Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3366

Search results for: out-of-plane tests

3366 The Use of Psychological Tests in Polish Organizations - Empirical Evidence

Authors: Milena Gojny-Zbierowska

Abstract:

In the last decades psychological tests have been gaining in popularity as a method used for evaluating personnel, and they bring consulting companies solid profits rising by up to 10% each year. The market is offering a growing range of tools for the assessment of personality. Tests are used in organizations mainly in the recruitment and selection of staff. This paper is an attempt to initially diagnose the state of the use of psychological tests in Polish companies on the basis of empirical research.

Keywords: psychological tests, personality, content analysis, NEO FFI, big five personality model

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
3365 Nonstationarity Modeling of Economic and Financial Time Series

Authors: C. Slim

Abstract:

Traditional techniques for analyzing time series are based on the notion of stationarity of phenomena under study, but in reality most economic and financial series do not verify this hypothesis, which implies the implementation of specific tools for the detection of such behavior. In this paper, we study nonstationary non-seasonal time series tests in a non-exhaustive manner. We formalize the problem of nonstationary processes with numerical simulations and take stock of their statistical characteristics. The theoretical aspects of some of the most common unit root tests will be discussed. We detail the specification of the tests, showing the advantages and disadvantages of each. The empirical study focuses on the application of these tests to the exchange rate (USD/TND) and the Consumer Price Index (CPI) in Tunisia, in order to compare the Power of these tests with the characteristics of the series.

Keywords: stationarity, unit root tests, economic time series, ADF tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
3364 Termite Mound Floors: Ready-to-Use Ecological Materials

Authors: Yanné Etienne

Abstract:

The current climatic conditions necessarily impose the development and use of construction materials with low or no carbon footprint. The Far North Region of Cameroon has huge deposits of termite mounds. Various tests in this work have been carried out on these soils with the aim of using them as construction materials. They are mainly geotechnical tests, physical and mechanical tests. The different tests gave the following values: uniformity coefficient (4.95), curvature coefficient (1.80), plasticity index (12.85%), optimum moisture content (6.70%), maximum dry density (2.05 g.cm-³), friction angles (14.07°), and cohesion of 100.29 kN.m2. The results obtained show that termite mound soils, which are ecological materials, are plastic and water-stable can be used for the production of load-bearing elements in construction.

Keywords: termite mound soil, ecological materials, building materials, geotechnical tests, physical and mechanical tests

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3363 Unit Root Tests Based On the Robust Estimator

Authors: Wararit Panichkitkosolkul

Abstract:

The unit root tests based on the robust estimator for the first-order autoregressive process are proposed and compared with the unit root tests based on the ordinary least squares (OLS) estimator. The percentiles of the null distributions of the unit root test are also reported. The empirical probabilities of Type I error and powers of the unit root tests are estimated via Monte Carlo simulation. Simulation results show that all unit root tests can control the probability of Type I error for all situations. The empirical power of the unit root tests based on the robust estimator are higher than the unit root tests based on the OLS estimator.

Keywords: autoregressive, ordinary least squares, type i error, power of the test, Monte Carlo simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
3362 The Study on Life of Valves Evaluation Based on Tests Data

Authors: Binjuan Xu, Qian Zhao, Ping Jiang, Bo Guo, Zhijun Cheng, Xiaoyue Wu

Abstract:

Astronautical valves are key units in engine systems of astronautical products; their reliability will influence results of rocket or missile launching, even lead to damage to staff and devices on the ground. Besides failure in engine system may influence the hitting accuracy and flight shot of missiles. Therefore high reliability is quite essential to astronautical products. There are quite a few literature doing research based on few failure test data to estimate valves’ reliability, thus this paper proposed a new method to estimate valves’ reliability, according to the corresponding tests of different failure modes, this paper takes advantage of tests data which acquired from temperature, vibration, and action tests to estimate reliability in every failure modes, then this paper has regarded these three kinds of tests as three stages in products’ process to integrate these results to acquire valves’ reliability. Through the comparison of results achieving from tests data and simulated data, the results have illustrated how to obtain valves’ reliability based on the few failure data with failure modes and prove that the results are effective and rational.

Keywords: censored data, temperature tests, valves, vibration tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
3361 Energy Absorption Characteristic of a Coupler Rubber Buffer Used in Rail Vehicles

Authors: Zhixiang Li, Shuguang Yao, Wen Ma

Abstract:

Coupler rubber buffer has been widely applied on the high-speed trains and the main function of the rubber buffer is dissipating the impact energy between vehicles. The rubber buffer consists of two groups of rubbers, which are both pre-compressed and then installed into the frame body. This paper focuses on the energy absorption characteristics of the rubber buffers particularly. Firstly, the quasi-static compression tests were carried out for 1 and 3 pairs of rubber sheets and some energy absorption responses relationship, i.e. Eabn = n×Eab1, Edissn = n×Ediss1, and Ean = Ea1, were obtained. Next, a series of quasi-static tests were performed for 1 pair of rubber sheet to investigate the energy absorption performance with different compression ratio of the rubber buffers. Then the impact tests with five impact velocities were conducted and the coupler knuckle was destroyed when the impact velocity was 10.807 km/h. The impact tests results showed that with the increase of impact velocity, the Eab, Ediss and Ea of rear buffer increased a lot, but the three responses of front buffer had not much increase. Finally, the results of impact tests and quasi-static tests were contrastively analysed and the results showed that with the increase of the stroke, the values of Eab, Ediss, and Ea were all increase. However, the increasing rates of impact tests were all larger than that of quasi-static tests. The maximum value of Ea was 68.76% in impact tests, it was a relatively high value for vehicle coupler buffer. The energy capacity of the rear buffer was determined for dynamic loading, it was 22.98 kJ.

Keywords: rubber buffer, coupler, energy absorption, impact tests

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3360 A Brief Study about Nonparametric Adherence Tests

Authors: Vinicius R. Domingues, Luan C. S. M. Ozelim

Abstract:

The statistical study has become indispensable for various fields of knowledge. Not any different, in Geotechnics the study of probabilistic and statistical methods has gained power considering its use in characterizing the uncertainties inherent in soil properties. One of the situations where engineers are constantly faced is the definition of a probability distribution that represents significantly the sampled data. To be able to discard bad distributions, goodness-of-fit tests are necessary. In this paper, three non-parametric goodness-of-fit tests are applied to a data set computationally generated to test the goodness-of-fit of them to a series of known distributions. It is shown that the use of normal distribution does not always provide satisfactory results regarding physical and behavioral representation of the modeled parameters.

Keywords: Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Anderson-Darling test, Cramer-Von-Mises test, nonparametric adherence tests

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3359 Experimental Study on the Effect of Water-Cement Ratio and Replacement Ratio to the Capacity of the Recycled Aggregate Concrete

Authors: Feng Fu, Maria Karli

Abstract:

In this paper, experimental studies were carried out to investigate the behaviour of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC). A number of compressive tests, tensile splitting tests, as well as impact tests were conducted. In the tests, different recycled aggregate replacement ratio, different mix design and different water to cement ratio have been chosen in the investigation. The behavior of the RAC concrete was investigated in detail. The results of the tests show that the water-cement ratio plays an important role in the strength of the concrete and RAC concrete exhibit sufficient strength in comparison to the normal aggregate concrete; the relevant design recommendations are also made.

Keywords: recycled aggregate concrete, compressive test, tensile splitting test, flexural strength test, impact test

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
3358 Web Application for Evaluating Tests in Distance Learning Systems

Authors: Bogdan Walek, Vladimir Bradac, Radim Farana

Abstract:

Distance learning systems offer useful methods of learning and usually contain final course test or another form of test. The paper proposes web application for evaluating tests using expert system in distance learning systems. Proposed web application is appropriate for didactic tests or tests with results for subsequent studying follow-up courses. Web application works with test questions and uses expert system and LFLC tool for test evaluation. After test evaluation the results are visualized and shown to student.

Keywords: distance learning, test, uncertainty, fuzzy, expert system, student

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
3357 Elastic Constants of Fir Wood Using Ultrasound and Compression Tests

Authors: Ergun Guntekin

Abstract:

Elastic constants of Fir wood (Abies cilicica) have been investigated by means of ultrasound and compression tests. Three modulus of elasticity in principal directions (EL, ER, ET), six Poisson’s ratios (ʋLR, ʋLT, ʋRT, ʋTR, ʋRL, ʋTL) and three shear modules (GLR, GRT, GLT) were determined. 20 x 20 x 60 mm samples were conditioned at 65 % relative humidity and 20ºC before testing. Three longitudinal and six shear wave velocities propagating along the principal axes of anisotropy, and additionally, three quasi-shear wave velocities at 45° angle with respect to the principal axes of anisotropy were measured. 2.27 MHz longitudinal and 1 MHz shear sensors were used for obtaining sound velocities. Stress-strain curves of the samples in compression tests were obtained using bi-axial extensometer in order to calculate elastic constants. Test results indicated that most of the elastic constants determined in the study are within the acceptable range. Although elastic constants determined from ultrasound are usually higher than those determined from compression tests, the values of EL and GLR determined from compression tests were higher in the study. The results of this study can be used in the numerical modeling of elements or systems under load using Fir wood.

Keywords: compression tests, elastic constants, fir wood, ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
3356 Development and Optimization of German Diagnostical Tests in Mathematics for Vocational Training

Authors: J. Thiele

Abstract:

Teachers working at vocational Colleges are often confronted with the problem, that many students graduated from different schools and therefore each had a different education. Especially in mathematics many students lack fundamentals or had different priorities at their previous schools. Furthermore, these vocational Colleges have to provide Graduations for many different working-fields, with different core themes. The Colleges are interested in measuring the different Education levels of their students and providing assistance for those who need to catch up. The Project mathe-meistern was initiated to remedy this problem at vocational Colleges. For this purpose, online-tests were developed. The aim of these tests is to evaluate basic mathematical abilities of the students. The tests are online Multiple-Choice-Tests with a total of 65 Items. They are accessed online with a unique Transaction-Number (TAN) for each participant. The content is divided in several Categories (Arithmetic, Algebra, Fractions, Geometry, etc.). After each test, the student gets a personalized summary depicting their strengths and weaknesses in mathematical Basics. Teachers can visit a special website to examine the results of their classes or single students. In total 5830 students did participate so far. For standardization and optimization purposes the tests are being evaluated, using the classic and probabilistic Test-Theory regarding Objectivity, Reliability and Validity, annually since 2015. This Paper is about the Optimization process considering the Rasch-scaling and Standardization of the tests. Additionally, current results using standardized tests will be discussed. To achieve this Competence levels and Types of errors of students attending vocational Colleges in Nordrheinwestfalen, Germany, were determined, using descriptive Data and Distractorevaluations.

Keywords: diagnostical tests in mathematics, distractor devaluation, test-optimization, test-theory

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3355 Finite Element Analysis of Ball-Joint Boots under Environmental and Endurance Tests

Authors: Young-Doo Kwon, Seong-Hwa Jun, Dong-Jin Lee, Hyung-Seok Lee

Abstract:

Ball joints support and guide certain automotive parts that move relative to the frame of the vehicle. Such ball joints are covered and protected from dust, mud, and other interfering materials by ball-joint boots made of rubber—a flexible and near-incompressible material. The boots may experience twisting and bending deformations because of the motion of the joint arm. Thus, environmental and endurance tests of ball-joint boots apply both bending and twisting deformations. In this study, environmental and endurance testing was simulated via the finite element method performed by using a commercial software package. The ranges of principal stress and principal strain values that are known to directly affect the fatigue lives of the parts were sought. By defining these ranges, the number of iterative tests and modifications of the materials and dimensions of the boot can be decreased. Therefore, instead of performing actual part tests, manufacturers can perform standard fatigue tests in trials of different materials by applying only the defined range of stress or strain values.

Keywords: boot, endurance tests, rubber, FEA

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
3354 Relationship between the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 and Anaerobic Performance Tests in Youth Soccer Players

Authors: Turgay Ozgur, Bahar Ozgur, Gurcan Yazici

Abstract:

The aims of the study were to investigate the relationship between the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YYIR1) and relatively easy to conduct anaerobic power tests such as Sergeant (SJ) and Standing Broad Jump (SBJ), the flexibility Sit&Reach test (S&R) and Hexagon Agility (HA) test in twenty youth soccer players, aged 14 years. Players completed YYIR1 and other performance tests [(SJ), (SBJ] in two consecutive days. The mean YYIR1 distances for the players was 1454 ± 420 m. Peak Anaerobic Power (PAPw) was calculated using SJ (cm) scores. The mean PAPw was 2966,83w. Spearman’s correlation test results revealed that there is a statistically significant negative correlation between HA and YYIR1 tests (r = -0.72, p=0.000) and no significant correlation was found between anaerobic power tests and YYIR1. In conclusion, as a test to measure player’s intermittent aerobic capacity YYIR1 test and anaerobic power test results have not shown significant correlation. Although the YYIR1 test has been used in talent identification, anaerobic qualifications of player’s should be assessed using designated performance tests.

Keywords: yo-yo test, anaerobic power, soccer, sergeant jump test

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3353 Design, Fabrication, and Experimental Validation of a Warm Bulge Test System

Authors: Emine Feyza Şükür, Mevlüt Türköz, Murat Dilmeç, Hüseyin Selçuk Halkacı

Abstract:

In this study, a warm bulge test system was designed, built and experimentally validated to perform warm bulge tests with all necessary systems. In addition, performance of each sub-system is validated through repeated production and/or test runs as well as through part quality measurements. Validation and performance tests were performed to characterize the repeatability of the system. As a result of these tests, the desired temperature distribution on the sheet metal was obtained by the heating systems and the good repeatability of the bulge tests was obtained. Consequently, this study is expected to provide other researchers and manufacturer with a set of design and process guidelines to develop similar systems.

Keywords: design, test unit, warm bulge test unit, validation test

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
3352 Parameters Identification of Granular Soils around PMT Test by Inverse Analysis

Authors: Younes Abed

Abstract:

The successful application of in-situ testing of soils heavily depends on development of interpretation methods of tests. The pressuremeter test simulates the expansion of a cylindrical cavity and because it has well defined boundary conditions, it is more unable to rigorous theoretical analysis (i. e. cavity expansion theory) then most other in-situ tests. In this article, and in order to make the identification process more convenient, we propose a relatively simple procedure which involves the numerical identification of some mechanical parameters of a granular soil, especially, the elastic modulus and the friction angle from a pressuremeter curve. The procedure, applied here to identify the parameters of generalised prager model associated to the Drucker & Prager criterion from a pressuremeter curve, is based on an inverse analysis approach, which consists of minimizing the function representing the difference between the experimental curve and the curve obtained by integrating the model along the loading path in in-situ testing. The numerical process implemented here is based on the established finite element program. We present a validation of the proposed approach by a database of tests on expansion of cylindrical cavity. This database consists of four types of tests; thick cylinder tests carried out on the Hostun RF sand, pressuremeter tests carried out on the Hostun sand, in-situ pressuremeter tests carried out at the site of Fos with marine self-boring pressuremeter and in-situ pressuremeter tests realized on the site of Labenne with Menard pressuremeter.

Keywords: granular soils, cavity expansion, pressuremeter test, finite element method, identification procedure

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
3351 Effect of Hydrostatic Stress on Yield Behavior of the High Density Polyethylene

Authors: Kamel Hachour, Lydia Sadeg, Djamel Sersab, Tassadit Bellahcen

Abstract:

The hydrostatic stress is, for polymers, a significant parameter which affects the yield behavior of these materials. In this work, we investigate the influence of this parameter on yield behavior of the high density polyethylene (hdpe). Some tests on specimens with diverse geometries are described in this paper. Uniaxial tests: tensile on notched round bar specimens with different curvature radii, compression on cylindrical specimens and simple shear on parallelepiped specimens were performed. Biaxial tests with various combinations of tensile/compressive and shear loading on butterfly specimens were also realized in order to determine the hydrostatic stress for different states of solicitation. The experimental results show that the yield stress is very affected by the hydrostatic stress developed in the material during solicitations.

Keywords: biaxial tests, hdpe, Hydrostatic stress, yield behavior

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3350 Study of the Green Composite Jute/Epoxy

Authors: A. Mir, C. Aribi, B. Bezzazi

Abstract:

Work presented is interested in the characterization of the quasistatic mechanical properties and in fatigue of a composite laminated in jute/epoxy. The natural fibers offer promising prospects thanks to their interesting specific properties, because of their low density, but also with their bio deterioration. Several scientific studies highlighted the good mechanical resistance of the vegetable fiber composites reinforced, even after several recycling. Because of the environmental standards which become increasingly severe, one attends the emergence of eco-materials at the base of natural fibers such as flax, bamboo, hemp, sisal, jute. The fatigue tests on elementary vegetable fibers show an increase of about 60% of the rigidity of elementary fibers of hemp subjected to cyclic loading. In this study, the test-tubes manufactured by the method infusion have sequences of stacking of 0/90° and ± 45° for the shearing and tensile tests. The quasistatic tests reveal a variability of the mechanical properties of about 8%. The tensile fatigue tests were carried out for levels of constraints equivalent to half of the ultimate values of the composite. Once the fatigue tests carried out for well-defined values of cycles, a series of static tests of traction type highlights the influence of the number of cycles on the quasi static mechanical behavior of the laminate jute/epoxy.

Keywords: jute, epoxy resin, mechanical, static, dynamic behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
3349 Early Identification and Early Intervention: Pre and Post Diagnostic Tests in Mathematics Courses

Authors: Kailash Ghimire, Manoj Thapa

Abstract:

This study focuses on early identification of deficiencies in pre-required areas of students who are enrolled in College Algebra and Calculus I classes. The students were given pre-diagnostic tests on the first day of the class before they are provided with the syllabus. The tests consist of prerequisite, uniform and advanced content outlined by the University System of Georgia (USG). The results show that 48% of students in College Algebra are lacking prerequisite skills while 52% of Calculus I students are lacking prerequisite skills but, interestingly these students are prior exposed to uniform content and advanced content. The study is still in progress and this paper contains the outcome from Fall 2017 and Spring 2018. In this paper, early intervention used in these classes: two days vs three days meeting a week and students’ self-assessment using exam wrappers and their effectiveness on students’ learning will also be discussed. A result of this study shows that there is an improvement on Drop, Fail and Withdraw (DFW) rates by 7%-10% compared to those in previous semesters.

Keywords: student at risk, diagnostic tests, identification, intervention, normalization gain, validity of tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
3348 Performing Diagnosis in Building with Partially Valid Heterogeneous Tests

Authors: Houda Najeh, Mahendra Pratap Singh, Stéphane Ploix, Antoine Caucheteux, Karim Chabir, Mohamed Naceur Abdelkrim

Abstract:

Building system is highly vulnerable to different kinds of faults and human misbehaviors. Energy efficiency and user comfort are directly targeted due to abnormalities in building operation. The available fault diagnosis tools and methodologies particularly rely on rules or pure model-based approaches. It is assumed that model or rule-based test could be applied to any situation without taking into account actual testing contexts. Contextual tests with validity domain could reduce a lot of the design of detection tests. The main objective of this paper is to consider fault validity when validate the test model considering the non-modeled events such as occupancy, weather conditions, door and window openings and the integration of the knowledge of the expert on the state of the system. The concept of heterogeneous tests is combined with test validity to generate fault diagnoses. A combination of rules, range and model-based tests known as heterogeneous tests are proposed to reduce the modeling complexity. Calculation of logical diagnoses coming from artificial intelligence provides a global explanation consistent with the test result. An application example shows the efficiency of the proposed technique: an office setting at Grenoble Institute of Technology.

Keywords: heterogeneous tests, validity, building system, sensor grids, sensor fault, diagnosis, fault detection and isolation

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
3347 The Analysis of Differential Item and Test Functioning between Sexes by Studying on the Scholastic Aptitude Test 2013

Authors: Panwasn Mahalawalert

Abstract:

The purposes of this research were analyzed differential item functioning and differential test functioning of SWUSAT aptitude test classification by sex variable. The data used in this research is the secondary data from Srinakharinwirot University Scholastic Aptitude Test 2013 (SWUSAT). SWUSAT test consists of four subjects. There are verbal ability test, number ability test, reasoning ability test and spatial ability test. The data analysis was analyzed in 2 steps. The first step was analyzing descriptive statistics. In the second step were analyzed differential item functioning (DIF) and differential test functioning (DTF) by using the DIFAS program. The research results were as follows: The results of DIF and DTF analysis for all 10 tests in year 2013. Gender was the characteristic that found DIF all 10 tests. The percentage of item number that found DIF is between 6.67% - 60%. There are 5 tests that most of items favors female group and 2 tests that most of items favors male group. There are 3 tests that the number of items favors female group equal favors male group. For Differential test functioning (DTF), there are 8 tests that have small level.

Keywords: aptitude test, differential item functioning, differential test functioning, educational measurement

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3346 An Investigation of Final Tests of Translation as Practiced in Iranian Undergraduate English Translation Program: The Instructors' Perspective

Authors: Hossein Heidari Tabrizi, Azizeh Chalak

Abstract:

The present study investigated in depth the way translation teachers design and develop final tests as measures for checking on the quality of students’ academic translation in Iranian context. To achieve this goal, thirty experienced male and female translation teachers from the four types of the universities offering the program were invited to an in-depth 30-minute one-session semi-structured interview. The responses provided showed how much discrepancy exists among the Iranian translation teachers (as developers of final translation tests), who are least informed with the current translation evaluation methods. It was also revealed that the criteria they use for developing such tests and scoring student translations are not theory-driven but are highly subjective, mainly based on their personal experience and intuition. Hence, the quality and accountability of such tests are under serious question. The results also confirmed that the dominant method commonly and currently practiced is the purely essay-type format. To remedy the situation, some suggestions are in order. As part of the solution, to improve the reliability and validity of such tests, the present summative, product-oriented evaluation should be accompanied with some formative, process-oriented methods of evaluation. Training the teachers and helping them get acquainted with modern principles of translation evaluation as well as the existing models, and rating scales does improve the quality of academic translation evaluation.

Keywords: Iranian universities, students’ academic translations, translation final tests, undergraduate translation programs

Procedia PDF Downloads 447
3345 An Investigation of Differential Item and Test Functioning of Scholastic Aptitude Test 2011 (SWUSAT 2011)

Authors: Ruangdech Sirikit

Abstract:

The purposes of this study were analyzed differential item functioning and differential test functioning of SWUSAT aptitude test classification by sex variable. The data used in this research is the secondary data from Srinakharinwirot University Scholastic Aptitude Test 2011 (SWUSAT 2011) SWUSAT test consists of four subjects. There are verbal ability test, number ability test, reasoning ability test and spatial ability test. The data analysis was carried out in 2 steps. The first step was analyzing descriptive statistics. In the second step were analyzed differential item functioning (DIF) and differential test functioning (DTF) by using the DIFAS program. The research results were as follows: The results of data analysis for all 10 tests in year 2011. Sex was the characteristic that found DIF all 10 tests. The percentage of item number that found DIF was between 10% - 46.67%. There are 4 tests that most of items favors female group. There are 3 tests that most of items favors male group and there are 3 tests that the number of items favors female group equal favors male group. For Differential test functioning (DTF), there are 8 tests that have small DIF effect variance.

Keywords: differential item functioning, differential test functioning, SWUSAT, aptitude test

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
3344 Viscoelastic Characterization of Bovine Trabecular Bone Samples

Authors: I. Ramirez D. Edgar, J. Angeles H. José, Ruiz C. Osvaldo, H. Jacobo A. Victor, Ortiz P. Armando

Abstract:

Knowledge of bone mechanical properties is important for bone substitutes design and fabrication, and more efficient prostheses development. The aim of this study is to characterize the viscoelastic behavior of bone specimens, through stress relaxation and fatigue tests performed to trabecular bone samples from bovine femoral heads. Relaxation tests consisted on preloading the samples at five different magnitudes and evaluate them for 1020 seconds, adjusting the results to a KWW mathematical model. Fatigue tests consisted of 700 load cycles and analyze their status at the end of the tests. As a conclusion we have that between relaxation stress and each preload there is linear relation and for samples with initial Young´s modulus greater than 1.5 GPa showed no effects due fatigue test loading cycles.

Keywords: bone viscoelasticity, fatigue test, stress relaxation test, trabecular bone properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
3343 The Mechanical Response of a Composite Propellant under Harsh Conditions

Authors: Xin Tong, Jin-sheng Xu, Xiong Chen, Ya Zheng

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to study the mechanical properties of HTPB (Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene) composite propellant under harsh conditions. It describes two tests involving uniaxial tensile tests of various strain rates (ranging from 0.0005 s-1 to 1.5 s-1), temperatures (ranging from 223 K to 343 K) and high-cycle fatigue tests under low-temperature (223 K, frequencies were set at 50, 100, 150 Hz) using DMA (Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer). To highlight the effect of small pre-strain on fatigue properties of HTPB propellant, quasi-static stretching was carried out before fatigue loading, and uniaxial tensile tests at constant strain rates were successively applied. The results reveal that flow stress of propellant increases with reduction in temperature and rise in strain rate, and the strain rate-temperature equivalence relationship could be described by TTSP (time-temperature superposition principle) incorporating a modified WLF equation. Moreover, the rate of performance degradations and damage accumulation of propellant during fatigue tests increased with increasing strain amplitude and loading frequencies, while initial quasi-static loading has a negative effect on fatigue properties by comparing stress-strain relations after fatigue tests.

Keywords: fatigue, HTPB propellant, tensile properties, time-temperature superposition principle

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3342 On the Fatigue Behavior of a Triphasic Composite

Authors: G. Minak, D. Ghelli, A. Zucchelli

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of an experimental characterization of a glass fibre-epoxy composite. The behavior of the traditional two-phase composite has been compared with the one of a new three-phase composite where the epoxy matrix was modified by addition of a 3% weight fraction of montmorillonite nano-particles. Two different types of nano-clays, Cloisite® 30B and RXG7000, produced by Southern Clay Products Inc., have been considered. Three-point bending tests, both monotonic and cyclic, were carried out. A strong reduction of the ultimate flexural strength upon nano-modification has been observed in quasi-static tests. Fatigue tests yielded a smaller strength loss. In both quasi-static and fatigue tests a more pronounced tendency to delamination has been noticed in three-phase composites, especially in the case of 30B nano-clay, with respect to the standard two-phase glass fiber composite.

Keywords: bending fatigue, epoxy resin, glass fiber, montmorillonite

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3341 Brevicoryne brassicae Compatibility with Maize in Multiple Cropping System

Authors: Zunnu Raen Akhtar

Abstract:

Brevicoryne brassicae, aphid feeds on cabbage and Brassica sp. as preferred host. Brassica plants usually ripen when maize starts growing in multiple cropping systems. Experiment was conducted to observe suitability of B. brassicae by rearing it on maize as host. In a tritrophic eco-system, predator coccinellids can be found in the fields of brassica and maize. This experiment emphasized on issue of aphids growing incidence in a cropping system. Brassica is sown and harvested earlier than maize and is attacked by aphids, while maize is also attacked by aphids. Five mortality tests were conducted of B. brassicae fed on maize. Out of five mortality tests, 3 tests were conducted using 1st instar, while in two mortality tests, 2nd instars of aphids were used. Mortality tests revealed that first instar mortality was quite high on the second day, while in second instar larvae mortality was delayed up to third to the fourth day. These experiments reveal that aphids can use maize as substitute host at later instars as compared to young ones. These experiments can be foundation for studying further crop-insect interaction and sampling techniques used for this purpose.

Keywords: host suitability, B. brassicae, maize, tritrophic interaction

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3340 Reusing Assessments Tests by Generating Arborescent Test Groups Using a Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Ovidiu Domşa, Nicolae Bold

Abstract:

Using Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) notions in education and three basic processes of education (teaching, learning and assessment) can bring benefits to the pupils and the professional development of teachers. In this matter, we refer to these notions as concepts taken from the informatics area and apply them to the domain of education. These notions refer to genetic algorithms and arborescent structures, used in the specific process of assessment or evaluation. This paper uses these kinds of notions to generate subtrees from a main tree of tests related between them by their degree of difficulty. These subtrees must contain the highest number of connections between the nodes and the lowest number of missing edges (which are subtrees of the main tree) and, in the particular case of the non-existence of a subtree with no missing edges, the subtrees which have the lowest (minimal) number of missing edges between the nodes, where a node is a test and an edge is a direct connection between two tests which differs by one degree of difficulty. The subtrees are represented as sequences. The tests are the same (a number coding a test represents that test in every sequence) and they are reused for each sequence of tests.

Keywords: chromosome, genetic algorithm, subtree, test

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3339 Haemocompatibility of Surface Modified AISI 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel Tested in Artificial Plasma

Authors: W. Walke, J. Przondziono, K. Nowińska

Abstract:

The study comprises evaluation of suitability of passive layer created on the surface of AISI 316L stainless steel for products that are intended to have contact with blood. For that purpose, prior to and after chemical passivation, samples were subject to 7 day exposure in artificial plasma at the temperature of T=37°C. Next, tests of metallic ions infiltration from the surface to the solution were performed. The tests were performed with application of spectrometer JY 2000, by Yobin – Yvon, employing Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). In order to characterize physical and chemical features of electrochemical processes taking place during exposure of samples to artificial plasma, tests with application of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were suggested. The tests were performed with application of measuring unit equipped with potentiostat PGSTAT 302n with an attachment for impedance tests FRA2. Measurements were made in the environment simulating human blood at the temperature of T=37°C. Performed tests proved that application of chemical passivation process for AISI 316L stainless steel used for production of goods intended to have contact with blood is well-grounded and useful in order to improve safety of their usage.

Keywords: AISI 316L stainless steel, chemical passivation, artificial plasma, ions infiltration, EIS

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
3338 Identifying Applicant Potential Through Admissions Testing

Authors: Belinda Brunner

Abstract:

Objectives: Communicate common test constructs of well-known higher education admissions tests. Discuss influences on admissions test construct definition and design and discuss research on related to factors influencing success in academic study. Discuss how admissions tests can be used to identify relevant talent. Examine how admissions test can be used to facilitate educational mobility and inform selection decisions when the prerequisite curricula is not standardized Observations: Generally speaking, constructs of admissions tests can be placed along a continuum from curriculum-related knowledge to more general reasoning abilities. For example, subject-specific achievement tests are more closely aligned to a prescribed curriculum, while reasoning tests are typically not associated with a specific curriculum. This session will draw reference from the test-constructs of well-known international higher education admissions tests, such as the UK clinical aptitude test (UKCAT) which is used for medicine and dentistry admissions. Conclusions: The purpose of academic admissions testing is to identify potential students with the prerequisite skills set needed to succeed in the academic environment, but how can the test construct help achieve this goal? Determination of the appropriate test construct for tests used in the admissions selection decisions should be influenced by a number of factors, including the preceding academic curricula, other criteria influencing the admissions decision, and the principal purpose for testing. Attendees of this session will learn the types of aptitudes and knowledge that are assessed higher education admissions tests and will have the opportunity to gain insight into how careful and deliberate consideration of the desired test constructs can aid in identifying potential students with the greatest likelihood of success in medical school.

Keywords: admissions, measuring success, selection, identify skills

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3337 Controlled Shock Response Spectrum Test on Spacecraft Subsystem Using Electrodynamic Shaker

Authors: M. Madheswaran, A. R. Prashant, S. Ramakrishna, V. Ramesh Naidu, P. Govindan, P. Aravindakshan

Abstract:

Shock Response spectrum (SRS) tests are one of the tests that are conducted on some critical systems of spacecraft as part of environmental testing. The SRS tests are conducted to simulate the pyro shocks that occur during launch phases as well as during deployment of spacecraft appendages. Some of the methods to carryout SRS tests are pyro technique method, impact hammer method, drop shock method and using electro dynamic shakers. The pyro technique, impact hammer and drop shock methods are open loop tests, whereas SRS testing using electrodynamic shaker is a controlled closed loop test. SRS testing using electrodynamic shaker offers various advantages such as simple test set up, better controllability and repeatability. However, it is important to devise a a proper test methodology so that safety of the electro dynamic shaker and that of test specimen are not compromised. This paper discusses the challenges that are involved in conducting SRS tests, shaker validation and the necessary precautions to be considered. Approach involved in choosing various test parameters like synthesis waveform, spectrum convergence level, etc., are discussed. A case study of SRS test conducted on an optical payload of Indian Geo stationary spacecraft is presented.

Keywords: maxi-max spectrum, SRS (shock response spectrum), SDOf (single degree of freedom), wavelet synthesis

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