spaces, compared to the respective temperature fluctuation of the external environment - due to the thermal inertia of the building envelope - helps towards the achievement of more comfortable living conditions within traditional dwellings. This paper concludes with a proposal of a sustainable approach towards the conservation of the existing environment and the introduction of new environmental criteria for the conservation of traditional buildings, beyond the aesthetic, morphological and structural ones that are generally applied.

Keywords: bioclimatic, conservation, environmental, traditional dwellings, vernacular architecture

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898 Plural Perspectives in Conservation Conflicts: The Role of Iconic Species

Authors: Jean Hugé, Francisco Benitez-Capistros, Giorgia Camperio-Ciani

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Addressing conservation conflicts requires the consideration of multiple stakeholders' perspectives and knowledge claims, in order to inform complex and possibly contentious decision-making dilemmas. Hence, a better understanding of why people in particular contexts act in a particular way in a conservation conflict is needed. First, this contribution aims at providing and applying an approach to map and interpret the diversity of subjective viewpoints with regard to iconic species in conservation conflicts. Secondly, this contribution aims to feed the reflection on the possible consequences of the diversity of perspectives for the future management of wildlife (in particular iconic species), based on case studies in Galapagos and Malaysia. The use of the semi-quantitative Q methodology allowed us to identify various perspectives on conservation in different social-ecological contexts. While the presence of iconic species may lead to a more passionate and emotional debate, it may also provide more opportunities for finding common ground and for jointly developing acceptable management solutions that will depolarize emergent, long-lasting or latent conservation conflicts. Based on the research team’s experience in the field, and on the integration of ecological and social knowledge, methodological and management recommendations are made with regard to conservation conflicts involving iconic wildlife. The mere presence of iconic wildlife does not guarantee its centrality in conservation conflicts, and comparisons will be drawn between the cases of the giant tortoises (Chelonoidis spec.) in Galapagos, Ecuador and the Milky Stork (Mycteria cinerea) in western peninsular Malaysia. Acknowledging the diversity of viewpoints, reflecting how different stakeholders see, act and talk about wildlife management, highlights the need to develop pro-active and resilient strategies to deal with these issues.

Keywords: conservation conflicts, Q methodology, Galapagos, Malaysia, giant tortoise, milky stork

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897 Problems in Establishing Alliances to Comply with SDG 17 in the Successful Execution of Environmental Conservation Projects

Authors: Elena Bulmer

Abstract:

The research for this study has found that the formation of alliances for the successful revitalization of the global partnership for sustainable development, as defined by UN Sustainable Development Goal 17, entails considerable difficulty. This study uses for its empirical work marine environmental conservation projects and analyses the potential involvement of nonhuman actors as primordial stakeholders in these types of projects. The idea is to extend the scope of SDG 17 for it to also consider nonhuman subjects in order for it to better achieve its goal. The results of this study may be extrapolated to the business and management fields, which depend on natural resources for the development of their products. In the same way, in these areas, natural resources as nonhuman actors are not present in the stakeholder maps of these projects. Environmental Conservation projects are thus especially interesting to study with regards to their stakeholder context and have been used as the experimental setting for the empirical work of this study. The primordial stakeholders of these projects are not social objects and therefore go beyond the present limits of present stakeholder theory. The study that has been used to analyse this concept is a marine conservation project based in Spain, and to shed light in potential extending the role of the 17th Sustainable Development Goal to include nonhuman beings to be able to better achieve the rest of the SDGs, in this case, SDG 14 whose aim is to promote the conservation and sustainability of the world´s oceans.

Keywords: SDG 17, sustainability, stakeholder management, environmental conservation projects

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896 Energy Conservation Strategies of Buildings in Hot, Arid Region: Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia

Authors: M. H. Shwehdi, S. Raja Mohammad

Abstract:

Recently energy savings have become more pronounced as a result of the world financial crises as well the unstable oil prices. Certainly all entities needs to adapt Energy Conservation and Management Strategies due to high monthly consumption of their spread locations and advancements of its telecom systems. These system improvements necessitate the establishment of more exchange centers as well provide energy savings. This paper investigates the impact of HVAC System Characteristics, Operational Strategies, the impact of Envelope Thermal Characteristics, and energy conservation measures. These are classified under three types of measures i.e. Zero-Investment; Low-Investment and High-Investment Energy Conservation Measures. The study shows that the Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) pertaining to the HVAC system characteristics and operation represent the highest potential for energy reduction, attention should be given to window thermal and solar radiation characteristics when large window areas are used. The type of glazing system needs to be carefully considered in the early design phase of future buildings. Paper will present the thermal optimization of different size centers in the two hot-dry and hot-humid Saudi Arabian city of Al Khobar, East province.

Keywords: energy conservation, optimization, thermal design, intermittent operation, exchange centers, hot-humid climate, Saudi Arabia

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
895 Energy Audit: A Case Study of a Hot Rolling Mill in Steel Industry

Authors: Arvind Dhingra, Tejinder Singh Saggu

Abstract:

As the energy demands rise and the pollution levels grow, it becomes imperative for us to save energy in all the fields in which it is used. The industrial sector is the major commercial energy consuming sector in India, where electrical energy is the most common and widely used type of energy. As the demand and price of energy are increasing day by day, therefore, the subject of energy conservation is a concern for most energy users particularly industry. Judicious use of energy becomes imperative for third world developing country being presence of energy crisis. This paper provides some measure for energy saving that can be commonly recommended for a rolling unit of steel industry. A case of hot rolling unit in JSL Stainless Ltd., Hisar for energy conservation is given. Overall improvement in energy consumption in light of the stated recommendation is illustrated along with the proposed utilization of the techniques and their applications. Energy conservation in conventional motor with replacement or use of star delta star converter, reduction in cable losses, replacement of filament of LED lamps, replacement of conventional transformer with cast resin dry type transformer and provision of energy management system for energy conservation and per unit production cost reduction are elaborated in this paper.

Keywords: energy audit, energy conservation, energy efficient motors

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894 An Approach to Spatial Planning for Water Conservation: The Case of Kovada Sub-Watershed (Turkey)

Authors: Aybike Ayfer Karadağ

Abstract:

Today, the amount of water available is decreasing day by day due to global warming, environmental problems and population increase. To protect water resources, it is necessary to take a lot of measures from the global scale to the local scale. Some of these measures are related to spatial planning studies. In this study, the impact of water process analysis was assessed in the development of spatial planning for water conservation. The study was conducted in the Kovada sub-watershed (Isparta, Turkey). By means of water process analysis, the way to reach underground water of surface water in the study area is mapped. In this context, plant cover, soil and rock permeability were evaluated holistically with geographic information systems technologies. Then, on the map, water permeability is classified and this is spatially expressed. The findings show that the permeability of the water is different in the study case. As a result, the water permeability map needs to be included in the planning for water conservation planning.

Keywords: water, conservation, spatial planning, water process analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 81