Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7773

Search results for: uniaxial compression test

7773 Experimental Study of Different Types of Concrete in Uniaxial Compression Test

Authors: Khashayar Jafari, Mostafa Jafarian Abyaneh, Vahab Toufigh


Polymer concrete (PC) is a distinct concrete with superior characteristics in comparison to ordinary cement concrete. It has become well-known for its applications in thin overlays, floors and precast components. In this investigation, the mechanical properties of PC with different epoxy resin contents, ordinary cement concrete (OCC) and lightweight concrete (LC) have been studied under uniaxial compression test. The study involves five types of concrete, with each type being tested four times. Their complete elastic-plastic behavior was compared with each other through the measurement of volumetric strain during the tests. According to the results, PC showed higher strength, ductility and energy absorption with respect to OCC and LC.

Keywords: polymer concrete, ordinary cement concrete, lightweight concrete, uniaxial compression test, volumetric strain

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
7772 Laser Ultrasonic Diagnostics and Acoustic Emission Technique for Examination of Rock Specimens under Uniaxial Compression

Authors: Elena B. Cherepetskaya, Vladimir A. Makarov, Dmitry V. Morozov, Ivan E. Sas


Laboratory studies of the stress-strain behavior of rocks specimens were conducted by using acoustic emission and laser-ultrasonic diagnostics. The sensitivity of the techniques allowed changes in the internal structure of the specimens under uniaxial compressive load to be examined at micro- and macro scales. It was shown that microcracks appear in geologic materials when the stress level reaches about 50% of breaking strength. Also, the characteristic stress of the main crack formation was registered in the process of single-stage compression of rocks. On the base of laser-ultrasonic echoscopy, 2D visualization of the internal structure of rocky soil specimens was realized, and the microcracks arising during uniaxial compression were registered.

Keywords: acoustic emission, geomaterial, laser ultrasound, uniaxial compression

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
7771 Predicting the Uniaxial Strength Distribution of Brittle Materials Based on a Uniaxial Test

Authors: Benjamin Sonnenreich


Brittle fracture failure probability is best described using a stochastic approach which is based on the 'weakest link concept' and the connection between a microstructure and macroscopic fracture scale. A general theoretical and experimental framework is presented to predict the uniaxial strength distribution according to independent uniaxial test data. The framework takes as input the applied stresses, the geometry, the materials, the defect distributions and the relevant random variables from uniaxial test results and gives as output an overall failure probability that can be used to improve the reliability of practical designs. Additionally, the method facilitates comparisons of strength data from several sources, uniaxial tests, and sample geometries.

Keywords: brittle fracture, strength distribution, uniaxial, weakest link concept

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7770 Numerical Simulation of High Strength Steel Hot-Finished Elliptical Hollow Section Subjected to Uniaxial Eccentric Compression

Authors: Zhengyi Kong, Xueqing Wang, Quang-Viet Vu


In this study, the structural behavior of high strength steel (HSS) hot-finished elliptical hollow section (EHS) subjected to uniaxial eccentric compression is investigated. A finite element method for predicting the cross-section resistance of HSS hot-finished EHS is developed using ABAQUS software, which is then verified by comparison with previous experiments. The validated finite element method is employed to carry out parametric studies for investigating the structural behavior of HSS hot-finished EHS under uniaxial eccentric compression and evaluate the current design guidance for HSS hot-finished EHS. Different parameters, such as the radius of the larger and smaller outer diameter of EHS, thickness of EHS, eccentricity, and material property, are considered. The resulting data from 84 finite element models are used to obtain the relationship between the cross-section resistance of HSS hot-finished EHS and cross-section slenderness. It is concluded that current design provisions, such as EN 1993-1-1, BS 5950-1, AS4100, and Gardner et al., are conservative for predicting the HSS hot-finished EHS under uniaxial eccentric compression.

Keywords: hot-finished, elliptical hollow section, uniaxial eccentric compression, finite element method

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7769 Estimation of Tensile Strength for Granitic Rocks by Using Discrete Element Approach

Authors: Aliakbar Golshani, Armin Ramezanzad


Tensile strength which is an important parameter of the rock for engineering applications is difficult to measure directly through physical experiment (i.e. uniaxial tensile test). Therefore, indirect experimental methods such as Brazilian test have been taken into consideration and some relations have been proposed in order to obtain the tensile strength for rocks indirectly. In this research, to calculate numerically the tensile strength for granitic rocks, Particle Flow Code in three-dimension (PFC3D) software were used. First, uniaxial compression tests were simulated and the tensile strength was determined for Inada granite (from a quarry in Kasama, Ibaraki, Japan). Then, by simulating Brazilian test condition for Inada granite, the tensile strength was indirectly calculated again. Results show that the tensile strength calculated numerically agrees well with the experimental results obtained from uniaxial tensile tests on Inada granite samples.

Keywords: numerical simulation, particle flow code, PFC, tensile strength, Brazilian Test

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7768 Constitutive Modeling of Different Types of Concrete under Uniaxial Compression

Authors: Mostafa Jafarian Abyaneh, Khashayar Jafari, Vahab Toufigh


The cost of experiments on different types of concrete has raised the demand for prediction of their behavior with numerical analysis. In this research, an advanced numerical model has been presented to predict the complete elastic-plastic behavior of polymer concrete (PC), high-strength concrete (HSC), high performance concrete (HPC) along with different steel fiber contents under uniaxial compression. The accuracy of the numerical response was satisfactory as compared to other conventional simple models such as Mohr-Coulomb and Drucker-Prager. In order to predict the complete elastic-plastic behavior of specimens including softening behavior, disturbed state concept (DSC) was implemented by nonlinear finite element analysis (NFEA) and hierarchical single surface (HISS) failure criterion, which is a failure surface without any singularity.

Keywords: disturbed state concept (DSC), hierarchical single surface (HISS) failure criterion, high performance concrete (HPC), high-strength concrete (HSC), nonlinear finite element analysis (NFEA), polymer concrete (PC), steel fibers, uniaxial compression test

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
7767 Application of Gene Expression Programming (GEP) in Predicting Uniaxial Compressive Strength of Pyroclastic Rocks

Authors: İsmail İnce, Mustafa Fener, Sair Kahraman


The uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) of rocks is an important input parameter for the design of rock engineering project. Compressive strength can be determined in the laboratory using the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) test. Although the test is relatively simple, the method is time consuming and expensive. Therefore many researchers have tried to assess the uniaxial compressive strength values of rocks via relatively simple and indirect tests (e.g. point load strength test, Schmidt Hammer hardness rebound test, P-wave velocity test, etc.). Pyroclastic rocks are widely exposed in the various regions of the world. Cappadocia region located in the Central Anatolia is one of the most spectacular cite of these regions. It is important to determine the mechanical behaviour of the pyroclastic rocks due to their ease of carving, heat insulation properties and building some civil engineering constructions in them. The purpose of this study is to estimate a widely varying uniaxial strength of pyroclastic rocks from Cappadocia region by means of point load strength, porosity, dry density and saturated density tests utilizing gene expression programming.

Keywords: pyroclastic rocks, uniaxial compressive strength, gene expression programming (GEP, Cappadocia region

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
7766 Mechanical Characterization of Brain Tissue in Compression

Authors: Abbas Shafiee, Mohammad Taghi Ahmadian, Maryam Hoviattalab


The biomechanical behavior of brain tissue is needed for predicting the traumatic brain injury (TBI). Each year over 1.5 million people sustain a TBI in the USA. The appropriate coefficients for injury prediction can be evaluated using experimental data. In this study, an experimental setup on brain soft tissue was developed to perform unconfined compression tests at quasistatic strain rates ∈0.0004 s-1 and 0.008 s-1 and 0.4 stress relaxation test under unconfined uniaxial compression with ∈ 0.67 s-1 ramp rate. The fitted visco-hyperelastic parameters were utilized by using obtained stress-strain curves. The experimental data was validated using finite element analysis (FEA) and previous findings. Also, influence of friction coefficient on unconfined compression and relaxation test and effect of ramp rate in relaxation test is investigated. Results of the findings are implemented on the analysis of a human brain under high acceleration due to impact.

Keywords: brain soft tissue, visco-hyperelastic, finite element analysis (FEA), friction, quasistatic strain rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 520
7765 Comparison of Direct and Indirect Tensile Strength of Brittle Materials and Accurate Estimate of Tensile Strength

Authors: M. Etezadi, A. Fahimifar


In many geotechnical designs in rocks and rock masses, tensile strength of rock and rock mass is needed. The difficulties associated with performing a direct uniaxial tensile test on a rock specimen have led to a number of indirect methods for assessing the tensile strength that in the meantime the Brazilian test is more popular. Brazilian test is widely applied in rock engineering because specimens are easy to prepare, the test is easy to conduct and uniaxial compression test machines are quite common. This study compares experimental results of direct and Brazilian tensile tests carried out on two rock types and three concrete types using 39 cylindrical and 28 disc specimens. The tests are performed using Servo-Control device. The relationship between direct and indirect tensile strength of specimens is extracted using linear regression. In the following, tensile strength of direct and indirect test is evaluated using finite element analysis. The results are analyzed and effective factors on results are studied. According to the experimental results Brazilian test is shown higher tensile strength than direct test. Because of decreasing the contact surface of grains and increasing the uniformity in concrete specimens with fine aggregate (largest grain size= 6mm), higher tensile strength in direct test is shown. The experimental and numerical results of tensile strength are compared and empirical relationship witch is obtained from experimental tests is validated.

Keywords: tensile strength, brittle materials, direct and indirect tensile test, numerical modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
7764 A Nonlinear Visco-Hyper Elastic Constitutive Model for Modelling Behavior of Polyurea at Large Deformations

Authors: Shank Kulkarni, Alireza Tabarraei


The fantastic properties of polyurea such as flexibility, durability, and chemical resistance have brought it a wide range of application in various industries. Effective prediction of the response of polyurea under different loading and environmental conditions necessitates the development of an accurate constitutive model. Similar to most polymers, the behavior of polyurea depends on both strain and strain rate. Therefore, the constitutive model should be able to capture both these effects on the response of polyurea. To achieve this objective, in this paper, a nonlinear hyper-viscoelastic constitutive model is developed by the superposition of a hyperelastic and a viscoelastic model. The proposed constitutive model can capture the behavior of polyurea under compressive loading conditions at various strain rates. Four parameter Ogden model and Mooney Rivlin model are used to modeling the hyperelastic behavior of polyurea. The viscoelastic behavior is modeled using both a three-parameter standard linear solid (SLS) model and a K-BKZ model. Comparison of the modeling results with experiments shows that Odgen and SLS model can more accurately predict the behavior of polyurea. The material parameters of the model are found by curve fitting of the proposed model to the uniaxial compression test data. The proposed model can closely reproduce the stress-strain behavior of polyurea for strain rates up to 6500 /s.

Keywords: constitutive modelling, ogden model, polyurea, SLS model, uniaxial compression test

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
7763 Analyses of Uniaxial and Biaxial Flexure Tests Used in Ceramic Materials

Authors: Barry Hojjatie


Uniaxial (e.g., three-point bending) and biaxial flexure tests are used frequently for determining the strength of ceramics. It is generally believed that the biaxial test has an advantage as compared to uniaxial test because it produces a state of pure tension on the lower surface of the specimen and the maximum tensile stress, which is usually responsible for crack initiation and failure is unaffected by the edge condition. However, inconsistent strength values have been reported for the same material and testing conditions. The objective of this study was to analyze the strength of dental porcelain materials using the two different test methods and evaluate the main contributions to variability in biaxial testing and to analyze the relative influence of variables such as specimen geometric conditions and loading conditions on calculated strength of porcelain subjected to biaxial testing. Porcelain disks (16 mm dia x 2 mm thick) were subjected to biaxial flexure (pin-on-three-ball), and flexure strength values were calculated. A 3-D finite element model was developed to simulate various biaxial flexure test conditions. Stresses were analyzed for ceramic thickness in the range of 1.0-3.0 mm. For a 2-mm-thick disk subjected to a point load of 200 N, the maximum tensile stress at the lower surface was 180 MPa. This stress decreased to 95, 77, 68, and 59 MPa for the radius of the load values of 0.15, 0.3, 0.6, and 1.0 mm, respectively. Tensile stresses which developed at the top surface near the site of loading were small for the radius of the load ≥ 0.6 mm.

Keywords: ceramis, biaxial, flexure test, uniaxial

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7762 Mechanical Characterization of Porcine Skin with the Finite Element Method Based Inverse Optimization Approach

Authors: Djamel Remache, Serge Dos Santos, Michael Cliez, Michel Gratton, Patrick Chabrand, Jean-Marie Rossi, Jean-Louis Milan


Skin tissue is an inhomogeneous and anisotropic material. Uniaxial tensile testing is one of the primary testing techniques for the mechanical characterization of skin at large scales. In order to predict the mechanical behavior of materials, the direct or inverse analytical approaches are often used. However, in case of an inhomogeneous and anisotropic material as skin tissue, analytical approaches are not able to provide solutions. The numerical simulation is thus necessary. In this work, the uniaxial tensile test and the FEM (finite element method) based inverse method were used to identify the anisotropic mechanical properties of porcine skin tissue. The uniaxial tensile experiments were performed using Instron 8800 tensile machine®. The uniaxial tensile test was simulated with FEM, and then the inverse optimization approach (or the inverse calibration) was used for the identification of mechanical properties of the samples. Experimentally results were compared to finite element solutions. The results showed that the finite element model predictions of the mechanical behavior of the tested skin samples were well correlated with experimental results.

Keywords: mechanical skin tissue behavior, uniaxial tensile test, finite element analysis, inverse optimization approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
7761 Effect of Nano-SiO2 Solution on the Strength Characteristics of Kaolinite

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayed, Hamidreza Rahmani


Today, with developments in science and technology, there is an excessive potential for the use of nanomaterials in various fields of geotechnical project such as soil stabilization. This study investigates the effect of Nano-SiO2 solution on the unconfined compression strength and Young's elastic modulus of Kaolinite. For this purpose, nano-SiO2 was mixed with kaolinite in five different contents: 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% by weight of the dry soil and a series of the unconfined compression test with curing time of one-day was selected as laboratory test. Analyses of the tests results show that stabilization of kaolinite with Nano-SiO2 solution can improve effectively the unconfined compression strength of modified soil up to 1.43 times compared to  the pure soil.

Keywords: kaolinite, Nano-SiO2, stabilization, unconfined compression test, Young's modulus

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
7760 Effect of Curing Temperature on Unconfined Compression Strength of Bagasse Ash-Calcium Carbide Residue Treated Organic Clay

Authors: John Trihatmoko, Luky Handoko


A series of experimental program was undertaken to study the effect of curing temperature on the unconfined compression strength of bagasse ash (BA) - calcium carbide residue (CCR) stabilized organic clay (OC). A preliminary experiment was performed to get the physical properties of OC, and to get the optimum water content (OMC), the standard compaction test was done. The stabilizing agents used in this research was (40% BA + 60% CCR) . Then to obtain the best binder proportion, unconfined compression test was undertaken for OC + 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15% of binder with 7, 14, 21, 28 and 56 days curing period. The best quantity of the binder was found on 9%. Finally, to study the effect of curing temperature, the unconfined compression test was performed on OC + 9% binder with 7, 14, 21, 28 and 56 days curing time with 20O, 25O, 30O, 40O, and 50O C curing temperature. The result indicates that unconfined compression strength (UCS) of treated OC improve according to the increase of curing temperature at the same curing time. The improvement of UCS is probably due to the degree of cementation and pozzolanic reactions.

Keywords: curing temperature, organic clay, bagasse ash, calcium carbide residue, unconfined compression strength

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7759 A Slip Transmission through Alpha/Beta Boundaries in a Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-4V)

Authors: Rayan B. M. Ameen, Ian P. Jones, Yu Lung Chiu


Single alpha-beta colony micro-pillars have been manufactured from a polycrystalline commercial Ti-6Al-4V sample using Focused Ion Beam (FIB). Each pillar contained two alpha lamellae separated by a thin fillet of beta phase. A nano-indenter was then used to conduct uniaxial micro-compression tests on Ti alloy single crystals, using a diamond flat tip as a compression platen. By controlling the crystal orientation along the micro-pillar using Electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD) different slip systems have been selectively activated. The advantage of the micro-compression method over conventional mechanical testing techniques is the ability to localize a single crystal volume which is characterizable after deformation. By matching the stress-strain relations resulting from micro-compression experiments to TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) studies of slip transmission mechanisms through the α-β interfaces, some proper constitutive material parameters such as the role of these interfaces in determining yield, strain-hardening behaviour, initial dislocation density and the critical resolved shear stress are suggested.

Keywords: α/β-Ti alloy, focused ion beam, micro-mechanical test, nano-indentation, transmission electron diffraction, plastic flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
7758 Hot Deformation Behavior and Recrystallization of Inconel 718 Superalloy under Double Cone Compression

Authors: Wang Jianguo, Ding Xiao, Liu Dong, Wang Haiping, Yang Yanhui, Hu Yang


The hot deformation behavior of Inconel 718 alloy was studied by uniaxial compression tests under the deformation temperature of 940~1040℃ and strain rate of 0.001-10s⁻¹. The double cone compression (DCC) tests develop strains range from 30% to the 79% strain including all intermediate values of stains at different temperature (960~1040℃). DCC tests were simulated by finite element software which shown the strain and strain rates distribution. The result shows that the peak stress level of the alloy decreased with increasing deformation temperature and decreasing strain rate, which could be characterized by a Zener-Hollomon parameter in the hyperbolic-sine equation. The characterization method of hot processing window containing recrystallization volume fraction and average grain size was proposed for double cone compression test of uniform coarse grain, mixed crystal and uniform fine grain double conical specimen in hydraulic press and screw press. The results show that uniform microstructures can be obtained by low temperature with high deformation followed by high temperature with small deformation on the hydraulic press and low temperature, medium deformation, multi-pass on the screw press. The two methods were applied in industrial forgings process, and the forgings with uniform microstructure were obtained successfully.

Keywords: inconel 718 superalloy, hot processing windows, double cone compression, uniform microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
7757 Analysis of Compressive and Tensile Response of Pumpkin Flesh, Peel and Unpeeled Tissues Using Experimental and FEA

Authors: Maryam Shirmohammadi, Prasad K. D. V. Yarlagadda, YuanTong Gu


The mechanical damage on the agricultural crop during and after harvesting can create high volume of damage on tissue. Uniaxial compression and tensile loading were performed on flesh and peel samples of pumpkin. To investigate the structural changes on the tissue, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to capture the cellular structure change before and after loading on tissue for tensile, compression and indentation tests. To obtain required mechanical properties of tissue for the finite element analysis (FEA) model, laser measurement sensors were used to record the lateral displacement of tissue under the compression loading. Uniaxial force versus deformation data were recorded using Universal Testing Machine for both tensile and compression tests. The experimental Results were employed to develop a material model with failure criteria. The results obtained by the simulation were compared with those obtained by experiments. Note that although modelling food materials’ behaviour is not a new concept however, majority of previous studies focused on elastic behaviour and damages under linear limit, this study, however, has developed FEA models for tensile and compressive loading of pumpkin flesh and peel samples using, as the first study, both elastic and elasto-plastic material types. In addition, pumpkin peel and flesh tissues were considered as two different materials with different properties under mechanical loadings. The tensile and compression loadings were used to develop the material model for a composite structure for FEA model of mechanical peeling of pumpkin as a tough skinned vegetable.

Keywords: compressive and tensile response, finite element analysis, poisson’s ratio, elastic modulus, elastic and plastic response, rupture and bio-yielding

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
7756 Numerical Modelling of 3-D Fracture Propagation and Damage Evolution of an Isotropic Heterogeneous Rock with a Pre-Existing Surface Flaw under Uniaxial Compression

Authors: S. Mondal, L. M. Olsen-Kettle, L. Gross


Fracture propagation and damage evolution are extremely important for many industrial applications including mining industry, composite materials, earthquake simulations, hydraulic fracturing. The influence of pre-existing flaws and rock heterogeneity on the processes and mechanisms of rock fracture has important ramifications in many mining and reservoir engineering applications. We simulate the damage evolution and fracture propagation in an isotropic sandstone specimen containing a pre-existing 3-D surface flaw in different configurations under uniaxial compression. We apply a damage model based on the unified strength theory and solve the solid deformation and damage evolution equations using the Finite Element Method (FEM) with tetrahedron elements on unstructured meshes through the simulation software, eScript. Unstructured meshes provide higher geometrical flexibility and allow a more accurate way to model the varying flaw depth, angle, and length through locally adapted FEM meshes. The heterogeneity of rock is considered by initializing material properties using a Weibull distribution sampled over a cubic grid. In our model, we introduce a length scale related to the rock heterogeneity which is independent of the mesh size. We investigate the effect of parameters including the heterogeneity of the elastic moduli and geometry of the single flaw in the stress strain response. The generation of three typical surface cracking patterns, called wing cracks, anti-wing cracks and far-field cracks were identified, and these depend on the geometry of the pre-existing surface flaw. This model results help to advance our understanding of fracture and damage growth in heterogeneous rock with the aim to develop fracture simulators for different industry applications.

Keywords: finite element method, heterogeneity, isotropic damage, uniaxial compression

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
7755 Compression Index Estimation by Water Content and Liquid Limit and Void Ratio Using Statistics Method

Authors: Lizhou Chen, Abdelhamid Belgaid, Assem Elsayed, Xiaoming Yang


Compression index is essential in foundation settlement calculation. The traditional method for determining compression index is consolidation test which is expensive and time consuming. Many researchers have used regression methods to develop empirical equations for predicting compression index from soil properties. Based on a large number of compression index data collected from consolidation tests, the accuracy of some popularly empirical equations were assessed. It was found that primary compression index is significantly overestimated in some equations while it is underestimated in others. The sensitivity analyses of soil parameters including water content, liquid limit and void ratio were performed. The results indicate that the compression index obtained from void ratio is most accurate. The ANOVA (analysis of variance) demonstrates that the equations with multiple soil parameters cannot provide better predictions than the equations with single soil parameter. In other words, it is not necessary to develop the relationships between compression index and multiple soil parameters. Meanwhile, it was noted that secondary compression index is approximately 0.7-5.0% of primary compression index with an average of 2.0%. In the end, the proposed prediction equations using power regression technique were provided that can provide more accurate predictions than those from existing equations.

Keywords: compression index, clay, settlement, consolidation, secondary compression index, soil parameter

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7754 Mechanical Properties, Vibrational Response and Flow-Field Analysis of Staghorn Coral Skeleton, Acropora cervicornis

Authors: Alejandro Carrasco-Pena, Mahmoud Omer, Nina Orlovskaya


The results of studies of microstructure, mechanical behavior, vibrational response, and flow field analysis of critically endangered staghorn coral (Acropora cervicornis) skeletons are reported. The CaCO₃ aragonite structure of a chemically-cleaned coral skeleton of A. cervicornis was studied by optical microscopy and computer tomography. The mechanical behavior was studied using uniaxial compression and Vickers hardness technique. The average maximum stress measured during skeleton uniaxial compression was 10.7 ± 2.24 MPa and Vickers hardness was 3.56 ± 0.31 GPa. The vibrational response of the aragonite structure was studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy, which showed a substantial dependence of the structure on applied compressive stress. The flow-field around a single coral skeleton forming vortices in the wake of the moving skeleton was measured using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The results are important for further analysis of time-dependent mechanical fatigue behavior and predicting the lifetime of staghorn corals.

Keywords: failure, mechanical properties, microstructure, Raman spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
7753 Influence of Nanozeolite Particles on Improvement of Clayey Soil

Authors: A. Goodarzian, A. Ghasemipanah, R. Ziaie Moayed, H. Niroumand


The problem of soil stabilization has been one of the important issues in geotechnical engineering. Nowadays, nanomaterials have revolutionized many industries. In this research, improvement of the Kerman fine-grained soil by nanozeolite and nanobentonite additives separately has been investigated using Atterberg Limits and unconfined compression test. In unconfined compression test, the samples were prepared with 3, 5 and 7% nano additives, with 1, 7 and 28 days curing time with strain control method. Finally, the effect of different percentages of nanozeolite and nanobentonite on the geotechnical behavior and characteristics of Kerman fine-grained soil was investigated. The results showed that with increasing the amount of nanozeolite and also nanobentonite to fine-grained soil, the soil exhibits more compression strength. So that by adding 7% nanozeolite and nanobentonite with 1 day curing, the unconfined compression strength is 1.18 and 2.1 times higher than the unstabilized soil. In addition, the failure strain decreases in samples containing nanozeolite, whereas it increases in the presence of nanobentonite. Increasing the percentage of nanozeolite and nanobentonite also increased the elasticity modulus of soil.

Keywords: nanoparticles, soil improvement, clayey soil, unconfined compression stress

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7752 Assessment of Analytical Equations for the Derivation of Young’s Modulus of Bonded Rubber Materials

Authors: Z. N. Haji, S. O. Oyadiji, H. Samami, O. Farrell


The prediction of the vibration response of rubber products by analytical or numerical method depends mainly on the predefined intrinsic material properties such as Young’s modulus, damping factor and Poisson’s ratio. Such intrinsic properties are determined experimentally by subjecting a bonded rubber sample to compression tests. The compression tests on such a sample yield an apparent Young’s modulus which is greater in magnitude than the intrinsic Young’s modulus of the rubber. As a result, many analytical equations have been developed to determine Young’s modulus from an apparent Young’s modulus of bonded rubber materials. In this work, the applicability of some of these analytical equations is assessed via experimental testing. The assessment is based on testing of vulcanized nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR70) samples using tensile test and compression test methods. The analytical equations are used to determine the intrinsic Young’s modulus from the apparent modulus that is derived from the compression test data of the bonded rubber samples. Then, these Young’s moduli are compared with the actual Young’s modulus that is derived from the tensile test data. The results show significant discrepancy between the Young’s modulus derived using the analytical equations and the actual Young’s modulus.

Keywords: bonded rubber, quasi-static test, shape factor, apparent Young’s modulus

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7751 A New Prediction Model for Soil Compression Index

Authors: D. Mohammadzadeh S., J. Bolouri Bazaz


This paper presents a new prediction model for compression index of fine-grained soils using multi-gene genetic programming (MGGP) technique. The proposed model relates the soil compression index to its liquid limit, plastic limit and void ratio. Several laboratory test results for fine-grained were used to develop the models. Various criteria were considered to check the validity of the model. The parametric and sensitivity analyses were performed and discussed. The MGGP method was found to be very effective for predicting the soil compression index. A comparative study was further performed to prove the superiority of the MGGP model to the existing soft computing and traditional empirical equations.

Keywords: new prediction model, compression index soil, multi-gene genetic programming, MGGP

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
7750 The Failure and Energy Mechanism of Rock-Like Material with Single Flaw

Authors: Yu Chen


This paper investigates the influence of flaw on failure process of rock-like material under uniaxial compression. In laboratory, the uniaxial compression tests of intact specimens and a series of specimens within single flaw were conducted. The inclination angle of flaws includes 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75° and 90°. Based on the laboratory tests, the corresponding models of numerical simulation were built and loaded in PFC2D. After analysing the crack initiation and failure modes, deformation field, and energy mechanism for both laboratory tests and numerical simulation, it can be concluded that the influence of flaws on the failure process is determined by its inclination. The characteristic stresses increase as flaw angle rising basically. The tensile cracks develop from gentle flaws (α ≤ 30°) and the shear cracks develop from other flaws. The propagation of cracks changes during failure process and the failure mode of a specimen corresponds to the orientation of the flaw. A flaw has significant influence on the transverse deformation field at the middle of the specimen, except the 75° and 90° flaw sample. The input energy, strain energy and dissipation energy of specimens show approximate increase trends with flaw angle rising and it presents large difference on the energy distribution.

Keywords: failure pattern, particle deformation field, energy mechanism, PFC

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
7749 Modeling of a Pendulum Test Including Skin and Muscles under Compression

Authors: M. J. Kang, Y. N. Jo, H. H. Yoo


Pendulum tests were used to identify a stretch reflex and diagnose spasticity. Some researches tried to make a mathematical model to simulate the motions. Thighs are subject to compressive forces due to gravity during a pendulum test. Therefore, it affects knee trajectories. However, the most studies on the pendulum tests did not consider that conditions. We used Kelvin-Voight model as compression model of skin and muscles. In this study, we investigated viscoelastic behaviors of skin and muscles using gelatin blocks from experiments of the vibration of the compliantly supported beam. Then we calculated a dynamic stiffness and loss factors from the experiment and estimated a damping coefficient of the model. We also did pendulum tests of human lower limbs to validate the stiffness and damping coefficient of a skin model. To simulate the pendulum motion, we derive equations of motion. We used stretch reflex activation model to estimate muscle forces induced by the stretch reflex. To validate the results, we compared the activation with electromyography signals during experiments. The compression behavior of skin and muscles in this study can be applied to analyze sitting posture as wee as developing surgical techniques.

Keywords: Kelvin-Voight model, pendulum test, skin and muscles under compression, stretch reflex

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7748 Response of Concrete Panels Subjected to Compression-Tension State of Stresses

Authors: Mohammed F. Almograbi


For reinforced concrete panels the risk of failure due to compression -tension state of stresses, results from pure shear or torsion, can be a major problem. The present calculation methods for such stresses from multiple influences are without taking into account the softening of cracked concrete remains conservative. The non-linear finite element method has become an important and increasingly used tool for the analysis and assessment of the structures by including cracking softening and tension-stiffening. The aim of this paper is to test a computer program refined recently and to simulate the compression response of cracked concrete element and to compare with the available experimental results.

Keywords: reinforced concrete panels, compression-tension, shear, torsion, compression softening, tension stiffening, non-linear finite element analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
7747 Two-Dimensional Electron Gas with 100% Spin- Polarization in the (LaMnO3)2/(SrTiO3)2 Superlattice under Uniaxial Strain

Authors: Jiwuer Jilili, Fabrizio Cossu, Udo Schwingenschlogl


By first-principles calculations we investigate the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of the (LaMnO3)2/(SrTiO3)2 superlattice. We find that a monoclinic C2h symmetry is energetically favorable and that the spins order ferromagnetically. Under both compressive and tensile uniaxial strain the electronic structure of the superlattice shows a half-metallic character. In particular, a fully spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas, which traces back to the Ti 3dxy orbitals, is achieved under compressive uniaxial strain.

Keywords: manganite, strain, 2DEG, superlattice

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7746 Non-Destructive Test of Bar for Determination of Critical Compression Force Directed towards the Pole

Authors: Boris Blostotsky, Elia Efraim


The phenomenon of buckling of structural elements under compression is revealed in many cases of loading and found consideration in many structures and mechanisms. In the present work the method and results of dynamic test for buckling of bar loaded by a compression force directed towards the pole are considered. Experimental determination of critical force for such system has not been made previously. The tested object is a bar with semi-rigid connection to the base at one of its ends, and with a hinge moving along a circle at the other. The test includes measuring the natural frequency of the bar at different values of compression load. The lateral stiffness is calculated based on natural frequency and reduced mass on the bar's movable end. The critical load is determined by extrapolation the values of lateral stiffness up to zero value. For the experimental investigation the special test-bed was created that allows the stability testing at positive and negative curvature of the movable end's trajectory, as well as varying the rotational stiffness of the other end connection. Decreasing a friction at the movable end allows extend the diapason of applied compression force. The testing method includes: - Methodology of the experiment planning, that allows determine the required number of tests under various loads values in the defined range and the type of extrapolating function; - Methodology of experimental determination of reduced mass at the bar's movable end including its own mass; - Methodology of experimental determination of lateral stiffness of uncompressed bar rotational semi-rigid connection at the base. For planning the experiment and for comparison of the experimental results with the theoretical values of critical load, the analytical dependencies of lateral stiffness of the bar with defined end conditions on compression load. In the particular case of perfectly rigid connection of the bar to the base, the critical load value corresponds to solution by S.P. Timoshenko. Correspondence of the calculated and experimental values was obtained.

Keywords: non-destructive test, buckling, dynamic method, semi-rigid connections

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7745 An EBSD Investigation of Ti-6Al-4Nb Alloy Processed by Plan Strain Compression Test

Authors: Anna Jastrzebska, K. S. Suresh, T. Kitashima, Y. Yamabe-Mitarai, Z. Pakiela


Near α titanium alloys are important materials for aerospace applications, especially in high temperature applications such as jet engine. Mechanical properties of Ti alloys strongly depends on their processing route, then it is very important to understand micro-structure change by different processing. In our previous study, Nb was found to improve oxidation resistance of Ti alloys. In this study, micro-structure evolution of Ti-6Al-4Nb (wt %) alloy was investigated after plain strain compression test in hot working temperatures in the α and β phase region. High-resolution EBSD was successfully used for precise phase and texture characterization of this alloy. 1.1 kg of Ti-6Al-4Nb ingot was prepared using cold crucible levitation melting. The ingot was subsequently homogenized in 1050 deg.C for 1h followed by cooling in the air. Plate like specimens measuring 10×20×50 mm3 were cut from an ingot by electrical discharge machining (EDM). The plain strain compression test using an anvil with 10 x 35 mm in size was performed with 3 different strain rates: 0.1s-1, 1s-1and 10s-1 in 700 deg.C and 1050 deg.C to obtain 75% of deformation. The micro-structure was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) detector. The α/β phase ratio and phase morphology as well as the crystallographic texture, subgrain size, misorientation angles and misorientation gradients corresponding to each phase were determined over the middle and the edge of sample areas. The deformation mechanism in each working temperature was discussed. The evolution of texture changes with strain rate was investigated. The micro-structure obtained by plain strain compression test was heterogeneous with a wide range of grain sizes. This is because deformation and dynamic recrystallization occurred during deformation at temperature in the α and β phase. It was strongly influenced by strain rate.

Keywords: EBSD, plain strain compression test, Ti alloys

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7744 Elastic Constants of Fir Wood Using Ultrasound and Compression Tests

Authors: Ergun Guntekin


Elastic constants of Fir wood (Abies cilicica) have been investigated by means of ultrasound and compression tests. Three modulus of elasticity in principal directions (EL, ER, ET), six Poisson’s ratios (ʋLR, ʋLT, ʋRT, ʋTR, ʋRL, ʋTL) and three shear modules (GLR, GRT, GLT) were determined. 20 x 20 x 60 mm samples were conditioned at 65 % relative humidity and 20ºC before testing. Three longitudinal and six shear wave velocities propagating along the principal axes of anisotropy, and additionally, three quasi-shear wave velocities at 45° angle with respect to the principal axes of anisotropy were measured. 2.27 MHz longitudinal and 1 MHz shear sensors were used for obtaining sound velocities. Stress-strain curves of the samples in compression tests were obtained using bi-axial extensometer in order to calculate elastic constants. Test results indicated that most of the elastic constants determined in the study are within the acceptable range. Although elastic constants determined from ultrasound are usually higher than those determined from compression tests, the values of EL and GLR determined from compression tests were higher in the study. The results of this study can be used in the numerical modeling of elements or systems under load using Fir wood.

Keywords: compression tests, elastic constants, fir wood, ultrasound

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