Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 386

Search results for: beams

386 Analytical Investigation of Ductility of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthening with Polypropylene Fibers

Authors: Rifat Sezer, Abdulhamid Aryan


The purpose of this study is to research both the ductility of the reinforced concrete beams without fiber and the ductility of the reinforced concrete beams with fiber. For this purpose, the analytical load - displacement curves of the beams were formed and the areas under these curves were compared. According to the results of this comparison, it is concluded that the reinforced concrete beams with polypropylene fiber are more ductile. The dimension of the used beam-samples for analytical model in this study is 20x30 cm, their length is 200 cm and their scale is ½. The reinforced concrete reference-beams are produced as one item and the reinforced concrete beams with P-0.60 kg/m3 polypropylene fiber are produced as one item. The modeling of reinforced concrete beams was utilized with Abaqus software.

Keywords: polypropylene, fiber-reinforced beams, strengthening of the beams, abaqus program

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
385 Analysis of Beams with Web Opening Subject to Vertical Loads

Authors: P. Chantarawitoon, H. Askarinejad


The steel beams with web opening including the cellular and castellated I-beams are fabricated from a solid web I-beam through a double cutting method to a specific shape and size along the beam. The two halves of the beams are then welded together, increasing the overall depth of the web section. In this paper, the deflection of the cellular and castellated beams subject to uniform vertical loads are investigated using Finite Element Autodesk simulation package. The structural response of the beams with web opening are compared with regular solid beams. Additionally, parametric studies are carried out to study the influence of the geometric properties of a cellular beam to its structural responses.

Keywords: beams with web opening, cellular and castellated beams, finite element analysis, vertical deflection

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
384 Investigation on Behavior of Fixed-Ended Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams

Authors: Y. Heyrani Birak, R. Hizaji, J. Shahkarami


Reinforced Concrete (RC) deep beams are special structural elements because of their geometry and behavior under loads. For example, assumption of strain- stress distribution is not linear in the cross section. These types of beams may have simple supports or fixed supports. A lot of research works have been conducted on simply supported deep beams, but little study has been done in the fixed-end RC deep beams behavior. Recently, using of fixed-ended deep beams has been widely increased in structures. In this study, the behavior of fixed-ended deep beams is investigated, and the important parameters in capacity of this type of beams are mentioned.

Keywords: deep beam, capacity, reinforced concrete, fixed-ended

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
383 Investigating the Capacity of Cracking Torsion of Rectangular and Cylindrical RC Beams with Spiral and Normal Stirrups

Authors: Hadi Barghlame, M. A. Lotfollahi-Yaghin, Mehdi Mohammad Rezaei, Saeed Eskanderzadeh


In this paper, the capacity of cracking torsion on rectangular and cylindrical beams with spiral and normal stirrups in similar properties are investigated. Also, in the beams with spiral stirrups, stirrups are not wrapping and spiral stirrups similar to normal stirrups in ACI code. Therefore, models of above-mentioned beams have been numerically analyzed under various loads using ANSYS software. In this research, the behavior of rectangular reinforced concrete beams is compared with the cylindrical reinforced concrete beams. The capacity of cracking torsion of rectangular and cylindrical RC beams with spiral and normal stirrups are same. In the other words, the behavior of rectangular RC beams is similar to cylindrical beams.

Keywords: cracking torsion, RC beams, spiral stirrups, normal stirrups

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
382 Failure Mechanism in Fixed-Ended Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams under Cyclic Load

Authors: A. Aarabzadeh, R. Hizaji


Reinforced Concrete (RC) deep beams are a special type of beams due to their geometry, boundary conditions, and behavior compared to ordinary shallow beams. For example, assumption of a linear strain-stress distribution in the cross section is not valid. Little study has been dedicated to fixed-end RC deep beams. Also, most experimental studies are carried out on simply supported deep beams. Regarding recent tendency for application of deep beams, possibility of using fixed-ended deep beams has been widely increased in structures. Therefore, it seems necessary to investigate the aforementioned structural element in more details. In addition to experimental investigation of a concrete deep beam under cyclic load, different failure mechanisms of fixed-ended deep beams under this type of loading have been evaluated in the present study. The results show that failure mechanisms of deep beams under cyclic loads are quite different from monotonic loads.

Keywords: deep beam, cyclic load, reinforced concrete, fixed-ended

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
381 Shear Behaviour of RC Deep Beams with Openings Strengthened with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer

Authors: Mannal Tariq


Construction industry is making progress at a high pace. The trend of the world is getting more biased towards the high rise buildings. Deep beams are one of the most common elements in modern construction having small span to depth ratio. Deep beams are mostly used as transfer girders. This experimental study consists of 16 reinforced concrete (RC) deep beams. These beams were divided into two groups; A and B. Groups A and B consist of eight beams each, having 381 mm (15 in) and 457 mm (18 in) depth respectively. Each group was further subdivided into four sub groups each consisting of two identical beams. Each subgroup was comprised of solid/control beam (without opening), opening above neutral axis (NA), at NA and below NA. Except for control beams, all beams with openings were strengthened with carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) vertical strips. These eight groups differ from each other based on depth and location of openings. For testing sake, all beams have been loaded with two symmetrical point loads. All beams have been designed based on strut and tie model concept. The outcome of experimental investigation elaborates the difference in the shear behaviour of deep beams based on depth and location of circular openings variation. 457 mm (18 in) deep beam with openings above NA show the highest strength and 381 mm (15 in) deep beam with openings below NA show the least strength. CFRP sheets played a vital role in increasing the shear capacity of beams.

Keywords: CFRP, deep beams, openings in deep beams, strut and tie modal, shear behaviour

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
380 Torsional Rigidities of Reinforced Concrete Beams Subjected to Elastic Lateral Torsional Buckling

Authors: Ilker Kalkan, Saruhan Kartal


Reinforced concrete (RC) beams rarely undergo lateral-torsional buckling (LTB), since these beams possess large lateral bending and torsional rigidities owing to their stocky cross-sections, unlike steel beams. However, the problem of LTB is becoming more and more pronounced in the last decades as the span lengths of concrete beams increase and the cross-sections become more slender with the use of pre-stressed concrete. The buckling moment of a beam mainly depends on its lateral bending rigidity and torsional rigidity. The nonhomogeneous and elastic-inelastic nature of RC complicates estimation of the buckling moments of concrete beams. Furthermore, the lateral bending and torsional rigidities of RC beams and the buckling moments are affected from different forms of concrete cracking, including flexural, torsional and restrained shrinkage cracking. The present study pertains to the effects of concrete cracking on the torsional rigidities of RC beams prone to elastic LTB. A series of tests on rather slender RC beams indicated that torsional cracking does not initiate until buckling in elastic LTB, while flexural cracking associated with lateral bending takes place even at the initial stages of loading. Hence, the present study clearly indicated that the un-cracked torsional rigidity needs to be used for estimating the buckling moments of RC beams liable to elastic LTB.

Keywords: lateral stability, post-cracking torsional rigidity, uncracked torsional rigidity, critical moment

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
379 Flexural Behavior of Heat-Damaged Concrete Beams Reinforced with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Bars

Authors: Mohammad R. Irshidat, Rami H. Haddad, Hanadi Al-Mahmoud


Reinforced concrete (RC) is the most common used material for construction in the world. In the past decades, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) bars had been widely used to substitute the steel bars due to their high resistance to corrosion, high tensile capacity, and low weight in comparison with steel. Experimental studies on the behavior of FRP bar reinforced concrete beams had been carried out worldwide for a few decades. While the research on such structural members under elevated temperatures is still very limited. In this research, the flexural behavior of heat-damaged concrete beams reinforced with FRP bars is studied. Two types of FRP rebar namely, carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP), are used. The beams are subjected to four levels of temperature before tested to monitor their flexural behavior. The results are compared with other concrete beams reinforced with regular steel bars. The results show that the beams reinforced with CFRP bars and GFRP bars had higher flexural capacity than the beams reinforced with steel bars even if heated up to 400°C and 300°C, respectively. After that the beams reinforced with steel bars had the superiority.

Keywords: concrete beams, FRP rebar, flexural behavior, heat-damaged

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
378 The Influence of Basalt and Steel Fibers on the Flexural Behavior of RC Beams

Authors: Yasmin Z. Murad, Haneen M. Abdl-Jabbar


An experimental program is conducted in this research to investigate the influence of basalt fibers and steel fibers on the flexural behavior of RC beams. Reinforced concrete beams are constructed using steel fiber concrete and basalt fiber concrete. Steel and basalt fibers are included in a percentage of 15% and 2.5% of the total cement weight, respectively. Test results have shown that basalt fibers have increased the load carrying capacity of the beams up to 30% and the maximum deflection to almost 2.4 times that measured in the control specimen. It has also shown that steel fibers have increased the load carrying capacity of the beams up to 47% and the ultimate deflection is almost duplicated compared to the control beam. Steel and basalt fibers have increased the ductility of the reinforced concrete beams.

Keywords: basalt fiber, steel fiber, reinforced concrete beams, flexural behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
377 An Experimental Investigation of Rehabilitation and Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete T-Beams Under Static Monotonic Increasing Loading

Authors: Salem Alsanusi, Abdulla Alakad


An experimental investigation to study the behaviour of under flexure reinforced concrete T-Beams. Those Beams were loaded to pre-designated stress levels as percentage of calculated collapse loads. Repairing these beans by either reinforced concrete jacket, or by externally bolted steel plates were utilized. Twelve full scale beams were tested in this experimental program scheme. Eight out of the twelve beams were loaded under different loading levels. Tests were performed for the beams before and after repair with Reinforced Concrete Jacket (RCJ). The applied Load levels were 60%, 77% and 100% of the calculated collapse loads. The remaining four beams were tested before and after repair with Bolted Steel Plate (BSP). Furthermore, out previously mentioned four beams two beams were loaded to the calculated failure load 100% and the remaining two beams were not subjected to any load. The eight beams recorded for the RCJ test were repaired using reinforced concrete jacket. The four beams recorded for the BSP test were all repaired using steel plate at the bottom. All the strengthened beams were gradually loaded until failure occurs. However, in each loading case, the beams behaviour, before and after strengthening, were studied through close inspection of the cracking propagation, and by carrying out an extensive measurement of deformations and strength. The stress-strain curve for reinforcing steel and the failure strains measured in the tests were utilized in the calculation of failure load for the beams before and after strengthening. As a result, the calculated failure loads were close to the actual failure tests in case of beams before repair, ranging from 85% to 90% and also in case of beams repaired by reinforced concrete jacket ranging from 70% to 85%. The results were in case of beams repaired by bolted steel plates ranging from (50% to 85%). It was observed that both jacketing and bolted steel plate methods could effectively restore the full flexure capacity of the damaged beams. However, the reinforced jacket has increased the failure load by about 67%, whereas the bolted steel plates recovered the failure load.

Keywords: rehabilitation, strengthening, reinforced concrete, beams deflection, bending stresses

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
376 Computational Modeling of Perpendicular to Grain Stress in a Non-Standard Glulam Beam

Authors: Wojciech Gilewski, Anna Al Sabouni-Zawadzka, Jan Pelczynski


This paper focuses on the analysis of tensile stresses perpendicular to the grain in simply supported beams with different geometry made of glued laminated timber. Two types of beams are considered: standard double-tapered beams described in Eurocode 5 and non-standard glulam beams with a flattened apex. The beams are analyzed using two methodology approaches: a code design verification method and a finite element method (FEM) in terms of the linear theory of elasticity with plane stress assumption. The performed analyses proved that both methodologies lead to consistent results in case of standard glulam beams and therefore, the FEM can be used in case of non-standard structures, which are not included in Eurocode 5. Moreover, the FE analysis of the glulam beam with a flattened apex showed that it can be treated as a structure with two apex zones.

Keywords: double-tapered beams, finite element analysis, glued laminated timber, perpendicular to grain stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
375 Experimental and Analytical Study to Investigate the Effect of Tension Reinforcement on Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Short Beams

Authors: Hakan Ozturk, Aydin Demir, Kemal Edip, Marta Stojmanovska, Julijana Bojadjieva


There are many factors that affect the behavior of reinforced concrete beams. These can be listed as concrete compressive and reinforcement yield strength, amount of tension, compression and confinement bars, and strain hardening of reinforcement. In the study, support condition of short beams is selected statically indeterminate to first degree. Experimental and numerical analysis are carried for reinforcement concrete (RC) short beams. Dimensions of cross sections are selected as 250mm width and 500 mm height. The length of RC short beams is designed as 2250 mm and these values are constant in all beams. After verifying accurately finite element model, a numerical parametric study is performed with varied diameter of tension reinforcement. Effect of change in diameter is investigated on behavior of RC short beams. As a result of the study, ductility ratios and failure modes are determined, and load-displacement graphs are obtained in order to understand the behavior of short beams. It is deduced that diameter of tension reinforcement plays very important role on the behavior of RC short beams in terms of ductility and brittleness.

Keywords: short beam, reinforced concrete, finite element analysis, longitudinal reinforcement

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
374 Shear Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams Using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers

Authors: Hana' Al-Ghanim, Mu'tasim Abdel-Jaber, Maha Alqam


This experimental investigation deals with shear strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) deep beams using the externally bonded carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. The current study, therefore, evaluates the effectiveness of four various configurations for shear strengthening of deep beams with two different types of CFRP materials including sheets and laminates. For this purpose, a total of 10 specimens of deep beams were cast and tested. The shear performance of the strengthened beams is assessed with respect to the cracks’ formation, modes of failure, ultimate strength and the overall stiffness. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of using the CFRP technique on enhancing the shear capacity of deep beams; however, the efficiency varies depending on the material used and the strengthening scheme adopted. Among the four investigated schemes, the highest increase in the ultimate strength is recorded by using the continuous wrap of two layers of CFRP sheets, exceeding a value of 86%, whereas an enhancement of about 36% is achieved by the inclined CFRP laminates.

Keywords: deep beams, laminates, shear strengthening, sheets

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
373 Improvement of Performance for R. C. Beams Made from Recycled Aggregate by Using Non-Traditional Admixture

Authors: A. H. Yehia, M. M. Rashwan, K. A. Assaf, K. Abd el Samee


The aim of this work is to use an environmental, cheap; organic non-traditional admixture to improve the structural behavior of sustainable reinforced concrete beams contains different ratios of recycled concrete aggregate. The used admixture prepared by using wastes from vegetable oil industry. Under and over reinforced concrete beams made from natural aggregate and different ratios of recycled concrete aggregate were tested under static load until failure. Eight beams were tested to investigate the performance and mechanism effect of admixture on improving deformation characteristics, modulus of elasticity and toughness of tested beams. Test results show efficiency of organic admixture on improving flexural behavior of beams contains 20% recycled concrete aggregate more over the other ratios.

Keywords: deflection, modulus of elasticity, non-traditional admixture, recycled concrete aggregate, strain, toughness, under and over reinforcement

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
372 Lateral Buckling of Nanoparticle Additive Composite Beams

Authors: Gürkan Şakar, Akgün Alsaran, Emrah E. Özbaldan


In this study, lateral buckling analysis of composite beams with particle additive was carried out experimentally and numerically. The effects of particle type, particle addition ratio on buckling loads of composite beams were determined. The numerical studies were performed with ANSYS package. In the analyses, clamped-free boundary condition was assumed. The load carrying capabilities of composite beams were influenced by different particle types and particle addition ratios.

Keywords: lateral buckling, nanoparticle, composite beam, numeric analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
371 Behavior of Oil Palm Shell Reinforced Concrete Beams Added with Kenaf Fibres

Authors: Sharifah M. Syed Mohsin, Sayid J. Azimi, Abdoullah Namdar


The present article reports the findings of a study into the behavior of oil palm shell reinforced concrete (OPSRC) beams with the addition of kenaf fibres. The work aim is to examine the potential of using kenaf fibres to improve the strength and ductility of the OPSRC beams and also observe its potential in serving as part of shear reinforcement in the beams. Two different arrangements of the shear links in OPSRC beams with a selection of kenaf fibres (amount of [10kg/m] ^3 and [20kg/m] ^3) content are tested under monotonic loading. In the first arrangement, the kenaf fibres are added to the beam which has full shear reinforcement to study the structural behavior of OPSRC beams with fibres. In the second arrangement, the spacing between the shear links in the OPSRC beams are increased by 50% and experimental work is carried out to study the effect of kenaf fibres without compromising the beams strength and ductility. The results show that the addition of kenaf fibres enhanced the load carrying capacity, ductility and also altered the failure mode of the beams from a brittle shear mode to a flexural ductile one. Furthermore, the study depicts that kenaf fibres are compatible with OPSRC and suggest prospective results.

Keywords: oil palm shell reinforced concrete, kenaf fibres, peak strength, ductility

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
370 Crack Propagation Effect at the Interface of a Composite Beam

Authors: Mezidi Amar


In this research work, crack propagation at the interface of a composite beam is considered. The behavior of composite beams (CB) depends upon a law based on relationship between tangential or normal efforts with inelastic propagation. Throughout this study, composite beams are classified like composite beams with partial connection or sandwich beams of three layers. These structural systems are controlled by the same nature of differential equations regarding their behavior in the plane, as well as out-of-plane. Multi-layer elements with partial connection are typically met in the field of timber construction where the elements are assembled by joining. The formalism of the behavior in the plane and out-of-plane of these composite beams is obtained and their results concerning the engineering aspect or simple of interpretation are proposed for the case of composite beams made up of rectangular section and simply supported section. An apparent analytical peculiarity or paradox in the bending behavior of elastic–composite beams with interlayer slip, sandwich beam or other similar problems subjected to boundary moments exists. For a fully composite beam subjected to end moments, the partial composite model will render a non-vanishing uniform value for the normal force in the individual subelement. Obtained results are similar to those for the case of vibrations in the plane as well for the composite beams as for the sandwich beams where eigen-frequencies increase with related rigidity.

Keywords: composite beam, behaviour, interface, deflection, propagation

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
369 Experimental Investigation of Damaged Reinforced Concrete Beams Repaired with Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Strip under Impact Loading

Authors: M. Al-Farttoosi, M. Y. Rafiq, J. Summerscales, C. Williams


Many buildings and bridges are damaged due to impact loading, explosions, terrorist attacks and wars. Most of the damaged structures members such as beams, columns and slabs are not totally failed and it can be repaired. Nowadays, carbon fibre reinforced polymer CFRP has been wildly used in strengthening and retrofitting the structures members. CFRP can rector the load carrying capacity of the damaged structures members to make them serviceable. An experimental investigation was conducted to investigate the impact behaviour of the damaged beams repaired with CFRP. The tested beams had different degrees of damage and near surface mounted technique NSM was used to install the CFRP. A heavy drop weight impact test machine was used to conduct the experimental work. The study investigated the impact strength, stiffness, cracks and deflection of the CFRP repaired beams. The results show that CFRP significantly increased the impact resistance of the damaged beams. CFRP increased the damaged beams stiffness and reduced the deflection. The results showed that the NSM technique is more effective in repairing beams and preventing the debonding of the CFRP.

Keywords: damaged, concrete, impact, repaired

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
368 Size Effect on Shear Strength of Slender Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Subhan Ahmad, Pradeep Bhargava, Ajay Chourasia


Shear failure in reinforced concrete beams without shear reinforcement leads to loss of property and life since a very little or no warning occurs before failure as in case of flexural failure. Shear strength of reinforced concrete beams decreases as its depth increases. This phenomenon is generally called as the size effect. In this paper, a comparative analysis is performed to estimate the performance of shear strength models in capturing the size effect of reinforced concrete beams made with conventional concrete, self-compacting concrete, and recycled aggregate concrete. Four shear strength models that account for the size effect in shear are selected from the literature and applied on the datasets of slender reinforced concrete beams. Beams prepared with conventional concrete, self-compacting concrete, and recycled aggregate concrete are considered for the analysis. Results showed that all the four models captured the size effect in shear effectively and produced conservative estimates of the shear strength for beams made with normal strength conventional concrete. These models yielded unconservative estimates for high strength conventional concrete beams with larger effective depths ( > 450 mm). Model of Bazant and Kim (1984) captured the size effect precisely and produced conservative estimates of shear strength of self-compacting concrete beams at all the effective depths. Also, shear strength models considered in this study produced unconservative estimates of shear strength for recycled aggregate concrete beams at all effective depths.

Keywords: reinforced concrete beams; shear strength; prediction models; size effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
367 Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Steel Plates

Authors: Ghusen al-Kafri, Mohammed Ali Abdallah Elsageer, Ahmed Mohamed Hadya Alsdaai, Abdeimanam Salhien Salih Khalifa


In this paper, external reinforcement to enhance a reinforced concrete structure performance has been done using externally bonded steel plate. This technique has been reported effective in enhancing the strength of reinforced concrete beam, a study to determine the effectiveness of steel plate as an external reinforcement was carried out. A total of two groups of beams and one group content five beams, each 750 mm long, 150 mm wide, and 150 mm deep were cast, strengthened and tested till failure under two point loads. One beam was act as a control beam without strengthening and other four beams were strengthened with steel plate at a different arrangement. Other group beams were strengthened with steel plate in shear zone and also strengthened at bottom as first group. The behaviours of the strengthened beams were studied through their load-deflection characteristic upon bending, cracking and mode of failure. The results confirmed that all steel plate arrangements enhanced the strength of the reinforced concrete beam, the positioning of the steel plate affect the moment carrying capacity of the beam.

Keywords: beams, bending, beflection, steel plates

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
366 Damage Detection in Beams Using Wavelet Analysis

Authors: Goutham Kumar Dogiparti, D. R. Seshu


In the present study, wavelet analysis was used for locating damage in simply supported and cantilever beams. Study was carried out varying different levels and locations of damage. In numerical method, ANSYS software was used for modal analysis of damaged and undamaged beams. The mode shapes obtained from numerical analysis is processed using MATLAB wavelet toolbox to locate damage. Effect of several parameters such as (damage level, location) on the natural frequencies and mode shapes were also studied. The results indicated the potential of wavelets in identifying the damage location.

Keywords: damage, detection, beams, wavelets

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
365 Behaviour of Beam Reinforced with Longitudinal Steel-CFRP Composite Reinforcement under Static Load

Authors: Faris A. Uriayer, Mehtab Alam


The concept of using a hybrid composite by combining two or more different materials to produce bilinear stress–strain behaviour has become a subject of interest. Having studied the mechanical properties of steel-CFRP specimens (CFRP Laminate Sandwiched between Mild Steel Strips), full size steel-CFRP composite reinforcement were fabricated and used as a new reinforcing material inside beams in lieu of traditional steel bars. Four beams, three beams reinforced with steel-CFRP composite reinforcement and one beam reinforced with traditional steel bars were cast, cured and tested under quasi-static loading. The flexural test results of the beams reinforced with this composite reinforcement showed that the beams with steel-CFRP composite reinforcement had comparable flexural strength and flexural ductility with beams reinforced with traditional steel bars.

Keywords: CFRP laminate, steel strip, flexural behaviour, modified model, concrete beam

Procedia PDF Downloads 529
364 Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Optimally Designed Steel Angelina™ Beams

Authors: Ferhat Erdal, Osman Tunca, Serkan Tas, Serdar Carbas


Web-expanded steel beams provide an easy and economical solution for the systems having longer structural members. The main goal of manufacturing these beams is to increase the moment of inertia and section modulus, which results in greater strength and rigidity. Until recently, there were two common types of open web-expanded beams: with hexagonal openings, also called castellated beams, and beams with circular openings referred to as cellular beams, until the generation of sinusoidal web-expanded beams. In the present research, the optimum design of a new generation beams, namely sinusoidal web-expanded beams, will be carried out and the design results will be compared with castellated and cellular beam solutions. Thanks to a reduced fabrication process and substantial material savings, the web-expanded beam with sinusoidal holes (Angelina™ Beam) meets the economic requirements of steel design problems while ensuring optimum safety. The objective of this research is to carry out non-linear finite element analysis (FEA) of the web-expanded beam with sinusoidal holes. The FE method has been used to predict their entire response to increasing values of external loading until they lose their load carrying capacity. FE model of each specimen that is utilized in the experimental studies is carried out. These models are used to simulate the experimental work to verify of test results and to investigate the non-linear behavior of failure modes such as web-post buckling, shear buckling and vierendeel bending of beams.

Keywords: steel structures, web-expanded beams, angelina beam, optimum design, failure modes, finite element analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
363 Nonlinear Finite Element Modeling of Unbonded Steel Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Fares Jnaid, Riyad Aboutaha


In this paper, a nonlinear Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was carried out using ANSYS software to build a model able of predicting the behavior of Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams with unbonded reinforcement. The FEA model was compared to existing experimental data by other researchers. The existing experimental data consisted of 16 beams that varied from structurally sound beams to beams with unbonded reinforcement with different unbonded lengths and reinforcement ratios. The model was able to predict the ultimate flexural strength, load-deflection curve, and crack pattern of concrete beams with unbonded reinforcement. It was concluded that when the when the unbonded length is less than 45% of the span, there will be no decrease in the ultimate flexural strength due to the loss of bond between the steel reinforcement and the surrounding concrete regardless of the reinforcement ratio. Moreover, when the reinforcement ratio is relatively low, there will be no decrease in ultimate flexural strength regardless of the length of unbond.

Keywords: FEA, ANSYS, unbond, strain

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
362 Study of Debonding of Composite Material from a Deforming Concrete Beam Using Infrared Thermography

Authors: Igor Shardakov, Anton Bykov, Alexey Shestakov, Irina Glot


This article focuses on the cycle of experimental studies of the formation of cracks and debondings in the concrete reinforced with carbon fiber. This research was carried out in Perm National Research Polytechnic University. A series of CFRP-strengthened RC beams was tested to investigate the influence of preload and crack repairing factors on CFRP debonding. IRT was applied to detect the early stage of IC debonding during the laboratory bending tests. It was found that for the beams strengthened under load after crack injecting, СFRP debonding strain is 4-65% lower than for the preliminary strengthened beams. The beams strengthened under the load had a relative area of debonding of 2 times higher than preliminary strengthened beams. The СFRP debonding strain is weakly dependent on the strength of the concrete substrate. For beams with a transverse wrapping anchorage in support sections FRP debonding is not a failure mode.

Keywords: IC debonding, infrared thermography, non-destructive testing methods, quality control, strengthening

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
361 Analysis of Simply Supported Beams Using Elastic Beam Theory

Authors: M. K. Dce


The aim of this paper is to investigate the behavior of simply supported beams having rectangular section and subjected to uniformly distributed load (UDL). In this study five beams of span 5m, 6m, 7m and 8m have been considered. The width of all the beams is 400 mm and span to depth ratio has been taken as 12. The superimposed live load has been increased from 10 kN/m to 25 kN/m at the interval of 5 kN/m. The analysis of the beams has been carried out using the elastic beam theory. On the basis of present study it has been concluded that the maximum bending moment as well as deflection occurs at the mid-span of simply supported beam and its magnitude increases in proportion to magnitude of UDL. Moreover, the study suggests that the maximum moment is proportional to square of span and maximum deflection is proportional to fourth power of span.

Keywords: beam, UDL, bending moment, deflection, elastic beam theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
360 Investigation on the Behavior of Conventional Reinforced Coupling Beams

Authors: Akash K. Walunj, Dipendu Bhunia, Samarth Gupta, Prabhat Gupta


Coupled shear walls consist of two shear walls connected intermittently by beams along the height. The behavior of coupled shear walls is mainly governed by the coupling beams. The coupling beams are designed for ductile inelastic behavior in order to dissipate energy. The base of the shear walls may be designed for elastic or ductile inelastic behavior. The amount of energy dissipation depends on the yield moment capacity and plastic rotation capacity of the coupling beams. In this paper, an analytical model of coupling beam was developed to calculate the rotations and moment capacities of coupling beam with conventional reinforcement.

Keywords: design studies, computational model(s), case study/studies, modelling, coupling beam

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
359 Flange/Web Distortional Buckling of Cold-Formed Steel Beams with Web Holes under Pure Bending

Authors: Nan-Ting Yu, Boksun Kim, Long-Yuan Li


The cold-formed steel beams with web holes are widely used as the load-carrying members in structural engineering. The perforations can release the space of the building and let the pipes go through. However, the perforated cold-formed steel (PCFS) beams may fail by distortional buckling more easily than beams with plain web; this is because the rotational stiffness from the web decreases. It is well known that the distortional buckling can be described as the buckling of the compressed flange-lip system. In fact, near the ultimate failure, the flange/web corner would move laterally, which indicates the bending of the web should be taken account. The purpose of this study is to give a specific solution for the critical stress of flange/web distortional buckling of PCFS beams. The new model is deduced based on classical energy method, and the deflection of the web is represented by the shape function of the plane beam element. The finite element analyses have been performed to validate the accuracy of the proposed model. The comparison of the critical stress calculated from Hancock's model, FEA, and present model, shows that the present model can provide a splendid prediction for the flange/web distortional buckling of PCFS beams.

Keywords: cold-formed steel, beams, perforations, flange-web distortional buckling, finite element analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
358 Effect of Fire on Structural Behavior of Normal and High Strength Concrete Beams

Authors: Alaa I. Arafa, Hemdan O. A. Said. Marwa A. M. Ali


This paper investigates and evaluates experimentally the structural behavior of high strength concrete (HSC) beams under fire and compares it with that of Normal strength concrete (NSC) beams. The main investigated parameters are: concrete compressive strength (300 or 600 kg/cm2); the concrete cover thickness (3 or 5 cm); the degree of temperature (room temperature or 600 oC); the type of cooling (air or water); and the fire exposure time (3 or 5 hours). Test results showed that the concrete compressive strength decreases significantly as the exposure time to fire increases.

Keywords: experimental, fire, high strength concrete beams, monotonic loading

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
357 Vibration Measurements of Single-Lap Cantilevered SPR Beams

Authors: Xiaocong He


Self-pierce riveting (SPR) is a new high-speed mechanical fastening technique which is suitable for point joining dissimilar sheet materials, as well as coated and pre-painted sheet materials. Mechanical structures assembled by SPR are expected to possess a high damping capacity. In this study, experimental measurement techniques were proposed for the prediction of vibration behavior of single-lap cantilevered SPR beams. The dynamic test software and the data acquisition hardware were used in the experimental measurement of the dynamic response of the single-lap cantilevered SPR beams. Free and forced vibration behavior of the single-lap cantilevered SPR beams was measured using the LMS CADA-X experimental modal analysis software and the LMS-DIFA Scadas II data acquisition hardware. The frequency response functions of the SPR beams of different rivet number were compared. The main goal of the paper is to provide a basic measuring method for further research on vibration based non-destructive damage detection in single-lap cantilevered SPR beams.

Keywords: self-piercing riveting, dynamic response, experimental measurement, frequency response functions

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