Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2518

Search results for: strain sensor

2518 Design of Strain Sensor Based on Cascaded Fiber Bragg Grating for Remote Sensing Monitoring Application

Authors: Arafat A. A. Shabaneh

Abstract:

Harsh environments demand a developed detection of an optical communication system to ensure a high level of security and safety. Fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) are emerging sensing instruments that respond to variations in strain and temperature via varying wavelengths. In this paper, cascaded uniform FBG as a strain sensor for 6 km length at 1550 nm wavelength with 30 oC is designed with analyzing of dynamic strain and wavelength shifts. FBG is placed in a small segment of optical fiber, which reflects light of a specific wavelength and passes the remaining wavelengths. This makes a periodic alteration in the refractive index within the fiber core. The alteration in the modal index of fiber produced due to strain consequences in a Bragg wavelength. When the developed sensor exposure to a strain of cascaded uniform FBG by 0.01, the wavelength is shifted to 0.0000144383 μm. The sensing accuracy of the developed sensor is 0.0012. Simulation results show reliable and effective strain monitoring sensors for remote sensing applications.

Keywords: Cascaded fiber Bragg gratings, Strain sensor, Remote sensing, Wavelength shift

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
2517 Measurement of Temperature, Humidity and Strain Variation Using Bragg Sensor

Authors: Amira Zrelli, Tahar Ezzeddine

Abstract:

Measurement and monitoring of temperature, humidity and strain variation are very requested in great fields and areas such as structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. Currently, the use of fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBGS) is very recommended in SHM systems due to the specifications of these sensors. In this paper, we present the theory of Bragg sensor, therefore we try to measure the efficient variation of strain, temperature and humidity (SV, ST, SH) using Bragg sensor. Thus, we can deduce the fundamental relation between these parameters and the wavelength of Bragg sensor.

Keywords: Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors (FBGS), strain, temperature, humidity, structural health monitoring (SHM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
2516 Development of a Highly Flexible, Sensitive and Stretchable Polymer Nanocomposite for Strain Sensing

Authors: Shaghayegh Shajari, Mehdi Mahmoodi, Mahmood Rajabian, Uttandaraman Sundararaj, Les J. Sudak

Abstract:

Although several strain sensors based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been reported, the stretchability and sensitivity of these sensors have remained as a challenge. Highly stretchable and sensitive strain sensors are in great demand for human motion monitoring and human-machine interface. This paper reports the fabrication and characterization of a new type of strain sensors based on a stretchable fluoropolymer / CNT nanocomposite system made via melt-mixing technique. Electrical and mechanical characterizations were obtained. The results showed that this nanocomposite sensor has high stretchability up to 280% of strain at an optimum level of filler concentration. The piezoresistive properties and the strain sensing mechanism of the strain sensor were investigated using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). High sensitivity was obtained (gauge factor as large as 12000 under 120% applied strain) in particular at the concentrations above the percolation threshold. Due to the tunneling effect, a non- linear piezoresistivity was observed at high concentrations of CNT loading. The nanocomposites with good conductivity and lightweight could be a promising candidate for strain sensing applications.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, fluoropolymer, piezoresistive, strain sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
2515 Analysis and Modeling of Graphene-Based Percolative Strain Sensor

Authors: Heming Yao

Abstract:

Graphene-based percolative strain gauges could find applications in many places such as touch panels, artificial skins or human motion detection because of its advantages over conventional strain gauges such as flexibility and transparency. These strain gauges rely on a novel sensing mechanism that depends on strain-induced morphology changes. Once a compression or tension strain is applied to Graphene-based percolative strain gauges, the overlap area between neighboring flakes becomes smaller or larger, which is reflected by the considerable change of resistance. Tiny strain change on graphene-based percolative strain sensor can act as an important leverage to tremendously increase resistance of strain sensor, which equipped graphene-based percolative strain gauges with higher gauge factor. Despite ongoing research in the underlying sensing mechanism and the limits of sensitivity, neither suitable understanding has been obtained of what intrinsic factors play the key role in adjust gauge factor, nor explanation on how the strain gauge sensitivity can be enhanced, which is undoubtedly considerably meaningful and provides guideline to design novel and easy-produced strain sensor with high gauge factor. We here simulated the strain process by modeling graphene flakes and its percolative networks. We constructed the 3D resistance network by simulating overlapping process of graphene flakes and interconnecting tremendous number of resistance elements which were obtained by fractionizing each piece of graphene. With strain increasing, the overlapping graphenes was dislocated on new stretched simulation graphene flake simulation film and a new simulation resistance network was formed with smaller flake number density. By solving the resistance network, we can get the resistance of simulation film under different strain. Furthermore, by simulation on possible variable parameters, such as out-of-plane resistance, in-plane resistance, flake size, we obtained the changing tendency of gauge factor with all these variable parameters. Compared with the experimental data, we verified the feasibility of our model and analysis. The increase of out-of-plane resistance of graphene flake and the initial resistance of sensor, based on flake network, both improved gauge factor of sensor, while the smaller graphene flake size gave greater gauge factor. This work can not only serve as a guideline to improve the sensitivity and applicability of graphene-based strain sensors in the future, but also provides method to find the limitation of gauge factor for strain sensor based on graphene flake. Besides, our method can be easily transferred to predict gauge factor of strain sensor based on other nano-structured transparent optical conductors, such as nanowire and carbon nanotube, or of their hybrid with graphene flakes.

Keywords: graphene, gauge factor, percolative transport, strain sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
2514 A Wireless Sensor Network Protocol for a Car Parking Space Monitoring System

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Myung-Gon Yoon, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

This paper presents a wireless sensor network protocol for a car parking monitoring system. A wireless sensor network for the purpose is composed of multiple sensor nodes, a sink node, a gateway, and a server. Each of the sensor nodes is equipped with a 3-axis AMR sensor and deployed in the center of a parking space. The sensor node reads its sensor values periodically and transmits the data to the sink node if the current and immediate past sensor values show a difference exceeding a threshold value. The operations of the sink and sensor nodes are described in detail along with flow diagrams. The protocol allows a low-duty cycle operation of the sensor nodes and a flexible adjustment of the threshold value used by the sensor nodes.

Keywords: car parking monitoring, sensor node, wireless sensor network, network protocol

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
2513 Strain Sensing Seams for Monitoring Body Movement

Authors: Sheilla Atieno Odhiambo, Simona Vasile, Alexandra De Raeve, Ann Schwarz

Abstract:

Strain sensing seams have been developed by integrating conductive sewing threads in different types of seams design on a fabric typical for sports clothing using sewing technology. The aim is to have a simple integrated textile strain sensor that can be applied to sports clothing to monitor the movements of the upper body parts of the user during sports. Different types of commercially available sewing threads were used as the bobbin thread in the production of different architectural seam sensors. These conductive sewing threads have been integrated into seams in particular designs using specific seam types. Some of the threads are delicate and needed to be laid into the seam with as little friction as possible and less tension; thus, they could only be sewn in as the bobbin thread and not the needle thread. Stitch type 304; 406; 506; 601;602; 605. were produced. The seams were made on a fabric of 80% polyamide 6.6 and 20% elastane. The seams were cycled(stretch-release-stretch) for five cycles and up to 44 cycles following EN ISO 14704-1: 2005 (modified), using a tensile instrument and the changes in the resistance of the seams with time were recorded using Agilent meter U1273A. Both experiments were conducted simultaneously on the same seam sample. Sensing functionality, among which is sensor gauge and reliability, were evaluated on the promising sensor seams. The results show that the sensor seams made from HC Madeira 40 conductive yarns performed better inseam stitch 304 and 602 compared to the other combination of stitch type and conductive sewing threads. These sensing seams 304, 406 and 602 will further be interconnected to our developed processing and communicating unit and further integrated into a sports clothing prototype that can track body posture. This research is done within the framework of the project SmartSeam.

Keywords: conductive sewing thread, sensing seams, smart seam, sewing technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
2512 In-Process Integration of Resistance-Based, Fiber Sensors during the Braiding Process for Strain Monitoring of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials

Authors: Oscar Bareiro, Johannes Sackmann, Thomas Gries

Abstract:

Carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites (CFRP) are used in a wide variety of applications due to its advantageous properties and design versatility. The braiding process enables the manufacture of components with good toughness and fatigue strength. However, failure mechanisms of CFRPs are complex and still present challenges associated with their maintenance and repair. Within the broad scope of structural health monitoring (SHM), strain monitoring can be applied to composite materials to improve reliability, reduce maintenance costs and safely exhaust service life. Traditional SHM systems employ e.g. fiber optics, piezoelectrics as sensors, which are often expensive, time consuming and complicated to implement. A cost-efficient alternative can be the exploitation of the conductive properties of fiber-based sensors such as carbon, copper, or constantan - a copper-nickel alloy – that can be utilized as sensors within composite structures to achieve strain monitoring. This allows the structure to provide feedback via electrical signals to a user which are essential for evaluating the structural condition of the structure. This work presents a strategy for the in-process integration of resistance-based sensors (Elektrisola Feindraht AG, CuNi23Mn, Ø = 0.05 mm) into textile preforms during its manufacture via the braiding process (Herzog RF-64/120) to achieve strain monitoring of braided composites. For this, flat samples of instrumented composite laminates of carbon fibers (Toho Tenax HTS40 F13 24K, 1600 tex) and epoxy resin (Epikote RIMR 426) were manufactured via vacuum-assisted resin infusion. These flat samples were later cut out into test specimens and the integrated sensors were wired to the measurement equipment (National Instruments, VB-8012) for data acquisition during the execution of mechanical tests. Quasi-static tests were performed (tensile, 3-point bending tests) following standard protocols (DIN EN ISO 527-1 & 4, DIN EN ISO 14132); additionally, dynamic tensile tests were executed. These tests were executed to assess the sensor response under different loading conditions and to evaluate the influence of the sensor presence on the mechanical properties of the material. Several orientations of the sensor with regards to the applied loading and sensor placements inside the laminate were tested. Strain measurements from the integrated sensors were made by programming a data acquisition code (LabView) written for the measurement equipment. Strain measurements from the integrated sensors were then correlated to the strain/stress state for the tested samples. From the assessment of the sensor integration approach it can be concluded that it allows for a seamless sensor integration into the textile preform. No damage to the sensor or negative effect on its electrical properties was detected during inspection after integration. From the assessment of the mechanical tests of instrumented samples it can be concluded that the presence of the sensors does not alter significantly the mechanical properties of the material. It was found that there is a good correlation between resistance measurements from the integrated sensors and the applied strain. It can be concluded that the correlation is of sufficient accuracy to determinate the strain state of a composite laminate based solely on the resistance measurements from the integrated sensors.

Keywords: braiding process, in-process sensor integration, instrumented composite material, resistance-based sensor, strain monitoring

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2511 Implementation of Sensor Fusion Structure of 9-Axis Sensors on the Multipoint Control Unit

Authors: Jun Gil Ahn, Jong Tae Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the sensor fusion structure on the multipoint control unit (MCU). Sensor fusion using Kalman filter for 9-axis sensors is considered. The 9-axis inertial sensor is the combination of 3-axis accelerometer, 3-axis gyroscope and 3-axis magnetometer. We implement the sensor fusion structure among the sensor hubs in MCU and measure the execution time, power consumptions, and total energy. Experiments with real data from 9-axis sensor in 20Mhz show that the average power consumptions are 44mW and 48mW on Cortx-M0 and Cortex-M3 MCU, respectively. Execution times are 613.03 us and 305.6 us respectively.

Keywords: 9-axis sensor, Kalman filter, MCU, sensor fusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
2510 New Dynamic Constitutive Model for OFHC Copper Film

Authors: Jin Sung Kim, Hoon Huh

Abstract:

The material properties of OFHC copper film was investigated with the High-Speed Material Micro Testing Machine (HSMMTM) at the high strain rates. The rate-dependent stress-strain curves from the experiment and the Johnson-Cook curve fitting showed large discrepancies as the plastic strain increases since the constitutive model implies no rate-dependent strain hardening effect. A new constitutive model was proposed in consideration of rate-dependent strain hardening effect. The strain rate hardening term in the new constitutive model consists of the strain rate sensitivity coefficients of the yield strength and strain hardening.

Keywords: rate dependent material properties, dynamic constitutive model, OFHC copper film, strain rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
2509 Shear Buckling of a Large Pultruded Composite I-Section under Asymmetric Loading

Authors: Jin Y. Park, Jeong Wan Lee

Abstract:

An experimental and analytical research on shear buckling of a comparably large polymer composite I-section is presented. It is known that shear buckling load of a large span composite beam is difficult to determine experimentally. In order to sensitively detect shear buckling of the tested I-section, twenty strain rosettes and eight displacement sensors were applied and attached on the web and flange surfaces. The tested specimen was a pultruded composite beam made of vinylester resin, E-glass, carbon fibers and micro-fillers. Various coupon tests were performed before the shear buckling test to obtain fundamental material properties of the I-section. An asymmetric four-point bending loading scheme was utilized for the shear test. The loading scheme resulted a high shear and almost zeros moment condition at the center of the web panel. The shear buckling load was successfully determined after analyzing the obtained test data from strain rosettes and displacement sensors. An analytical approach was also performed to verify the experimental results and to support the discussed experimental program.

Keywords: strain sensor, displacement sensor, shear buckling, polymer composite I-section, asymmetric loading

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
2508 Experimental Investigation and Constitutive Modeling of Volume Strain under Uniaxial Strain Rate Jump Test in HDPE

Authors: Rida B. Arieby, Hameed N. Hameed

Abstract:

In this work, tensile tests on high density polyethylene have been carried out under various constant strain rate and strain rate jump tests. The dependency of the true stress and specially the variation of volume strain have been investigated, the volume strain due to the phenomena of damage was determined in real time during the tests by an optical extensometer called Videotraction. A modified constitutive equations, including strain rate and damage effects, are proposed, such a model is based on a non-equilibrium thermodynamic approach called (DNLR). The ability of the model to predict the complex nonlinear response of this polymer is examined by comparing the model simulation with the available experimental data, which demonstrate that this model can represent the deformation behavior of the polymer reasonably well.

Keywords: strain rate jump tests, volume strain, high density polyethylene, large strain, thermodynamics approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
2507 High Sensitive Graphene-Based Strain Sensors for SHM of Composite Laminates

Authors: A. Rinaldi, A. Proietti, C. Aquarelli, F. Marra, A. Tamburrano, M. Ciminello, M. S. Sarto

Abstract:

A new type of high sensitive piezoresistive sensors based on graphene was developed within the SARISTU project for application on Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). The new sensor consists of a graphene-based film, obtained through the spray deposition of a colloidal suspension of Multi-Layer Graphene (MLGs) nano platelets over a substrate. MLGs are produced by liquid exfoliation of thermally expanded Graphite Intercalation Compound. An array of 8 sensors is produced by spray deposition over an aeronautical CFRC plate of dimensions 550 mm (length) × 550 mm (width) × 3 mm (thickness). Electromechanical tests were performed in order to assess the sensitivity of the new piezoresistive sensors, which are characterized by an isotropic response. In the quasi-static characterizations, the CFRC plate was clamped on one side and loaded on the opposite one. The local strain map of the plate was then obtained from displacement measurements and numerical analysis. The dynamic tests were performed lying the plate over an anti-vibration table and actuating a piezoelectric element located in the middle of the sensing array. The obtained experimental results demonstrated that the sensors possess a good repeatability and a high constant gauge factor (~200) in the applied strain range 0.001%-0.02%. Moreover, they can follow dynamics up to 400 kHz and for this reason they are good candidates for Lamb-wave analysis.

Keywords: graphene, strain sensor, spray deposition, lamb-wave analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
2506 Detection of Muscle Swelling Using the Cnts-Based Poc Wearable Strain Sensor

Authors: Nadeem Qaiser, Sherjeel Munsif Khan, Muhammad Mustafa Hussian, Vincent Tung

Abstract:

One of the emerging fields in the detection of chronic diseases is based on the point-of-care (POC) early monitoring of the symptoms and thus provides a state-of-the-art personalized healthcare system. Nowadays, wearable and flexible sensors are being used for analyzing sweat, glucose, blood pressure, and other skin conditions. However, localized jaw-bone swelling called parotid-swelling caused by some viruses has never been tracked before. To track physical motion or deformations, strain sensors, especially piezoresistive ones, are widely used. This work, for the first time, reports carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-based piezoresistive sensing patch that is highly flexible and stretchable and can record muscle deformations in real-time. The developed patch offers an excellent gauge factor for in-plane stretching and spatial expansion with low hysteresis. To calibrate the volumetric muscle expansion, we fabricated the pneumatic actuator that experienced volumetric expansion and thus redefined the gauge factor. Moreover, we employ a Bluetooth-low-energy system that can send information about muscle activity in real-time to a smartphone app. We utilized COMSOL calculations to reveal the mechanical robustness of the patch. The experiments showed the sensing patch's greater cyclability, making it a patch for personal healthcare and an excellent choice for monitoring the real-time POC monitoring of the human muscle swelling.

Keywords: piezoresistive strain sensor, FEM simulations, CNTs sensor, flexible

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2505 Flexural Strength Design of RC Beams with Consideration of Strain Gradient Effect

Authors: Mantai Chen, Johnny Ching Ming Ho

Abstract:

The stress-strain relationship of concrete under flexure is one of the essential parameters in assessing ultimate flexural strength capacity of RC beams. Currently, the concrete stress-strain curve in flexure is obtained by incorporating a constant scale-down factor of 0.85 in the uniaxial stress-strain curve. However, it was revealed that strain gradient would improve the maximum concrete stress under flexure and concrete stress-strain curve is strain gradient dependent. Based on the strain-gradient-dependent concrete stress-strain curve, the investigation of the combined effects of strain gradient and concrete strength on flexural strength of RC beams was extended to high strength concrete up to 100 MPa by theoretical analysis. As an extension and application of the authors’ previous study, a new flexural strength design method incorporating the combined effects of strain gradient and concrete strength is developed. A set of equivalent rectangular concrete stress block parameters is proposed and applied to produce a series of design charts showing that the flexural strength of RC beams are improved with strain gradient effect considered.

Keywords: beams, equivalent concrete stress block, flexural strength, strain gradient

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
2504 Impact Tensile Mechanical Properties of 316L Stainless Steel at Different Strain Rates

Authors: Jiawei Chen, Jia Qu, Dianwei Ju

Abstract:

316L stainless steel has good mechanical and technological properties, has been widely used in shipbuilding and aerospace manufacturing. In order to understand the effect of strain rate on the yield limit of 316L stainless steel and the constitutive relationship of the materials at different strain rates, this paper used the INSTRON-4505 electronic universal testing machine to study the mechanical properties of the tensile specimen under quasi-static conditions. Meanwhile, the Zwick-Roell RKP450 intelligent oscillometric impact tester was used to test the tensile specimens at different strain rates. Through the above two kinds of experimental researches, the relationship between the true stress-strain and the engineering stress-strain at different strain rates is obtained. The result shows that the tensile yield point of 316L stainless steel increases with the increase of strain rate, and the real stress-strain curve of the 316L stainless steel has a better normalization than that of the engineering stress-strain curve. The real stress-strain curves can be used in the practical engineering of impact stretch to improve its safety.

Keywords: impact stretch, 316L stainless steel, strain rate, real stress-strain, normalization

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2503 The Application of Distributed Optical Strain Sensing to Measure Rock Bolt Deformation Subject to Bedding Shear

Authors: Thomas P. Roper, Brad Forbes, Jurij Karlovšek

Abstract:

Shear displacement along bedding defects is a well-recognised behaviour when tunnelling and mining in stratified rock. This deformation can affect the durability and integrity of installed rock bolts. In-situ monitoring of rock bolt deformation under bedding shear cannot be accurately derived from traditional strain gauge bolts as sensors are too large and spaced too far apart to accurately assess concentrated displacement along discrete defects. A possible solution to this is the use of fiber optic technologies developed for precision monitoring. Distributed Optic Sensor (DOS) embedded rock bolts were installed in a tunnel project with the aim of measuring the bolt deformation profile under significant shear displacements. This technology successfully measured the 3D strain distribution along the bolts when subjected to bedding shear and resolved the axial and lateral strain constituents in order to determine the deformational geometry of the bolts. The results are compared well with the current visual method for monitoring shear displacement using borescope holes, considering this method as suitable.

Keywords: distributed optical strain sensing, rock bolt, bedding shear, sandstone tunnel

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
2502 Health Monitoring of Composite Pile Construction Using Fiber Bragg Gratings Sensor Arrays

Authors: B. Atli-Veltin, A. Vosteen, D. Megan, A. Jedynska, L. K. Cheng

Abstract:

Composite materials combine the advantages of being lightweight and possessing high strength. This is in particular of interest for the development of large constructions, e.g., aircraft, space applications, wind turbines, etc. One of the shortcomings of using composite materials is the complex nature of the failure mechanisms which makes it difficult to predict the remaining lifetime. Therefore, condition and health monitoring are essential for using composite material for critical parts of a construction. Different types of sensors are used/developed to monitor composite structures. These include ultrasonic, thermography, shearography and fiber optic. The first 3 technologies are complex and mostly used for measurement in laboratory or during maintenance of the construction. Optical fiber sensor can be surface mounted or embedded in the composite construction to provide the unique advantage of in-operation measurement of mechanical strain and other parameters of interest. This is identified to be a promising technology for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) or Prognostic Health Monitoring (PHM) of composite constructions. Among the different fiber optic sensing technologies, Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor is the most mature and widely used. FBG sensors can be realized in an array configuration with many FBGs in a single optical fiber. In the current project, different aspects of using embedded FBG for composite wind turbine monitoring are investigated. The activities are divided into two parts. Firstly, FBG embedded carbon composite laminate is subjected to tensile and bending loading to investigate the response of FBG which are placed in different orientations with respect to the fiber. Secondly, the demonstration of using FBG sensor array for temperature and strain sensing and monitoring of a 5 m long scale model of a glass fiber mono-pile is investigated. Two different FBG types are used; special in-house fibers and off-the-shelf ones. The results from the first part of the study are showing that the FBG sensors survive the conditions during the production of the laminate. The test results from the tensile and the bending experiments are indicating that the sensors successfully response to the change of strain. The measurements from the sensors will be correlated with the strain gauges that are placed on the surface of the laminates.

Keywords: Fiber Bragg Gratings, embedded sensors, health monitoring, wind turbine towers

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
2501 Valuation on MEMS Pressure Sensors and Device Applications

Authors: Nurul Amziah Md Yunus, Izhal Abdul Halin, Nasri Sulaiman, Noor Faezah Ismail, Ong Kai Sheng

Abstract:

The MEMS pressure sensor has been introduced and presented in this paper. The types of pressure sensor and its theory of operation are also included. The latest MEMS technology, the fabrication processes of pressure sensor are explored and discussed. Besides, various device applications of pressure sensor such as tire pressure monitoring system, diesel particulate filter and others are explained. Due to further miniaturization of the device nowadays, the pressure sensor with nanotechnology (NEMS) is also reviewed. The NEMS pressure sensor is expected to have better performance as well as lower in its cost. It has gained an excellent popularity in many applications.

Keywords: pressure sensor, diaphragm, MEMS, automotive application, biomedical application, NEMS

Procedia PDF Downloads 446
2500 Fiber Braggs Grating Sensor Based Instrumentation to Evaluate Postural Balance and Stability on an Unstable Platform

Authors: K. Chethana, A. S. Guru Prasad, H. N. Vikranth, H. Varun, S. N. Omkar, S. Asokan

Abstract:

This paper describes a novel application of Fiber Braggs Grating (FBG) sensors on an unstable platform to assess human postural stability and balance. The FBG sensor based Stability Analyzing Device (FBGSAD) developed demonstrates the applicability of FBG sensors in the measurement of plantar strain to assess the postural stability of subjects on unstable platforms during different stances in eyes open and eyes closed conditions on a rocker board. Comparing the Centre of Gravity (CG) variations measured on the lumbar vertebra of subjects using a commercial accelerometer along with FBGSAD validates the study. The results obtained depict qualitative similarities between the data recorded by both FBGSAD and accelerometer, illustrating the reliability and consistency of FBG sensors in biomechanical applications for both young and geriatric population. The developed FBGSAD simultaneously measures plantar strain distribution and postural stability and can serve as a tool/yardstick to mitigate space motion sickness, identify individuals who are susceptible to falls and to qualify subjects for balance and stability, which are important factors in the selection of certain unique professionals such as aircraft pilots, astronauts, cosmonauts etc.

Keywords: biomechanics, fiber bragg gratings, plantar strain measurement, postural stability analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 497
2499 An Introductory Study on Optimization Algorithm for Movable Sensor Network-Based Odor Source Localization

Authors: Yossiri Ariyakul, Piyakiat Insom, Poonyawat Sangiamkulthavorn, Takamichi Nakamoto

Abstract:

In this paper, the method of optimization algorithm for sensor network comprised of movable sensor nodes which can be used for odor source localization was proposed. A sensor node is composed of an odor sensor, an anemometer, and a wireless communication module. The odor intensity measured from the sensor nodes are sent to the processor to perform the localization based on optimization algorithm by which the odor source localization map is obtained as a result. The map can represent the exact position of the odor source or show the direction toward it remotely. The proposed method was experimentally validated by creating the odor source localization map using three, four, and five sensor nodes in which the accuracy to predict the position of the odor source can be observed.

Keywords: odor sensor, odor source localization, optimization, sensor network

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
2498 Numerical Simulation of Fiber Bragg Grating Spectrum for Mode-І Delamination Detection

Authors: O. Hassoon, M. Tarfoui, A. El Malk

Abstract:

Fiber Bragg optic sensor embedded in composite material to detect and monitor the damage which is occur in composite structure. In this paper we deal with the mode-Ι delamination to determine the resistance of material to crack propagation, and use the coupling mode theory and T-matrix method to simulating the FBGs spectrum for both uniform and non-uniform strain distribution. The double cantilever beam test which is modeling in FEM to determine the Longitudinal strain, there are two models which are used, the first is the global half model, and the second the sub-model to represent the FBGs with refine mesh. This method can simulate the damage in the composite structure and converting the strain to wavelength shifting of the FBG spectrum.

Keywords: fiber bragg grating, delamination detection, DCB, FBG spectrum, structure health monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
2497 Performance Comparison of a Low Cost Air Quality Sensor with a Commercial Electronic Nose

Authors: Ünal Kızıl, Levent Genç, Sefa Aksu, Ahmet Tapınç

Abstract:

The Figaro AM-1 sensor module which employs TGS 2600 model gas sensor in air quality assessment was used. The system was coupled with a microprocessor that enables sensor module to create warning message via telephone. This low cot sensor system’s performance was compared with a Diagnose II commercial electronic nose system. Both air quality sensor and electronic nose system employ metal oxide chemical gas sensors. In the study experimental setup, data acquisition methods for electronic nose system, and performance of the low cost air quality system were evaluated and explained.

Keywords: air quality, electronic nose, environmental quality, gas sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
2496 Design of Permanent Sensor Fault Tolerance Algorithms by Sliding Mode Observer for Smart Hybrid Powerpack

Authors: Sungsik Jo, Hyeonwoo Kim, Iksu Choi, Hunmo Kim

Abstract:

In the SHP, LVDT sensor is for detecting the length changes of the EHA output, and the thrust of the EHA is controlled by the pressure sensor. Sensor is possible to cause hardware fault by internal problem or external disturbance. The EHA of SHP is able to be uncontrollable due to control by feedback from uncertain information, on this paper; the sliding mode observer algorithm estimates the original sensor output information in permanent sensor fault. The proposed algorithm shows performance to recovery fault of disconnection and short circuit basically, also the algorithm detect various of sensor fault mode.

Keywords: smart hybrid powerpack (SHP), electro hydraulic actuator (EHA), permanent sensor fault tolerance, sliding mode observer (SMO), graphic user interface (GUI)

Procedia PDF Downloads 461
2495 Numerical Study of Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor: Longitudinal and Transverse Detection of Temperature and Strain

Authors: K. Khelil, H. Ammar, K. Saouchi

Abstract:

Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) structure is an periodically modulated optical fiber. It acts as a selective filter of wavelength whose reflected peak is called Bragg wavelength and it depends on the period of the fiber and the refractive index. The simulation of FBG is based on solving the Coupled Mode Theory equation by using the Transfer Matrix Method which is carried out using MATLAB. It is found that spectral reflectivity is shifted when the change of temperature and strain is uniform. Under non-uniform temperature or strain perturbation, the spectrum is both shifted and destroyed. In case of transverse loading, reflectivity spectrum is split into two peaks, the first is specific to X axis, and the second belongs to Y axis. FBGs are used in civil engineering to detect perturbations applied to buildings.

Keywords: Bragg wavelength, coupled mode theory, optical fiber, temperature measurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
2494 Adding Protelium Gas Sensor for Smartphone to Reduce Explosion in Indonesia

Authors: Alfi Al Fahreizy

Abstract:

By using LPG (Liquid Protelium Gas), it is very difficult to detect gas leak. Consequently, there is so many incident of gas leak that makes explosion which is occurred in many regions of Indonesia. In this paper, the researcher tries to overcome with it by adding gas sensor for LPG in a smartphone. The aim is to choose the best sensor and how to use it . The methode is to choose sensor by selecting from sensor data sheet qualitatively by giving grade from 1 to 5. Flow chart is shown to make best steps notification that possible to implemented in smartphone.

Keywords: energy conversion, gas leak, smartphone, explosion, LPG

Procedia PDF Downloads 476
2493 SFO-ECRSEP: Sensor Field Optimızation Based Ecrsep For Heterogeneous WSNS

Authors: Gagandeep Singh

Abstract:

The sensor field optimization is a serious issue in WSNs and has been ignored by many researchers. As in numerous real-time sensing fields the sensor nodes on the corners i.e. on the segment boundaries will become lifeless early because no extraordinary safety is presented for them. Accordingly, in this research work the central objective is on the segment based optimization by separating the sensor field between advance and normal segments. The inspiration at the back this sensor field optimization is to extend the time spam when the first sensor node dies. For the reason that in normal sensor nodes which were exist on the borders may become lifeless early because the space among them and the base station is more so they consume more power so at last will become lifeless soon.

Keywords: WSNs, ECRSEP, SEP, field optimization, energy

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2492 Security Threats on Wireless Sensor Network Protocols

Authors: H. Gorine, M. Ramadan Elmezughi

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate security issues and challenges facing researchers in wireless sensor networks and countermeasures to resolve them. The broadcast nature of wireless communication makes Wireless Sensor Networks prone to various attacks. Due to resources limitation constraint in terms of limited energy, computation power and memory, security in wireless sensor networks creates different challenges than wired network security. We will discuss several attempts at addressing the issues of security in wireless sensor networks in an attempt to encourage more research into this area.

Keywords: wireless sensor networks, network security, light weight encryption, threats

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
2491 A Crystal Plasticity Approach to Model Dynamic Strain Aging

Authors: Burak Bal, Demircan Canadinc

Abstract:

Dynamic strain aging (DSA), resulting from the reorientation of C-Mn clusters in the core of dislocations, can provide a strain hardening mechanism. In addition, in Hadfield steel, negative strain rate sensitivity is observed due to the DSA. In our study, we incorporated dynamic strain aging onto crystal plasticity computations to predict the local instabilities and corresponding negative strain rate sensitivity. Specifically, the material response of Hadfield steel was obtained from monotonic and strain-rate jump experiments under tensile loading. The strain rate range was adjusted from 10⁻⁴ to 10⁻¹s ⁻¹. The crystal plasticity modeling of the material response was carried out based on Voce-type hardening law and corresponding Voce hardening parameters were determined. The solute pinning effect of carbon atom was incorporated to crystal plasticity simulations at microscale level by computing the shear stress contribution imposed on an arrested dislocation by carbon atom. After crystal plasticity simulations with modifying hardening rule, which takes into account the contribution of DSA, it was seen that the model successfully predicts both the role of DSA and corresponding strain rate sensitivity.

Keywords: crystal plasticity, dynamic strain aging, Hadfield steel, negative strain rate sensitivity

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2490 A New Realization of Multidimensional System for Grid Sensor Network

Authors: Yang Xiong, Hua Cheng

Abstract:

In this paper, for the basic problem of wireless sensor network topology control and deployment, the Roesser model in rectangular grid sensor networks is presented. In addition, a general constructive realization procedure will be proposed. The procedure enables a distributed implementation of linear systems on a sensor network. A non-trivial example is illustrated.

Keywords: grid sensor networks, Roesser model, state-space realization, multidimensional systems

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2489 A Car Parking Monitoring System Using a Line-Topology Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Dae Il Kim, Jungho Moon, Tae Yun Chung

Abstract:

This paper presents a car parking monitoring system using a wireless sensor network. The presented sensor network has a line-shaped topology and adopts a TDMA-based protocol for allowing multi-hop communications. Sensor nodes are deployed in the ground of an outdoor parking lot in such a way that a sensor node monitors a parking space. Each sensor node detects the availability of the associated parking space and transmits the detection result to a sink node via intermediate sensor nodes existing between the source sensor node and the sink node. We evaluate the feasibility of the presented sensor network and the TDMA-based communication protocol through experiments using 11 sensor nodes deployed in a real parking lot. The result shows that the presented car parking monitoring system is robust to changes in the communication environments and efficient for monitoring parking spaces of outdoor parking lots.

Keywords: multi-hop communication, parking monitoring system, TDMA, wireless sensor network

Procedia PDF Downloads 233