Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2618

Search results for: geothermal heat pumps

2618 Eco-Friendly Electricity Production from the Waste Heat of Air Conditioners

Authors: Anvesh Rajak


This is a new innovation that can be developed. Here I am going to use the waste heat of air conditioner so as to produce the electricity by using the Stirling engine because this waste heat creates the thermal pollution in the environment. The waste heat from the air conditioners has caused a temperature rise of 1°–2°C or more on weekdays in the Tokyo office areas. This heating promotes the heat-island phenomenon in Tokyo on weekdays. Now these air conditioners creates the thermal pollution in the environment and hence rising the temperature of the environment. Air conditioner generally emit the waste heat air whose temperature is about 50°C which heat the environment. Today the demand of energy is increasing tremendously, but available energy lacks in supply. Hence, there is no option for proper and efficient utilization and conservation of energy. In this paper the main stress is given on energy conservation by using technique of utilizing waste heat from Air-conditioning system. Actually the focus is on the use of the waste heat rather than improving the COP of the air- conditioners; if also we improve the COP of air conditioners gradually it would emit some waste heat so I want that waste heat to be used up. As I have used air conditioner’s waste heat to produce electricity so similarly there are various other appliances which emit the waste heat in the surrounding so here also we could use the Stirling engines and Geothermal heat pump concept to produce the electricity and hence can reduce the thermal pollution in the environment.

Keywords: stirling engine, geothermal heat pumps, waste heat, air conditioners

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2617 A Phase Change Materials Thermal Storage for Ground-Source Heat Pumps: Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Innovative Layouts

Authors: Emanuele Bonamente, Andrea Aquino, Franco Cotana


The exploitation of the low-temperature geothermal resource via ground-source heat pumps is often limited by the high investment cost mainly due to borehole drilling. From the monitoring of a prototypal system currently used by a commercial building, it was found that a simple upgrade of the conventional layout, obtained including a thermal storage between the ground-source heat exchangers and the heat pump, can optimize the ground energy exploitation requiring for shorter/fewer boreholes. For typical applications, a reduction of up to 66% with respect to the conventional layout can be easily achieved. Results from the monitoring campaign of the prototype are presented in this paper, and upgrades of the thermal storage using phase change materials (PCMs) are proposed using computational fluid dynamics simulations. The PCM thermal storage guarantees an improvement of the system coefficient of performance both for summer cooling and winter heating (up to 25%). A drastic reduction of the storage volume (approx. 1/10 of the original size) is also achieved, making it possible to easily place it within the technical room, avoiding extra costs for underground displacement. A preliminary optimization of the PCM geometry is finally proposed.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics (CFD), geothermal energy, ground-source heat pumps, phase change materials (PCM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
2616 Design of an Innovative Geothermal Heat Pump with a PCM Thermal Storage

Authors: Emanuele Bonamente, Andrea Aquino


This study presents an innovative design for geothermal heat pumps with the goal of maximizing the system efficiency (COP - Coefficient of Performance), reducing the soil use (e.g. length/depth of geothermal boreholes) and initial investment costs. Based on experimental data obtained from a two-year monitoring of a working prototype implemented for a commercial building in the city of Perugia, Italy, an upgrade of the system is proposed and the performance is evaluated via CFD simulations. The prototype was designed to include a thermal heat storage (i.e. water), positioned between the boreholes and the heat pump, acting as a flywheel. Results from the monitoring campaign show that the system is still capable of providing the required heating and cooling energy with a reduced geothermal installation (approx. 30% of the standard length). In this paper, an optimization of the system is proposed, re-designing the heat storage to include phase change materials (PCMs). Two stacks of PCMs, characterized by melting temperatures equal to those needed to maximize the system COP for heating and cooling, are disposed within the storage. During the working cycle, the latent heat of the PCMs is used to heat (cool) the water used by the heat pump while the boreholes independently cool (heat) the storage. The new storage is approximately 10 times smaller and can be easily placed close to the heat pump in the technical room. First, a validation of the CFD simulation of the storage is performed against experimental data. The simulation is then used to test possible alternatives of the original design and it is finally exploited to evaluate the PCM-storage performance for two different configurations (i.e. single- and double-loop systems).

Keywords: geothermal heat pump, phase change materials (PCM), energy storage, renewable energies

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2615 Modelling and Simulation of the Freezing Systems and Heat Pumps Using Unisim® Design

Authors: C. Patrascioiu


The paper describes the modeling and simulation of the heat pumps domain processes. The main objective of the study is the use of the heat pump in propene–propane distillation processes. The modeling and simulation instrument is the Unisim® Design simulator. The paper is structured in three parts: An overview of the compressing gases, the modeling and simulation of the freezing systems, and the modeling and simulation of the heat pumps. For each of these systems, there are presented the Unisim® Design simulation diagrams, the input–output system structure and the numerical results. Future studies will consider modeling and simulation of the propene–propane distillation process with heat pump.

Keywords: distillation, heat pump, simulation, unisim design

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
2614 Design and Analysis of Electric Power Production Unit for Low Enthalpy Geothermal Reservoir Applications

Authors: Ildar Akhmadullin, Mayank Tyagi


The subject of this paper is the design analysis of a single well power production unit from low enthalpy geothermal resources. A complexity of the project is defined by a low temperature heat source that usually makes such projects economically disadvantageous using the conventional binary power plant approach. A proposed new compact design is numerically analyzed. This paper describes a thermodynamic analysis, a working fluid choice, downhole heat exchanger (DHE) and turbine calculation results. The unit is able to produce 321 kW of electric power from a low enthalpy underground heat source utilizing n-Pentane as a working fluid. A geo-pressured reservoir located in Vermilion Parish, Louisiana, USA is selected as a prototype for the field application. With a brine temperature of 126℃, the optimal length of DHE is determined as 304.8 m (1000ft). All units (pipes, turbine, and pumps) are chosen from commercially available parts to bring this project closer to the industry requirements. Numerical calculations are based on petroleum industry standards. The project is sponsored by the Department of Energy of the US.

Keywords: downhole heat exchangers, geothermal power generation, organic rankine cycle, refrigerants, working fluids

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
2613 Adsorption Cooling Using Hybrid Energy Resources

Authors: R. Benelmir, M. El Kadri, A. Donnot, D. Descieux


HVAC represents a significant part of energy needs in buildings. Integrating renewable energy in cooling processes contributes to reducing primary energy consumption. Sorption refrigeration allows cold production through the use of solar/biomass/geothermal energy or even valuation of waste heat. This work presents an analysis of an experimental bench incorporating an adsorption chiller driven by hybrid energy resources associating solar thermal collectors with a cogeneration gas engine and a geothermal heat pump.

Keywords: solar cooling, cogeneration, geothermal heat pump, hybrid energy resources

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
2612 Numerical Investigation of Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Natural Refrigerant within a Vortex Tube

Authors: Mirza Popovac


This paper investigates the application of the vortex tubes towards increasing the efficiency of high temperature heat pumps based on natural refrigerants, by recovering a part of the expansion work within the refrigerant cycle. To this purpose the 3D Navier-Stokes solver is used to perform a set of numerical simulations, investigating the vortex tube performance. Firstly, the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are analyzed for standard configurations of vortex tubes, and the obtained results are validated against the experimental and numerical data available in literature. Subsequently, different geometry specifications are analyzed, as well as the interplay between relevant heat pump operating conditions and the properties of natural refrigerants. Finally, the characteristic curve of performance will be derived for investigated vortex tubes specifications when used within high temperature heat pumps.

Keywords: heat pump, vortex tube, CFD, natural refrigerant

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
2611 Development and Analysis of Multigeneration System by Using Combined Solar and Geothermal Energy Resources

Authors: Muhammad Umar Khan, Mahesh Kumar, Faraz Neakakhtar


Although industrialization marks to the economy of a country yet it increases the pollution and temperature of the environment. The world is now shifting towards green energy because the utilization of fossil fuels is resulting in global warming. So we need to develop systems that can operate on renewable energy resources and have low heat losses. The combined solar and geothermal multigeneration system can solve this issue. Rather than making rankine cycle purely a solar-driven, heat from solar is used to drive vapour absorption cycle and reheated to generate power using geothermal reservoir. The results are displayed by using Engineering Equation Solver software, where inputs are varied to optimize the energy and exergy efficiencies of the system. The cooling effect is 348.2 KW, while the network output is 23.8 MW and reducing resultant emission of 105553 tons of CO₂ per year. This eco-friendly multigeneration system is capable of eliminating the use of fossil fuels and increasing the geothermal energy efficiency.

Keywords: cooling effect, eco-friendly, green energy, heat loses, multigeneration system, renewable energy, work output

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2610 Solar System with Plate Heat Exchanger

Authors: Christer Frennfelt


Solar heating is the most environmentally friendly way to heat water. Brazed Plate Heat Exchangers (BPHEs) are a key component in many solar heating applications for harvesting solar energy into accumulator tanks, producing hot tap water, and heating pools. The combination of high capacity in a compact format, efficient heat transfer, and fast response makes the BPHE the ideal heat exchanger for solar thermal systems. Solar heating is common as a standalone heat source, and as an add-on heat source for boilers, heat pumps, or district heating systems. An accumulator provides the possibility to store heat, which enables combination of different heat sources to a larger extent. In turn this works as protection to reduced access to energy or increased energy prices. For example heat from solar panels is preferably stored during the day for use at night.

Keywords: district heating and cooling, thermal storage, brazed plate heat exchanger, solar domestic hot water and combisystems

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
2609 Density Measurement of Mixed Refrigerants R32+R1234yf and R125+R290 from 0°C to 100°C and at Pressures up to 10 MPa

Authors: Xiaoci Li, Yonghua Huang, Hui Lin


Optimization of the concentration of components in mixed refrigerants leads to potential improvement of either thermodynamic cycle performance or safety performance of heat pumps and refrigerators. R32+R1234yf and R125+R290 are two promising binary mixed refrigerants for the application of heat pumps working in the cold areas. The p-ρ-T data of these mixtures are one of the fundamental and necessary properties for design and evaluation of the performance of the heat pumps. Although the property data of mixtures can be predicted by the mixing models based on the pure substances incorporated in programs such as the NIST database Refprop, direct property measurement will still be helpful to reveal the true state behaviors and verify the models. Densities of the mixtures of R32+R1234yf an d R125+R290 are measured by an Anton Paar U shape oscillating tube digital densimeter DMA-4500 in the range of temperatures from 0°C to 100 °C and pressures up to 10 MPa. The accuracy of the measurement reaches 0.00005 g/cm³. The experimental data are compared with the predictions by Refprop in the corresponding range of pressure and temperature.

Keywords: mixed refrigerant, density measurement, densimeter, thermodynamic property

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2608 Using Reservoir Models for Monitoring Geothermal Surface Features

Authors: John P. O’Sullivan, Thomas M. P. Ratouis, Michael J. O’Sullivan


As the use of geothermal energy grows internationally more effort is required to monitor and protect areas with rare and important geothermal surface features. A number of approaches are presented for developing and calibrating numerical geothermal reservoir models that are capable of accurately representing geothermal surface features. The approaches are discussed in the context of cases studies of the Rotorua geothermal system and the Orakei-korako geothermal system, both of which contain important surface features. The results show that models are able to match the available field data accurately and hence can be used as valuable tools for predicting the future response of the systems to changes in use.

Keywords: geothermal reservoir models, surface features, monitoring, TOUGH2

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
2607 Investigation of Enhanced Geothermal System with CO2 as Working Fluid

Authors: Ruina Xu, Peixue Jiang, Feng Luo


The novel concept of enhanced geothermal system with CO2 instead of water as working fluid (CO2-EGS) has attracted wide attention due to additional benefit of CO2 geological storage during the power generation process. In this research, numerical investigation on a doublet CO2-EGS system is performed, focusing on the influence of the injection/production well perforation location in the targeted geothermal reservoir. Three different reservoir inlet and outlet boundary conditions are used in simulations since the well constrains are different in reality. The results show that CO2-EGS system performance of power generation and power cost vary greatly among cases of different wells perforation locations, and the optimum options under different boundary conditions are also different.

Keywords: Enhanced Geothermal System, supercritical CO2, heat transfer, CO2-EGS

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2606 Techno-Economic Assessment of Distributed Heat Pumps Integration within a Swedish Neighborhood: A Cosimulation Approach

Authors: Monica Arnaudo, Monika Topel, Bjorn Laumert


Within the Swedish context, the current trend of relatively low electricity prices promotes the electrification of the energy infrastructure. The residential heating sector takes part in this transition by proposing a switch from a centralized district heating system towards a distributed heat pumps-based setting. When it comes to urban environments, two issues arise. The first, seen from an electricity-sector perspective, is related to the fact that existing networks are limited with regards to their installed capacities. Additional electric loads, such as heat pumps, can cause severe overloads on crucial network elements. The second, seen from a heating-sector perspective, has to do with the fact that the indoor comfort conditions can become difficult to handle when the operation of the heat pumps is limited by a risk of overloading on the distribution grid. Furthermore, the uncertainty of the electricity market prices in the future introduces an additional variable. This study aims at assessing the extent to which distributed heat pumps can penetrate an existing heat energy network while respecting the technical limitations of the electricity grid and the thermal comfort levels in the buildings. In order to account for the multi-disciplinary nature of this research question, a cosimulation modeling approach was adopted. In this way, each energy technology is modeled in its customized simulation environment. As part of the cosimulation methodology: a steady-state power flow analysis in pandapower was used for modeling the electrical distribution grid, a thermal balance model of a reference building was implemented in EnergyPlus to account for space heating and a fluid-cycle model of a heat pump was implemented in JModelica to account for the actual heating technology. With the models set in place, different scenarios based on forecasted electricity market prices were developed both for present and future conditions of Hammarby Sjöstad, a neighborhood located in the south-east of Stockholm (Sweden). For each scenario, the technical and the comfort conditions were assessed. Additionally, the average cost of heat generation was estimated in terms of levelized cost of heat. This indicator enables a techno-economic comparison study among the different scenarios. In order to evaluate the levelized cost of heat, a yearly performance simulation of the energy infrastructure was implemented. The scenarios related to the current electricity prices show that distributed heat pumps can replace the district heating system by covering up to 30% of the heating demand. By lowering of 2°C, the minimum accepted indoor temperature of the apartments, this level of penetration can increase up to 40%. Within the future scenarios, if the electricity prices will increase, as most likely expected within the next decade, the penetration of distributed heat pumps can be limited to 15%. In terms of levelized cost of heat, a residential heat pump technology becomes competitive only within a scenario of decreasing electricity prices. In this case, a district heating system is characterized by an average cost of heat generation 7% higher compared to a distributed heat pumps option.

Keywords: cosimulation, distributed heat pumps, district heating, electrical distribution grid, integrated energy systems

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2605 Thermal Properties of the Ground in Cyprus and Their Correlations and Effect on the Efficiency of Ground Heat Exchangers

Authors: G. A. Florides, E. Theofanous, I. Iosif-Stylianou, P. Christodoulides, S. Kalogirou, V. Messarites, Z. Zomeni, E. Tsiolakis, P. D. Pouloupatis, G. P. Panayiotou


Ground Coupled Heat Pumps (GCHPs) exploit effectively the heat capacity of the ground, with the use of Ground Heat Exchangers (GHE). Depending on the mode of operation of the GCHPs, GHEs dissipate or absorb heat from the ground. For sizing the GHE the thermal properties of the ground need to be known. This paper gives information about the density, thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal diffusivity of various lithologies encountered in Cyprus with various relations between these properties being examined through comparison and modeling. The results show that the most important correlation is the one encountered between thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity with both properties showing similar response to the inlet and outlet flow temperature of vertical and horizontal heat exchangers.

Keywords: ground heat exchangers, ground thermal conductivity, ground thermal diffusivity, ground thermal properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
2604 Integrating Circular Economy Framework into Life Cycle Analysis: An Exploratory Study Applied to Geothermal Power Generation Technologies

Authors: Jingyi Li, Laurence Stamford, Alejandro Gallego-Schmid


Renewable electricity has become an indispensable contributor to achieving net-zero by the mid-century to tackle climate change. Unlike solar, wind, or hydro, geothermal was stagnant in its electricity production development for decades. However, with the significant breakthrough made in recent years, especially the implementation of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) in various regions globally, geothermal electricity could play a pivotal role in alleviating greenhouse gas emissions. Life cycle assessment has been applied to analyze specific geothermal power generation technologies, which proposed suggestions to optimize its environmental performance. For instance, selecting a high heat gradient region enables a higher flow rate from the production well and extends the technical lifespan. Although such process-level improvements have been made, the significance of geothermal power generation technologies so far has not explicitly displayed its competitiveness on a broader horizon. Therefore, this review-based study integrates a circular economy framework into life cycle assessment, clarifying the underlying added values for geothermal power plants to complete the sustainability profile. The derived results have provided an enlarged platform to discuss geothermal power generation technologies: (i) recover the heat and electricity from the process to reduce the fossil fuel requirements; (ii) recycle the construction materials, such as copper, steel, and aluminum for future projects; (iii) extract the lithium ions from geothermal brine and make geothermal reservoir become a potential supplier of the lithium battery industry; (iv) repurpose the abandoned oil and gas wells to build geothermal power plants; (v) integrate geothermal energy with other available renewable energies (e.g., solar and wind) to provide heat and electricity as a hybrid system at different weather; (vi) rethink the fluids used in stimulation process (EGS only), replace water with CO2 to achieve negative emissions from the system. These results provided a new perspective to the researchers, investors, and policymakers to rethink the role of geothermal in the energy supply network.

Keywords: climate, renewable energy, R strategies, sustainability

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2603 Numerical Investigation of Nanofluid Based Thermosyphon System

Authors: Kiran Kumar K., Ramesh Babu Bejjam, Atul Najan


A thermosyphon system is a heat transfer loop which operates on the basis of gravity and buoyancy forces. It guarantees a good reliability and low maintenance cost as it does not involve any mechanical pump. Therefore it can be used in many industrial applications such as refrigeration and air conditioning, electronic cooling, nuclear reactors, geothermal heat extraction, etc. But flow instabilities and loop configuration are the major problems in this system. Several previous researchers studied that stabilities can be suppressed by using nanofluids as loop fluid. In the present study a rectangular thermosyphon loop with end heat exchangers are considered for the study. This configuration is more appropriate for many practical applications such as solar water heater, geothermal heat extraction, etc. In the present work, steady-state analysis is carried out on thermosyphon loop with parallel flow coaxial heat exchangers at heat source and heat sink. In this loop nano fluid is considered as the loop fluid and water is considered as the external fluid in both hot and cold heat exchangers. For this analysis one-dimensional homogeneous model is developed. In this model, conservation equations like conservation of mass, momentum, energy are discretized using finite difference method. A computer code is written in MATLAB to simulate the flow in thermosyphon loop. A comparison in terms of heat transfer is made between water and nano fluid as working fluids in the loop.

Keywords: heat exchanger, heat transfer, nanofluid, thermosyphon loop

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2602 A Comparative Study on Supercritical C02 and Water as Working Fluids in a Heterogeneous Geothermal Reservoir

Authors: Musa D. Aliyu, Ouahid Harireche, Colin D. Hills


The incapability of supercritical C02 to transport and dissolve mineral species from the geothermal reservoir to the fracture apertures and other important parameters in heat mining makes it an attractive substance for Heat extraction from hot dry rock. In other words, the thermodynamic efficiency of hot dry rock (HDR) reservoirs also increases if supercritical C02 is circulated at excess temperatures of 3740C without the drawbacks connected with silica dissolution. Studies have shown that circulation of supercritical C02 in homogenous geothermal reservoirs is quite encouraging; in comparison to that of the water. This paper aims at investigating the aforementioned processes in the case of the heterogeneous geothermal reservoir located at the Soultz site (France). The MultiPhysics finite element package COMSOL with an interface of coupling different processes encountered in the geothermal reservoir stimulation is used. A fully coupled numerical model is developed to study the thermal and hydraulic processes in order to predict the long-term operation of the basic reservoir parameters that give optimum energy production. The results reveal that the temperature of the SCC02 at the production outlet is higher than that of water in long-term stimulation; as the temperature is an essential ingredient in rating the energy production. It is also observed that the mass flow rate of the SCC02 is far more favourable compared to that of water.

Keywords: FEM, HDR, heterogeneous reservoir, stimulation, supercritical C02

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2601 Structured Tariff Calculation to Promote Geothermal for Energy Security

Authors: Siti Mariani, Arwin DW Sumari, Retno Gumilang Dewi


This paper analyzes the necessity of a structured tariff calculation for geothermal electricity in Indonesia. Indonesia is blessed with abundant natural resources and a choices of energy resources to generate electricity among other are coal, gas, biomass, hydro to geothermal, creating a fierce competition in electricity tariffs. While geothermal is inline with energy security principle and green growth initiative, it requires a huge capital funding. Geothermal electricity development consists of phases of project with each having its own financial characteristics. The Indonesian government has set a support in the form of ceiling price of geothermal electricity tariff by 11 U.S cents / kWh. However, the government did not set a levelized cost of geothermal, as an indication of lower limit capacity class, to which support is given. The government should establish a levelized cost of geothermal energy to reflect its financial capability in supporting geothermal development. Aside of that, the government is also need to establish a structured tariff calculation to reflect a fair and transparent business cooperation.

Keywords: load fator, levelized cost of geothermal, geothermal power plant, structured tariff calculation

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
2600 Enhancement Production and Development of Hot Dry Rock System by Using Supercritical CO2 as Working Fluid Instead of Water to Advance Indonesia's Geothermal Energy

Authors: Dhara Adhnandya Kumara, Novrizal Novrizal


Hot Dry Rock (HDR) is one of geothermal energy which is abundant in many provinces in Indonesia. Heat exploitation from HDR would need a method which injects fluid to subsurface to crack the rock and sweep the heat. Water is commonly used as the working fluid but known to be less effective in some ways. The new research found out that Supercritical CO2 (SCCO2) can be used to replace water as the working fluid. By studying heat transfer efficiency, pumping power, and characteristics of the returning fluid, we might decide how effective SCCO2 to replace water as working fluid. The method used to study those parameters quantitatively could be obtained from pre-existing researches which observe the returning fluids from the same reservoir with same pumping power. The result shows that SCCO2 works better than water. For cold and hot SCCO2 has lower density difference than water, this results in higher buoyancy in the system that allows the fluid to circulate with lower pumping power. Besides, lower viscosity of SCCO2 impacts in higher flow rate in circulation. The interaction between SCCO2 and minerals in reservoir could induce dehydration of the minerals and enhancement of rock porosity and permeability. While the dissolution and transportation of minerals by SCCO2 are unlikely to occur because of the nature of SCCO2 as poor solvent, and this will reduce the mineral scaling in the system. Under those conditions, using SCCO2 as working fluid for HDR extraction would give great advantages to advance geothermal energy in Indonesia.

Keywords: geothermal, supercritical CO2, injection fluid, hot dry rock

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2599 Model Organic Ranikin Cycle Power Plant for Waste Heat Recovery in Olkaria-I Geothermal Power Plant

Authors: Haile Araya Nigusse, Hiram M. Ndiritu, Robert Kiplimo


Energy consumption is an indispensable component for the continued development of the human population. The global energy demand increases with development and population rise. The increase in energy demand, high cost of fossil fuels and the link between energy utilization and environmental impacts have resulted in the need for a sustainable approach to the utilization of the low grade energy resources. The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) power plant is an advantageous technology that can be applied in generation of power from low temperature brine of geothermal reservoirs. The power plant utilizes a low boiling organic working fluid such as a refrigerant or a hydrocarbon. Researches indicated that the performance of ORC power plant is highly dependent upon factors such as proper organic working fluid selection, types of heat exchangers (condenser and evaporator) and turbine used. Despite a high pressure drop, shell-tube heat exchangers have satisfactory performance for ORC power plants. This study involved the design, fabrication and performance assessment of the components of a model Organic Rankine Cycle power plant to utilize the low grade geothermal brine. Two shell and tube heat exchangers (evaporator and condenser) and a single stage impulse turbine have been designed, fabricated and the performance assessment of each component has been conducted. Pentane was used as a working fluid and hot water simulating the geothermal brine. The results of the experiment indicated that the increase in mass flow rate of hot water by 0.08 kg/s caused a rise in overall heat transfer coefficient of the evaporator by 17.33% and the heat transferred was increased by 6.74%. In the condenser, the increase of cooling water flow rate from 0.15 kg/s to 0.35 kg/s increased the overall heat transfer coefficient by 1.21% and heat transferred was increased by 4.26%. The shaft speed varied from 1585 to 4590 rpm as inlet pressure was varied from 0.5 to 5.0 bar and power generated was varying from 4.34 to 14.46W. The results of the experiments indicated that the performance of each component of the model Organic Rankine Cycle power plant operating at low temperature heat resources was satisfactory.

Keywords: brine, heat exchanger, ORC, turbine

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2598 The Influence of Bentonite on the Rheology of Geothermal Grouts

Authors: A. N. Ghafar, O. A. Chaudhari, W. Oettel, P. Fontana


This study is a part of the EU project GEOCOND-Advanced materials and processes to improve performance and cost-efficiency of shallow geothermal systems and underground thermal storage. In heat exchange boreholes, to improve the heat transfer between the pipes and the surrounding ground, the space between the pipes and the borehole wall is normally filled with geothermal grout. Traditionally, bentonite has been a crucial component in most commercially available geothermal grouts to assure the required stability and impermeability. The investigations conducted in the early stage of this project during the benchmarking tests on some commercial grouts showed considerable sensitivity of the rheological properties of the tested grouts to the mixing parameters, i.e., mixing time and velocity. Further studies on this matter showed that bentonite, which has been one of the important constituents in most grout mixes, was probably responsible for such behavior. Apparently, proper amount of shear should be applied during the mixing process to sufficiently activate the bentonite. The higher the amount of applied shear the more the activation of bentonite, resulting in change in the grout rheology. This explains why, occasionally in the field applications, the flow properties of the commercially available geothermal grouts using different mixing conditions (mixer type, mixing time, mixing velocity) are completely different than expected. A series of tests were conducted on the grout mixes, with and without bentonite, using different mixing protocols. The aim was to eliminate/reduce the sensitivity of the rheological properties of the geothermal grouts to the mixing parameters by replacing bentonite with polymeric (non-clay) stabilizers. The results showed that by replacing bentonite with a proper polymeric stabilizer, the sensitivity of the grout mix on mixing time and velocity was to a great extent diminished. This can be considered as an alternative for the developers/producers of geothermal grouts to provide enhanced materials with less uncertainty in obtained results in the field applications.

Keywords: flow properties, geothermal grout, mixing time, mixing velocity, rheological properties

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2597 A Worldwide Assessment of Geothermal Energy Policy: Systematic, Qualitative and Critical Literature Review

Authors: Diego Moya, Juan Paredes, Clay Aldas, Ramiro Tite, Prasad Kaparaju


Globally, energy policy for geothermal development is addressed in different forms, depending on the economy, resources, country-development, environment aspects and technology access. Although some countries have established strong regulations and standards for geothermal exploration, exploitation and sustainable use at the policy level (government departments and institutions), others have discussed geothermal laws at legal levels (congress – a national legislative body of a country). Appropriate regulations are needed not only to meet local and international funding requirements but also to avoid speculation in the use of the geothermal resource. In this regards, this paper presents the results of a systematic, qualitative and critical literature review of geothermal energy policy worldwide addressing two scenarios: policy and legal levels. At first, literature is collected and classified from scientific and government sources regarding geothermal energy policy of the most advanced geothermal producing countries, including Iceland, New Zealand, Mexico, the USA, Central America, Italy, Japan, Philippines, Indonesia, Kenia, and Australia. This is followed by a systematic review of the literature aiming to know the best geothermal practices and what remains uncertain regarding geothermal policy implementation. This analysis is made considering the stages of geothermal production. Furthermore, a qualitative analysis is conducted comparing the findings across geothermal policies in the countries mentioned above. Then, a critical review aims to identify significant items in the field to be applied in countries with geothermal potential but with no or weak geothermal policies. Finally, patterns and relationships are detected, and conclusions are drawn.

Keywords: assessment, geothermal, energy policy, worldwide

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
2596 Developing New Algorithm and Its Application on Optimal Control of Pumps in Water Distribution Network

Authors: R. Rajabpour, N. Talebbeydokhti, M. H. Ahmadi


In recent years, new techniques for solving complex problems in engineering are proposed. One of these techniques is JPSO algorithm. With innovative changes in the nature of the jump algorithm JPSO, it is possible to construct a graph-based solution with a new algorithm called G-JPSO. In this paper, a new algorithm to solve the optimal control problem Fletcher-Powell and optimal control of pumps in water distribution network was evaluated. Optimal control of pumps comprise of optimum timetable operation (status on and off) for each of the pumps at the desired time interval. Maximum number of status on and off for each pumps imposed to the objective function as another constraint. To determine the optimal operation of pumps, a model-based optimization-simulation algorithm was developed based on G-JPSO and JPSO algorithms. The proposed algorithm results were compared well with the ant colony algorithm, genetic and JPSO results. This shows the robustness of proposed algorithm in finding near optimum solutions with reasonable computational cost.

Keywords: G-JPSO, operation, optimization, pumping station, water distribution networks

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2595 Optimal Geothermal Borehole Design Guided By Dynamic Modeling

Authors: Hongshan Guo


Ground-source heat pumps provide stable and reliable heating and cooling when designed properly. The confounding effect of the borehole depth for a GSHP system, however, is rarely taken into account for any optimization: the determination of the borehole depth usually comes prior to the selection of corresponding system components and thereafter any optimization of the GSHP system. The depth of the borehole is important to any GSHP system because the shallower the borehole, the larger the fluctuation of temperature of the near-borehole soil temperature. This could lead to fluctuations of the coefficient of performance (COP) for the GSHP system in the long term when the heating/cooling demand is large. Yet the deeper the boreholes are drilled, the more the drilling cost and the operational expenses for the circulation. A controller that reads different building load profiles, optimizing for the smallest costs and temperature fluctuation at the borehole wall, eventually providing borehole depth as the output is developed. Due to the nature of the nonlinear dynamic nature of the GSHP system, it was found that between conventional optimal controller problem and model predictive control problem, the latter was found to be more feasible due to a possible history of both the trajectory during the iteration as well as the final output could be computed and compared against. Aside from a few scenarios of different weighting factors, the resulting system costs were verified with literature and reports and were found to be relatively accurate, while the temperature fluctuation at the borehole wall was also found to be within acceptable range. It was therefore determined that the MPC is adequate to optimize for the investment as well as the system performance for various outputs.

Keywords: geothermal borehole, MPC, dynamic modeling, simulation

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2594 Geothermal Resources to Ensure Energy Security During Climate Change

Authors: Debasmita Misra, Arthur Nash


Energy security and sufficiency enables the economic development and welfare of a nation or a society. Currently, the global energy system is dominated by fossil fuels, which is a non-renewable energy resource, which renders vulnerability to energy security. Hence, many nations have begun augmenting their energy system with renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, biomass and hydro. However, with climate change, how sustainable are some of the renewable energy resources in the future is a matter of concern. Geothermal energy resources have been underexplored or underexploited in global renewable energy production and security, although it is gaining attractiveness as a renewable energy resource. The question is, whether geothermal energy resources are more sustainable than other renewable energy resources. High-temperature reservoirs (> 220 °F) can produce electricity from flash/dry steam plants as well as binary cycle production facilities. Most of the world’s high enthalpy geothermal resources are within the seismo-tectonic belt. However, exploration for geothermal energy is of great importance in conventional geothermal systems in order to improve its economic viability. In recent years, there has been an increase in the use and development of several exploration methods for geo-thermal resources, such as seismic or electromagnetic methods. The thermal infrared band of the Landsat can reflect land surface temperature difference, so the ETM+ data with specific grey stretch enhancement has been used to explore underground heat water. Another way of exploring for potential power is utilizing fairway play analysis for sites without surface expression and in rift zones. Utilizing this type of analysis can improve the success rate of project development by reducing exploration costs. Identifying the basin distribution of geologic factors that control the geothermal environment would help in identifying the control of resource concentration aside from the heat flow, thus improving the probability of success. The first step is compiling existing geophysical data. This leads to constructing conceptual models of potential geothermal concentrations which can then be utilized in creating a geodatabase to analyze risk maps. Geospatial analysis and other GIS tools can be used in such efforts to produce spatial distribution maps. The goal of this paper is to discuss how climate change may impact renewable energy resources and how could a synthesized analysis be developed for geothermal resources to ensure sustainable and cost effective exploitation of the resource.

Keywords: exploration, geothermal, renewable energy, sustainable

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2593 Magnetotelluric Method Approach for the 3-D Inversion of Geothermal System’s Dissemination in Indonesia

Authors: Pelangi Wiyantika


Sustainable energy is the main concern in According to solve any problems on energy sectors. One of the sustainable energy that has lack of presentation is Geothermal energy which has developed lately as the new promising sustainable energy. Indonesia as country that has been passed by the ring of fire zone has many geothermal sources. This is the good opportunity to elaborate and learn more about geothermal as sustainable and renewable energy. Geothermal systems have special characteristic whom the zone of sources can be detected by measuring the resistivity of the subsurface. There are many methods to measuring the anomaly of the systems. One of the best method is Magnetotelluric approchment. Magnetotelluric is the passive method which the resistivity is obtained by injecting the eddy current of rocks in the subsurface with the sources. The sources of Magnetotelluric method can be obtained from lightning or solar wind which has the frequencies each below 1 Hz and above 1 Hz.

Keywords: geothermal, magnetotelluric, renewable energy, resistivity, sustainable energy

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2592 Optimization of Hydraulic Fracturing for Horizontal Wells in Enhanced Geothermal Reservoirs

Authors: Qudratullah Muradi


Geothermal energy is a renewable energy source that can be found in abundance on our planet. Only a small fraction of it is currently converted to electrical power, though in recent years installed geothermal capacity has increased considerably all over the world. In this paper, we assumed a model for designing of Enhanced Geothermal System, EGS. We used computer modeling group, CMG reservoir simulation software to create the typical Hot Dry Rock, HDR reservoir. In this research two wells, one injection of cold water and one production of hot water are included in the model. There are some hydraulic fractures created by the mentioned software. And cold water is injected in order to produce energy from the reservoir. The result of injecting cold water to the reservoir and extracting geothermal energy is defined by some graphs at the end of this research. The production of energy is quantified in a period of 10 years.

Keywords: geothermal energy, EGS, HDR, hydraulic fracturing

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2591 Mapping Thermal Properties Using Resistivity, Lithology and Thermal Conductivity Measurements

Authors: Riccardo Pasquali, Keith Harlin, Mark Muller


The ShallowTherm project is focussed on developing and applying a methodology for extrapolating relatively sparsely sampled thermal conductivity measurements across Ireland using mapped Litho-Electrical (LE) units. The primary data used consist of electrical resistivities derived from the Geological Survey Ireland Tellus airborne electromagnetic dataset, GIS-based maps of Irish geology, and rock thermal conductivities derived from both the current Irish Ground Thermal Properties (IGTP) database and a new programme of sampling and laboratory measurement. The workflow has been developed across three case-study areas that sample a range of different calcareous, arenaceous, argillaceous, and volcanic lithologies. Statistical analysis of resistivity data from individual geological formations has been assessed and integrated with detailed lithological descriptions to define distinct LE units. Thermal conductivity measurements from core and hand samples have been acquired for every geological formation within each study area. The variability and consistency of thermal conductivity measurements within each LE unit is examined with the aim of defining a characteristic thermal conductivity (or range of thermal conductivities) for each LE unit. Mapping of LE units, coupled with characteristic thermal conductivities, provides a method of defining thermal conductivity properties at a regional scale and facilitating the design of ground source heat pump closed-loop collectors.

Keywords: thermal conductivity, ground source heat pumps, resistivity, heat exchange, shallow geothermal, Ireland

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2590 Assessing the Viability of Solar Water Pumps Economically, Socially and Environmentally in Soan Valley, Punjab

Authors: Zenab Naseem, Sadia Imran


One of the key solutions to the climate change crisis is to develop renewable energy resources, such as solar and wind power and biogas. This paper explores the socioeconomic and environmental viability of solar energy, based on a case study of the Soan Valley Development Program. Under this project, local farmers were provided solar water pumps at subsidized rates. These have been functional for the last seven years and have gained popularity among the local communities. The study measures the economic viability of using solar energy in agriculture, based on data from 36 households, of which 12 households each use diesel, electric and solar water pumps. Our findings are based on the net present value of each technology type. We also carry out a qualitative assessment of the social impact of solar water pumps relative to diesel and electric pumps. Finally, we conduct an environmental impact assessment, using the lifecycle assessment approach. All three analyses indicate that solar energy is a viable alternative to diesel and electricity.

Keywords: alternative energy sources, pollution control adoption and costs, solar energy pumps, sustainable development

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2589 Analysis of Magnetic Anomaly Data for Identification Structure in Subsurface of Geothermal Manifestation at Candi Umbul Area, Magelang, Central Java Province, Indonesia

Authors: N. A. Kharisa, I. Wulandari, R. Narendratama, M. I. Faisal, K. Kirana, R. Zipora, I. Arfiansah, I. Suyanto


Acquisition of geophysical survey with magnetic method has been done in manifestation of geothermalat Candi Umbul, Grabag, Magelang, Central Java Province on 10-12 May 2013. This objective research is interpretation to interpret structural geology that control geothermal system in CandiUmbul area. The research has been finished with area size 1,5 km x 2 km and measurement space of 150 m. And each point of line space survey is 150 m using PPM Geometrics model G-856. Data processing was started with IGRF and diurnal variation correction to get total magnetic field anomaly. Then, advance processing was done until reduction to pole, upward continuation, and residual anomaly. That results become next interpretation in qualitative step. It is known that the biggest object position causes low anomaly located in central of area survey that comes from hot spring manifestation and demagnetization zone that indicates the existence of heat source activity. Then, modeling the anomaly map was used for quantitative interpretation step. The result of modeling is rock layers and geological structure model that can inform about the geothermal system. And further information from quantitative interpretations can be interpreted about lithology susceptibility. And lithology susceptibilities are andesiteas heat source has susceptibility value of (k= 0.00014 emu), basaltic as alteration rock (k= 0.0016 emu), volcanic breccia as reservoir rock (k= 0.0026 emu), andesite porfirtic as cap rock (k= 0.004 emu), lava andesite (k= 0.003 emu), and alluvium (k= 0.0007 emu). The hot spring manifestation is controlled by the normal fault which becomes a weak zone, easily passed by hot water which comes from the geothermal reservoir.

Keywords: geological structure, geothermal system, magnetic, susceptibility

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