Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1035

Search results for: fatigue crack initiation

1035 Experimental Characterization of Fatigue Crack Initiation of AA320 Alloy under Combined Thermal Cycling (CTC) and Mechanical Loading (ML) during Four Point Rotating and Bending Fatigue Testing Machine

Authors: Rana Atta Ur Rahman, Daniel Juhre


Initiation of crack during fatigue of casting alloys are noticed mainly on the basis of experimental results. Crack initiation and strength of fatigue of AA320 are summarized here. Load sequence effect is applied to notify initiation phase life. Crack initiation at notch root and fatigue life is calculated under single & two-step mechanical loading (ML) with and without combined thermal cycling (CTC). An Experimental setup is proposed to create the working temperature as per alloy applications. S-N curves are plotted, and a comparison is made between crack initiation leading to failure under different ML with & without thermal loading (TL).

Keywords: fatigue, initiation, SN curve, alloy

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1034 Fatigue Crack Initiation of Al-Alloys: Effect of Heat Treatment Condition

Authors: M. Benachour, N. Benachour, M. Benguediab


In this investigation an empirical study was made on fatigue crack initiation on 7075 T6 and 7075 T71 al-alloys under constant amplitude loading. At initiation stage, local strain approach at the notch was applied. Single Edge Notch Tensile specimen with semi circular notch is used. Based on experimental results, effect of mean stress, is highlights on fatigue initiation life. Results show that fatigue life initiation is affected by notch geometry and mean stress.

Keywords: fatigue crack initiation, al-alloy, mean stress, heat treatment state

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
1033 Effect of Inclusions in the Ultrasonic Fatigue Endurance of Maraging 300 Steel

Authors: G. M. Dominguez Almaraz, J. A. Ruiz Vilchez, M. A. Sanchez Miranda


Ultrasonic fatigue tests have been carried out in the maraging 300 steel. Experimental results show that fatigue endurance under this modality of testing is closely related to the nature and geometrical properties of inclusions present in this alloy. A model was proposed to correlate the ultrasonic fatigue endurance with the nature and geometrical properties of the crack initiation inclusion. Scanning Electron Microscopy analyses were obtained on the fracture surfaces, in order to assess the crack initiation inclusion and to introduce these parameters in the proposed model, with good agreement for the fatigue life prediction.

Keywords: inclusions, ultrasonic fatigue, maraging 300 steel, crack initiation

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1032 Methodologies for Crack Initiation in Welded Joints Applied to Inspection Planning

Authors: Guang Zou, Kian Banisoleiman, Arturo González


Crack initiation and propagation threatens structural integrity of welded joints and normally inspections are assigned based on crack propagation models. However, the approach based on crack propagation models may not be applicable for some high-quality welded joints, because the initial flaws in them may be so small that it may take long time for the flaws to develop into a detectable size. This raises a concern regarding the inspection planning of high-quality welded joins, as there is no generally acceptable approach for modeling the whole fatigue process that includes the crack initiation period. In order to address the issue, this paper reviews treatment methods for crack initiation period and initial crack size in crack propagation models applied to inspection planning. Generally, there are four approaches, by: 1) Neglecting the crack initiation period and fitting a probabilistic distribution for initial crack size based on statistical data; 2) Extrapolating the crack propagation stage to a very small fictitious initial crack size, so that the whole fatigue process can be modeled by crack propagation models; 3) Assuming a fixed detectable initial crack size and fitting a probabilistic distribution for crack initiation time based on specimen tests; and, 4) Modeling the crack initiation and propagation stage separately using small crack growth theories and Paris law or similar models. The conclusion is that in view of trade-off between accuracy and computation efforts, calibration of a small fictitious initial crack size to S-N curves is the most efficient approach.

Keywords: crack initiation, fatigue reliability, inspection planning, welded joints

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1031 Failure Analysis of a Medium Duty Vehicle Leaf Spring

Authors: Gül Çevik


This paper summarizes the work conducted to assess the root cause of the failure of a medium commercial vehicle leaf spring failed in service. Macro- and micro-fractographic analyses by scanning electron microscope as well as material verification tests were conducted in order to understand the failure mechanisms and root cause of the failure. Findings from the fractographic analyses indicated that failure mechanism is fatigue. Crack initiation was identified to have occurred from a point on the top surface near to the front face and to the left side. Two other crack initiation points were also observed, however, these cracks did not propagate. The propagation mode of the fatigue crack revealed that the cyclic loads resulting in crack initiation and propagation were unidirectional bending. Fractographic analyses have also showed that the root cause of the fatigue crack initiation and propagation was loading the part above design stress. Material properties of the part were also verified by chemical composition analysis, microstructural analysis by optical microscopy and hardness tests.

Keywords: leaf spring, failure analysis, fatigue, fractography

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1030 Reliability Analysis for Cyclic Fatigue Life Prediction in Railroad Bolt Hole

Authors: Hasan Keshavarzian, Tayebeh Nesari


Bolted rail joint is one of the most vulnerable areas in railway track. A comprehensive approach was developed for studying the reliability of fatigue crack initiation of railroad bolt hole under random axle loads and random material properties. The operation condition was also considered as stochastic variables. In order to obtain the comprehensive probability model of fatigue crack initiation life prediction in railroad bolt hole, we used FEM, response surface method (RSM), and reliability analysis. Combined energy-density based and critical plane based fatigue concept is used for the fatigue crack prediction. The dynamic loads were calculated according to the axle load, speed, and track properties. The results show that axle load is most sensitive parameter compared to Poisson’s ratio in fatigue crack initiation life. Also, the reliability index decreases slowly due to high cycle fatigue regime in this area.

Keywords: rail-wheel tribology, rolling contact mechanic, finite element modeling, reliability analysis

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1029 Substantial Fatigue Similarity of a New Small-Scale Test Rig to Actual Wheel-Rail System

Authors: Meysam Naeimi, Zili Li, Roumen Petrov, Rolf Dollevoet, Jilt Sietsma, Jun Wu


The substantial similarity of fatigue mechanism in a new test rig for rolling contact fatigue (RCF) has been investigated. A new reduced-scale test rig is designed to perform controlled RCF tests in wheel-rail materials. The fatigue mechanism of the rig is evaluated in this study using a combined finite element-fatigue prediction approach. The influences of loading conditions on fatigue crack initiation have been studied. Furthermore, the effects of some artificial defects (squat-shape) on fatigue lives are examined. To simulate the vehicle-track interaction by means of the test rig, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model is built up. The nonlinear material behaviour of the rail steel is modelled in the contact interface. The results of FE simulations are combined with the critical plane concept to determine the material points with the greatest possibility of fatigue failure. Based on the stress-strain responses, by employing of previously postulated criteria for fatigue crack initiation (plastic shakedown and ratchetting), fatigue life analysis is carried out. The results are reported for various loading conditions and different defect sizes. Afterward, the cyclic mechanism of the test rig is evaluated from the operational viewpoint. The results of fatigue life predictions are compared with the expected number of cycles of the test rig by its cyclic nature. Finally, the estimative duration of the experiments until fatigue crack initiation is roughly determined.

Keywords: fatigue, test rig, crack initiation, life, rail, squats

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1028 Influence of Maximum Fatigue Load on Probabilistic Aspect of Fatigue Crack Propagation Life at Specified Grown Crack in Magnesium Alloys

Authors: Seon Soon Choi


The principal purpose of this paper is to find the influence of maximum fatigue load on the probabilistic aspect of fatigue crack propagation life at a specified grown crack in magnesium alloys. The experiments of fatigue crack propagation are carried out in laboratory air under different conditions of the maximum fatigue loads to obtain the fatigue crack propagation data for the statistical analysis. In order to analyze the probabilistic aspect of fatigue crack propagation life, the goodness-of fit test for probability distribution of the fatigue crack propagation life at a specified grown crack is implemented through Anderson-Darling test. The good probability distribution of the fatigue crack propagation life is also verified under the conditions of the maximum fatigue loads.

Keywords: fatigue crack propagation life, magnesium alloys, maximum fatigue load, probability

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1027 Multiaxial Fatigue Analysis of a High Performance Nickel-Based Superalloy

Authors: P. Selva, B. Lorraina, J. Alexis, A. Seror, A. Longuet, C. Mary, F. Denard


Over the past four decades, the fatigue behavior of nickel-based alloys has been widely studied. However, in recent years, significant advances in the fabrication process leading to grain size reduction have been made in order to improve fatigue properties of aircraft turbine discs. Indeed, a change in particle size affects the initiation mode of fatigue cracks as well as the fatigue life of the material. The present study aims to investigate the fatigue behavior of a newly developed nickel-based superalloy under biaxial-planar loading. Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) tests are performed at different stress ratios so as to study the influence of the multiaxial stress state on the fatigue life of the material. Full-field displacement and strain measurements as well as crack initiation detection are obtained using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) techniques. The aim of this presentation is first to provide an in-depth description of both the experimental set-up and protocol: the multiaxial testing machine, the specific design of the cruciform specimen and performances of the DIC code are introduced. Second, results for sixteen specimens related to different load ratios are presented. Crack detection, strain amplitude and number of cycles to crack initiation vs. triaxial stress ratio for each loading case are given. Third, from fractographic investigations by scanning electron microscopy it is found that the mechanism of fatigue crack initiation does not depend on the triaxial stress ratio and that most fatigue cracks initiate from subsurface carbides.

Keywords: cruciform specimen, multiaxial fatigue, nickel-based superalloy

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1026 Effect of Load Ratio on Probability Distribution of Fatigue Crack Propagation Life in Magnesium Alloys

Authors: Seon Soon Choi


It is necessary to predict a fatigue crack propagation life for estimation of structural integrity. Because of an uncertainty and a randomness of a structural behavior, it is also required to analyze stochastic characteristics of the fatigue crack propagation life at a specified fatigue crack size. The essential purpose of this study is to present the good probability distribution fit for the fatigue crack propagation life at a specified fatigue crack size in magnesium alloys under various fatigue load ratio conditions. To investigate a stochastic crack growth behavior, fatigue crack propagation experiments are performed in laboratory air under several conditions of fatigue load ratio using AZ31. By Anderson-Darling test, a goodness-of-fit test for probability distribution of the fatigue crack propagation life is performed and the good probability distribution fit for the fatigue crack propagation life is presented. The effect of load ratio on variability of fatigue crack propagation life is also investigated.

Keywords: fatigue crack propagation life, load ratio, magnesium alloys, probability distribution

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1025 Simulation the Stress Distribution of Wheel/Rail at Contact Region

Authors: Norie A. Akeel, Z. Sajuri, A. K. Ariffin


This paper discusses the effect of different loading analysis on crack initiation life of wheel/rail in the contact region. A simulated three dimensional (3D) elasto plastic model of a wheel/rail contact is modeled using the fine mesh technique in the contact region by using Finite Element Method FEM code ANSYS 11.0 software. Different loads of approximately from 70 to 140 KN was applied on the wheel tread through the running surface on the railhead surface to simulate stress distribution (Von Mises) and a life prediction of the crack initiation under rolling contact motion. Stress analysis is achieved and the fatigue life to the rail head surface is calculated numerically by using a multi-axial fatigue life of crack initiation model. All results obtained from the previous researches are compared with this research.

Keywords: FEM, rolling contact, rail track, stress distribution, fatigue life

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1024 Characteristics of Cumulative Distribution Function of Grown Crack Size at Specified Fatigue Crack Propagation Life under Different Maximum Fatigue Loads in AZ31

Authors: Seon Soon Choi


Magnesium alloy has been widely used in structure such as an automobile. It is necessary to consider probabilistic characteristics of a structural material because a fatigue behavior of a structure has a randomness and uncertainty. The purpose of this study is to find the characteristics of the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the grown crack size at a specified fatigue crack propagation life and to investigate a statistical crack propagation in magnesium alloys. The statistical fatigue data of the grown crack size are obtained through the fatigue crack propagation (FCP) tests under different maximum fatigue load conditions conducted on the replicated specimens of magnesium alloys. The 3-parameter Weibull distribution is used to find the CDF of grown crack size. The CDF of grown crack size in case of larger maximum fatigue load has longer tail in below 10 percent and above 90 percent. The fatigue failure occurs easily as the tail of CDF of grown crack size becomes long. The fatigue behavior under the larger maximum fatigue load condition shows more rapid propagation and failure mode.

Keywords: cumulative distribution function, fatigue crack propagation, grown crack size, magnesium alloys, maximum fatigue load

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1023 Effect of Specimen Thickness on Probability Distribution of Grown Crack Size in Magnesium Alloys

Authors: Seon Soon Choi


The fatigue crack growth is stochastic because of the fatigue behavior having an uncertainty and a randomness. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the probability distribution of a grown crack size at a specific fatigue crack propagation life for maintenance of structure as well as reliability estimation. The essential purpose of this study is to present the good probability distribution fit for the grown crack size at a specified fatigue life in a rolled magnesium alloy under different specimen thickness conditions. Fatigue crack propagation experiments are carried out in laboratory air under three conditions of specimen thickness using AZ31 to investigate a stochastic crack growth behavior. The goodness-of-fit test for probability distribution of a grown crack size under different specimen thickness conditions is performed by Anderson-Darling test. The effect of a specimen thickness on variability of a grown crack size is also investigated.

Keywords: crack size, fatigue crack propagation, magnesium alloys, probability distribution, specimen thickness

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1022 Numerical Study of Fatigue Crack Growth at a Web Stiffener of Ship Structural Details

Authors: Wentao He, Jingxi Liu, De Xie


It is necessary to manage the fatigue crack growth (FCG) once those cracks are detected during in-service inspections. In this paper, a simulation program (FCG-System) is developed utilizing the commercial software ABAQUS with its object-oriented programming interface to simulate the fatigue crack path and to compute the corresponding fatigue life. In order to apply FCG-System in large-scale marine structures, the substructure modeling technique is integrated in the system under the consideration of structural details and load shedding during crack growth. Based on the nodal forces and nodal displacements obtained from finite element analysis, a formula for shell elements to compute stress intensity factors is proposed in the view of virtual crack closure technique. The cracks initiating from the intersection of flange and the end of the web-stiffener are investigated for fatigue crack paths and growth lives under water pressure loading and axial force loading, separately. It is found that the FCG-System developed by authors could be an efficient tool to perform fatigue crack growth analysis on marine structures.

Keywords: crack path, fatigue crack, fatigue live, FCG-system, virtual crack closure technique

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1021 Estimation of Probabilistic Fatigue Crack Propagation Models of AZ31 Magnesium Alloys under Various Load Ratio Conditions by Using the Interpolation of a Random Variable

Authors: Seon Soon Choi


The essential purpose is to present the good fatigue crack propagation model describing a stochastic fatigue crack growth behavior in a rolled magnesium alloy, AZ31, under various load ratio conditions. Fatigue crack propagation experiments were carried out in laboratory air under four conditions of load ratio, R, using AZ31 to investigate the crack growth behavior. The stochastic fatigue crack growth behavior was analyzed using an interpolation of random variable, Z, introduced to an empirical fatigue crack propagation model. The empirical fatigue models used in this study are Paris-Erdogan model, Walker model, Forman model, and modified Forman model. It was found that the random variable is useful in describing the stochastic fatigue crack growth behaviors under various load ratio conditions. The good probabilistic model describing a stochastic fatigue crack growth behavior under various load ratio conditions was also proposed.

Keywords: magnesium alloys, fatigue crack propagation model, load ratio, interpolation of random variable

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1020 The Relationship between Fatigue Crack Growth and Residual Stress in Rails

Authors: F. Husem, M. E. Turan, Y. Sun, H. Ahlatci, I. Tozlu


Residual stress and fatigue crack growth rates are important to determine mechanical behavior of rails. This study aims to make relationship between residual stress and fatigue crack growth values in rails. For this purpose, three R260 quality rails (0.6-0.8% C, 0.6-1.25 Mn) were chosen. Residual stress of samples was measured by cutting method that is related in railway standard. Then samples were machined for fatigue crack growth test and analyze was completed according to the ASTM E647 standard which gives information about parameters of rails for this test. Microstructure characterizations were examined by Light Optic Microscope (LOM). The results showed that residual stress change with fatigue crack growth rate. The sample has highest residual stress exhibits highest crack growth rate and pearlitic structure can be seen clearly for all samples by microstructure analyze.

Keywords: residual stress, fatigue crack growth, R260, SEM, ASTM E647

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1019 Effect of Single Overload Ratio and Stress Ratio on Fatigue Crack Growth

Authors: M. Benachour, N. Benachour, M. Benguediab


In this investigation, variation of cyclic loading effect on fatigue crack growth is studied. This study is performed on 2024 T351 and 7050-T74 aluminum alloys, used in aeronautical structures. The propagation model used in this study is NASGRO model. In constant amplitude loading (CA), the effect of stress ratio has been investigated. Fatigue life and fatigue crack growth rate were affected by this factor. Results showed an increasing in fatigue crack growth rates (FCGRs) with increasing stress ratio. Variable amplitude loading (VAL) can take many forms i.e with a single overload, overload band etc. The shape of these loads affects strongly the fracture life and FCGRs. The application of a single overload (ORL) decrease the FCGR and increase the delay crack length caused by the formation of a larger plastic zone compared to the plastic zone due without VAL. The fatigue behavior of the both material under single overload has been compared.

Keywords: fatigue crack growth, overload ratio, stress ratio, generalized willenborg model, retardation, al-alloys

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1018 Probabilistic Damage Tolerance Methodology for Solid Fan Blades and Discs

Authors: Andrej Golowin, Viktor Denk, Axel Riepe


Solid fan blades and discs in aero engines are subjected to high combined low and high cycle fatigue loads especially around the contact areas between blade and disc. Therefore, special coatings (e.g. dry film lubricant) and surface treatments (e.g. shot peening or laser shock peening) are applied to increase the strength with respect to combined cyclic fatigue and fretting fatigue, but also to improve damage tolerance capability. The traditional deterministic damage tolerance assessment based on fracture mechanics analysis, which treats service damage as an initial crack, often gives overly conservative results especially in the presence of vibratory stresses. A probabilistic damage tolerance methodology using crack initiation data has been developed for fan discs exposed to relatively high vibratory stresses in cross- and tail-wind conditions at certain resonance speeds for limited time periods. This Monte-Carlo based method uses a damage databank from similar designs, measured vibration levels at typical aircraft operations and wind conditions and experimental crack initiation data derived from testing of artificially damaged specimens with representative surface treatment under combined fatigue conditions. The proposed methodology leads to a more realistic prediction of the minimum damage tolerance life for the most critical locations applicable to modern fan disc designs.

Keywords: combined fatigue, damage tolerance, engine, surface treatment

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1017 Evaluation of Fatigue Crack Growth Rate in Weldments

Authors: Pavel Zlabek, Vaclav Mentl


The fatigue crack growth rate evaluation is a basic experimental characteristic when assessment o f the remaining lifetime is needed. Within the repair welding technology project, the crack growth rate at cyclic loading was measured in base and weld metals and in the situation when cracks were initiated in base metal and grew into the weld metal through heat-affected zone and back to the base metal. Two welding technologies were applied and specimens in as-welded state and after heat treatment were tested. Fatigue crack growth rate measurement was performed on CrMoV pressure vessel steel and the tests were performed at room temperature. The crack growth rate was measured on CCT test specimens (see figure) for both the base and weld metals and also in the case of crack subsequent transition through all the weld zones. A 500 kN MTS controlled electro-hydraulic testing machine and Model 632.13C-20 MTS extensometer were used to perform the tests.

Keywords: cracks, fatigue, steels, weldments

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1016 Fatigue Life Evaluation of Al6061/Al2O3 and Al6061/SiC Composites under Uniaxial and Multiaxial Loading Conditions

Authors: C. E. Sutton, A. Varvani-Farahani


Fatigue damage and life prediction of particle metal matrix composites (PMMCs) under uniaxial and multiaxial loading conditions were investigated. Three PMM composite materials of Al6061/Al2O3/20p-T6, Al6061/Al2O3/22p-T6 and Al6061/SiC/17w-T6 tested under tensile, torsion, and combined tension-torsion fatigue cycling were evaluated with various fatigue damage models. The fatigue damage models of Smith-Watson-Topper (S. W. T.), Ellyin, Brown-Miller, Fatemi-Socie, and Varvani were compared for their capability to assess the fatigue damage of materials undergoing various loading conditions. Fatigue life predication results were then evaluated by implementing material-dependent coefficients that factored in the effects of the particle reinforcement in the earlier developed Varvani model. The critical plane-energy approach incorporated the critical plane as the plane of crack initiation and early stage of crack growth. The strain energy density was calculated on the critical plane incorporating stress and strain components acting on the plane. This approach successfully evaluated fatigue damage values versus fatigue lives within a narrower band for both uniaxial and multiaxial loading conditions as compared with other damage approaches studied in this paper.

Keywords: fatigue damage, life prediction, critical plane approach, energy approach, PMM composites

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1015 Mechanical Characteristics on Fatigue Crack Propagation in Aluminum Plate

Authors: A. Chellil, A. Nour, S. Lecheb , H. Mechakra, L. Addar, H. Kebir


This paper present a mechanical characteristics on fatigue crack propagation in Aluminium Plate based on strain and stress distribution using the abaqus software. The changes in shear strain and stress distribution during the fatigue cycle with crack growth is identified. In progressive crack in the strain distribution and the stress is increase in the critical zone. Numerical Modal analysis of the model developed, prove that the Eigen frequencies of aluminium plate were decreased after cracking, and this reduce is nonlinear. These results can provide a reference for analysts and designers of aluminium alloys in aeronautical systems. Therefore, the modal analysis is an important factor for monitoring the aeronautic structures.

Keywords: aluminum alloys, plate, crack, failure

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1014 Numerical Modelling of Crack Initiation around a Wellbore Due to Explosion

Authors: Meysam Lak, Mohammad Fatehi Marji, Alireza Yarahamdi Bafghi, Abolfazl Abdollahipour


A wellbore is a hole that is drilled to aid in the exploration and recovery of natural resources including oil and gas. Occasionally, in order to increase productivity index and porosity of the wellbore and reservoir, the well stimulation methods have been used. Hydraulic fracturing is one of these methods. Moreover, several explosions at the end of the well can stimulate the reservoir and create fractures around it. In this study, crack initiation in rock around the wellbore has been numerically modeled due to explosion. One, two, three, and four pairs of explosion have been set at the end of the wellbore on its wall. After each stage of the explosion, results have been presented and discussed. Results show that this method can initiate and probably propagate several fractures around the wellbore.

Keywords: crack initiation, explosion, finite difference modelling, well productivity

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1013 Multiaxial Fatigue in Thermal Elastohydrodynamic Lubricated Contacts with Asperities and Slip

Authors: Carl-Magnus Everitt, Bo Alfredsson


Contact mechanics and tribology have been combined with fundamental fatigue and fracture mechanics to form the asperity mechanism which supplies an explanation for the surface-initiated rolling contact fatigue damage, called pitting or spalling. The cracks causing the pits initiates at one surface point and thereafter they slowly grow into the material before chipping of a material piece to form the pit. In the current study, the lubrication aspects on fatigue initiation are simulated by passing a single asperity through a thermal elastohydrodynamic lubricated, TEHL, contact. The physics of the lubricant was described with Reynolds equation and the lubricants pressure-viscosity relation was modeled by Roelands equation, formulated to include temperature dependence. A pressure dependent shear limit was incorporated. To capture the full phenomena of the sliding contact the temperature field was resolved through the incorporation of the energy flow. The heat was mainly generated due to shearing of the lubricant and from dry friction where metal contact occurred. The heat was then transported, and conducted, away by the solids and the lubricant. The fatigue damage caused by the asperities was evaluated through Findley’s fatigue criterion. The results show that asperities, in the size of surface roughness found in applications, may cause surface initiated fatigue damage and crack initiation. The simulations also show that the asperities broke through the lubricant in the inlet, causing metal to metal contact with high friction. When the asperities thereafter moved through the contact, the sliding provided the asperities with lubricant releasing the metal contact. The release of metal contact was possible due to the high viscosity the lubricant obtained from the high pressure. The metal contact in the inlet caused higher friction which increased the risk of fatigue damage. Since the metal contact occurred in the inlet it increased the fatigue risk more for asperities subjected to negative slip than positive slip. Therefore the fatigue evaluations showed that the asperities subjected to negative slip yielded higher fatigue stresses than the asperities subjected to positive slip of equal magnitude. This is one explanation for why pitting is more common in the dedendum than the addendum on pinion gear teeth. The simulations produced further validation for the asperity mechanism by showing that asperities cause surface initiated fatigue and crack initiation.

Keywords: fatigue, rolling, sliding, thermal elastohydrodynamic

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1012 The Role of Phase Morphology on the Corrosion Fatigue Mechanism in Marine Steel

Authors: Victor Igwemezie, Ali Mehmanparast


The correct knowledge of corrosion fatigue mechanism in marine steel is very important. This is because it enables the design, selection, and use of steels for offshore applications. It also supports realistic corrosion fatigue life prediction of marine structures. A study has been conducted to increase the understanding of corrosion fatigue mechanism in marine steels. The materials investigated are normalized and advanced S355 Thermomechanical control process (TMCP) steels commonly used in the design of offshore wind turbine support structures. The experimental study was carried out by conducting corrosion fatigue tests under conditions pertinent to offshore wind turbine operations, using the state of the art facilities. A careful microstructural study of the crack growth path was conducted using metallurgical optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX). The test was conducted on three subgrades of S355 steel: S355J2+N, S355G8+M and S355G10+M and the data compared with similar studies in the literature. The result shows that the ferrite-pearlite morphology primarily controls the corrosion-fatigue crack growth path in marine steels. A corrosion fatigue mechanism which relies on the hydrogen embrittlement of the grain boundaries and pearlite phase is used to explain the crack propagation behaviour. The crack growth trend in the Paris region of the da/dN vs. ΔK curve is used to explain the dependency of the corrosion-fatigue crack growth rate on the ferrite-pearlite morphology.

Keywords: corrosion-fatigue mechanism, fatigue crack growth rate, ferritic-pearlitic steel, microstructure, phase morphology

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1011 Critical Study on the Sensitivity of Corrosion Fatigue Crack Growth Rate to Cyclic Waveform and Microstructure in Marine Steel

Authors: V. C. Igwemezie, A. N. Mehmanparast


The primary focus of this work is to understand how variations in the microstructure and cyclic waveform affect the corrosion fatigue crack growth (CFCG) in steel, especially in the Paris region of the da/dN vs. ΔK curve. This work is important because it provides fundamental information on the modelling, design, selection, and use of steels for various engineering applications in the marine environment. The corrosion fatigue tests data on normalized and thermomechanical control process (TMCP) ferritic-pearlitic steels by the authors were compared with several studies on different microstructures in the literature. The microstructures of these steels are radically different and general comparative fatigue crack growth resistance performance study on the effect of microstructure in these materials are very scarce and where available are limited to few studies. The results, for purposes of engineering application, in this study show less dependency of fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) on yield strength, tensile strength, ductility, frequency and stress ratio in the range 0.1 – 0.7. The nature of the steel microstructure appears to be a major factor in determining the rate at which fatigue cracks propagate in the entire da/dN vs. ΔK sigmoidal curve. The study also shows that the sine wave shape is the most damaging fatigue waveform for ferritic-pearlitic steels. This tends to suggest that the test under sine waveform would be a conservative approach, regardless of the waveform for design of engineering structures.

Keywords: BS7910, corrosion-fatigue crack growth rate, cyclic waveform, microstructure, steel

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1010 Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Measurement by Means of Classic Method and Acoustic Emission

Authors: V. Mentl, V. Koula, P. Mazal, J. Volák


Nowadays, the acoustic emission is a widely recognized method of material damage investigation, mainly in cases of cracks initiation and growth observation and evaluation. This is highly important in structures, e.g. pressure vessels, large steam turbine rotors etc., applied both in classic and nuclear power plants. Nevertheless, the acoustic emission signals must be correlated with the real crack progress to be able to evaluate the cracks and their growth by this non-destructive technique alone in real situations and to reach reliable results when the assessment of the structures' safety and reliability is performed and also when the remaining lifetime should be evaluated. The main aim of this study was to propose a methodology for evaluation of the early manifestations of the fatigue cracks and their growth and thus to quantify the material damage by acoustic emission parameters. Specimens made of several steels used in the power producing industry were subjected to fatigue loading in the low- and high-cycle regimes. This study presents results of the crack growth rate measurement obtained by the classic compliance change method and the acoustic emission signal analysis. The experiments were realized in cooperation between laboratories of Brno University of Technology and West Bohemia University in Pilsen within the solution of the project of the Czech Ministry of Industry and Commerce: "A diagnostic complex for the detection of pressure media and material defects in pressure components of nuclear and classic power plants" and the project “New Technologies for Mechanical Engineering”.

Keywords: fatigue, crack growth rate, acoustic emission, material damage

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1009 Microstructure Dependent Fatigue Crack Growth in Aluminum Alloy

Authors: M. S. Nandana, K. Udaya Bhat, C. M. Manjunatha


In this study aluminum alloy 7010 was subjected to three different ageing treatments i.e., peak ageing (T6), over-ageing (T7451) and retrogression and re ageing (RRA) to study the influence of precipitate microstructure on the fatigue crack growth rate behavior. The microstructural modification was studied by using transmission electron microscope (TEM) to examine the change in the size and morphology of precipitates in the matrix and on the grain boundaries. The standard compact tension (CT) specimens were fabricated and tested under constant amplitude fatigue crack growth tests to evaluate the influence of heat treatment on the fatigue crack growth rate properties. The tests were performed in a computer-controlled servo-hydraulic test machine applying a load ratio, R = 0.1 at a loading frequency of 10 Hz as per ASTM E647. The fatigue crack growth was measured by adopting compliance technique using a CMOD gauge attached to the CT specimen. The average size of the matrix precipitates were found to be of 16-20 nm in T7451, 5-6 nm in RRA and 2-3 nm in T6 conditions respectively. The grain boundary precipitate which was continuous in T6, was disintegrated in RRA and T7451 condition. The PFZ width was lower in RRA compared to T7451 condition. The crack growth rate was higher in T7451 and lowest in RRA treated alloy. The RRA treated alloy also exhibits an increase in threshold stress intensity factor range (∆Kₜₕ). The ∆Kₜₕ measured was 11.1, 10.3 and 5.7 MPam¹/² in RRA, T6 and T7451 alloys respectively. The fatigue crack growth rate in RRA treated alloy was nearly 2-3 times lower than that in T6 and was one order lower than that observed in T7451 condition. The surface roughness of RRA treated alloy was more pronounced when compared to the other conditions. The reduction in fatigue crack growth rate in RRA alloy was majorly due to the increase in roughness and partially due to increase in spacing between the matrix precipitates. The reduction in crack growth rate and increase in threshold stress intensity range is expected to benefit the damage tolerant capability of aircraft structural components under service loads.

Keywords: damage tolerance, fatigue, heat treatment, PFZ, RRA

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1008 Study of the Toughening by Crack Bridging in Mullite Alumina Zirconia Ceramics

Authors: F. Gheldane, S. Bouras


Crack propagation behaviour of alumina mullite zirconia ceramic is investigated under monotonic and cyclic loading by means SENB bending method. This material show R-curve effects, i.e. an increase in crack growth resistance with increasing crack depth. The morphological study showed that the resistance of the crack propagation is mainly connected to the crack bridging. The value of bridging stress is in good agreement with the literature. Furthermore, cyclic-loading fatigue is caused by a decrease in the stress-shielding effect, due to degradation of bridging sites under cyclic loading.

Keywords: alumina mullite zirconia, R-curve, bridging, toughening, crack

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1007 Short and Long Crack Growth Behavior in Ferrite Bainite Dual Phase Steels

Authors: Ashok Kumar, Shiv Brat Singh, Kalyan Kumar Ray


There is growing awareness to design steels against fatigue damage Ferrite martensite dual-phase steels are known to exhibit favourable mechanical properties like good strength, ductility, toughness, continuous yielding, and high work hardening rate. However, dual-phase steels containing bainite as second phase are potential alternatives for ferrite martensite steels for certain applications where good fatigue property is required. Fatigue properties of dual phase steels are popularly assessed by the nature of variation of crack growth rate (da/dN) with stress intensity factor range (∆K), and the magnitude of fatigue threshold (∆Kth) for long cracks. There exists an increased emphasis to understand not only the long crack fatigue behavior but also short crack growth behavior of ferrite bainite dual phase steels. The major objective of this report is to examine the influence of microstructures on the short and long crack growth behavior of a series of developed dual-phase steels with varying amounts of bainite and. Three low carbon steels containing Nb, Cr and Mo as microalloying elements steels were selected for making ferrite-bainite dual-phase microstructures by suitable heat treatments. The heat treatment consisted of austenitizing the steel at 1100°C for 20 min, cooling at different rates in air prior to soaking these in a salt bath at 500°C for one hour, and finally quenching in water. Tensile tests were carried out on 25 mm gauge length specimens with 5 mm diameter using nominal strain rate 0.6x10⁻³ s⁻¹ at room temperature. Fatigue crack growth studies were made on a recently developed specimen configuration using a rotating bending machine. The crack growth was monitored by interrupting the test and observing the specimens under an optical microscope connected to an Image analyzer. The estimated crack lengths (a) at varying number of cycles (N) in different fatigue experiments were analyzed to obtain log da/dN vs. log °∆K curves for determining ∆Kthsc. The microstructural features of these steels have been characterized and their influence on the near threshold crack growth has been examined. This investigation, in brief, involves (i) the estimation of ∆Kthsc and (ii) the examination of the influence of microstructure on short and long crack fatigue threshold. The maximum fatigue threshold values obtained from short crack growth experiments on various specimens of dual-phase steels containing different amounts of bainite are found to increase with increasing bainite content in all the investigated steels. The variations of fatigue behavior of the selected steel samples have been explained with the consideration of varying amounts of the constituent phases and their interactions with the generated microstructures during cyclic loading. Quantitative estimation of the different types of fatigue crack paths indicates that the propensity of a crack to pass through the interfaces depends on the relative amount of the microstructural constituents. The fatigue crack path is found to be predominantly intra-granular except for the ones containing > 70% bainite in which it is predominantly inter-granular.

Keywords: bainite, dual phase steel, fatigue crack growth rate, long crack fatigue threshold, short crack fatigue threshold

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1006 Fracture and Dynamic Behavior of Leaf Spring Suspension

Authors: S. Lecheb, A. Chellil, H. Mechakra, S. Attou, H. Kebir


Although leaf springs are one of the oldest suspension components they are still frequently used, especially in commercial vehicles. Being able to capture the leaf spring characteristics is of significant importance for vehicle handling dynamics studies. The main function of leaf spring is not only to support vertical load but also to isolate road induced vibrations. It is subjected to millions of load cycles leading to fatigue failure. It needs to have excellent fatigue life. The objective of this work is its use of Abaqus software to locate the most stressed areas and predict the areas in which it occurs in fatigue and crack of leaf spring and calculate the stress and frequencies of this model.

Keywords: leaf spring, crack, stress, natural frequencies

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