Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 166

Search results for: Hopkinson bars

166 Flexural Behavior of Heat-Damaged Concrete Beams Reinforced with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Bars

Authors: Mohammad R. Irshidat, Rami H. Haddad, Hanadi Al-Mahmoud


Reinforced concrete (RC) is the most common used material for construction in the world. In the past decades, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) bars had been widely used to substitute the steel bars due to their high resistance to corrosion, high tensile capacity, and low weight in comparison with steel. Experimental studies on the behavior of FRP bar reinforced concrete beams had been carried out worldwide for a few decades. While the research on such structural members under elevated temperatures is still very limited. In this research, the flexural behavior of heat-damaged concrete beams reinforced with FRP bars is studied. Two types of FRP rebar namely, carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP), are used. The beams are subjected to four levels of temperature before tested to monitor their flexural behavior. The results are compared with other concrete beams reinforced with regular steel bars. The results show that the beams reinforced with CFRP bars and GFRP bars had higher flexural capacity than the beams reinforced with steel bars even if heated up to 400°C and 300°C, respectively. After that the beams reinforced with steel bars had the superiority.

Keywords: concrete beams, FRP rebar, flexural behavior, heat-damaged

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
165 Performance of Modified Wedge Anchorage System for Pre-Stressed FRP Bars

Authors: Othman S. Alsheraida, Sherif El-Gamal


Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) is a composite material with exceptional properties that are capable of replacing conventional steel reinforcement in reinforced and pre-stressed concrete structures. However, the main obstacle for their wide use in the pre-stressed concrete application is the anchorage system. Due to the weakness of FRP in the transverse direction, the pre-stressing capacity of FRP bars is limited. This paper investigates the modification of the conventional wedge anchorage system to be used for stressing of FRP bars in pre-stressed applications. Epoxy adhesive material with glass FRP (GFRP) bars and conventional steel wedge were used in this paper. The GFRP bars are encased with epoxy at the anchor zone and the wedge system was used in the pull-out test. The results showed a loading capacity of 47.6 kN which is 69% of the bar ultimate capacity. Additionally, nylon wedge was made with the same dimensions of the steel wedge and tested for GFRP bars without epoxy layer. The nylon wedge showed a loading capacity of 19.7 kN which is only 28.5% of the ultimate bar capacity.

Keywords: anchorage, concrete, epoxy, frp, pre-stressed

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
164 Experimental Investigation of the Out-of-Plane Dynamic Behavior of Adhesively Bonded Composite Joints at High Strain Rates

Authors: Sonia Sassi, Mostapha Tarfaoui, Hamza Ben Yahia


In this investigation, an experimental technique in which the dynamic response, damage kinetic and heat dissipation are measured simultaneously during high strain rates on adhesively bonded joints materials. The material used in this study is widely used in the design of structures for military applications. It was composed of a 45° Bi-axial fiber-glass mat of 0.286 mm thickness in a Polyester resin matrix. In adhesive bonding, a NORPOL Polyvinylester of 1 mm thickness was used to assemble the composite substrate. The experimental setup consists of a compression Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), a high-speed infrared camera and a high-speed Fastcam rapid camera. For the dynamic compression tests, 13 mm x 13 mm x 9 mm samples for out-of-plane tests were considered from 372 to 1030 s-1. Specimen surface is controlled and monitored in situ and in real time using the high-speed camera which acquires the damage progressive in specimens and with the infrared camera which provides thermal images in time sequence. Preliminary compressive stress-strain vs. strain rates data obtained show that the dynamic material strength increases with increasing strain rates. Damage investigations have revealed that the failure mainly occurred in the adhesive/adherent interface because of the brittle nature of the polymeric adhesive. Results have shown the dependency of the dynamic parameters on strain rates. Significant temperature rise was observed in dynamic compression tests. Experimental results show that the temperature change depending on the strain rate and the damage mode and their maximum exceed 100 °C. The dependence of these results on strain rate indicates that there exists a strong correlation between damage rate sensitivity and heat dissipation, which might be useful when developing damage models under dynamic loading tacking into account the effect of the energy balance of adhesively bonded joints.

Keywords: adhesive bonded joints, Hopkinson bars, out-of-plane tests, dynamic compression properties, damage mechanisms, heat dissipation

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
163 Protection of Steel Bars in Reinforce Concrete with Zinc Based Coverings

Authors: Hamed Rajabzadeh Gatabi, Soroush Dastgheibifard, Mahsa Asnafi


There is no doubt that reinforced concrete is known as one of the most significant materials which is used in construction industry for many years. Although, some natural elements in dealing with environment can contribute to its corrosion or failure. One of which is bar or so-called reinforcement failure. So as to combat this problem, one of the oxidization prevention methods investigated was the barrier protection method implemented over the application of an organic coating, specifically fusion-bonded epoxy. In this study comparative method is prepared on two different kinds of covered bars (zinc-riches epoxy and polyamide epoxy coated bars) and also uncoated bar. With the aim of evaluate these reinforced concretes, the stickiness, toughness, thickness and corrosion performance of coatings were compared by some tools like Cu/CuSo4 electrodes, EIS and etc. Different types of concretes were exposed to the salty environment (NaCl 3.5%) and their durability was measured. As stated by the experiments in research and investigations, thick coatings (named epoxies) have acceptable stickiness and strength. Polyamide epoxy coatings stickiness to the bars was a bit better than that of zinc-rich epoxy coatings; nonetheless it was stiffer than the zinc rich epoxy coatings. Conversely, coated bars with zinc-rich epoxy showed more negative oxidization potentials, which take revenge protection of bars by zinc particles. On the whole, zinc-rich epoxy coverings is more corrosion-proof than polyamide epoxy coatings due to consuming zinc elements and some other parameters, additionally if the epoxy coatings without surface defects are applied on the rebar surface carefully, it can be said that the life of steel structures is subjected to increase dramatically.

Keywords: surface coating, epoxy polyamide, reinforce concrete bars, salty environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
162 Mechanical Behavior of CFTR Column Joint under Pull out Testing

Authors: Nasruddin Junus


CFTR column is one of the improvements CFT columns by inserting reinforcing steel bars into infill concrete. The presence of inserting reinforcing steel bars is increasing the excellent structural performance of the CFT column, especially on the fire-resisting performance. Investigation on the mechanical behavior of CFTR column connection is summarized in the three parts; column to column joint, column to beam connection, and column base. Experiment that reported in this paper is concerned on the mechanical behavior of CFTR column joint under pull out testing, especially on its stress transfer mechanism. A number series of the pull out test on the CFT with inserting reinforcing steel bar are conducted. Ten test specimens are designed, constructed, and tested to examine experimentally the effect of the size of square steel tube, size of the bearing plate, length of embedment steel bars, kind of steel bars, and the numbers of rib plate.

Keywords: CFTR column, pull out, stress, transfer mechanism

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
161 Dynamic Change of Floods Disaster Monitoring for River Central Bar by Remote Sensing Time-Series Images

Authors: Zuoji Huang, Jinyan Sun, Chunlin Wang, Haiming Qian, Nan Xu


The spatial extent and area of central river bars can always vary due to the impact of water level, sediment supply and human activities. In 2016, a catastrophic flood disaster caused by sustained and heavy rainfall happened in the middle and lower Yangtze River. The flood led to the most serious economic and social loss since 1954, and strongly affected the central river bar. It is essential to continuously monitor the dynamics change of central bars because it can avoid frequent field measurements in central bars before and after the flood disaster and is helpful for flood warning. This paper focused on the dynamic change of central bars of Phoenix bar and Changsha bar in the Yangtze River in 2016. In this study, GF-1 (GaoFen-1) WFV(wide field view) data was employed owing to its high temporal frequency and high spatial resolution. A simple NDWI (Normalized Difference Water Index) method was utilized for river central bar mapping. Human-checking was then performed to ensure the mapping quality. The relationship between the area of central bars and the measured water level was estimated using four mathematical models. Furthermore, a risk assessment index was proposed to map the spatial pattern of inundation risk of central bars. The results indicate a good ability of the GF-1 WFV imagery with a 16-m spatial resolution to characterize the seasonal variation of central river bars and to capture the impact of a flood disaster on the area of central bars. This paper observed a significant negative but nonlinear relationship between the water level and the area of central bars, and found that the cubic function fits best among four models (R² = 0.9839, P < 0.000001, RMSE = 0.4395). The maximum of the inundated area of central bars appeared during the rainy season on July 8, 2016, and the minimum occurred during the dry season on December 28, 2016, which are consistent with the water level measured by the hydrological station. The results derived from GF-1 data could provide a useful reference for decision-making of real-time disaster early warning and post-disaster reconstruction.

Keywords: central bars, dynamic change, water level, the Yangtze river

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
160 Investigate the Performance of SMA-FRP Composite Bars in Seismic Regions under Corrosion Conditions

Authors: Amirmozafar Benshams, Saman Shafeinejad, Mohammad Zaman Kabir, Farzad Hatami, Mohammadreza Khedmati, Mesbah Saybani


Steel bars has been used in concrete structures for more than one hundred years but lack of corrosion resistance of steel reinforcement has resulted in many structural failures. Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) bar is an acceptable solution to replace steel to mitigate corrosion problem. Since FRP is a brittle material its use in seismic region has been a concern. FRP RC structures can be made ductile by employing a ductile material such as Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) at the plastic hinge region and FRP at the other regions on the other hand SMA is highly resistant to corrosion. Shape Memory Alloy has the unique ability to undergo large inelastic deformation and regain its initial shape through stress removal therefore utilizing composite SMA-FRP bars not only have good corrosion resistance but also have good performance in seismic region. The result show indicate that such composite SMA-FRP bars can substantially reduce the residual drift with adequate energy dissipation capacity during earthquake.

Keywords: steel bar, shape memory alloy, FRP, corrosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
159 The Comparison of Dismount Skill between National and International Men’s Artistic Gymnastics in Parallel Bars Apparatus

Authors: Chen ChihYu, Tang Wen Tzu, Chen Kuang Hui


Aim —To compare the dismount skill between Taiwanese and elite international gymnastics in parallel bars following the 2017-2020 code of points. Methods—The gymnasts who advanced to the parallel bars event finals of these four competitions including World Championships, Universiade, the National Games of Taiwan, and the National Intercollegiate Athletic Games of Taiwan both 2017 and 2019 were selected in this study. The dismount skill of parallel bars was analyzed, and the average difficulty score was compared by one-way ANOVA. Descriptive statistics were applied to present the type of dismount skill and the difficulty of each gymnast in these four competitions. The data from World Championships and Universiade were combined as the international group (INT), and data of Taiwanese National Games and National Intercollegiate Athletic Games were also combined as the national group (NAT). The differences between INT and NAT were analyzed by the Chi-square test. The statistical significance of this study was set at α= 0.05. Results— i) There was a significant difference in the mean parallel bars dismount skill in these four competitions analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Both dismount scores of World Championships and Universiade were significantly higher than in Taiwanese National Games and National Intercollegiate Athletic Games (0.58±0.08 & 0.56±0.08 > 0.42±0.06 & 40±0.06, p < 0.05). ii) Most of the gymnasts in World Championships and Universiade selected the 0.6-point skill as the parallel bars dismount element, and for the Taiwanese National Games and the National Intercollegiate Athletic Games, most of the gymnasts performed the 0.4-point dismount skill. iii) The result of the Chi-square test has shown that there was a significant difference in the selection of parallel bars dismount skill. The INT group used the E or E+ difficulty element as the dismount skill, and the NAT group selected the D or D- difficulty element. Conclusion— The level of parallel bars dismount in Taiwanese gymnastics is inferior to elite international gymnastics. It is suggested that Taiwanese gymnastics must try to practice the F difficulty dismount (double salto forward tucked with half twist) in the future.

Keywords: Artistic Gymnastics World Championships, dismount, difficulty score, element

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158 Analysis of Cracked Beams with Spalling Having Different Arrangements of the Reinforcement Bars Using Finite Element Analysis (FEA)

Authors: Rishabh Shukla, Achin Agrawal, Anupam Saxena, S. Mandal


The existence of a crack, affects the mechanical behaviour and various properties of a structure to a great degree. This paper focuses on recognizing the parameters that gets changed due to the formation of cracks and have a great impact on the performance of the structure. Spalling is a major concern as it leaves the reinforcement bars more susceptible to environmental attacks. Beams of cross section 300 mm × 500 mm are designed and for a calculated area of steel, two different arrangements of reinforced bars are analysed. Results are prepared for different stages of cracking for each arrangement of rebars. The parameters for both arrangements are then compared. The Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is carried out and changes in the properties like flexural strength, Elasticity and modal frequency are reported. The conclusions have been drawn by comparing the results.

Keywords: cracks, elasticity, spalling, FEA

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
157 Corrosion of Concrete Reinforcing Steel Bars Tested and Compared Between Various Protection Methods

Authors: P van Tonder, U Bagdadi, BMD Lario, Z Masina, TR Motshwari


This paper analyses how concrete reinforcing steel bars corrode and how it can be minimised through the use of various protection methods against corrosion, such as metal-based paint, alloying, cathodic protection and electroplating. Samples of carbon steel bars were protected, using these four methods. Tests performed on the samples included durability, electrical resistivity and bond strength. Durability results indicated relatively low corrosion rates for alloying, cathodic protection, electroplating and metal-based paint. The resistivity results indicate all samples experienced a downward trend, despite erratic fluctuations in the data, indicating an inverse relationship between electrical resistivity and corrosion rate. The results indicated lowered bond strengths when the reinforced concrete was cured in seawater compared to being cured in normal water. It also showed that higher design compressive strengths lead to higher bond strengths which can be used to compensate for the loss of bond strength due to corrosion in a real-world application. In terms of implications, all protection methods have the potential to be effective at resisting corrosion in real-world applications, especially the alloying, cathodic protection and electroplating methods. The metal-based paint underperformed by comparison, most likely due to the nature of paint in general which can fade and chip away, revealing the steel samples and exposing them to corrosion. For alloying, stainless steel is the suggested material of choice, where Y-bars are highly recommended as smooth bars have a much-lowered bond strength. Cathodic protection performed the best of all in protecting the sample from corrosion, however, its real-world application would require significant evaluation into the feasibility of such a method.

Keywords: protection methods, corrosion, concrete, reinforcing steel bars

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156 Bond-Slip Response of Reinforcing Bars Embedded in High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites

Authors: Lee Siong Wee, Tan Kang Hai, Yang En-Hua


This paper presents the results of an experimental study undertaken to evaluate the local bond stress-slip response of short embedment of reinforcing bars in normal concrete (NC) and high performance fiber reinforced cement composites (HPFRCC) blocks. Long embedment was investigated as well to gain insights on the distribution of strain, slip, bar stress and bond stress along the bar especially in post-yield range. A total of 12 specimens were tested, by means of pull-out of the reinforcing bars from concrete blocks. It was found that the enhancement of local bond strength can be reached up to 50% and ductility of the bond behavior was improved significantly if HPFRCC is used. Also, under a constant strain at loaded end, HPFRCC has delayed yielding of bars at other location from the loaded end. Hence, the reduction of bond stress was slower for HPFRCC in comparison with NC. Due to the same reason, the total slips at loaded end for HPFRCC was smaller than NC as expected. Test results indicated that HPFRCC has better bond slip behavior which makes it a suitable material to be employed in anchorage zone such as beam-column joints.

Keywords: bond stress, high performance fiber reinforced cement composites, slip, strain

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
155 Behaviour of Beam Reinforced with Longitudinal Steel-CFRP Composite Reinforcement under Static Load

Authors: Faris A. Uriayer, Mehtab Alam


The concept of using a hybrid composite by combining two or more different materials to produce bilinear stress–strain behaviour has become a subject of interest. Having studied the mechanical properties of steel-CFRP specimens (CFRP Laminate Sandwiched between Mild Steel Strips), full size steel-CFRP composite reinforcement were fabricated and used as a new reinforcing material inside beams in lieu of traditional steel bars. Four beams, three beams reinforced with steel-CFRP composite reinforcement and one beam reinforced with traditional steel bars were cast, cured and tested under quasi-static loading. The flexural test results of the beams reinforced with this composite reinforcement showed that the beams with steel-CFRP composite reinforcement had comparable flexural strength and flexural ductility with beams reinforced with traditional steel bars.

Keywords: CFRP laminate, steel strip, flexural behaviour, modified model, concrete beam

Procedia PDF Downloads 522
154 Alkali Silica Reaction Mitigation and Prevention Measures for Arkansas Local Aggregates

Authors: Amin Kamal Akhnoukh, Lois Zaki Kamel, Magued Mourad Barsoum


The objective of this research is to mitigate and prevent the alkali silica reactivity (ASR) in highway construction projects. ASR is a deleterious reaction initiated when the silica content of the aggregate reacts with alkali hydroxides in cement in the presence of relatively high moisture content. The ASR results in the formation of an expansive white colored gel-like material which forms the destructive tensile stresses inside hardened concrete. In this research, different types of local aggregates available in the State of Arkansas were mixed and mortar bars were poured according to the ASTM specifications. Mortar bars expansion was measured versus time and aggregates with potential ASR problems were detected. Different types of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) were used in remixing mortar bars with highly reactive aggregates. Length changes for remixed bars proved that different types of SCMs can be successfully used in reducing the expansive effect of ASR. SCMs percentage by weight is highly dependent on the SCM type. The result of this study will help avoiding future losses due to ASR cracking in construction project and reduce the maintenance, repair, and replacement budgets required for highways network.

Keywords: alkali silica reaction, aggregates, misture, cracks, Mortar Bar Test, supplementary cementitious materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
153 FRP Bars Spacing Effect on Numerical Thermal Deformations in Concrete Beams under High Temperatures

Authors: A. Zaidi, F. Khelifi, R. Masmoudi, M. Bouhicha


5 In order to eradicate the degradation of reinforced concrete structures due to the steel corrosion, professionals in constructions suggest using fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) for their excellent properties. Nevertheless, high temperatures may affect the bond between FRP bar and concrete, and consequently the serviceability of FRP-reinforced concrete structures. This paper presents a nonlinear numerical investigation using ADINA software to investigate the effect of the spacing between glass FRP (GFRP) bars embedded in concrete on circumferential thermal deformations and the distribution of radial thermal cracks in reinforced concrete beams submitted to high temperature variations up to 60 °C for asymmetrical problems. The thermal deformations predicted from nonlinear finite elements model, at the FRP bar/concrete interface and at the external surface of concrete cover, were established as a function of the ratio of concrete cover thickness to FRP bar diameter (c/db) and the ratio of spacing between FRP bars in concrete to FRP bar diameter (e/db). Numerical results show that the circumferential thermal deformations at the external surface of concrete cover are linear until cracking thermal load varied from 32 to 55 °C corresponding to the ratio of e/db varied from 1.3 to 2.3, respectively. However, for ratios e/db >2.3 and c/db >1.6, the thermal deformations at the external surface of concrete cover exhibit linear behavior without any cracks observed on the specified surface. The numerical results are compared to those obtained from analytical models validated by experimental tests.

Keywords: concrete beam, FRP bars, spacing effect, thermal deformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
152 Behaviour of Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Concrete under Dynamic Impact Loads

Authors: Masoud Abedini, Azrul A. Mutalib


A study of the used of additives which mixed with concrete in order to increase the strength and durability of concrete was examined to improve the quality of many aspects in the concrete. This paper presents a polypropylene (PP) fibre was added into concrete to study the dynamic response under impact load. References related to dynamic impact test for sample polypropylene fibre reinforced concrete (PPFRC) is very limited and there is no specific research and information related to this research. Therefore, the study on the dynamic impact of PPFRC using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) was done in this study. Provided samples for this study was composed of 1.0 kg/m³ PP fibres, 2.0 kg/m³ PP fibres and plain concrete as a control samples. This PP fibre contains twisted bundle non-fibrillating monofilament and fibrillating network fibres. Samples were prepared by cylindrical mould with three samples of each mix proportion, 28 days curing period and concrete grade 35 Mpa. These samples are then tested for dynamic impact by SHPB at 2 Mpa pressure under the strain rate of 10 s-1. Dynamic compressive strength results showed an increase of SC1 and SC2 samples than the control sample which is 13.22 % and 76.9 % respectively with the dynamic compressive strength of 74.5 MPa and 116.4 MPa compared to 65.8 MPa. Dynamic increased factor (DIF) shows that, sample SC2 gives higher value with 4.15 than others samples SC1 and SC3 that gives the value of 2.14 and 1.97 respectively.

Keywords: polypropylene fiber, Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar, impact load, dynamic compressive strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 428
151 The Continuously Supported Infinity Rail Subjected to a Moving Complex Bogie System

Authors: Vladimir Stojanović, Marko D. Petković


The vibration of a complex bogie system that moves on along the high order shear deformable beam on a viscoelastic foundation is studied. The complex bogie system has been modeled by elastically connected rigid bars on an identical supports. Elastic coupling between bars is introduced to simulate rigidly or flexibly (transversal or/and rotational) connection. Identical supports are modeled as a system of attached spring and dashpot to the bar on one side and interact with the beam through the concentrated mass on the other side. It is assumed that the masses and the beam are always in contact. New analytically determined critical velocity of the system is presented. It is analyzed the case when the complex bogie system exceeds the minimum phase velocity of waves in the beam when the vibration of the system may become unstable. Effect of an elastic coupling between bars on the stability of the system has been analyzed. The instability regions are found for the complex bogie system by applying the principle of the argument and D-decomposition method.

Keywords: Reddy-Bickford beam, D-decomposition method, principle of argument, critical velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
150 Functional Snacks Bars: A Healthy Alternative to a Poor Diet Quality

Authors: Daniela Istrati, Camelia Vizireanu, Camelia Grozavu, Rodica Mihaela Dinica


In last years, eating habits have changed, and snacking has become more common. Snacking habits, including eating whole fruit, vegetables and crackers, were found to contribute to better overall diet quality, while consuming snacks such as cookies, pastries, sweets, milk desserts and soft drinks was associated with poorer diet quality. The nutritional quality of the snack is very important and choosing nutritious foods as snacks can be beneficial for our health. For this reason, the development of functional snacks bars represents a necessity for this niche market. The aim of this work was to develop some formulations of energizing snack bars with high dietary fibers and antioxidant activity. Snack bars contain both fruits with antioxidant activity and components (cereals and seeds) rich in carbohydrates and polyunsaturated fats that provide energy during sports activities, physical and mental stress. Three types of samples were prepared and stored in refrigerated conditions at 40°C for 30 days. The first sample (S1) contains wheat germs, raw pumpkin seeds, toasted oat flakes, flaxseeds flour, cinnamon honey, raw sunflower seeds, sea buckthorn, amaranth flour, cinnamon and olive oil. The second sample (S2) has the same composition as the first, less flour and cinnamon flour and the honey used was ginger, honey. The third sample (S3) is like the first less amaranth flour and the honey used was buckthorn sea honey. The physicochemical, antioxidant activity, polyphenolic and flavonoid content and sensorial characteristics of the samples were investigated. Results showed that snacks bars had important level of extracted phenolics, flavonoids, fibers, proteins, carbohydrates and fats. Therefore, snack bars may be a convenient functional food, offering an important source of flavonoids and polyphenols, a healthy alternative to a poor diet quality, with balanced nutritional and sensory characteristics that recommend it in the diet of all consumers concerned with maintaining health. Acknowledgment: This study has been founded by the Francophone University Agency, Project Réseau régional dans le domaine de la santé, la nutrition et la sécurité alimentaire (SaIN), No. at Dunarea de Jos University of Galati 21899/ 06.09.2017

Keywords: antioxidant activity, functional food, sea buckthorn, snack bars

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
149 Nonlinear Analysis of Torsionally Loaded Steel Fibred Self-Compacted Concrete Beams Reinforced by GFRP Bars

Authors: Khaled Saad Eldin Mohamed Ragab


This paper investigates analytically the torsion behavior of steel fibered high strength self compacting concrete beams reinforced by GFRP bars. Nonlinear finite element analysis on 12­ beams specimens was achieved by using ANSYS software. The nonlinear finite element analysis program ANSYS is utilized owing to its capabilities to predict either the response of reinforced concrete beams in the post elastic range or the ultimate strength of a reinforced concrete beams produced from steel fiber reinforced self compacting concrete (SFRSCC) and reinforced by GFRP bars. A general description of the finite element method, theoretical modeling of concrete and reinforcement are presented. In order to verify the analytical model used in this research using test results of the experimental data, the finite element analysis were performed. Then, a parametric study of the effect ratio of volume fraction of steel fibers in ordinary strength concrete, the effect ratio of volume fraction of steel fibers in high strength concrete, and the type of reinforcement of stirrups were investigated. A comparison between the experimental results and those predicted by the existing models are presented. Results and conclusions thyat may be useful for designers have been raised and represented.

Keywords: nonlinear analysis, torsionally loaded, self compacting concrete, steel fiber reinforced self compacting concrete (SFRSCC), GFRP bars and sheets

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
148 Comparative Sulphate Resistance of Pozzolanic Cement Mortars

Authors: Mahmud Abba Tahir


This is report on experiment out to compare the sulphate resistance of sand mortar made with five different pozzolanic cement. The pozzolanic cement were prepared by blending powered burnt bricks from the Adamawa, Makurdi, Kano, Kaduna and Niger bricks factories with ordinary Portland cement in the ratio 1:4. Sand –pozzolanic cement mortars of mix ratio 1:6 and 1:3 with water-cement ratio of 0.65 and 0.40 respectively were used to prepare cubes and bars specimens. 150 mortar cubes of size 70mm x 70mm x 70mm and 35 mortar bars of 15mm x 15mm x 100mm dimensions were cast and cured for 28 days. The cured specimens then immersed in the solutions of K2SO4, (NH4)2SO4 and water for 28 days and then tested. The compressive strengths of cubes in water increased by 34% while those in the sulphate solutions decreased. Strength decreases of the cubes, cracking and warping of bars immersed in K2SO4 were less than those in (NH4)2SO4. Specimens made with Niger and Makurdi pulverized burnt bricks experienced less effect of the sulphates and can therefore be used as pozzolan in mortar and concrete to resist sulphate.

Keywords: burnt bricks powder, comparative, pozzolanic cement, sulphates

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
147 Relocation of Plastic Hinge of Interior Beam Column Connections with Intermediate Bars in Reinforced Concrete and T-Section Steel Inserts in Precast Concrete Frames

Authors: P. Wongmatar, C. Hansapinyo, C. Buachart


Failure of typical seismic frames has been found by plastic hinge occurring on beams section near column faces. Past researches shown that the seismic capacity of the frames can be enhanced if the plastic hinges of the beams are shifted away from the column faces. This paper presents detailing of reinforcements in the interior beam–column connections aiming to relocate the plastic hinge of reinforced concrete and precast concrete frames. Four specimens were tested under quasi-static cyclic load including two monolithic specimens and two precast specimens. For one monolithic specimen, typical seismic reinforcement was provided and considered as a reference specimen named M1. The other reinforced concrete frame M2 contained additional intermediate steel in the connection area compared with the specimen M1. For the precast specimens, embedded T-section steels in joint were provided, with and without diagonal bars in the connection area for specimen P1 and P2, respectively. The test results indicated the ductile failure with beam flexural failure in monolithic specimen M1 and the intermediate steel increased strength and improved joint performance of specimen M2. For the precast specimens, cracks generated at the end of the steel inserts. However, slipping of reinforcing steel lapped in top of the beams was seen before yielding of the main bars leading to the brittle failure. The diagonal bars in precast specimens P2 improved the connection stiffness and the energy dissipation capacity.

Keywords: relocation, plastic hinge, intermediate bar, T-section steel, precast concrete frame

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
146 Modelling of Induction Motor Including Skew Effect Using MWFA for Performance Improvement

Authors: M. Harir, A. Bendiabdellah, A. Chaouch, N. Benouzza


This paper deals with the modelling and simulation of the squirrel cage induction motor by taking into account all space harmonic components, as well as the introduction of the bars skew, in the calculation of the linear evolution of the magnetomotive force (MMF) between the slots extremities. The model used is based on multiple coupled circuits and the modified winding function approach (MWFA). The effect of skewing is included in the calculation of motors inductances with an axial asymmetry in the rotor. The simulation results in both time and spectral domains show the effectiveness and merits of the model and the error that may be caused if the skew of the bars is neglected.

Keywords: modeling, MWFA, skew effect, squirrel cage induction motor, spectral domain

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
145 Effect of Strains and Temperature on the Twinning Behavior of High Purity Titanium Compressed by Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar

Authors: Ping Zhou, Dawu Xiao, Chunli Jiang, Ge Sang


Deformation twinning plays an important role in the mechanical properties of Ti which has high specific strength and excellent corrosion resistance ability. To investigate the twinning behavior of Ti under high strain rate compression, the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) was adopted to deform samples to different strains at room temperature. In addition, twinning behaviors under varied temperatures of 373K, 573K and 873K were also investigated. The cylindrical-shaped samples with purity 99.995% were annealed at 1073K for 1 hour in vacuum before compression. All the deformation twins were identified by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques. The mechanical behavior showed three-stage work hardening in stress-strain curves for samples deformed at temperature 573K and 873K, while only two stages were observed for those deformed at room temperature. For samples compressed at room temperature, the predominant twin types are {10-12}<10-11> (E1), {11-21}<11-26> (E2) and {11-21}<11-23> (C1). The secondary and tertiary twinning was observed inside some E1, E2 and C1 twins. Most of the twin boundaries of E2 acted as the nucleate sites of E1. The densities of twins increase remarkably with increment of strains. For samples compressed at relatively higher temperatures, the migration of twin boundaries of E1, E2 and C1 was observed. All the twin lamellas shorten with temperature, and nearly disappeared at 873K except some remaining E1 twins. Polygonizations of grain boundaries were observed above 573K. The microstructure intended to have a texture with c-axes parallel to compression direction with temperature increment. Factors affecting the dynamic recovery and re-crystallization were discussed.

Keywords: deformation twins, EBSD, mechanical behavior, high strain rate, titanium

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
144 Solutions of Thickening the Sludge from the Wastewater Treatment by a Rotor with Bars

Authors: Victorita Radulescu


Introduction: The sewage treatment plants, in the second stage, are formed by tanks having as main purpose the formation of the suspensions with high possible solid concentration values. The paper presents a solution to produce a rapid concentration of the slurry and sludge, having as main purpose the minimization as much as possible the size of the tanks. The solution is based on a rotor with bars, tested into two different areas of industrial activity: the remediation of the wastewater from the oil industry and, in the last year, into the mining industry. Basic Methods: It was designed, realized and tested a thickening system with vertical bars that manages to reduce sludge moisture content from 94% to 87%. The design was based on the hypothesis that the streamlines of the vortices detached from the rotor with vertical bars accelerate, under certain conditions, the sludge thickening. It is moved at the lateral sides, and in time, it became sediment. The formed vortices with the vertical axis in the viscous fluid, under the action of the lift, drag, weight, and inertia forces participate at a rapid aggregation of the particles thus accelerating the sludge concentration. Appears an interdependence between the Re number attached to the flow with vortex induced by the vertical bars and the size of the hydraulic compaction phenomenon, resulting from an accelerated process of sedimentation, therefore, a sludge thickening depending on the physic-chemical characteristics of the resulting sludge is projected the rotor's dimensions. Major findings/ Results: Based on the experimental measurements was performed the numerical simulation of the hydraulic rotor, as to assure the necessary vortices. The experimental measurements were performed to determine the optimal height and the density of the bars for the sludge thickening system, to assure the tanks dimensions as small as possible. The time thickening/settling was reduced by 24% compared to the conventional used systems. In the present, the thickeners intend to decrease the intermediate stage of water treatment, using primary and secondary settling; but they assume a quite long time, the order of 10-15 hours. By using this system, there are no intermediary steps; the thickening is done automatically when are created the vortices. Conclusions: The experimental tests were carried out in the wastewater treatment plant of the Refinery of oil from Brazi, near the city Ploiesti. The results prove its efficiency in reducing the time for compacting the sludge and the smaller humidity of the evacuated sediments. The utilization of this equipment is now extended and it is tested the mining industry, with significant results, in Lupeni mine, from the Jiu Valley.

Keywords: experimental tests, hydrodynamic modeling, rotor efficiency, wastewater treatment

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143 Quantification of Dowel-Concrete Interaction in Jointed Plain Concrete Pavements Using 3D Numerical Simulation

Authors: Lakshmana Ravi Raj Gali, K. Sridhar Reddy, M. Amaranatha Reddy


Load transfer between adjacent slabs of the jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP) system is inevitable for long-lasting performance. Dowel bars are generally used to ensure sufficient degree of load transfer, in addition to the load transferred by aggregate interlock mechanism at the joints. Joint efficiency is the measure of joint quality, a major concern and therefore the dowel bar system should be designed and constructed well. The interaction between dowel bars and concrete that includes various parameters of dowel bar and concrete will explain the degree of joint efficiency. The present study focuses on the methodology of selecting contact stiffness, which quantifies dowel-concrete interaction. In addition, a parametric study which focuses on the effect of dowel diameter, dowel shape, the spacing between dowel bars, joint opening, the thickness of the slab, the elastic modulus of concrete, and concrete cover on contact stiffness was also performed. The results indicated that the thickness of the slab is most critical among various parameters to explain the joint efficiency. Further displacement equivalency method was proposed to find out the contact stiffness. The proposed methodology was validated with the available field surface deflection data collected by falling weight deflectometer (FWD).

Keywords: contact stiffness, displacement equivalency method, Dowel-concrete interaction, joint behavior, 3D numerical simulation

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142 Bond Strength of Nano Silica Concrete Subjected to Corrosive Environments

Authors: Muhammad S. El-Feky, Mohamed I. Serag, Ahmed M. Yasien, Hala Elkady


Reinforced concrete requires steel bars in order to provide the tensile strength that is needed in structural concrete. However, when steel bars corrode, a loss in bond between the concrete and the steel bars occurs due to the formation of rust on the bars surface. Permeability of concrete is a fundamental property in perspective of the durability of concrete as it represents the ease with which water or other fluids can move through concrete, subsequently transporting corrosive agents. Nanotechnology is a standout amongst active research zones that envelops varies disciplines including construction materials. The application of nanotechnology in the corrosion protection of metal has lately gained momentum as nano scale particles have ultimate physical, chemical and physicochemical properties, which may enhance the corrosion protection in comparison to large size materials. The presented research aims to study the bond performance of concrete containing relatively high volume nano silica (up to 4.5%) exposed to corrosive conditions. This was extensively studied through tensile, bond strengths as well as the permeability of nano silica concrete. In addition micro-structural analysis was performed in order to evaluate the effect of nano silica on the properties of concrete at both; the micro and nano levels. The results revealed that by the addition of nano silica, the permeability of concrete mixes decreased significantly to reach about 50% of the control mix by the addition of 4.5% nano silica. As for the corrosion resistance, the nano silica concrete is comparatively higher resistance than ordinary concrete. Increasing Nano Silica percentage increased significantly the critical time corresponding to a metal loss (equal to 50 ϻm) which usually corresponding to the first concrete cracking due to the corrosion of reinforcement to reach about 49 years instead of 40 years as for the normal concrete. Finally, increasing nano Silica percentage increased significantly the residual bond strength of concrete after being subjected to corrosive environment. After being subjected to corrosive environment, the pullout behavior was observed for the bars embedded in all of the mixes instead of the splitting behavior that was observed before being corroded. Adding 4.5% nano silica in concrete increased the residual bond strength to reach 79% instead of 27% only as compared to control mix (0%W) before the subjection of the corrosive environment. From the conducted study we can conclude that the Nano silica proved to be a significant pore blocker material.

Keywords: bond strength, concrete, corrosion resistance, nano silica, permeability

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141 Shear Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Flat Slabs Using Prestressing Bars

Authors: Haifa Saleh, Kamiran Abduka, Robin Kalfat, Riadh Al-Mahaidi


The effectiveness of using pre-stressing steel bars for shear strengthening of high strength reinforced concrete (RC) slabs was assessed. Two large-scale RC slabs were tested, one without shear reinforcement and the second strengthened against punching shear failure using pre-stressing steel bars. The two slabs had the same dimensions, flexural reinforcement ratio, loading and support arrangements. The experimental program including the method of strengthening, set up and instrumentation are described in this paper. The experimental results are analyzed and discussed in terms of the structural behavior of the RC slabs, the performance of pre-stressing steel bolts and failure modes. The results confirmed that the shear strengthening technique increased the shear capacity, ductility and yield capacity of the slab by up to 15%, 44%, and 22%, respectively compared to the unstrengthened slab. The strengthening technique also successfully contributed to changing the failure mode from a brittle punching shear mode to ductile flexural failure mode. Vic3D digital image correlation system (photogrammetry) was also used in this research. This technique holds several advantages over traditional contact instrumentations including that it is inexpensive, it produces results that are simple to analyze and it is remote visualization technique. The displacement profile along the span of the slab and rotation has been found and compared with the results obtained from traditional sensors. The performance of the photogrammetry technique was very good and the results of both measurements were in very close agreement.

Keywords: flat slab, photogrammetry, punching shear, strengthening

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140 Formulation and Nutrition Analysis of Low-Sugar Snack Bars

Authors: S. Kongtun-Janphuk, S. Niwitpong Jr., J. Saengsai


Low-sugar snack bars were formulated with 3 main formulas depending on the main ingredient, which were peanut-green bean-sesame, apple, and prune. The most acceptable formula of each group was obtained by sensory evaluation using a nine-point hedonic scale. The moisture content, total ash, protein, fat and fiber were analyzed by the standard methods of AOAC. The peanut-mung bean-sesame snack bar showed the highest protein content (88.32%) and total fat (0.48%) with the lowest of fiber content (0.01%) while the prune formula showed the lowest protein content (71.91%) and total fat (0.21%) with the highest of fiber content (0.03%). This result indicated that the prune formula could be used as diet food to assist in weight loss program.

Keywords: low-sugar snack bar, diet food, nutrition analysis, food formulation

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139 Flame Acceleration of Premixed Natural Gas/Air Explosion in Closed Pipe

Authors: H. Mat Kiah, Rafiziana M. Kasmani, Norazana Ibrahim, Roshafima R. Ali, Aziatul N.Sadikin


An experimental study has been done to investigate the flame acceleration in a closed pipe. A horizontal steel pipe, 2m long and 0.1 m in diameter (L/D of 20), was used in this work. For tests with 90 degree bends, the bend had a radius of 0.1 m and thus, the pipe was lengthened 1 m (based on the centreline length of the segment). Ignition was affected one end of the vessel while the other end was closed. Only stoichiometric concentration (Ф, = 1.0) of natural gas/air mixtures will be reported in this paper. It was demonstrated that bend pipe configuration gave three times higher in maximum over-pressure (5.5 bars) compared to straight pipe (2.0 bars). From the results, the highest flame speed of 63 m s-1 was observed in a gas explosion with bent pipe, greater by a factor of ~3 as compared with straight pipe (23 m s-1). This occurs because bending acts similar to an obstacle, in which this mechanism can induce more turbulence, initiating combustion in an unburned pocket at the corner region and causing a high mass burning rate which increases the flame speed.

Keywords: bending, gas explosion, bending, flame acceleration, over-pressure

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138 Numerical Simulation of the Bond Behavior Between Concrete and Steel Reinforcing Bars in Specialty Concrete

Authors: Camille A. Issa, Omar Masri


In the study, the commercial finite element software Abaqus was used to develop a three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model capable of simulating the pull-out test of reinforcing bars from underwater concrete. The results of thirty-two pull-out tests that have different parameters were implemented in the software to study the effect of the concrete cover, the bar size, the use of stirrups, and the compressive strength of concrete. The interaction properties used in the model provided accurate results in comparison with the experimental bond-slip results, thus the model has successfully simulated the pull-out test. The results of the finite element model are used to better understand and visualize the distribution of stresses in each component of the model, and to study the effect of the various parameters used in this study including the role of the stirrups in preventing the stress from reaching to the sides of the specimens.

Keywords: pull-out test, bond strength, underwater concrete, nonlinear finite element analysis, abaqus

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137 Experimental Studies on Prestressed Precast Concrete Bridge Piers

Authors: C. Shim, C. Koem, S. Park, S. Lee


This paper deals with experimental studies on pre stressed precast concrete columns with continuous reinforcing bars and pre stressing tendons. Design requirements on minimum transverse reinforcement ratio are not included in current design codes. Pre stressing introduces additional compression to the column. Precast columns with different transverse reinforcement ratios were tested to derive adequate design requirement. Displacement ductility of the pre stressed precast columns was evaluated and compared with previous studies. Design of axial steels including reinforcing bars and pre stressing tendons influenced on the seismic performance. Without significant increase of transverse reinforcement ratio, the specimens showed required displacement ductility without reduction of their flexural strength. Design recommendations for precast bridge piers were derived.

Keywords: displacement ductility, flexural strength, prestressed precast column, transverse reinforcement

Procedia PDF Downloads 182