Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18969

Search results for: high strain rates

18969 Impact Tensile Mechanical Properties of 316L Stainless Steel at Different Strain Rates

Authors: Jiawei Chen, Jia Qu, Dianwei Ju

Abstract:

316L stainless steel has good mechanical and technological properties, has been widely used in shipbuilding and aerospace manufacturing. In order to understand the effect of strain rate on the yield limit of 316L stainless steel and the constitutive relationship of the materials at different strain rates, this paper used the INSTRON-4505 electronic universal testing machine to study the mechanical properties of the tensile specimen under quasi-static conditions. Meanwhile, the Zwick-Roell RKP450 intelligent oscillometric impact tester was used to test the tensile specimens at different strain rates. Through the above two kinds of experimental researches, the relationship between the true stress-strain and the engineering stress-strain at different strain rates is obtained. The result shows that the tensile yield point of 316L stainless steel increases with the increase of strain rate, and the real stress-strain curve of the 316L stainless steel has a better normalization than that of the engineering stress-strain curve. The real stress-strain curves can be used in the practical engineering of impact stretch to improve its safety.

Keywords: impact stretch, 316L stainless steel, strain rate, real stress-strain, normalization

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18968 New Dynamic Constitutive Model for OFHC Copper Film

Authors: Jin Sung Kim, Hoon Huh

Abstract:

The material properties of OFHC copper film was investigated with the High-Speed Material Micro Testing Machine (HSMMTM) at the high strain rates. The rate-dependent stress-strain curves from the experiment and the Johnson-Cook curve fitting showed large discrepancies as the plastic strain increases since the constitutive model implies no rate-dependent strain hardening effect. A new constitutive model was proposed in consideration of rate-dependent strain hardening effect. The strain rate hardening term in the new constitutive model consists of the strain rate sensitivity coefficients of the yield strength and strain hardening.

Keywords: rate dependent material properties, dynamic constitutive model, OFHC copper film, strain rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
18967 Experimental Investigation of the Out-of-Plane Dynamic Behavior of Adhesively Bonded Composite Joints at High Strain Rates

Authors: Sonia Sassi, Mostapha Tarfaoui, Hamza Ben Yahia

Abstract:

In this investigation, an experimental technique in which the dynamic response, damage kinetic and heat dissipation are measured simultaneously during high strain rates on adhesively bonded joints materials. The material used in this study is widely used in the design of structures for military applications. It was composed of a 45° Bi-axial fiber-glass mat of 0.286 mm thickness in a Polyester resin matrix. In adhesive bonding, a NORPOL Polyvinylester of 1 mm thickness was used to assemble the composite substrate. The experimental setup consists of a compression Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), a high-speed infrared camera and a high-speed Fastcam rapid camera. For the dynamic compression tests, 13 mm x 13 mm x 9 mm samples for out-of-plane tests were considered from 372 to 1030 s-1. Specimen surface is controlled and monitored in situ and in real time using the high-speed camera which acquires the damage progressive in specimens and with the infrared camera which provides thermal images in time sequence. Preliminary compressive stress-strain vs. strain rates data obtained show that the dynamic material strength increases with increasing strain rates. Damage investigations have revealed that the failure mainly occurred in the adhesive/adherent interface because of the brittle nature of the polymeric adhesive. Results have shown the dependency of the dynamic parameters on strain rates. Significant temperature rise was observed in dynamic compression tests. Experimental results show that the temperature change depending on the strain rate and the damage mode and their maximum exceed 100 °C. The dependence of these results on strain rate indicates that there exists a strong correlation between damage rate sensitivity and heat dissipation, which might be useful when developing damage models under dynamic loading tacking into account the effect of the energy balance of adhesively bonded joints.

Keywords: adhesive bonded joints, Hopkinson bars, out-of-plane tests, dynamic compression properties, damage mechanisms, heat dissipation

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18966 The Mechanical Response of a Composite Propellant under Harsh Conditions

Authors: Xin Tong, Jin-sheng Xu, Xiong Chen, Ya Zheng

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to study the mechanical properties of HTPB (Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene) composite propellant under harsh conditions. It describes two tests involving uniaxial tensile tests of various strain rates (ranging from 0.0005 s-1 to 1.5 s-1), temperatures (ranging from 223 K to 343 K) and high-cycle fatigue tests under low-temperature (223 K, frequencies were set at 50, 100, 150 Hz) using DMA (Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer). To highlight the effect of small pre-strain on fatigue properties of HTPB propellant, quasi-static stretching was carried out before fatigue loading, and uniaxial tensile tests at constant strain rates were successively applied. The results reveal that flow stress of propellant increases with reduction in temperature and rise in strain rate, and the strain rate-temperature equivalence relationship could be described by TTSP (time-temperature superposition principle) incorporating a modified WLF equation. Moreover, the rate of performance degradations and damage accumulation of propellant during fatigue tests increased with increasing strain amplitude and loading frequencies, while initial quasi-static loading has a negative effect on fatigue properties by comparing stress-strain relations after fatigue tests.

Keywords: fatigue, HTPB propellant, tensile properties, time-temperature superposition principle

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18965 Analysis of Mechanical Properties for AP/HTPB Solid Propellant under Different Loading Conditions

Authors: Walid M. Adel, Liang Guo-Zhu

Abstract:

To investigate the characterization of the mechanical properties of composite solid propellant (CSP) based on hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) at different temperatures and strain rates, uniaxial tensile tests were conducted over a range of temperatures -60 °C to +76 °C and strain rates 0.000164 to 0.328084 s-1 using a conventional universal testing machine. From the experimental data, it can be noted that the mechanical properties of AP/HTPB propellant are mainly dependent on the applied strain rate and the temperature condition. The stress-strain responses exhibited an initial yielding followed by the viscoelastic phase, which was strongly affected by the strain rate and temperature. It was found that the mechanical properties increased with both increasing strain rate and decreasing temperature. Based on the experimental tests, the master curves of the tensile properties are drawn using predetermined shift factor and the results were discussed. This work is a first step in preliminary investigation the nonlinear viscoelasticity behavior of CSP.

Keywords: AP/HTPB composite solid propellant, mechanical behavior, nonlinear viscoelastic, tensile test, strain rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
18964 Experimental Investigation and Constitutive Modeling of Volume Strain under Uniaxial Strain Rate Jump Test in HDPE

Authors: Rida B. Arieby, Hameed N. Hameed

Abstract:

In this work, tensile tests on high density polyethylene have been carried out under various constant strain rate and strain rate jump tests. The dependency of the true stress and specially the variation of volume strain have been investigated, the volume strain due to the phenomena of damage was determined in real time during the tests by an optical extensometer called Videotraction. A modified constitutive equations, including strain rate and damage effects, are proposed, such a model is based on a non-equilibrium thermodynamic approach called (DNLR). The ability of the model to predict the complex nonlinear response of this polymer is examined by comparing the model simulation with the available experimental data, which demonstrate that this model can represent the deformation behavior of the polymer reasonably well.

Keywords: strain rate jump tests, volume strain, high density polyethylene, large strain, thermodynamics approach

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18963 Development of a Highly Flexible, Sensitive and Stretchable Polymer Nanocomposite for Strain Sensing

Authors: Shaghayegh Shajari, Mehdi Mahmoodi, Mahmood Rajabian, Uttandaraman Sundararaj, Les J. Sudak

Abstract:

Although several strain sensors based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been reported, the stretchability and sensitivity of these sensors have remained as a challenge. Highly stretchable and sensitive strain sensors are in great demand for human motion monitoring and human-machine interface. This paper reports the fabrication and characterization of a new type of strain sensors based on a stretchable fluoropolymer / CNT nanocomposite system made via melt-mixing technique. Electrical and mechanical characterizations were obtained. The results showed that this nanocomposite sensor has high stretchability up to 280% of strain at an optimum level of filler concentration. The piezoresistive properties and the strain sensing mechanism of the strain sensor were investigated using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). High sensitivity was obtained (gauge factor as large as 12000 under 120% applied strain) in particular at the concentrations above the percolation threshold. Due to the tunneling effect, a non- linear piezoresistivity was observed at high concentrations of CNT loading. The nanocomposites with good conductivity and lightweight could be a promising candidate for strain sensing applications.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, fluoropolymer, piezoresistive, strain sensor

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18962 Identification of High Stress Regions in Proximal Femur During Single-Leg Stance and Sideways Fall Using QCT-Based Finite Element Model

Authors: Hossein Kheirollahi, Yunhua Luo

Abstract:

Studying stress and strain trends in the femur and recognizing femur failure mechanism is very important for preventing hip fracture in the elderly. The aim of this study was to identify high stress and strain regions in the femur during normal walking and falling to find the mechanical behavior and failure mechanism of the femur. We developed a finite element model of the femur from the subject’s quantitative computed tomography (QCT) image and used it to identify potentially high stress and strain regions during the single-leg stance and the sideways fall. It was found that fracture may initiate from the superior region of femoral neck and propagate to the inferior region during a high impact force such as sideways fall. The results of this study showed that the femur bone is more sensitive to strain than stress which indicates the effect of strain, in addition to effect of stress, should be considered for failure analysis.

Keywords: finite element analysis, hip fracture, strain, stress

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18961 Analysis of Secondary Stage Creep in Thick-Walled Composite Cylinders Subjected to Rotary Inertia

Authors: Tejeet Singh, Virat Khanna

Abstract:

Composite materials have drawn considerable attention of engineers due to their light weight and application at high thermo-mechanical loads. With regard to the prediction of the life of high temperature structural components like rotating cylinders and the evaluation of their deterioration with time, it is essential to have a full knowledge of creep characteristics of these materials. Therefore, in the present study the secondary stage creep stresses and strain rates are estimated in thick-walled composite cylinders subjected to rotary inertia at different angular speeds. The composite cylinder is composed of aluminum matrix (Al) and reinforced with silicon carbide (SiC) particles which are uniformly mixed. The creep response of the material of the cylinder is described by threshold stress based creep law. The study indicates that with the increase in angular speed, the radial, tangential, axial and effective stress increases to a significant value. However, the radial stress remains zero at inner radius and outer radius due to imposed boundary conditions of zero pressure. Further, the stresses are tensile in nature throughout the entire radius of composite cylinder. The strain rates are also influenced in the same manner as that of creep stresses. The creep rates will increase significantly with the increase of centrifugal force on account of rotation.

Keywords: composite, creep, rotating cylinder, angular speed

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
18960 Determination of Material Constants and Zener-Hollomon Parameter of AA2017 Aluminium Alloy under Hot Compression Test

Authors: C. H. Shashikanth, M. J. Davidson, V. Suresh Babu

Abstract:

The formability of metals depends on a number of variables such as strain, strain rate, and temperature. Though most of the metals are formable at room temperature, few are not. To evaluate the workability of such metals at elevated temperatures, thermomechanical experiments should be carried out to find out the forming temperatures and strain rates. Though a number of constitutive relations are available to correlate the material parameters and the corresponding formability at elevated temperatures, the constitutive rule proposed by Arrhenius has been used in this work. Thus, in the present work, the material constants such as A (constant), α (stress multiplier), β (constant), and n (stress exponent) of AA 2017 has been found by conducting a series of hot compression tests at different temperatures such as 400°C, 450°C, 500°C, and 550°C and at different strain rates such as 0.16, 0.18, and 0.2. True stress (σt), true strains (εt) deformation activation energy (Q), and the Zener-Hollomon parameter (Z value) were also calculated. The results indicate that the value of ln (Z) decreases as the temperature increases and it increases as the strain rate increases.

Keywords: hot compression test, aluminium alloy, flow stress, activation energy

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18959 Numerical Simulation on Deformation Behaviour of Additively Manufactured AlSi10Mg Alloy

Authors: Racholsan Raj Nirmal, B. S. V. Patnaik, R. Jayaganthan

Abstract:

The deformation behaviour of additively manufactured AlSi10Mg alloy under low strains, high strain rates and elevated temperature conditions is essential to analyse and predict its response against dynamic loading such as impact and thermomechanical fatigue. The constitutive relation of Johnson-Cook is used to capture the strain rate sensitivity and thermal softening effect in AlSi10Mg alloy. Johnson-Cook failure model is widely used for exploring damage mechanics and predicting the fracture in many materials. In this present work, Johnson-Cook material and damage model parameters for additively manufactured AlSi10Mg alloy have been determined numerically from four types of uniaxial tensile test. Three different uniaxial tensile tests with dynamic strain rates (0.1, 1, 10, 50, and 100 s-1) and elevated temperature tensile test with three different temperature conditions (450 K, 500 K and 550 K) were performed on 3D printed AlSi10Mg alloy in ABAQUS/Explicit. Hexahedral elements are used to discretize tensile specimens and fracture energy value of 43.6 kN/m was used for damage initiation. Levenberg Marquardt optimization method was used for the evaluation of Johnson-Cook model parameters. It was observed that additively manufactured AlSi10Mg alloy has shown relatively higher strain rate sensitivity and lower thermal stability as compared to the other Al alloys.

Keywords: ABAQUS, additive manufacturing, AlSi10Mg, Johnson-Cook model

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18958 Flexural Strength Design of RC Beams with Consideration of Strain Gradient Effect

Authors: Mantai Chen, Johnny Ching Ming Ho

Abstract:

The stress-strain relationship of concrete under flexure is one of the essential parameters in assessing ultimate flexural strength capacity of RC beams. Currently, the concrete stress-strain curve in flexure is obtained by incorporating a constant scale-down factor of 0.85 in the uniaxial stress-strain curve. However, it was revealed that strain gradient would improve the maximum concrete stress under flexure and concrete stress-strain curve is strain gradient dependent. Based on the strain-gradient-dependent concrete stress-strain curve, the investigation of the combined effects of strain gradient and concrete strength on flexural strength of RC beams was extended to high strength concrete up to 100 MPa by theoretical analysis. As an extension and application of the authors’ previous study, a new flexural strength design method incorporating the combined effects of strain gradient and concrete strength is developed. A set of equivalent rectangular concrete stress block parameters is proposed and applied to produce a series of design charts showing that the flexural strength of RC beams are improved with strain gradient effect considered.

Keywords: beams, equivalent concrete stress block, flexural strength, strain gradient

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18957 An EBSD Investigation of Ti-6Al-4Nb Alloy Processed by Plan Strain Compression Test

Authors: Anna Jastrzebska, K. S. Suresh, T. Kitashima, Y. Yamabe-Mitarai, Z. Pakiela

Abstract:

Near α titanium alloys are important materials for aerospace applications, especially in high temperature applications such as jet engine. Mechanical properties of Ti alloys strongly depends on their processing route, then it is very important to understand micro-structure change by different processing. In our previous study, Nb was found to improve oxidation resistance of Ti alloys. In this study, micro-structure evolution of Ti-6Al-4Nb (wt %) alloy was investigated after plain strain compression test in hot working temperatures in the α and β phase region. High-resolution EBSD was successfully used for precise phase and texture characterization of this alloy. 1.1 kg of Ti-6Al-4Nb ingot was prepared using cold crucible levitation melting. The ingot was subsequently homogenized in 1050 deg.C for 1h followed by cooling in the air. Plate like specimens measuring 10×20×50 mm3 were cut from an ingot by electrical discharge machining (EDM). The plain strain compression test using an anvil with 10 x 35 mm in size was performed with 3 different strain rates: 0.1s-1, 1s-1and 10s-1 in 700 deg.C and 1050 deg.C to obtain 75% of deformation. The micro-structure was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) detector. The α/β phase ratio and phase morphology as well as the crystallographic texture, subgrain size, misorientation angles and misorientation gradients corresponding to each phase were determined over the middle and the edge of sample areas. The deformation mechanism in each working temperature was discussed. The evolution of texture changes with strain rate was investigated. The micro-structure obtained by plain strain compression test was heterogeneous with a wide range of grain sizes. This is because deformation and dynamic recrystallization occurred during deformation at temperature in the α and β phase. It was strongly influenced by strain rate.

Keywords: EBSD, plain strain compression test, Ti alloys

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18956 Large Strain Compression-Tension Behavior of AZ31B Rolled Sheet in the Rolling Direction

Authors: A. Yazdanmehr, H. Jahed

Abstract:

Being made with the lightest commercially available industrial metal, Magnesium (Mg) alloys are of interest for light-weighting. Expanding their application to different material processing methods requires Mg properties at large strains. Several room-temperature processes such as shot and laser peening and hole cold expansion need compressive large strain data. Two methods have been proposed in the literature to obtain the stress-strain curve at high strains: 1) anti-buckling guides and 2) small cubic samples. In this paper, an anti-buckling fixture is used with the help of digital image correlation (DIC) to obtain the compression-tension (C-T) of AZ31B-H24 rolled sheet at large strain values of up to 10.5%. The effect of the anti-bucking fixture on stress-strain curves is evaluated experimentally by comparing the results with those of the compression tests of cubic samples. For testing cubic samples, a new fixture has been designed to increase the accuracy of testing cubic samples with DIC strain measurements. Results show a negligible effect of anti-buckling on stress-strain curves, specifically at high strain values.

Keywords: large strain, compression-tension, loading-unloading, Mg alloys

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18955 Hot Deformation Behavior and Recrystallization of Inconel 718 Superalloy under Double Cone Compression

Authors: Wang Jianguo, Ding Xiao, Liu Dong, Wang Haiping, Yang Yanhui, Hu Yang

Abstract:

The hot deformation behavior of Inconel 718 alloy was studied by uniaxial compression tests under the deformation temperature of 940~1040℃ and strain rate of 0.001-10s⁻¹. The double cone compression (DCC) tests develop strains range from 30% to the 79% strain including all intermediate values of stains at different temperature (960~1040℃). DCC tests were simulated by finite element software which shown the strain and strain rates distribution. The result shows that the peak stress level of the alloy decreased with increasing deformation temperature and decreasing strain rate, which could be characterized by a Zener-Hollomon parameter in the hyperbolic-sine equation. The characterization method of hot processing window containing recrystallization volume fraction and average grain size was proposed for double cone compression test of uniform coarse grain, mixed crystal and uniform fine grain double conical specimen in hydraulic press and screw press. The results show that uniform microstructures can be obtained by low temperature with high deformation followed by high temperature with small deformation on the hydraulic press and low temperature, medium deformation, multi-pass on the screw press. The two methods were applied in industrial forgings process, and the forgings with uniform microstructure were obtained successfully.

Keywords: inconel 718 superalloy, hot processing windows, double cone compression, uniform microstructure

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18954 A Nonlinear Visco-Hyper Elastic Constitutive Model for Modelling Behavior of Polyurea at Large Deformations

Authors: Shank Kulkarni, Alireza Tabarraei

Abstract:

The fantastic properties of polyurea such as flexibility, durability, and chemical resistance have brought it a wide range of application in various industries. Effective prediction of the response of polyurea under different loading and environmental conditions necessitates the development of an accurate constitutive model. Similar to most polymers, the behavior of polyurea depends on both strain and strain rate. Therefore, the constitutive model should be able to capture both these effects on the response of polyurea. To achieve this objective, in this paper, a nonlinear hyper-viscoelastic constitutive model is developed by the superposition of a hyperelastic and a viscoelastic model. The proposed constitutive model can capture the behavior of polyurea under compressive loading conditions at various strain rates. Four parameter Ogden model and Mooney Rivlin model are used to modeling the hyperelastic behavior of polyurea. The viscoelastic behavior is modeled using both a three-parameter standard linear solid (SLS) model and a K-BKZ model. Comparison of the modeling results with experiments shows that Odgen and SLS model can more accurately predict the behavior of polyurea. The material parameters of the model are found by curve fitting of the proposed model to the uniaxial compression test data. The proposed model can closely reproduce the stress-strain behavior of polyurea for strain rates up to 6500 /s.

Keywords: constitutive modelling, ogden model, polyurea, SLS model, uniaxial compression test

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18953 Measurements of Recovery Stress and Recovery Strain of Ni-Based Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: W. J. Kim

Abstract:

The behaviors of the recovery stress and strain of an ultrafine-grained Ni-50.2 at.% Ti alloy prepared by high-ratio differential speed rolling (HRDSR) were examined by a specially designed tensile-testing set up, and the factors that influence the recovery stress and strain were studied. After HRDSR, both the recovery stress and strain were enhanced compared to the initial condition. The constitutive equation showing that the maximum recovery stress is a sole function of the recovery strain was developed based on the experimental data. The recovery strain increased as the yield stress increased. The maximum recovery stress increased with an increase in yield stress. The residual recovery stress was affected by the yield stress as well as the austenite-to-martensite transformation temperature. As the yield stress increased and as the martensitic transformation temperature decreased, the residual recovery stress increased.

Keywords: high-ratio differential speed rolling, tensile testing, severe plastic deformation, shape memory alloys

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18952 A Redesigned Pedagogy in Introductory Programming Reduces Failure and Withdrawal Rates by Half

Authors: Said Fares, Mary Fares

Abstract:

It is well documented that introductory computer programming courses are difficult and that failure rates are high. The aim of this project was to reduce the high failure and withdrawal rates in learning to program. This paper presents a number of changes in module organization and instructional delivery system in teaching CS1. Daily out of class help sessions and tutoring services were applied, interactive lectures and laboratories, online resources, and timely feedback were introduced. Five years of data of 563 students in 21 sections was collected and analyzed. The primary results show that the failure and withdrawal rates were cut by more than half. Student surveys indicate a positive evaluation of the modified instructional approach, overall satisfaction with the course and consequently, higher success and retention rates.

Keywords: failure rate, interactive learning, student engagement, CS1

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18951 An Criterion to Minimize FE Mesh-Dependency in Concrete Plate Subjected to Impact Loading

Authors: Kwak, Hyo-Gyung, Gang, Han Gul

Abstract:

In the context of an increasing need for reliability and safety in concrete structures under blast and impact loading condition, the behavior of concrete under high strain rate condition has been an important issue. Since concrete subjected to impact loading associated with high strain rate shows quite different material behavior from that in the static state, several material models are proposed and used to describe the high strain rate behavior under blast and impact loading. In the process of modelling, in advance, mesh dependency in the used finite element (FE) is the key problem because simulation results under high strain-rate condition are quite sensitive to applied FE mesh size. It means that the accuracy of simulation results may deeply be dependent on FE mesh size in simulations. This paper introduces an improved criterion which can minimize the mesh-dependency of simulation results on the basis of the fracture energy concept, and HJC (Holmquist Johnson Cook), CSC (Continuous Surface Cap) and K&C (Karagozian & Case) models are examined to trace their relative sensitivity to the used FE mesh size. To coincide with the purpose of the penetration test with a concrete plate under a projectile (bullet), the residual velocities of projectile after penetration are compared. The correlation studies between analytical results and the parametric studies associated with them show that the variation of residual velocity with the used FE mesh size is quite reduced by applying a unique failure strain value determined according to the proposed criterion.

Keywords: high strain rate concrete, penetration simulation, failure strain, mesh-dependency, fracture energy

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18950 Heterologous Expression of Heat-Shock Protein Improves Butanol Yield in a High-Speedy Growing Clostridium acetobutylicum Mutant

Authors: Min-Shiuan Liou, Yi Shan Yang, Yang-Zhan Huang, Chia-Wen Hsieh

Abstract:

A high speed growing and butanol-tolerant Clostridium acetobutylicum HOL1 mutant was screened throughout continuous adaption culture with C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824. The HOL1 strain can grow well in 10 g/L butanol contained CGM medium and can produce about 12.8 g /L butanol during 24 hrs. The C. acetobutylicum HOL1 strain was able to produce 166 mM butanol with 21 mM acetone at pH 4.8, resulting in a butanol selectivity (a molar ratio of butanol to total solvents) of 0.79, which is much higher than that (0.6) of the wild-type strain C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824. The acetate and butyrate accumulation were not observed during fermentation of the HOL1 strain. A hyper-butanol producing C. acetobutylicum HOL1 (pBPHS-3), which was created to overexpress the Bacillus psychrosaccharolyticus originated specific heat-shock protein gene, hspX, from a clostridial phosphotransbutyrylase promoter, was studied for its potential to produce a high titer of butanol. Overexpression of hspX resulted in increased final butanol yield 47% and 30% higher than those of the the ATCC824 and the HOL1 strains, respectively. The remarkable high-speed growth and butanol tolerance of strain HOL1 (pBPHS-3) demonstrates that overexpression of heterogeneous stress protein-encoding gene, hspX, could help C. acetobutylicum to effectively produce a high concentration of butanol.

Keywords: Clostridium acetobutylicum, butanol, heat-shock protein, resistance

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18949 Enhancement of Rice Straw Composting Using UV Induced Mutants of Penicillium Strain

Authors: T. N. M. El Sebai, A. A. Khattab, Wafaa M. Abd-El Rahim, H. Moawad

Abstract:

Fungal mutant strains have produced cellulase and xylanase enzymes, and have induced high hydrolysis with enhanced of rice straw. The mutants were obtained by exposing Penicillium strain to UV-light treatments. Screening and selection after treatment with UV-light were carried out using cellulolytic and xylanolytic clear zones method to select the hypercellulolytic and hyperxylanolytic mutants. These mutants were evaluated for their cellulase and xylanase enzyme production as well as their abilities for biodegradation of rice straw. The mutant 12 UV/1 produced 306.21% and 209.91% cellulase and xylanase, respectively, as compared with the original wild type strain. This mutant showed high capacity of rice straw degradation. The effectiveness of tested mutant strain and that of wild strain was compared in relation to enhancing the composting process of rice straw and animal manures mixture. The results obtained showed that the compost product of inoculated mixture with mutant strain (12 UV/1) was the best compared to the wild strain and un-inoculated mixture. Analysis of the composted materials showed that the characteristics of the produced compost were close to those of the high quality standard compost. The results obtained in the present work suggest that the combination between rice straw and animal manure could be used for enhancing the composting process of rice straw and particularly when applied with fungal decomposer accelerating the composting process.

Keywords: rice straw, composting, UV mutants, Penicillium

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18948 Design of Strain Sensor Based on Cascaded Fiber Bragg Grating for Remote Sensing Monitoring Application

Authors: Arafat A. A. Shabaneh

Abstract:

Harsh environments demand a developed detection of an optical communication system to ensure a high level of security and safety. Fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) are emerging sensing instruments that respond to variations in strain and temperature via varying wavelengths. In this paper, cascaded uniform FBG as a strain sensor for 6 km length at 1550 nm wavelength with 30 oC is designed with analyzing of dynamic strain and wavelength shifts. FBG is placed in a small segment of optical fiber, which reflects light of a specific wavelength and passes the remaining wavelengths. This makes a periodic alteration in the refractive index within the fiber core. The alteration in the modal index of fiber produced due to strain consequences in a Bragg wavelength. When the developed sensor exposure to a strain of cascaded uniform FBG by 0.01, the wavelength is shifted to 0.0000144383 μm. The sensing accuracy of the developed sensor is 0.0012. Simulation results show reliable and effective strain monitoring sensors for remote sensing applications.

Keywords: Cascaded fiber Bragg gratings, Strain sensor, Remote sensing, Wavelength shift

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18947 Sustainable Energy Production from Microalgae in Queshm Island, Persian Gulf

Authors: N. Moazami, R. Ranjbar, A. Ashori

Abstract:

Out of hundreds of microalgal strains reported, only very few of them are capable for production of high content of lipid. Therefore, the key technical challenges include identifying the strains with the highest growth rates and oil contents with adequate composition, which were the main aims of this work. From 147 microalgae screened for high biomass and oil productivity, the Nannochloropsis sp. PTCC 6016, which attained 52% lipid content, was selected for large scale cultivation in Persian Gulf Knowledge Island. Nannochloropsis strain PTCC 6016 belongs to Eustigmatophyceae (Phylum heterokontophyta) isolated from Mangrove forest area of Qheshm Island and Persian Gulf (Iran) in 2008. The strain PTCC 6016 had an average biomass productivity of 2.83 g/L/day and 52% lipid content. The biomass productivity and the oil production potential could be projected to be more than 200 tons biomass and 100000 L oil per hectare per year, in an outdoor algal culture (300 day/year) in the Persian Gulf climate.

Keywords: biofuels, microalgae, Nannochloropsis, raceway open pond, bio-jet

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18946 Load Relaxation Behavior of Ferritic Stainless Steels

Authors: Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

High-temperature deformation behavior of ferritic stainless steels such as STS 409L, STS 430J1L, and STS 429EM has been investigated in this study. Specimens with fully annealed microstructure were obtained by heat treatment. A series of load relaxation tests has been conducted on these samples at temperatures ranging from 200 to 900oC to construct flow curves in the strain rate range from 10-6 s-1 to 10-3 s-1. Strain hardening was not observed at high temperatures above 800oC in any stainless steels. Load relaxation behavior at the temperature was closely related with high-temperature mechanical properties such as the thermal fatigue and tensile behaviors. Load drop ratio of 436L stainless steel was much higher than that of the other steels. With increasing temperature, strength and load drop ratio of ferritic stainless steels showed entirely different trends.

Keywords: ferritic stainless steel, high temperature deformation, load relaxation, microstructure, strain rate sensitivity

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18945 Phase Composition Analysis of Ternary Alloy Materials for Gas Turbine Applications

Authors: Mayandi Ramanathan

Abstract:

Gas turbine blades see the most aggressive thermal stress conditions within the engine, due to high Turbine Entry Temperatures in the range of 1500 to 1600°C. The blades rotate at very high rotation rates and remove a significant amount of thermal power from the gas stream. At high temperatures, the major component failure mechanism is a creep. During its service over time under high thermal loads, the blade will deform, lengthen and rupture. High strength and stiffness in the longitudinal direction up to elevated service temperatures are certainly the most needed properties of turbine blades and gas turbine components. The proposed advanced Ti alloy material needs a process that provides a strategic orientation of metallic ordering, uniformity in composition and high metallic strength. The chemical composition of the proposed Ti alloy material (25% Ta/(Al+Ta) ratio), unlike Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb, has less excess Al that could limit the service life of turbine blades. Properties and performance of Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb and Ti-6Al-4V materials will be compared with that of the proposed Ti alloy material to generalize the performance metrics of various gas turbine components. This paper will involve the summary of the effects of additive manufacturing and heat treatment process conditions on the changes in the phase composition, grain structure, lattice structure of the material, tensile strength, creep strain rate, thermal expansion coefficient and fracture toughness at different temperatures. Based on these results, additive manufacturing and heat treatment process conditions will be optimized to fabricate turbine blade with Ti-43Al matrix alloyed with an optimized amount of refractory Ta metal. Improvement in service temperature of the turbine blades and corrosion resistance dependence on the coercivity of the alloy material will be reported. A correlation of phase composition and creep strain rate will also be discussed.

Keywords: high temperature materials, aerospace, specific strength, creep strain, phase composition

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18944 Determination of Strain Rate Sensitivity (SRS) for Grain Size Variants on Nanocrystalline Materials Produced by ARB and ECAP

Authors: P. B. Sob, T. B. Tengen, A. A. Alugongo

Abstract:

Mechanical behavior of 6082T6 aluminum is investigated at different temperatures. The strain rate sensitivity is investigated at different temperatures on the grain size variants. The sensitivity of the measured grain size variants on 3-D grain is discussed. It is shown that the strain rate sensitivities are negative for the grain size variants during the deformation of nanostructured materials. It is also observed that the strain rate sensitivities vary in different ways with the equivalent radius, semi minor axis radius, semi major axis radius and major axis radius. From the obtained results, it is shown that the variation of strain rate sensitivity with temperature suggests that the strain rate sensitivity at the low and the high temperature ends of the 6082T6 aluminum range is different. The obtained results revealed transition at different temperature from negative strain rate sensitivity as temperature increased on the grain size variants.

Keywords: nanostructured materials, grain size variants, temperature, yield stress, strain rate sensitivity

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18943 Dynamic Thermomechanical Behavior of Adhesively Bonded Composite Joints

Authors: Sonia Sassi, Mostapha Tarfaoui, Hamza Benyahia

Abstract:

Composite materials are increasingly being used as a substitute for metallic materials in many technological applications like aeronautics, aerospace, marine and civil engineering applications. For composite materials, the thermomechanical response evolves with the strain rate. The energy balance equation for anisotropic, elastic materials includes heat source terms that govern the conversion of some of the kinetic work into heat. The remainder contributes to the stored energy creating the damage process in the composite material. In this paper, we investigate the bulk thermomechanical behavior of adhesively-bonded composite assemblies to quantitatively asses the temperature rise which accompanies adiabatic deformations. In particular, adhesively bonded joints in glass/vinylester composite material are subjected to in-plane dynamic loads under a range of strain rates. Dynamic thermomechanical behavior of this material is investigated using compression Split Hopkinson Pressure Bars (SHPB) coupled with a high speed infrared camera and a high speed camera to measure in real time the dynamic behavior, the damage kinetic and the temperature variation in the material. The interest of using high speed IR camera is in order to view in real time the evolution of heat dissipation in the material when damage occurs. But, this technique does not produce thermal values in correlation with the stress-strain curves of composite material because of its high time response in comparison with the dynamic test time. For this reason, the authors revisit the application of specific thermocouples placed on the surface of the material to ensure the real thermal measurements under dynamic loading using small thermocouples. Experiments with dynamically loaded material show that the thermocouples record temperatures values with a short typical rise time as a result of the conversion of kinetic work into heat during compression test. This results show that small thermocouples can be used to provide an important complement to other noncontact techniques such as the high speed infrared camera. Significant temperature rise was observed in in-plane compression tests especially under high strain rates. During the tests, it has been noticed that sudden temperature rise occur when macroscopic damage occur. This rise in temperature is linked to the rate of damage. The more serve the damage is, a higher localized temperature is detected. This shows the strong relationship between the occurrence of damage and induced heat dissipation. For the case of the in plane tests, the damage takes place more abruptly as the strain rate is increased. The difference observed in the obtained thermomechanical response in plane compression is explained only by the difference in the damage process being active during the compression tests. In this study, we highlighted the dependence of the thermomechanical response on the strain rate of bonded specimens. The effect of heat dissipation of this material cannot hence be ignored and should be taken into account when defining damage models during impact loading.

Keywords: adhesively-bonded composite joints, damage, dynamic compression tests, energy balance, heat dissipation, SHPB, thermomechanical behavior

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18942 Mechanical Characterization of Brain Tissue in Compression

Authors: Abbas Shafiee, Mohammad Taghi Ahmadian, Maryam Hoviattalab

Abstract:

The biomechanical behavior of brain tissue is needed for predicting the traumatic brain injury (TBI). Each year over 1.5 million people sustain a TBI in the USA. The appropriate coefficients for injury prediction can be evaluated using experimental data. In this study, an experimental setup on brain soft tissue was developed to perform unconfined compression tests at quasistatic strain rates ∈0.0004 s-1 and 0.008 s-1 and 0.4 stress relaxation test under unconfined uniaxial compression with ∈ 0.67 s-1 ramp rate. The fitted visco-hyperelastic parameters were utilized by using obtained stress-strain curves. The experimental data was validated using finite element analysis (FEA) and previous findings. Also, influence of friction coefficient on unconfined compression and relaxation test and effect of ramp rate in relaxation test is investigated. Results of the findings are implemented on the analysis of a human brain under high acceleration due to impact.

Keywords: brain soft tissue, visco-hyperelastic, finite element analysis (FEA), friction, quasistatic strain rate

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18941 Cyclic Stress and Masing Behaviour of Modified 9Cr-1Mo at RT and 300 °C

Authors: Preeti Verma, P. Chellapandi, N.C. Santhi Srinivas, Vakil Singh

Abstract:

Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel is widely used for structural components like heat exchangers, pressure vessels and steam generator in the nuclear reactors. It is also found to be a candidate material for future metallic fuel sodium cooled fast breeder reactor because of its high thermal conductivity, lower thermal expansion coefficient, micro structural stability, high irradiation void swelling resistance and higher resistance to stress corrosion cracking in water-steam systems compared to austenitic stainless steels. The components of steam generators that operate at elevated temperatures are often subjected to repeated thermal stresses as a result of temperature gradients which occur on heating and cooling during start-ups and shutdowns or during variations in operating conditions of a reactor. These transient thermal stresses give rise to LCF damage. In the present investigation strain controlled low cycle fatigue tests were conducted at room temperature and 300 °C in normalized and tempered condition using total strain amplitudes in the range from ±0.25% to ±0.5% at strain rate of 10-2 s-1. Cyclic Stress response at high strain amplitudes (±0.31% to ±0.5%) showed initial softening followed by hardening upto a few cycles and subsequent softening till failure. The extent of softening increased with increase in strain amplitude and temperature. Depends on the strain amplitude of the test the stress strain hysteresis loops displayed Masing behaviour at higher strain amplitudes and non-Masing at lower strain amplitudes at both the temperatures. It is quite opposite to the usual Masing and Non-Masing behaviour reported earlier for different materials. Low cycle fatigue damage was evaluated in terms of plastic strain and plastic strain energy approach at room temperature and 300 °C. It was observed that the plastic strain energy approach was found to be more closely matches with the experimental fatigue lives particularly, at 300 °C where dynamic strain aging was observed.

Keywords: Modified 9Cr-mo steel, low cycle fatigue, Masing behavior, cyclic softening

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18940 Effect of Media Osmolarity on Vi Biosynthesis on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Strain C6524 Cultured on Batch System

Authors: Dwi Arisandi Wijaya, Ernawati Arifin Giri-Rachman, Neni Nurainy

Abstract:

Typhoid fever disease can be prevented by using a polysaccharide-based vaccine Vi which is a virulence factor of S.typhi. To produce high yield Vi polysaccharide from bacteria, it is important to know the biosynthesis of Vi polysaccharide and the regulators involved. In the In vivo condition, S. typhi faces different osmolarity, and the bacterial two-component system OmpR-EnvZ, regulate by up and down Capsular Vi polysaccharide biosynthesis. A high yielded Vi Polysaccharide strain, S. typhi strain C6524 used to study the effect of media osmolarity on Vi polysaccharide biosynthesis and the osmoregulation pattern of S. typhi strain C6524. The methods were performed by grown S. typhi strain C6524 grown on medium with 50 mM, 100 mM, and 150 mM osmolarity with the batch system. Vi polysaccharide concentration was measured by ELISA method. For further investigation of the osmoregulation pattern of strain C6524, the osmoregulator gene, OmpR, has been isolated and sequenced using the specific primer of the OmpR gene. Nucleotide sequence analysis is done with BLAST and Lallign. Amino Acid sequence analysis is done with Prosite and Multiple Sequence Alignment. The results of cultivation showed the average content of polysaccharide Vi for 50 mM, 100 mM, and 150 mM osmolarities 11.49 μg/mL, 12.06 μg/mL, and 14.53 μg/mL respectively. Analysis using Anova stated that the osmolarity treatment of 150 mM significantly affects Vi content. Analysis of nucleotide sequences shows 100% identity between S. typhi strain C6524 and Ty2. Analysis of amino acid sequences shows that the OmpR response regulator protein of the C6524 strain also has a α4-β5-α5 motif which is important for the regulatory activation system when phosphorylation occurs by domain kinase. This indicates that the regulator osmolarity response of S. typhi strain C6524 has no difference with the response regulator owned by S. typhi strain Ty2. A high Vi response rate in the 150 mM osmolarity treatment requires further research for RcsB-RcsC, another two-component system involved in Vi Biosynthesis.

Keywords: osmoregulator, OmpR, Salmonella, Vi polysaccharide

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