Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1576

Search results for: constitutive modelling

1576 A Nonlinear Visco-Hyper Elastic Constitutive Model for Modelling Behavior of Polyurea at Large Deformations

Authors: Shank Kulkarni, Alireza Tabarraei

Abstract:

The fantastic properties of polyurea such as flexibility, durability, and chemical resistance have brought it a wide range of application in various industries. Effective prediction of the response of polyurea under different loading and environmental conditions necessitates the development of an accurate constitutive model. Similar to most polymers, the behavior of polyurea depends on both strain and strain rate. Therefore, the constitutive model should be able to capture both these effects on the response of polyurea. To achieve this objective, in this paper, a nonlinear hyper-viscoelastic constitutive model is developed by the superposition of a hyperelastic and a viscoelastic model. The proposed constitutive model can capture the behavior of polyurea under compressive loading conditions at various strain rates. Four parameter Ogden model and Mooney Rivlin model are used to modeling the hyperelastic behavior of polyurea. The viscoelastic behavior is modeled using both a three-parameter standard linear solid (SLS) model and a K-BKZ model. Comparison of the modeling results with experiments shows that Odgen and SLS model can more accurately predict the behavior of polyurea. The material parameters of the model are found by curve fitting of the proposed model to the uniaxial compression test data. The proposed model can closely reproduce the stress-strain behavior of polyurea for strain rates up to 6500 /s.

Keywords: constitutive modelling, ogden model, polyurea, SLS model, uniaxial compression test

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1575 A Constitutive Model for Time-Dependent Behavior of Clay

Authors: T. N. Mac, B. Shahbodaghkhan, N. Khalili

Abstract:

A new elastic-viscoplastic (EVP) constitutive model is proposed for the analysis of time-dependent behavior of clay. The proposed model is based on the bounding surface plasticity and the concept of viscoplastic consistency framework to establish continuous transition from plasticity to rate dependent viscoplasticity. Unlike the overstress based models, this model will meet the consistency condition in formulating the constitutive equation for EVP model. The procedure of deriving the constitutive relationship is also presented. Simulation results and comparisons with experimental data are then presented to demonstrate the performance of the model.

Keywords: bounding surface, consistency theory, constitutive model, viscosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
1574 Stress Solitary Waves Generated by a Second-Order Polynomial Constitutive Equation

Authors: Tsun-Hui Huang, Shyue-Cheng Yang, Chiou-Fen Shieha

Abstract:

In this paper, a nonlinear constitutive law and a curve fitting, two relationships between the stress-strain and the shear stress-strain for sandstone material were used to obtain a second-order polynomial constitutive equation. Based on the established polynomial constitutive equations and Newton’s second law, a mathematical model of the non-homogeneous nonlinear wave equation under an external pressure was derived. The external pressure can be assumed as an impulse function to simulate a real earthquake source. A displacement response under nonlinear two-dimensional wave equation was determined by a numerical method and computer-aided software. The results show that a suit pressure in the sandstone generates the phenomenon of stress solitary waves.

Keywords: polynomial constitutive equation, solitary, stress solitary waves, nonlinear constitutive law

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1573 Implementation and Validation of a Damage-Friction Constitutive Model for Concrete

Authors: L. Madouni, M. Ould Ouali, N. E. Hannachi

Abstract:

Two constitutive models for concrete are available in ABAQUS/Explicit, the Brittle Cracking Model and the Concrete Damaged Plasticity Model, and their suitability and limitations are well known. The aim of the present paper is to implement a damage-friction concrete constitutive model and to evaluate the performance of this model by comparing the predicted response with experimental data. The constitutive formulation of this material model is reviewed. In order to have consistent results, the parameter identification and calibration for the model have been performed. Several numerical simulations are presented in this paper, whose results allow for validating the capability of the proposed model for reproducing the typical nonlinear performances of concrete structures under different monotonic and cyclic load conditions. The results of the evaluation will be used for recommendations concerning the application and further improvements of the investigated model.

Keywords: Abaqus, concrete, constitutive model, numerical simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
1572 Methodology: A Review in Modelling and Predictability of Embankment in Soft Ground

Authors: Bhim Kumar Dahal

Abstract:

Transportation network development in the developing country is in rapid pace. The majority of the network belongs to railway and expressway which passes through diverse topography, landform and geological conditions despite the avoidance principle during route selection. Construction of such networks demand many low to high embankment which required improvement in the foundation soil. This paper is mainly focused on the various advanced ground improvement techniques used to improve the soft soil, modelling approach and its predictability for embankments construction. The ground improvement techniques can be broadly classified in to three groups i.e. densification group, drainage and consolidation group and reinforcement group which are discussed with some case studies.  Various methods were used in modelling of the embankments from simple 1-dimensional to complex 3-dimensional model using variety of constitutive models. However, the reliability of the predictions is not found systematically improved with the level of sophistication.  And sometimes the predictions are deviated more than 60% to the monitored value besides using same level of erudition. This deviation is found mainly due to the selection of constitutive model, assumptions made during different stages, deviation in the selection of model parameters and simplification during physical modelling of the ground condition. This deviation can be reduced by using optimization process, optimization tools and sensitivity analysis of the model parameters which will guide to select the appropriate model parameters.

Keywords: cement, improvement, physical properties, strength

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1571 New Dynamic Constitutive Model for OFHC Copper Film

Authors: Jin Sung Kim, Hoon Huh

Abstract:

The material properties of OFHC copper film was investigated with the High-Speed Material Micro Testing Machine (HSMMTM) at the high strain rates. The rate-dependent stress-strain curves from the experiment and the Johnson-Cook curve fitting showed large discrepancies as the plastic strain increases since the constitutive model implies no rate-dependent strain hardening effect. A new constitutive model was proposed in consideration of rate-dependent strain hardening effect. The strain rate hardening term in the new constitutive model consists of the strain rate sensitivity coefficients of the yield strength and strain hardening.

Keywords: rate dependent material properties, dynamic constitutive model, OFHC copper film, strain rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
1570 Modelling and Analysis of Shear Banding in Flow of Complex Fluids

Authors: T. Chinyoka

Abstract:

We present the Johnson-Segalman constitutive model to capture certain fluid flow phenomena that has been experimentally observed in the flow of complex polymeric fluids. In particular, experimentally observed phenomena such as shear banding, spurt and slip are explored and/or explained in terms of the non-monotonic shear-stress versus shear-rate relationships. We also explore the effects of the inclusion of physical flow aspects such as wall porosity on shear banding. We similarly also explore the effects of the inclusion of mathematical modelling aspects such as stress diffusion into the stress constitutive models in order to predict shear-stress (or shear-rate) paths. We employ semi-implicit finite difference methods for all the computational solution procedures.

Keywords: Johnson-Segalman model, diffusive Johnson-Segalman model, shear banding, finite difference methods, complex fluid flow

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1569 A Constitutive Model of Ligaments and Tendons Accounting for Fiber-Matrix Interaction

Authors: Ratchada Sopakayang, Gerhard A. Holzapfel

Abstract:

In this study, a new constitutive model is developed to describe the hyperelastic behavior of collagenous tissues with a parallel arrangement of collagen fibers such as ligaments and tendons. The model is formulated using a continuum approach incorporating the structural changes of the main tissue components: collagen fibers, proteoglycan-rich matrix and fiber-matrix interaction. The mechanical contribution of the interaction between the fibers and the matrix is simply expressed by a coupling term. The structural change of the collagen fibers is incorporated in the constitutive model to describe the activation of the fibers under tissue straining. Finally, the constitutive model can easily describe the stress-stretch nonlinearity which occurs when a ligament/tendon is axially stretched. This study shows that the interaction between the fibers and the matrix contributes to the mechanical tissue response. Therefore, the model may lead to a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms of ligaments and tendons under axial loading.

Keywords: constitutive model, fiber-matrix, hyperelasticity, interaction, ligament, tendon

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1568 Parameters Adjustment of the Modified UBCSand Constitutive Model for the Potentially Liquefiable Sands of Santiago de Cali-Colombia

Authors: Daniel Rosero, Johan S. Arana, Sebastian Arango, Alejandro Cruz, Isabel Gomez-Gutierrez, Peter Thomson

Abstract:

Santiago de Cali is located in the southwestern Colombia in a high seismic hazard zone. About 50% of the city is on the banks of the Cauca River, which is the second most important hydric affluent in the country and whose alluvial deposits contain potentially liquefiable sands. Among the methods used to study a site's liquefaction potential is the finite elements method which use constitutive models to simulate the soil response for different load types. Among the different constitutive models, the Modified UBCSand stands out to study the seismic behavior of sands, and especially the liquefaction phenomenon. In this paper, the dynamic behavior of a potentially liquefiable sand of Santiago de Cali is studied by cyclic triaxial and CPTu tests. Subsequently, the behavior of the sand is simulated using the Modified UBCSand constitutive model, whose parameters are calibrated using the results of cyclic triaxial and CPTu tests. The above with the aim of analyze the constitutive model applicability for studying the geotechnical problems associated to liquefaction in the city.

Keywords: constitutive model, cyclic triaxial test, dynamic behavior, liquefiable sand, modified ubcsand

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1567 Simulation of Uniaxial Ratcheting Behaviors of SA508-3 Steel at Elevated Temperature

Authors: Jun Tian, Yu Yang, Liping Zhang, Qianhua Kan

Abstract:

Experimental results show that SA 508-3 steel exhibits temperature dependent cyclic softening characteristic and obvious ratcheting behaviors, and dynamic strain age was observed at temperature range of 200 ºC to 350 ºC. Based on these observations, a temperature dependent cyclic plastic constitutive model was proposed by introducing the nonlinear cyclic softening and kinematic hardening rules, and the dynamic strain age was also considered into the constitutive model. Comparisons between experiments and simulations were carried out to validate the proposed model at elevated temperature.

Keywords: constitutive model, elevated temperature, ratcheting, SA 508-3

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1566 Constitutive Model for Analysis of Long-Term Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Settlement

Authors: Irena Basaric Ikodinovic, Dragoslav Rakic, Mirjana Vukicevic, Sanja Jockovic, Jovana Jankovic Pantic

Abstract:

Large long-term settlement occurs at the municipal solid waste landfills over an extended period of time which may lead to breakage of the geomembrane, damage of the cover systems, other protective systems or facilities constructed on top of a landfill. Also, municipal solid waste is an extremely heterogeneous material and its properties vary over location and time within a landfill. These material characteristics require the formulation of a new constitutive model to predict the long-term settlement of municipal solid waste. The paper presents a new constitutive model which is formulated to describe the mechanical behavior of municipal solid waste. Model is based on Modified Cam Clay model and the critical state soil mechanics framework incorporating time-dependent components: mechanical creep and biodegradation of municipal solid waste. The formulated constitutive model is optimized and defined with eight input parameters: five Modified Cam Clay parameters, one parameter for mechanical creep and two parameters for biodegradation of municipal solid waste. Thereafter, the constitutive model is implemented in the software suite for finite element analysis (ABAQUS) and numerical analysis of the experimental landfill settlement is performed. The proposed model predicts the total settlement which is in good agreement with field measured settlement at the experimental landfill.

Keywords: constitutive model, finite element analysis, municipal solid waste, settlement

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1565 Study on Constitutive Model of Particle Filling Material Considering Volume Expansion

Authors: Xu Jinsheng, Tong Xin, Zheng Jian, Zhou Changsheng

Abstract:

The NEPE (nitrate ester plasticized polyether) propellant is a kind of particle filling material with relatively high filling fraction. The experimental results show that the microcracks, microvoids and dewetting can cause the stress softening of the material. In this paper, a series of mechanical testing in inclusion with CCD technique were conducted to analyze the evolution of internal defects of propellant. The volume expansion function of the particle filling material was established by measuring of longitudinal and transverse strain with optical deformation measurement system. By analyzing the defects and internal damages of the material, a visco-hyperelastic constitutive model based on free energy theory was proposed incorporating damage function. The proposed constitutive model could accurately predict the mechanical properties of uniaxial tensile tests and tensile-relaxation tests.

Keywords: dewetting, constitutive model, uniaxial tensile tests, visco-hyperelastic, nonlinear

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1564 Modelling of Damage as Hinges in Segmented Tunnels

Authors: Gelacio JuáRez-Luna, Daniel Enrique GonzáLez-RamíRez, Enrique Tenorio-Montero

Abstract:

Frame elements coupled with springs elements are used for modelling the development of hinges in segmented tunnels, the spring elements modelled the rotational, transversal and axial failure. These spring elements are equipped with constitutive models to include independently the moment, shear force and axial force, respectively. These constitutive models are formulated based on damage mechanics and experimental test reported in the literature review. The mesh of the segmented tunnels was discretized in the software GID, and the nonlinear analyses were carried out in the finite element software ANSYS. These analyses provide the capacity curve of the primary and secondary lining of a segmented tunnel. Two numerical examples of segmented tunnels show the capability of the spring elements to release energy by the development of hinges. The first example is a segmental concrete lining discretized with frame elements loaded until hinges occurred in the lining. The second example is a tunnel with primary and secondary lining, discretized with a double ring frame model. The outer ring simulates the segmental concrete lining and the inner ring simulates the secondary cast-in-place concrete lining. Spring elements also modelled the joints between the segments in the circumferential direction and the ring joints, which connect parallel adjacent rings. The computed load vs displacement curves are congruent with numerical and experimental results reported in the literature review. It is shown that the modelling of a tunnel with primary and secondary lining with frame elements and springs provides reasonable results and save computational cost, comparing with 2D or 3D models equipped with smeared crack models.

Keywords: damage, hinges, lining, tunnel

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1563 Micromechanical Modelling of Ductile Damage with a Cohesive-Volumetric Approach

Authors: Noe Brice Nkoumbou Kaptchouang, Pierre-Guy Vincent, Yann Monerie

Abstract:

The present work addresses the modelling and the simulation of crack initiation and propagation in ductile materials which failed by void nucleation, growth, and coalescence. One of the current research frameworks on crack propagation is the use of cohesive-volumetric approach where the crack growth is modelled as a decohesion of two surfaces in a continuum material. In this framework, the material behavior is characterized by two constitutive relations, the volumetric constitutive law relating stress and strain, and a traction-separation law across a two-dimensional surface embedded in the three-dimensional continuum. Several cohesive models have been proposed for the simulation of crack growth in brittle materials. On the other hand, the application of cohesive models in modelling crack growth in ductile material is still a relatively open field. One idea developed in the literature is to identify the traction separation for ductile material based on the behavior of a continuously-deforming unit cell failing by void growth and coalescence. Following this method, the present study proposed a semi-analytical cohesive model for ductile material based on a micromechanical approach. The strain localization band prior to ductile failure is modelled as a cohesive band, and the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman plasticity model (GTN) is used to model the behavior of the cohesive band and derived a corresponding traction separation law. The numerical implementation of the model is realized using the non-smooth contact method (NSCD) where cohesive models are introduced as mixed boundary conditions between each volumetric finite element. The present approach is applied to the simulation of crack growth in nuclear ferritic steel. The model provides an alternative way to simulate crack propagation using the numerical efficiency of cohesive model with a traction separation law directly derived from porous continuous model.

Keywords: ductile failure, cohesive model, GTN model, numerical simulation

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1562 An Elasto-Viscoplastic Constitutive Model for Unsaturated Soils: Numerical Implementation and Validation

Authors: Maria Lazari, Lorenzo Sanavia

Abstract:

Mechanics of unsaturated soils has been an active field of research in the last decades. Efficient constitutive models that take into account the partial saturation of soil are necessary to solve a number of engineering problems e.g. instability of slopes and cuts due to heavy rainfalls. A large number of constitutive models can now be found in the literature that considers fundamental issues associated with the unsaturated soil behaviour, like the volume change and shear strength behaviour with suction or saturation changes. Partially saturated soils may either expand or collapse upon wetting depending on the stress level, and it is also possible that a soil might experience a reversal in the volumetric behaviour during wetting. Shear strength of soils also changes dramatically with changes in the degree of saturation, and a related engineering problem is slope failures caused by rainfall. There are several states of the art reviews over the last years for studying the topic, usually providing a thorough discussion of the stress state, the advantages, and disadvantages of specific constitutive models as well as the latest developments in the area of unsaturated soil modelling. However, only a few studies focused on the coupling between partial saturation states and time effects on the behaviour of geomaterials. Rate dependency is experimentally observed in the mechanical response of granular materials, and a viscoplastic constitutive model is capable of reproducing creep and relaxation processes. Therefore, in this work an elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model for unsaturated soils is proposed and validated on the basis of experimental data. The model constitutes an extension of an existing elastoplastic strain-hardening constitutive model capable of capturing the behaviour of variably saturated soils, based on energy conjugated stress variables in the framework of superposed continua. The purpose was to develop a model able to deal with possible mechanical instabilities within a consistent energy framework. The model shares the same conceptual structure of the elastoplastic laws proposed to deal with bonded geomaterials subject to weathering or diagenesis and is capable of modelling several kinds of instabilities induced by the loss of hydraulic bonding contributions. The novelty of the proposed formulation is enhanced with the incorporation of density dependent stiffness and hardening coefficients in order to allow the modeling of the pycnotropy behaviour of granular materials with a single set of material constants. The model has been implemented in the commercial FE platform PLAXIS, widely used in Europe for advanced geotechnical design. The algorithmic strategies adopted for the stress-point algorithm had to be revised to take into account the different approach adopted by PLAXIS developers in the solution of the discrete non-linear equilibrium equations. An extensive comparison between models with a series of experimental data reported by different authors is presented to validate the model and illustrate the capability of the newly developed model. After the validation, the effectiveness of the viscoplastic model is displayed by numerical simulations of a partially saturated slope failure of the laboratory scale and the effect of viscosity and degree of saturation on slope’s stability is discussed.

Keywords: PLAXIS software, slope, unsaturated soils, Viscoplasticity

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1561 Modelling of Creep in a Thick-Walled Cylindrical Vessel Subjected to Internal Pressure

Authors: Tejeet Singh, Ishvneet Singh, Vinay Gupta

Abstract:

The present study focussed on carrying out the creep analysis in an isotropic thick-walled composite cylindrical pressure vessel composed of aluminium matrix reinforced with silicon-carbide in particulate form. The creep behaviour of the composite material has been described by the threshold stress based creep law. The value of stress exponent appearing in the creep law was selected as 3, 5 and 8. The constitutive equations were developed using well known von-Mises yield criteria. Models were developed to find out the distributions of creep stresses and strain rate in thick-walled composite cylindrical pressure vessels under internal pressure. In order to obtain the stress distributions in the cylinder, the equilibrium equation of the continuum mechanics and the constitutive equations are solved together. It was observed that the radial stress, tangential stress and axial stress increases along with the radial distance. The cross-over was also obtained almost at the middle region of cylindrical vessel for tangential and axial stress for different values of stress exponent. The strain rates were also decreasing in nature along the entire radius.

Keywords: creep, composite, cylindrical vessel, internal pressure

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1560 A Robust Theoretical Elastoplastic Continuum Damage T-H-M Model for Rock Surrounding a Wellbore

Authors: Nikolaos Reppas, Yilin Gui, Ben Wetenhall, Colin Davie

Abstract:

Injection of CO2 inside wellbore can induce different kind of loadings that can lead to thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical changes on the surrounding rock. A dual-porosity theoretical constitutive model will be presented for the stability analysis of the wellbore during CO2 injection. An elastoplastic damage response will be considered. A bounding yield surface will be presented considering damage effects on sandstone. The main target of the research paper is to present a theoretical constitutive model that can help industries to safely store CO2 in geological rock formations and forecast any changes on the surrounding rock of the wellbore. The fully coupled elasto-plastic damage Thermo-Hydraulic-Mechanical theoretical model will be validated from existing experimental data for sandstone after simulating some scenarios by using FEM on MATLAB software.

Keywords: carbon capture and storage, rock mechanics, THM effects on rock, constitutive model

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1559 Evaluation of Cyclic Thermo-Mechanical Responses of an Industrial Gas Turbine Rotor

Authors: Y. Rae, A. Benaarbia, J. Hughes, Wei Sun

Abstract:

This paper describes an elasto-visco-plastic computational modelling method which can be used to assess the cyclic plasticity responses of high temperature structures operating under thermo-mechanical loadings. The material constitutive equation used is an improved unified multi-axial Chaboche-Lemaitre model, which takes into account non-linear kinematic and isotropic hardening. The computational methodology is a three-dimensional framework following an implicit formulation and based on a radial return mapping algorithm. The associated user material (UMAT) code is developed and calibrated across isothermal hold-time low cycle fatigue tests for a typical turbine rotor steel for use in finite element (FE) implementation. The model is applied to a realistic industrial gas turbine rotor, where the study focuses its attention on the deformation heterogeneities and critical high stress areas within the rotor structure. The potential improvements of such FE visco-plastic approach are discussed. An integrated life assessment procedure based on R5 and visco-plasticity modelling, is also briefly addressed.

Keywords: unified visco-plasticity, thermo-mechanical, turbine rotor, finite element modelling

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1558 Study of Functional Relevant Conformational Mobility of β-2 Adrenoreceptor by Means of Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: G. V. Novikov, V. S. Sivozhelezov, S. S. Kolesnikov, K. V. Shaitan

Abstract:

The study reports about the influence of binding of orthosteric ligands as well as point mutations on the conformational dynamics of β-2-adrenoreceptor. Using molecular dynamics simulation we found that there was a little fraction of active states of the receptor in its apo (ligand free) ensemble corresponded to its constitutive activity. Analysis of MD trajectories indicated that such spontaneous activation of the receptor is accompanied by the motion in intracellular part of its alpha-helices. Thus receptor’s constitutive activity directly results from its conformational dynamics. On the other hand the binding of a full agonist resulted in a significant shift of the initial equilibrium towards its active state. Finally, the binding of the inverse agonist stabilized the receptor in its inactive state. It is likely that the binding of inverse agonists might be a universal way of constitutive activity inhibition in vivo. Our results indicate that ligand binding redistribute pre-existing conformational degrees of freedom (in accordance to the Monod-Wyman-Changeux-Model) of the receptor rather than cause induced fit in it. Therefore, the ensemble of biologically relevant receptor conformations is encoded in its spatial structure, and individual conformations from that ensemble might be used by the cell in conformity with the physiological behaviour.

Keywords: seven-transmembrane receptors, constitutive activity, activation, x-ray crystallography, principal component analysis, molecular dynamics simulation

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1557 A Fully Coupled Thermo-Hydraulic Mechanical Elastoplastic Damage Constitutive Model for Porous Fractured Medium during CO₂ Injection

Authors: Nikolaos Reppas, Yilin Gui

Abstract:

A dual-porosity finite element-code will be presented for the stability analysis of the wellbore during CO₂ injection. An elastoplastic damage response will be considered to the model. The Finite Element Method (FEM) will be validated using experimental results from literature or from experiments that are planned to be undertaken at Newcastle University. The main target of the research paper is to present a constitutive model that can help industries to safely store CO₂ in geological rock formations and forecast any changes on the surrounding rock of the wellbore. The fully coupled elastoplastic damage Thermo-Hydraulic-Mechanical (THM) model will determine the pressure and temperature of the injected CO₂ as well as the size of the radius of the wellbore that can make the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) procedure more efficient.

Keywords: carbon capture and storage, Wellbore stability, elastoplastic damage response for rock, constitutive THM model, fully coupled thermo-hydraulic-mechanical model

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1556 Proposing a Failure Criterion for Cohesionless Media Considering Cyclic Fabric Anisotropy

Authors: Ali Noorzad, Ehsan Badakhshan, Shima Zameni

Abstract:

The present paper is focused on a generalized failure criterion for geomaterials with cross-anisotropy. The cyclic behavior of granular material primarily depends on the nature and arrangement of constituent particles, particle size, and shape that affect fabric anisotropy. To account for the influence of loading directions on strength variations, an anisotropic variable in terms of the invariants of the stress tensor and fabric into the failure criterion is proposed. In an extension to original CANAsand constitutive model two concepts namely critical state and compact state play paramount roles as all of the moduli and coefficients are related to these states. The applicability of the present model is evaluated through comparisons between the predicted and the measured results. All simulations have demonstrated that the proposed constitutive model is capable of modeling the cyclic behavior of sand with inherent anisotropy.

Keywords: fabric, cohesionless media, cyclic loading, critical state, compact state, CANAsand constitutive model

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1555 Modeling and Prediction of Hot Deformation Behavior of IN718

Authors: M. Azarbarmas, J. M. Cabrera, J. Calvo, M. Aghaie-Khafri

Abstract:

The modeling of hot deformation behavior for unseen conditions is important in metal-forming. In this study, the hot deformation of IN718 has been characterized in the temperature range 950-1100 and strain rate range 0.001-0.1 s-1 using hot compression tests. All stress-strain curves showed the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization. These curves were implemented quantitatively in mathematics, and then constitutive equation indicating the relationship between the flow stress and hot deformation parameters was obtained successfully.

Keywords: compression test, constitutive equation, dynamic recrystallization, hot working

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1554 Constitutive Role of Light in Christian Sacred Architecture

Authors: Sokol Gojnik, Zorana; Gojnik, Igor

Abstract:

Light is the central theme of sacred architecture of all religions and so of Christianity. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the inner sense of light and its constitutive role in Christian sacred architecture. The theme of light in Christian sacred architecture is fundamentally connected to its meaning and symbolism of light in Christian theology and liturgy. This fundamental connection is opening the space to the symbolic and theological comprehending of light which was present throughout the history of Christianity and which is lacking in contemporary sacred architecture.

Keywords: light, sacred architecture, religious architecture, phenomenology of architecture

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1553 Kinematic Hardening Parameters Identification with Respect to Objective Function

Authors: Marina Franulovic, Robert Basan, Bozidar Krizan

Abstract:

Constitutive modelling of material behaviour is becoming increasingly important in prediction of possible failures in highly loaded engineering components, and consequently, optimization of their design. In order to account for large number of phenomena that occur in the material during operation, such as kinematic hardening effect in low cycle fatigue behaviour of steels, complex nonlinear material models are used ever more frequently, despite of the complexity of determination of their parameters. As a method for the determination of these parameters, genetic algorithm is good choice because of its capability to provide very good approximation of the solution in systems with large number of unknown variables. For the application of genetic algorithm to parameter identification, inverse analysis must be primarily defined. It is used as a tool to fine-tune calculated stress-strain values with experimental ones. In order to choose proper objective function for inverse analysis among already existent and newly developed functions, the research is performed to investigate its influence on material behaviour modelling.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, kinematic hardening, material model, objective function

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1552 Ground-Structure Interaction Analysis of Aged Tunnels

Authors: Behrang Dadfar, Hossein Bidhendi, Jimmy Susetyo, John Paul Abbatangelo

Abstract:

Finding structural demand under various conditions that a structure may experience during its service life is an important step towards structural life-cycle analysis. In this paper, structural demand for the precast concrete tunnel lining (PCTL) segments of Toronto’s 60-year-old subway tunnels is investigated. Numerical modelling was conducted using FLAC3D, a finite difference-based software capable of simulating ground-structure interaction and ground material’s flow in three dimensions. The specific structural details of the segmental tunnel lining, such as the convex shape of the PCTL segments at radial joints and the PCTL segment pockets, were considered in the numerical modelling. Also, the model was developed in a way to accommodate the flexibility required for the simulation of various deterioration scenarios, shapes, and patterns that have been observed over more than 20 years. The soil behavior was simulated by using plastic-hardening constitutive model of FLAC3D. The effect of the depth of the tunnel, the coefficient of lateral earth pressure as well as the patterns of deterioration of the segments were studied. The structural capacity under various deterioration patterns and the existing loading conditions was evaluated using axial-flexural interaction curves that were developed for each deterioration pattern. The results were used to provide recommendations for the next phase of tunnel lining rehabilitation program.

Keywords: precast concrete tunnel lining, ground-structure interaction, numerical modelling, deterioration, tunnels

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1551 Determination of Safe Ore Extraction Methodology beneath Permanent Extraction in a Lead Zinc Mine with the Help of FLAC3D Numerical Model

Authors: Ayan Giri, Lukaranjan Phukan, Shantanu Karmakar

Abstract:

Structure and tectonics play a vital role in ore genesis and deposition. The existence of a swelling structure below the current level of a mine leads to the discovery of ores below some permeant developments of the mine. The discovery and the extraction of the ore body are very critical to sustain the business requirement of the mine. The challenge was to extract the ore without hampering the global stability of the mine. In order to do so, different mining options were considered and analysed by numerical modelling in FLAC3d software. The constitutive model prepared for this simulation is the improved unified constitutive model, which can better and more accurately predict the stress-strain relationships in a continuum model. The IUCM employs the Hoek-Brown criterion to determine the instantaneous Mohr-Coulomb parameters cohesion (c) and friction (ɸ) at each level of confining stress. The extra swelled part can be dimensioned as north-south strike width 50m, east-west strike width 50m. On the north side, already a stope (P1) is excavated of the dimension of 25m NS width. The different options considered were (a) Open stoping of extraction of southern part (P0) of 50m to the full extent, (b) Extraction of the southern part of 25m, then filling of both the primaries and extraction of secondary (S0) 25m in between. (c) Extraction of the southern part (P0) completely, preceded by backfill and modify the design of the secondary (S0) for the overall stability of the permanent excavation above the stoping.

Keywords: extraction, IUCM, FLAC 3D, stoping, tectonics

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1550 A Unified Constitutive Model for the Thermoplastic/Elastomeric-Like Cyclic Response of Polyethylene with Different Crystal Contents

Authors: A. Baqqal, O. Abduhamid, H. Abdul-Hameed, T. Messager, G. Ayoub

Abstract:

In this contribution, the effect of crystal content on the cyclic response of semi-crystalline polyethylene is studied over a large strain range. Experimental observations on a high-density polyethylene with 72% crystal content and an ultralow density polyethylene with 15% crystal content are reported. The cyclic stretching does appear a thermoplastic-like response for high crystallinity and an elastomeric-like response for low crystallinity, both characterized by a stress-softening, a hysteresis and a residual strain, whose amount depends on the crystallinity and the applied strain. Based on the experimental observations, a unified viscoelastic-viscoplastic constitutive model capturing the polyethylene cyclic response features is proposed. A two-phase representation of the polyethylene microstructure allows taking into consideration the effective contribution of the crystalline and amorphous phases to the intermolecular resistance to deformation which is coupled, to capture the strain hardening, to a resistance to molecular orientation. The polyethylene cyclic response features are captured by introducing evolution laws for the model parameters affected by the microstructure alteration due to the cyclic stretching.

Keywords: cyclic loading unloading, polyethylene, semi-crystalline polymer, viscoelastic-viscoplastic constitutive model

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1549 Modelling and Simulation Efforts in Scale-Up and Characterization of Semi-Solid Dosage Forms

Authors: Saurav S. Rath, Birendra K. David

Abstract:

Generic pharmaceutical industry has to operate in strict timelines of product development and scale-up from lab to plant. Hence, detailed product & process understanding and implementation of appropriate mechanistic modelling and Quality-by-design (QbD) approaches are imperative in the product life cycle. This work provides example cases of such efforts in topical dosage products. Topical products are typically in the form of emulsions, gels, thick suspensions or even simple solutions. The efficacy of such products is determined by characteristics like rheology and morphology. Defining, and scaling up the right manufacturing process with a given set of ingredients, to achieve the right product characteristics presents as a challenge to the process engineer. For example, the non-Newtonian rheology varies not only with CPPs and CMAs but also is an implicit function of globule size (CQA). Hence, this calls for various mechanistic models, to help predict the product behaviour. This paper focusses on such models obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) coupled with population balance modelling (PBM) and constitutive models (like shear, energy density). In a special case of the use of high shear homogenisers (HSHs) for the manufacture of thick emulsions/gels, this work presents some findings on (i) scale-up algorithm for HSH using shear strain, a novel scale-up parameter for estimating mixing parameters, (ii) non-linear relationship between viscosity and shear imparted into the system, (iii) effect of hold time on rheology of product. Specific examples of how this approach enabled scale-up across 1L, 10L, 200L, 500L and 1000L scales will be discussed.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, morphology, quality-by-design, rheology

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1548 Prediction of Soil Liquefaction by Using UBC3D-PLM Model in PLAXIS

Authors: A. Daftari, W. Kudla

Abstract:

Liquefaction is a phenomenon in which the strength and stiffness of a soil is reduced by earthquake shaking or other rapid cyclic loading. Liquefaction and related phenomena have been responsible for huge amounts of damage in historical earthquakes around the world. Modelling of soil behaviour is the main step in soil liquefaction prediction process. Nowadays, several constitutive models for sand have been presented. Nevertheless, only some of them can satisfy this mechanism. One of the most useful models in this term is UBCSAND model. In this research, the capability of this model is considered by using PLAXIS software. The real data of superstition hills earthquake 1987 in the Imperial Valley was used. The results of the simulation have shown resembling trend of the UBC3D-PLM model.

Keywords: liquefaction, plaxis, pore-water pressure, UBC3D-PLM

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
1547 Probabilistic Simulation of Triaxial Undrained Cyclic Behavior of Soils

Authors: Arezoo Sadrinezhad, Kallol Sett, S. I. Hariharan

Abstract:

In this paper, a probabilistic framework based on Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov (FPK) approach has been applied to simulate triaxial cyclic constitutive behavior of uncertain soils. The framework builds upon previous work of the writers, and it has been extended for cyclic probabilistic simulation of triaxial undrained behavior of soils. von Mises elastic-perfectly plastic material model is considered. It is shown that by using probabilistic framework, some of the most important aspects of soil behavior under cyclic loading can be captured even with a simple elastic-perfectly plastic constitutive model.

Keywords: elasto-plasticity, uncertainty, soils, fokker-planck equation, fourier spectral method, finite difference method

Procedia PDF Downloads 255