Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2844

Search results for: shape memory alloys

2844 Study of Energy Dissipation in Shape Memory Alloys: A Comparison between Austenite and Martensite Phase of SMAs

Authors: Amirmozafar Benshams, Khatere Kashmari, Farzad Hatami, Mesbah Saybani

Abstract:

Shape memory alloys with high capability of energy dissipation and large deformation bearing with return ability to their original shape without too much hysteresis strain have opened their place among the other damping systems as smart materials. Ninitol which is the most well-known and most used alloy material from the shape memory alloys family, has high resistance and fatigue and is coverage for large deformations. Shape memory effect and super-elasticity by shape alloys like Nitinol, are the reasons of the high power of these materials in energy depreciation. Thus, these materials are suitable for use in reciprocating dynamic loading conditions. The experiments results showed that Nitinol wires with small diameter have greater energy dissipation capability and by increase of diameter and thickness the damping capability and energy dissipation increase.

Keywords: shape memory alloys, shape memory effect, super elastic effect, nitinol, energy dissipation

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2843 Thermomechanical Processing of a CuZnAl Shape-Memory Alloy

Authors: Pedro Henrique Alves Martins, Paulo Guilherme Ferreira De Siqueira, Franco De Castro Bubani, Maria Teresa Paulino Aguilar, Paulo Roberto Cetlin

Abstract:

Cu-base shape-memory alloys (CuZnAl, CuAlNi, CuAlBe, etc.) are promising engineering materials for several unconventional devices, such as sensors, actuators, and mechanical vibration dampers. Brittleness is one of the factors that limit the commercial use of these alloys, as it makes thermomechanical processing difficult. In this work, a method for the hot extrusion of a 75.50% Cu, 16,74% Zn, 7,76% Al (weight %) alloy is presented. The effects of the thermomechanical processing in the microstructure and the pseudoelastic behavior of the alloy are assessed by optical metallography, compression and hardness tests. Results show that hot extrusion is a suitable method to obtain severe cross-section reductions in the CuZnAl shape-memory alloy studied. The alloy maintained its pseudoelastic effect after the extrusion and the modifications in the mechanical behavior caused by precipitation during hot extrusion can be minimized by a suitable precipitate dissolution heat treatment.

Keywords: hot extrusion, pseudoelastic, shape-memory alloy, thermomechanical processing

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2842 The Shape Memory Recovery Properties under Load of a Polymer Composite

Authors: Abdul Basit, Gildas Lhostis, Bernard Durand

Abstract:

Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are replacing shape memory alloys (SMAs) in many applications as SMPs have certain superior properties than SMAs. However, SMAs possess some properties like recovery under stress that SMPs lack. SMPs cannot give complete recovery even under a small load. SMPs are initially heated close to their transition temperature (glass transition temperature or the melting temperature). Then force is applied to deform the heated SMP to a specific position. Subsequently, SMP is allowed to cool keeping it deformed. After cooling, SMP gets the temporary shape. This temporary shape can be recovered by heating it again at the same temperature that was given it while heating it initially. As a result, it will recover its original position. SMP can perform unconstrained recovery and constrained recovery, however; under the load, it only recovers partially. In this work, the recovery under the load of an asymmetrical shape memory composite called as CBCM-SMPC has been investigated. It is found that it has the ability to recover under different loads. Under different loads, it shows powerful complete recovery in reference to initial position. This property can be utilized in many applications.

Keywords: shape memory, polymer composite, thermo-mechanical testing, recovery under load

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2841 Lattice Twinning and Detwinning Processes in Phase Transformation in Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: Osman Adiguzel

Abstract:

Shape memory effect is a peculiar property exhibited by certain alloy systems and based on martensitic transformation, and shape memory properties are closely related to the microstructures of the material. Shape memory effect is linked with martensitic transformation, which is a solid state phase transformation and occurs with the cooperative movement of atoms by means of lattice invariant shears on cooling from high-temperature parent phase. Lattice twinning and detwinning can be considered as elementary processes activated during the transformation. Thermally induced martensite occurs as martensite variants, in self-accommodating manner and consists of lattice twins. Also, this martensite is called the twinned martensite or multivariant martensite. Deformation of shape memory alloys in martensitic state proceeds through a martensite variant reorientation. The martensite variants turn into the reoriented single variants with deformation, and the reorientation process has great importance for the shape memory behavior. Copper based alloys exhibit this property in metastable β- phase region, which has DO3 –type ordered lattice in ternary case at high temperature, and these structures martensiticaly turn into the layered complex structures with lattice twinning mechanism, on cooling from high temperature parent phase region. The twinning occurs as martensite variants with lattice invariant shears in two opposite directions, <110 > -type directions on the {110}- type plane of austenite matrix. Lattice invariant shear is not uniform in copper based ternary alloys and gives rise to the formation of unusual layered structures, like 3R, 9R, or 18R depending on the stacking sequences on the close-packed planes of the ordered lattice. The unit cell and periodicity are completed through 18 atomic layers in case of 18R-structure. On the other hand, the deformed material recovers the original shape on heating above the austenite finish temperature. Meanwhile, the material returns to the twinned martensite structures (thermally induced martensite structure) in one way (irreversible) shape memory effect on cooling below the martensite finish temperature, whereas the material returns to the detwinned martensite structure (deformed martensite) in two-way (reversible) shape memory effect. Shortly one can say that the microstructural mechanisms, responsible for the shape memory effect are the twinning and detwinning processes as well as martensitic transformation. In the present contribution, x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies were carried out on two copper-based ternary alloys, CuZnAl, and CuAlMn.

Keywords: shape memory effect, martensitic transformation, twinning and detwinning, layered structures

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2840 Using Shape Memory Alloys for Structural Engineering Applications

Authors: Donatello Cardone

Abstract:

Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have great potential for use in the field of civil engineering. The author of this manuscript has been involved, since 1996, in several experimental and theoretical studies on the application of SMAs in structural engineering, within national and international research projects. This paper provides an overview of the main results achieved, including the conceptual design, implementation, and testing of different SMA-based devices, namely: (i) energy-dissipating braces for RC buildings, (ii) seismic isolation devices for buildings and bridges, (iii) smart tie-rods for arches and vaults and (iv) seismic restrainers for bridges. The main advantages of using SMA-based devices in the seismic protection of structures derive from the double-flag shape of their hysteresis loops, which implies three favourable features, i.e., self-centering capability, good energy dissipation capability, and high stiffness for small displacements. The main advantages of SMA-based units for steel tie-rods are associated with the thermal behaviour of superelastic SMAs, which is antagonistic compared to that of steel. This implies a strong reduction of force changes due to air temperature variations. Finally, SMA-based seismic restrainers proved to be effective in preventing bridge deck unseating and pounding.

Keywords: seismic protection of structures, shape memory alloys, structural engineering, steel tie-rods, seismic restrainers for bridges

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2839 Rheological Modeling for Shape-Memory Thermoplastic Polymers

Authors: H. Hosseini, B. V. Berdyshev, I. Iskopintsev

Abstract:

This paper presents a rheological model for producing shape-memory thermoplastic polymers. Shape-memory occurs as a result of internal rearrangement of the structural elements of a polymer. A non-linear viscoelastic model was developed that allows qualitative and quantitative prediction of the stress-strain behavior of shape-memory polymers during heating. This research was done to develop a technique to determine the maximum possible change in size of heat-shrinkable products during heating. The rheological model used in this work was particularly suitable for defining process parameters and constructive parameters of the processing equipment.

Keywords: elastic deformation, heating, shape-memory polymers, stress-strain behavior, viscoelastic model

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2838 On Crack Tip Stress Field in Pseudo-Elastic Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: Gulcan Ozerim, Gunay Anlas

Abstract:

In shape memory alloys, upon loading, stress increases around crack tip and a martensitic phase transformation occurs in early stages. In many studies the stress distribution in the vicinity of the crack tip is represented by using linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) although the pseudo-elastic behavior results in a nonlinear stress-strain relation. In this study, the HRR singularity (Hutchinson, Rice and Rosengren), that uses Rice’s path independent J-integral, is tried to formulate the stress distribution around the crack tip. In HRR approach, the Ramberg-Osgood model for the stress-strain relation of power-law hardening materials is used to represent the elastic-plastic behavior. Although it is recoverable, the inelastic portion of the deformation in martensitic transformation (up to the end of transformation) resembles to that of plastic deformation. To determine the constants of the Ramberg-Osgood equation, the material’s response is simulated in ABAQUS using a UMAT based on ZM (Zaki-Moumni) thermo-mechanically coupled model, and the stress-strain curve of the material is plotted. An edge cracked shape memory alloy (Nitinol) plate is loaded quasi-statically under mode I and modeled using ABAQUS; the opening stress values ahead of the cracked tip are calculated. The stresses are also evaluated using the asymptotic equations of both LEFM and HRR. The results show that in the transformation zone around the crack tip, the stress values are much better represented when the HRR singularity is used although the J-integral does not show path independent behavior. For the nodes very close to the crack tip, the HRR singularity is not valid due to the non-proportional loading effect and high-stress values that go beyond the transformation finish stress.

Keywords: crack, HRR singularity, shape memory alloys, stress distribution

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2837 Physical Aspects of Shape Memory and Reversibility in Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: Osman Adiguzel

Abstract:

Shape memory alloys take place in a class of smart materials by exhibiting a peculiar property called the shape memory effect. This property is characterized by the recoverability of two certain shapes of material at different temperatures. These materials are often called smart materials due to their functionality and their capacity of responding to changes in the environment. Shape memory materials are used as shape memory devices in many interdisciplinary fields such as medicine, bioengineering, metallurgy, building industry and many engineering fields. The shape memory effect is performed thermally by heating and cooling after first cooling and stressing treatments, and this behavior is called thermoelasticity. This effect is based on martensitic transformations characterized by changes in the crystal structure of the material. The shape memory effect is the result of successive thermally and stress-induced martensitic transformations. Shape memory alloys exhibit thermoelasticity and superelasticity by means of deformation in the low-temperature product phase and high-temperature parent phase region, respectively. Superelasticity is performed by stressing and releasing the material in the parent phase region. Loading and unloading paths are different in the stress-strain diagram, and the cycling loop reveals energy dissipation. The strain energy is stored after releasing, and these alloys are mainly used as deformation absorbent materials in control of civil structures subjected to seismic events, due to the absorbance of strain energy during any disaster or earthquake. Thermal-induced martensitic transformation occurs thermally on cooling, along with lattice twinning with cooperative movements of atoms by means of lattice invariant shears, and ordered parent phase structures turn into twinned martensite structures, and twinned structures turn into the detwinned structures by means of stress-induced martensitic transformation by stressing the material in the martensitic condition. Thermal induced transformation occurs with the cooperative movements of atoms in two opposite directions, <110 > -type directions on the {110} - type planes of austenite matrix which is the basal plane of martensite. Copper-based alloys exhibit this property in the metastable β-phase region, which has bcc-based structures at high-temperature parent phase field. Lattice invariant shear and twinning is not uniform in copper-based ternary alloys and gives rise to the formation of complex layered structures, depending on the stacking sequences on the close-packed planes of the ordered parent phase lattice. In the present contribution, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were carried out on two copper-based CuAlMn and CuZnAl alloys. X-ray diffraction profiles and electron diffraction patterns reveal that both alloys exhibit superlattice reflections inherited from the parent phase due to the displacive character of martensitic transformation. X-ray diffractograms taken in a long time interval show that diffraction angles and intensities of diffraction peaks change with the aging duration at room temperature. In particular, some of the successive peak pairs providing a special relation between Miller indices come close to each other. This result refers to the rearrangement of atoms in a diffusive manner.

Keywords: shape memory effect, martensitic transformation, reversibility, superelasticity, twinning, detwinning

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2836 Dynamic Response of Doubly Curved Composite Shell with Embedded Shape Memory Alloys Wires

Authors: Amin Ardali, Mohammadreza Khalili, Mohammadreza Rezai

Abstract:

In this paper, dynamic response of thin smart composite panel subjected to low-velocity transverse impact is investigated. Shape memory wires are used to reinforced curved composite panel in a smart way. One-dimensional thermodynamic constitutive model by Liang and Rogers is used for estimating the structural recovery stress. The two degrees-of-freedom mass-spring model is used for evaluation of the contact force between the curved composite panel and the impactor. This work is benefited from the Hertzian linear contact model which is linearized for the impact analysis of curved composite panel. The governing equations of curved panel are provided by first-order shear theory and solved by Fourier series related to simply supported boundary condition. For this purpose, the equation of doubly curved panel motion included the uniform in-plane forces is obtained. By the present analysis, the curved panel behavior under low-velocity impact, and also the effect of the impact parameters, the shape memory wire and the curved panel dimensions are studied.

Keywords: doubly curved shell, SMA wire, impact response, smart material, shape memory alloy

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2835 Formation of Nanostructured Surface Layers of a Material with TiNi-Based Shape Memory by Diffusion Metallization

Authors: Zh. M. Blednova, P. O. Rusinov

Abstract:

Results of research on the formation of the surface layers of a material with shape memory effect (SME) based on TiNi diffusion metallization in molten Pb-Bi under isothermal conditions in an argon atmosphere are presented. It is shown that this method allows obtaining of uniform surface layers in nanostructured state of internal surfaces on the articles of complex shapes with stress concentrators. Structure, chemical and phase composition of the surface layers provide a manifestation of TiNi shape memory. The average grain size of TiNi coatings ranges between 60 ÷ 160 nm.

Keywords: diffusion metallization, nikelid titanium surface layers, shape memory effect, nanostructures

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2834 Direct Laser Fabrication and Characterization of Cu-Al-Ni Shape Memory Alloy for Seismic Damping Applications

Authors: Gonzalo Reyes, Magdalena Walczak, Esteban Ramos-Moore, Jorge Ramos-Grez

Abstract:

Metal additive manufacture technologies have gained strong support and acceptance as a promising and alternative method to manufacture high performance complex geometry products. The main purpose of the present work is to study the microstructure and phase transformation temperatures of Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys fabricated from a direct laser additive process using metallic powders as precursors. The potential application is to manufacture self-centering seismic dampers for earthquake protection of buildings out of a copper based alloy by an additive process. In this process, the Cu-Al-Ni alloy is melted, inside of a high temperature and vacuum chamber with the aid of a high power fiber laser under inert atmosphere. The laser provides the energy to melt the alloy powder layer. The process allows fabricating fully dense, oxygen-free Cu-Al-Ni specimens using different laser power levels, laser powder interaction times, furnace ambient temperatures, and cooling rates as well as modifying concentration of the alloying elements. Two sets of specimens were fabricated with a nominal composition of Cu-13Al-3Ni and Cu-13Al-4Ni in wt.%, however, semi-quantitative chemical analysis using EDX examination showed that the specimens’ resulting composition was closer to Cu-12Al-5Ni and Cu-11Al-8Ni, respectively. In spite of that fact, it is expected that the specimens should still possess shape memory behavior. To confirm this hypothesis, phase transformation temperatures will be measured using DSC technique, to look for martensitic and austenitic phase transformations at 150°C. So far, metallographic analysis of the specimens showed defined martensitic microstructures. Moreover, XRD technique revealed diffraction peaks corresponding to (0 0 18) and (1 2 8) planes, which are too associated with the presence of martensitic phase. We conclude that it would be possible to obtain fully dense Cu-Al-Ni alloys having shape memory effect behavior by direct laser fabrication process, and to advance into fabrication of self centering seismic dampers by a controllable metal additive manufacturing process.

Keywords: Cu-Al-Ni alloys, direct laser fabrication, shape memory alloy, self-centering seismic dampers

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2833 Intelligent Materials and Functional Aspects of Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: Osman Adiguzel

Abstract:

Shape-memory alloys are a new class of functional materials with a peculiar property known as shape memory effect. These alloys return to a previously defined shape on heating after deformation in low temperature product phase region and take place in a class of functional materials due to this property. The origin of this phenomenon lies in the fact that the material changes its internal crystalline structure with changing temperature. Shape memory effect is based on martensitic transitions, which govern the remarkable changes in internal crystalline structure of materials. Martensitic transformation, which is a solid state phase transformation, occurs in thermal manner in material on cooling from high temperature parent phase region. This transformation is governed by changes in the crystalline structure of the material. Shape memory alloys cycle between original and deformed shapes in bulk level on heating and cooling, and can be used as a thermal actuator or temperature-sensitive elements due to this property. Martensitic transformations usually occur with the cooperative movement of atoms by means of lattice invariant shears. The ordered parent phase structures turn into twinned structures with this movement in crystallographic manner in thermal induced case. The twinned martensites turn into the twinned or oriented martensite by stressing the material at low temperature martensitic phase condition. The detwinned martensite turns into the parent phase structure on first heating, first cycle, and parent phase structures turn into the twinned and detwinned structures respectively in irreversible and reversible memory cases. On the other hand, shape memory materials are very important and useful in many interdisciplinary fields such as medicine, pharmacy, bioengineering, metallurgy and many engineering fields. The choice of material as well as actuator and sensor to combine it with the host structure is very essential to develop main materials and structures. Copper based alloys exhibit this property in metastable beta-phase region, which has bcc-based structures at high temperature parent phase field, and these structures martensitically turn into layered complex structures with lattice twinning following two ordered reactions on cooling. Martensitic transition occurs as self-accommodated martensite with inhomogeneous shears, lattice invariant shears which occur in two opposite directions, <110 > -type directions on the {110}-type plane of austenite matrix which is basal plane of martensite. This kind of shear can be called as {110}<110> -type mode and gives rise to the formation of layered structures, like 3R, 9R or 18R depending on the stacking sequences on the close-packed planes of the ordered lattice. In the present contribution, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were carried out on two copper based alloys which have the chemical compositions in weight; Cu-26.1%Zn 4%Al and Cu-11%Al-6%Mn. X-ray diffraction profiles and electron diffraction patterns reveal that both alloys exhibit super lattice reflections inherited from parent phase due to the displacive character of martensitic transformation. X-ray diffractograms taken in a long time interval show that locations and intensities of diffraction peaks change with the aging time at room temperature. In particular, some of the successive peak pairs providing a special relation between Miller indices come close each other.

Keywords: Shape memory effect, martensite, twinning, detwinning, self-accommodation, layered structures

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2832 Measurements of Recovery Stress and Recovery Strain of Ni-Based Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: W. J. Kim

Abstract:

The behaviors of the recovery stress and strain of an ultrafine-grained Ni-50.2 at.% Ti alloy prepared by high-ratio differential speed rolling (HRDSR) were examined by a specially designed tensile-testing set up, and the factors that influence the recovery stress and strain were studied. After HRDSR, both the recovery stress and strain were enhanced compared to the initial condition. The constitutive equation showing that the maximum recovery stress is a sole function of the recovery strain was developed based on the experimental data. The recovery strain increased as the yield stress increased. The maximum recovery stress increased with an increase in yield stress. The residual recovery stress was affected by the yield stress as well as the austenite-to-martensite transformation temperature. As the yield stress increased and as the martensitic transformation temperature decreased, the residual recovery stress increased.

Keywords: high-ratio differential speed rolling, tensile testing, severe plastic deformation, shape memory alloys

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2831 A Study on the Small Biped Soft Robot with Two Insect-Like Nails

Authors: Mami Nishida

Abstract:

This paper presented a study on the development and control of a small biped soft robot using shape memory alloys (SMAs). Author proposed a flexible flat plate (FFP) actuators consisting of a thin polyethylene plate and SMAs. This actuator has a nail like an insect. This robot moves from the front to back and from left to right using two nails. The walking robot has two degrees of freedom and is controlled by switching the ON-OFF current signals to the SMA based FFPs. The resulting small biped soft robot weighs a mere 4.7 g (with a height of 67 mm). The small robot realizes biped walking by transferring the elastic potential energy (generated by deflections of the SMA based FFPs) to kinematic energy. Experimental results demonstrated the viability and utility of the small biped soft robot with the proposed SMA-based FFPs and the control strategy to achieve walking behavior.

Keywords: biped soft robot with nails, flexible flat plate (FFP) actuators, ON-OFF control strategy, shape memory alloys (SMA)

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2830 Application of Shape Memory Alloy as Shear Connector in Composite Bridges: Overview of State-of-the-Art

Authors: Apurwa Rastogi, Anant Parghi

Abstract:

Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are memory metals with a high calibre to outperform as a civil construction material. They showcase novel functionality of undergoing large deformations and self-healing capability (pseudoelasticity) that leads to its emerging applications in a variety of areas. In the existing literature, most of the studies focused on the behaviour of SMA when used in critical regions of the smart buildings/bridges designed to withstand severe earthquakes without collapse and also its various applications in retrofitting works. However, despite having high ductility, their uses as construction joints and shear connectors in composite bridges are still unexplored in the research domain. This article presents to gain a broad outlook on whether SMAs can be partially used as shear connectors in composite bridges. In this regard, existing papers on the characteristics of shear connectors in the composite bridges will be discussed thoroughly and matched with the fundamental characteristics and properties of SMA. Since due to the high strength, stiffness, and ductility phenomena of SMAs, it is expected to be a good material for the shear connectors in composite bridges, and the collected evidence encourages the prior scrutiny of its partial use in the composite constructions. Based on the comprehensive review, important and necessary conclusions will be affirmed, and further emergence of research direction on the use of SMA will be discussed. This opens the window of new possibilities of using smart materials to enhance the performance of bridges even more in the near future.

Keywords: composite bridges, ductility, pseudoelasticity, shape memory alloy, shear connectors

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2829 Non-Linear Load-Deflection Response of Shape Memory Alloys-Reinforced Composite Cylindrical Shells under Uniform Radial Load

Authors: Behrang Tavousi Tehrani, Mohammad-Zaman Kabir

Abstract:

Shape memory alloys (SMA) are often implemented in smart structures as the active components. Their ability to recover large displacements has been used in many applications, including structural stability/response enhancement and active structural acoustic control. SMA wires or fibers can be embedded with composite cylinders to increase their critical buckling load, improve their load-deflection behavior, and reduce the radial deflections under various thermo-mechanical loadings. This paper presents a semi-analytical investigation on the non-linear load-deflection response of SMA-reinforced composite circular cylindrical shells. The cylinder shells are under uniform external pressure load. Based on first-order shear deformation shell theory (FSDT), the equilibrium equations of the structure are derived. One-dimensional simplified Brinson’s model is used for determining the SMA recovery force due to its simplicity and accuracy. Airy stress function and Galerkin technique are used to obtain non-linear load-deflection curves. The results are verified by comparing them with those in the literature. Several parametric studies are conducted in order to investigate the effect of SMA volume fraction, SMA pre-strain value, and SMA activation temperature on the response of the structure. It is shown that suitable usage of SMA wires results in a considerable enhancement in the load-deflection response of the shell due to the generation of the SMA tensile recovery force.

Keywords: airy stress function, cylindrical shell, Galerkin technique, load-deflection curve, recovery stress, shape memory alloy

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2828 Design and Analysis of Hybrid Morphing Smart Wing for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: Chetan Gupta, Ramesh Gupta

Abstract:

Unmanned aerial vehicles, of all sizes, are prime targets of the wing morphing concept as their lightweight structures demand high aerodynamic stability while traversing unsteady atmospheric conditions. In this research study, a hybrid morphing technology is developed to aid the trailing edge of the aircraft wing to alter its camber as a monolithic element rather than functioning as conventional appendages like flaps. Kinematic tailoring, actuation techniques involving shape memory alloys (SMA), piezoelectrics – individually fall short of providing a simplistic solution to the conundrum of morphing aircraft wings. On the other hand, the feature of negligible hysteresis while actuating using compliant mechanisms has shown higher levels of applicability and deliverability in morphing wings of even large aircrafts. This research paper delves into designing a wing section model with a periodic, multi-stable compliant structure requiring lower orders of topological optimization. The design is sub-divided into three smaller domains with external hyperelastic connections to achieve deflections ranging from -15° to +15° at the trailing edge of the wing. To facilitate this functioning, a hybrid actuation system by combining the larger bandwidth feature of piezoelectric macro-fibre composites and relatively higher work densities of shape memory alloy wires are used. Finite element analysis is applied to optimize piezoelectric actuation of the internal compliant structure. A coupled fluid-surface interaction analysis is conducted on the wing section during morphing to study the development of the velocity boundary layer at low Reynold’s numbers of airflow.

Keywords: compliant mechanism, hybrid morphing, piezoelectrics, shape memory alloys

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2827 Finite Element Analysis of Shape Memory Alloy Stents in Coronary Arteries

Authors: Amatulraheem Al-Abassi, K. Khanafer, Ibrahim Deiab

Abstract:

The coronary artery stent is a promising technology that can treat various coronary diseases. Materials used for manufacturing medical stents should have high biocompatible properties. Stent alloys, in particular, are remarkably promising good clinical outcomes, however, there is threaten of restenosis (reoccurring of artery narrowing due to fatty plaque), stent recoiling, or in long-term the occurrence of stent fracture. However, stents that are made of Nickel-titanium (Nitinol) can bare extensive plastic deformation and resist restenosis. This shape memory alloy has outstanding mechanical properties. Nitinol is a unique shape memory alloy as it has unique mechanical properties such as; biocompatibility, super-elasticity, and recovery to original shape under certain loads. Stent failure may cause complications in vascular diseases and possibly blockage of blood flow. Thus, studying the behaviors of the stent under different medical conditions will help the doctors and cardiologists to predict when it is necessary to change the stent in order to prevent any severe morbidity outcomes. To the best of our knowledge, there are limited published papers that analyze the stent behavior with regards to the contact surfaces of plaque layer and blood vessel. Thus, stent material properties will be discussed in this investigation to highlight the mechanical and clinical differences between various stents. This research analyzes the performance of Nitinol stent in well-known stent design to determine its bearing with stress and its dislocation in blood vessels, in comparison to stents made of different biocompatible materials. In addition, a study of its performance will be represented in the system. Finite Element Analysis is the core of this study. Thus, a physical representative model will be discussed to show the distribution of stress and strain along the interaction surface between the stent and the artery. The reaction of vascular tissue to the stent will be evaluated to predict the possibility of restenosis within the treated area.

Keywords: shape memory alloy, stent, coronary artery, finite element analysis

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2826 Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis of One Dimensional Shape Memory Alloy Constitutive Models

Authors: A. B. M. Rezaul Islam, Ernur Karadogan

Abstract:

Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are known for their shape memory effect and pseudoelasticity behavior. Their thermomechanical behaviors are modeled by numerous researchers using microscopic thermodynamic and macroscopic phenomenological point of view. Tanaka, Liang-Rogers and Ivshin-Pence models are some of the most popular SMA macroscopic phenomenological constitutive models. They describe SMA behavior in terms of stress, strain and temperature. These models involve material parameters and they have associated uncertainty present in them. At different operating temperatures, the uncertainty propagates to the output when the material is subjected to loading followed by unloading. The propagation of uncertainty while utilizing these models in real-life application can result in performance discrepancies or failure at extreme conditions. To resolve this, we used probabilistic approach to perform the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of Tanaka, Liang-Rogers, and Ivshin-Pence models. Sobol and extended Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Testing (eFAST) methods have been used to perform the sensitivity analysis for simulated isothermal loading/unloading at various operating temperatures. As per the results, it is evident that the models vary due to the change in operating temperature and loading condition. The average and stress-dependent sensitivity indices present the most significant parameters at several temperatures. This work highlights the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis results and shows comparison of them at different temperatures and loading conditions for all these models. The analysis presented will aid in designing engineering applications by eliminating the probability of model failure due to the uncertainty in the input parameters. Thus, it is recommended to have a proper understanding of sensitive parameters and the uncertainty propagation at several operating temperatures and loading conditions as per Tanaka, Liang-Rogers, and Ivshin-Pence model.

Keywords: constitutive models, FAST sensitivity analysis, sensitivity analysis, sobol, shape memory alloy, uncertainty analysis

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2825 Concepts of Technologies Based on Smart Materials to Improve Aircraft Aerodynamic Performance

Authors: Krzysztof Skiba, Zbigniew Czyz, Ksenia Siadkowska, Piotr Borowiec

Abstract:

The article presents selected concepts of technologies that use intelligent materials in aircraft in order to improve their performance. Most of the research focuses on solutions that improve the performance of fixed wing aircraft due to related to their previously dominant market share. Recently, the development of the rotorcraft has been intensive, so there are not only helicopters but also gyroplanes and unmanned aerial vehicles using rotors and vertical take-off and landing. There are many different technologies to change a shape of the aircraft or its elements. Piezoelectric, deformable actuator systems can be applied in the system of an active control of vibration dampening in the aircraft tail structure. Wires made of shape memory alloys (SMA) could be used instead of hydraulic cylinders in the rear part of the aircraft flap. The aircraft made of intelligent materials (piezoelectrics and SMA) is one of the NASA projects which provide the possibility of changing a wing shape coefficient by 200%, a wing surface by 50%, and wing deflections by 20 degrees. Active surfaces made of shape memory alloys could be used to control swirls in the flowing stream. An intelligent control system for helicopter blades is a method for the active adaptation of blades to flight conditions and the reduction of vibrations caused by the rotor. Shape memory alloys are capable of recovering their pre-programmed shapes. They are divided into three groups: nickel-titanium-based, copper-based, and ferromagnetic. Due to the strongest shape memory effect and the best vibration damping ability, a Ni-Ti alloy is the most commercially important. The subject of this work was to prepare a conceptual design of a rotor blade with SMA actuators. The scope of work included 3D design of the supporting rotor blade, 3D design of beams enabling to change the geometry by changing the angle of rotation and FEM (Finite Element Method) analysis. The FEM analysis was performed using NX 12 software in the Pre/Post module, which includes extended finite element modeling tools and visualizations of the obtained results. Calculations are presented for two versions of the blade girders. For FEM analysis, three types of materials were used for comparison purposes (ABS, aluminium alloy 7057, steel C45). The analysis of internal stresses and extreme displacements of crossbars edges was carried out. The internal stresses in all materials were close to the yield point in the solution of girder no. 1. For girder no. 2 solution, the value of stresses decreased by about 45%. As a result of the displacement analysis, it was found that the best solution was the ABS girder no. 1. The displacement of about 0.5 mm was obtained, which resulted in turning the crossbars (upper and lower) by an angle equal to 3.59 degrees. This is the largest deviation of all the tests. The smallest deviation was obtained for beam no. 2 made of steel. The displacement value of the second girder solution was approximately 30% lower than the first solution. Acknowledgement: This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development under the LIDER program, Grant Agreement No. LIDER/45/0177/L-9/17/NCBR/2018.

Keywords: aircraft, helicopters, shape memory alloy, SMA, smart material, unmanned aerial vehicle, UAV

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2824 Investigate the Performance of SMA-FRP Composite Bars in Seismic Regions under Corrosion Conditions

Authors: Amirmozafar Benshams, Saman Shafeinejad, Mohammad Zaman Kabir, Farzad Hatami, Mohammadreza Khedmati, Mesbah Saybani

Abstract:

Steel bars has been used in concrete structures for more than one hundred years but lack of corrosion resistance of steel reinforcement has resulted in many structural failures. Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) bar is an acceptable solution to replace steel to mitigate corrosion problem. Since FRP is a brittle material its use in seismic region has been a concern. FRP RC structures can be made ductile by employing a ductile material such as Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) at the plastic hinge region and FRP at the other regions on the other hand SMA is highly resistant to corrosion. Shape Memory Alloy has the unique ability to undergo large inelastic deformation and regain its initial shape through stress removal therefore utilizing composite SMA-FRP bars not only have good corrosion resistance but also have good performance in seismic region. The result show indicate that such composite SMA-FRP bars can substantially reduce the residual drift with adequate energy dissipation capacity during earthquake.

Keywords: steel bar, shape memory alloy, FRP, corrosion

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2823 Micro-Milling Process Development of Advanced Materials

Authors: M. A. Hafiz, P. T. Matevenga

Abstract:

Micro-level machining of metals is a developing field which has shown to be a prospective approach to produce features on the parts in the range of a few to a few hundred microns with acceptable machining quality. It is known that the mechanics (i.e. the material removal mechanism) of micro-machining and conventional machining have significant differences due to the scaling effects associated with tool-geometry, tool material and work piece material characteristics. Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are those metal alloys which display two exceptional properties, pseudoelasticity and the shape memory effect (SME). Nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloys are one of those unique metal alloys. NiTi alloys are known to be difficult-to-cut materials specifically by using conventional machining techniques due to their explicit properties. Their high ductility, high amount of strain hardening, and unusual stress–strain behaviour are the main properties accountable for their poor machinability in terms of tool wear and work piece quality. The motivation of this research work was to address the challenges and issues of micro-machining combining with those of machining of NiTi alloy which can affect the desired performance level of machining outputs. To explore the significance of range of cutting conditions on surface roughness and tool wear, machining tests were conducted on NiTi. Influence of different cutting conditions and cutting tools on surface and sub-surface deformation in work piece was investigated. Design of experiments strategy (L9 Array) was applied to determine the key process variables. The dominant cutting parameters were determined by analysis of variance. These findings showed that feed rate was the dominant factor on surface roughness whereas depth of cut found to be dominant factor as far as tool wear was concerned. The lowest surface roughness was achieved at the feed rate of equal to the cutting edge radius where as the lowest flank wear was observed at lowest depth of cut. Repeated machining trials have yet to be carried out in order to observe the tool life, sub-surface deformation and strain induced hardening which are also expecting to be amongst the critical issues in micro machining of NiTi. The machining performance using different cutting fluids and strategies have yet to be studied.

Keywords: nickel titanium, micro-machining, surface roughness, machinability

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2822 Investigation of Martensitic Transformation Zone at the Crack Tip of NiTi under Mode-I Loading Using Microscopic Image Correlation

Authors: Nima Shafaghi, Gunay Anlaş, C. Can Aydiner

Abstract:

A realistic understanding of martensitic phase transition under complex stress states is key for accurately describing the mechanical behavior of shape memory alloys (SMAs). Particularly regarding the sharply changing stress fields at the tip of a crack, the size, nature and shape of transformed zones are of great interest. There is significant variation among various analytical models in their predictions of the size and shape of the transformation zone. As the fully transformed region remains inside a very small boundary at the tip of the crack, experimental validation requires microscopic resolution. Here, the crack tip vicinity of NiTi compact tension specimen has been monitored in situ with microscopic image correlation with 20x magnification. With nominal 15 micrometer grains and 0.2 micrometer per pixel optical resolution, the strains at the crack tip are mapped with intra-grain detail. The transformation regions are then deduced using an equivalent strain formulation.

Keywords: digital image correlation, fracture, martensitic phase transition, mode I, NiTi, transformation zone

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2821 A Variational Reformulation for the Thermomechanically Coupled Behavior of Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: Elisa Boatti, Ulisse Stefanelli, Alessandro Reali, Ferdinando Auricchio

Abstract:

Thanks to their unusual properties, shape memory alloys (SMAs) are good candidates for advanced applications in a wide range of engineering fields, such as automotive, robotics, civil, biomedical, aerospace. In the last decades, the ever-growing interest for such materials has boosted several research studies aimed at modeling their complex nonlinear behavior in an effective and robust way. Since the constitutive response of SMAs is strongly thermomechanically coupled, the investigation of the non-isothermal evolution of the material must be taken into consideration. The present study considers an existing three-dimensional phenomenological model for SMAs, able to reproduce the main SMA properties while maintaining a simple user-friendly structure, and proposes a variational reformulation of the full non-isothermal version of the model. While the considered model has been thoroughly assessed in an isothermal setting, the proposed formulation allows to take into account the full nonisothermal problem. In particular, the reformulation is inspired to the GENERIC (General Equations for Non-Equilibrium Reversible-Irreversible Coupling) formalism, and is based on a generalized gradient flow of the total entropy, related to thermal and mechanical variables. Such phrasing of the model is new and allows for a discussion of the model from both a theoretical and a numerical point of view. Moreover, it directly implies the dissipativity of the flow. A semi-implicit time-discrete scheme is also presented for the fully coupled thermomechanical system, and is proven unconditionally stable and convergent. The correspondent algorithm is then implemented, under a space-homogeneous temperature field assumption, and tested under different conditions. The core of the algorithm is composed of a mechanical subproblem and a thermal subproblem. The iterative scheme is solved by a generalized Newton method. Numerous uniaxial and biaxial tests are reported to assess the performance of the model and algorithm, including variable imposed strain, strain rate, heat exchange properties, and external temperature. In particular, the heat exchange with the environment is the only source of rate-dependency in the model. The reported curves clearly display the interdependence between phase transformation strain and material temperature. The full thermomechanical coupling allows to reproduce the exothermic and endothermic effects during respectively forward and backward phase transformation. The numerical tests have thus demonstrated that the model can appropriately reproduce the coupled SMA behavior in different loading conditions and rates. Moreover, the algorithm has proved effective and robust. Further developments are being considered, such as the extension of the formulation to the finite-strain setting and the study of the boundary value problem.

Keywords: generalized gradient flow, GENERIC formalism, shape memory alloys, thermomechanical coupling

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2820 Phase Segregating and Complex Forming Pb Based (=X-Pb) Liquid Alloys

Authors: Indra Bahadur Bhandari, Narayan Panthi, Ishwar Koirala, Devendra Adhikari

Abstract:

We have used a theoretical model based on the assumption of compound formation in binary alloys to study the thermodynamic, microscopic, and surface properties of Bi-Pb and In-Pb liquid alloys. A review of the phase diagrams for these alloys shows that one of the stable complexes for Bi-Pb liquid alloy is BiPb3; also, that InPb is a stable phase in liquid In-Pb alloys. Using the same interaction parameters that are fitted for the free energy of mixing, we have been able to compute the bulk and thermodynamic properties of the alloys. From our observations, we are able to show that the Bi-Pb liquid alloy exhibits compound formation over the whole concentration range and the In-Pb alloys undergo phase separation. With regards to surface properties, Pb segregates more to the surface in In-Pb alloys than in Bi-Pb alloys. The viscosity isotherms have a positive deviation from ideality for both Bi-Pb and In-Pb alloys.

Keywords: asymmetry, Bi-Pb, deviation, In-Pb, interaction parameters

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2819 Diamond-Like Carbon-Based Structures as Functional Layers on Shape-Memory Alloy for Orthopedic Applications

Authors: Piotr Jablonski, Krzysztof Mars, Wiktor Niemiec, Agnieszka Kyziol, Marek Hebda, Halina Krawiec, Karol Kyziol

Abstract:

NiTi alloys, possessing unique mechanical properties such as pseudoelasticity and shape memory effect (SME), are suitable for many applications, including implanthology and biomedical devices. Additionally, these alloys have similar values of elastic modulus to those of human bones, what is very important in orthopedics. Unfortunately, the environment of physiological fluids in vivo causes unfavorable release of Ni ions, which in turn may lead to metalosis as well as allergic reactions and toxic effects in the body. For these reasons, the surface properties of NiTi alloys should be improved to increase corrosion resistance, taking into account biological properties, i.e. excellent biocompatibility. The prospective in this respect are layers based on DLC (Diamond-Like Carbon) structures, which are an attractive solution for many applications in implanthology. These coatings (DLC), usually obtained by PVD (Physical Vapour Deposition) and PA CVD (Plasma Activated Chemical Vapour Deposition) methods, can be also modified by doping with other elements like silicon, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, titanium and silver. These methods, in combination with a suitably designed structure of the layers, allow the possibility co-decide about physicochemical and biological properties of modified surfaces. Mentioned techniques provide specific physicochemical properties of substrates surface in a single technological process. In this work, the following types of layers based on DLC structures (incl. Si-DLC or Si/N-DLC) were proposed as prospective and attractive approach in surface functionalization of shape memory alloy. Nitinol substrates were modified in plasma conditions, using RF CVD (Radio Frequency Chemical Vapour Deposition). The influence of plasma treatment on the useful properties of modified substrates after deposition DLC layers doped with silica and/or nitrogen atoms, as well as only pre-treated in O2 NH3 plasma atmosphere in a RF reactor was determined. The microstructure and topography of the modified surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Furthermore, the atomic structure of coatings was characterized by IR and Raman spectroscopy. The research also included the evaluation of surface wettability, surface energy as well as the characteristics of selected mechanical and biological properties of the layers. In addition, the corrosion properties of alloys after and before modification in the physiological saline were also investigated. In order to determine the corrosion resistance of NiTi in the Ringer solution, the potentiodynamic polarization curves (LSV – Linear Sweep Voltamperometry) were plotted. Furthermore, the evolution of corrosion potential versus immersion time of TiNi alloy in Ringer solution was performed. Based on all carried out research, the usefullness of proposed modifications of nitinol for medical applications was assessed. It was shown, inter alia, that the obtained Si-DLC layers on the surface of NiTi alloy exhibit a characteristic complex microstructure, increased surface development, which is an important aspect in improving the osteointegration of an implant. Furthermore, the modified alloy exhibits biocompatibility, the transfer of the metal (Ni, Ti) to Ringer’s solution is clearly limited.

Keywords: bioactive coatings, corrosion resistance, doped DLC structure, NiTi alloy, RF CVD

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2818 Microstructure and SEM Analysis of Joints Fabricated by FSW of Aluminum Alloys 5083 and 6063

Authors: Jaskirat Singh, Roshan Lal Virdi, Khushdeep Goyal

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to perform a microstructural analysis of Friction Stir Welded joints of aluminum alloys 6063 and 5083, also to check the properties of the weld zone by SEM analysis. FSW experiments were carried on CNC Vertical milling machine. The tools used for welding were the round cylindrical pin shape and square pin shape. It is found that Microstructure shows the uniformly distributed material with minimum heat affected zone and dense welded zone without any defect. Microstructures indicate that the weld material is defect free. The SEM shows the diffusion of material with base metal with proper bonding without any defect.

Keywords: friction stir welding, aluminum alloy, microstructure, SEM analysis

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2817 Spatial Working Memory Is Enhanced by the Differential Outcome Procedure in a Group of Participants with Mild Cognitive Impairment

Authors: Ana B. Vivas, Antonia Ypsilanti, Aristea I. Ladas, Angeles F. Estevez

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Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is considered an intermediate stage between normal and pathological aging, as a substantial percentage of people diagnosed with MCI converts later to dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. Memory is of the first cognitive processes to deteriorate in this condition. In the present study we employed the differential outcomes procedure (DOP) to improve visuospatial memory in a group of participants with MCI. The DOP requires the structure of a conditional discriminative learning task in which a correct choice response to a specific stimulus-stimulus association is reinforced with a particular reinforcer or outcome. A group of 10 participants with MCI, and a matched control group had to learn and keep in working memory four target locations out of eight possible locations where a shape could be presented. Results showed that participants with MCI had a statistically significant better terminal accuracy when a unique outcome was paired with a location (76% accuracy) as compared to a non differential outcome condition (64%). This finding suggests that the DOP is useful in improving working memory in MCI patients, which may delay their conversion to dementia.

Keywords: mild cognitive impairment, working memory, differential outcomes, cognitive process

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2816 Design of Advanced Materials for Alternative Cooling Devices

Authors: Emilia Olivos, R. Arroyave, A. Vargas-Calderon, J. E. Dominguez-Herrera

Abstract:

More efficient cooling systems are needed to reduce building energy consumption and environmental impact. At present researchers focus mainly on environmentally-friendly magnetic materials and the potential application in cooling devices. The magnetic materials presented in this project belong to a group known as Heusler alloys. These compounds are characterized by a strong coupling between their structure and magnetic properties. Usually, a change in one of them can alter the other, which implies changes in other electronic or structural properties, such as, shape magnetic memory response or the magnetocaloric effect. Those properties and its dependence with external fields make these materials interesting, both from a fundamental point of view, as well as on their different possible applications. In this work, first principles and Monte Carlo simulations have been used to calculate exchange couplings and magnetic properties as a function of an applied magnetic field on Heusler alloys. As a result, we found a large dependence of the magnetic susceptibility, entropy and heat capacity, indicating that the magnetic field can be used in experiments to trigger particular magnetic properties in materials, which are necessary to develop solid-state refrigeration devices.

Keywords: ferromagnetic materials, magnetocaloric effect, materials design, solid state refrigeration

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2815 Size, Shape, and Compositional Effects on the Order-Disorder Phase Transitions in Au-Cu and Pt-M (M = Fe, Co, and Ni) Nanocluster Alloys

Authors: Forrest Kaatz, Adhemar Bultheel

Abstract:

Au-Cu and Pt-M (M = Fe, Co, and Ni) nanocluster alloys are currently being investigated worldwide by many researchers for their interesting catalytic and nanophase properties. The low-temperature behavior of the phase diagrams is not well understood for alloys with nanometer sizes and shapes. These systems have similar bulk phase diagrams with the L12 (Au3Cu, Pt3M, AuCu3, and PtM3) structurally ordered intermetallics and the L10 structure for the AuCu and PtM intermetallics. We consider three models for low temperature ordering in the phase diagrams of Au–Cu and Pt–M nanocluster alloys. These models are valid for sizes ~ 5 nm and approach bulk values for sizes ~ 20 nm. We study the phase transition in nanoclusters with cubic, octahedral, and cuboctahedral shapes, covering the compositions of interest. These models are based on studying the melting temperatures in nanoclusters using the regular solution, mixing model for alloys. Experimentally, it is extremely challenging to determine thermodynamic data on nano–sized alloys. Reasonable agreement is found between these models and recent experimental data on nanometer clusters in the Au–Cu and Pt–M nanophase systems. From our data, experiments on nanocubes about 5 nm in size, of stoichiometric AuCu and PtM composition, could help differentiate between the models. Some available evidence indicates that ordered intermetallic nanoclusters have better catalytic properties than disordered ones. We conclude with a discussion of physical mechanisms whereby ordering could improve the catalytic properties of nanocluster alloys.

Keywords: catalytic reactions, gold nanoalloys, phase transitions, platinum nanoalloys

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