Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: air conditioners

23 Eco-Friendly Electricity Production from the Waste Heat of Air Conditioners

Authors: Anvesh Rajak

Abstract:

This is a new innovation that can be developed. Here I am going to use the waste heat of air conditioner so as to produce the electricity by using the Stirling engine because this waste heat creates the thermal pollution in the environment. The waste heat from the air conditioners has caused a temperature rise of 1°–2°C or more on weekdays in the Tokyo office areas. This heating promotes the heat-island phenomenon in Tokyo on weekdays. Now these air conditioners creates the thermal pollution in the environment and hence rising the temperature of the environment. Air conditioner generally emit the waste heat air whose temperature is about 50°C which heat the environment. Today the demand of energy is increasing tremendously, but available energy lacks in supply. Hence, there is no option for proper and efficient utilization and conservation of energy. In this paper the main stress is given on energy conservation by using technique of utilizing waste heat from Air-conditioning system. Actually the focus is on the use of the waste heat rather than improving the COP of the air- conditioners; if also we improve the COP of air conditioners gradually it would emit some waste heat so I want that waste heat to be used up. As I have used air conditioner’s waste heat to produce electricity so similarly there are various other appliances which emit the waste heat in the surrounding so here also we could use the Stirling engines and Geothermal heat pump concept to produce the electricity and hence can reduce the thermal pollution in the environment.

Keywords: stirling engine, geothermal heat pumps, waste heat, air conditioners

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22 Peltier Air Conditioning System for Preventing Ambient Heating: An Alternative to Gas Air Conditioners

Authors: Siamak Eskandari, Neda Ebadi

Abstract:

After discovering and using Freon as refrigerant in refrigerators and air conditioners, researchers have been working hard to minimize massive environmental damage caused by this type of systems, including ozone depletion, heat production, and urban warming. However, there is a growing concern for global warming and climate change and its impacts on climates. Although gas air conditioners can provide comfort in short term, there are long-term consequences and effects, including global warming, polar ice melting, sea level rising, rising sea surface temperatures, reduction in seasonal precipitation, tropical storms, and drought. In this theoretical and practical study, Peltier electronic chip was used with no gas in the structure and operation. In fact, cooling and heating are based on bipolar electronics. With an innovative method, Peltier air conditioners provide cooling in warm seasons and heating in cold seasons in buildings. Such a system prevents ambient warming. The problem of air circulation between high buildings in large cities and draught will be considerably resolved through the use of the silent fan in the system. In addition, the system is designed and developed in accordance with international standards such as LEED and Energy Star.

Keywords: energy, Building cooling and heating, peltier, leed, energy star

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21 Research on Energy-Related Occupant Behavior of Residential Air Conditioning Based on Zigbee Intelligent Electronic Equipment

Authors: Dawei Xia, Benyan Jiang, Yong Li

Abstract:

Split-type air conditioners is widely used for indoor temperature regulation in urban residential buildings in summer in China. The energy-related occupant behavior has a great impact on building energy consumption. Obtaining the energy-related occupant behavior data of air conditioners is the research basis for the energy consumption prediction and simulation. Relying on the development of sensing and control technology, this paper selects Zigbee intelligent electronic equipment to monitor the energy-related occupant behavior of 20 households for 3 months in summer. Through analysis of data, it is found that people of different ages in the region have significant difference in the time, duration, frequency, and energy consumption of air conditioners, and form a data model of three basic energy-related occupant behavior patterns to provide an accurate simulation of energy.

Keywords: occupant behavior, Zigbee, split air conditioner, energy simulation

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20 Energy Analysis of Seasonal Air Conditioning Demand of All Income Classes Using Bottom up Model in Pakistan

Authors: Saba Arif, Anam Nadeem, Roman Kalvin, Tanzeel Rashid, Burhan Ali, Juntakan Taweekun

Abstract:

Currently, the energy crisis is taking serious attention. Globally, industries and building are major share takers of energy. 72% of total global energy is consumed by residential houses, markets, and commercial building. Additionally, in appliances air conditioners are major consumer of electricity; about 60% energy is used for cooling purpose in houses due to HVAC units. Energy demand will aid in determining what changes will be needed whether it is the estimation of the required energy for households or instituting conservation measures. Bottom-up model is one of the most famous methods for forecasting. In current research bottom-up model of air conditioners' energy consumption in all income classes in comparison with seasonal variation and hourly consumption is calculated. By comparison of energy consumption of all income classes by usage of air conditioners, total consumption of actual demand and current availability can be seen.

Keywords: air conditioning, bottom up model, income classes, energy demand

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19 Studies on Lucrative Design of a Waste Heat Recovery System for Air Conditioners

Authors: Ashwin Bala, K. Panthalaraja Kumaran, S. Prithviraj, R. Pradeep, J. Udhayakumar, S. Ajith

Abstract:

In this paper, studies have been carried out for an in-house design of a waste heat recovery system for effectively utilizing the domestic air conditioner heat energy for producing hot water. Theoretical studies have been carried to optimizing the flow rate for getting maximum output with a minimum size of the heater. Critical diameter, wall thickness, and total length of the water pipeline have been estimated from the conventional heat transfer model. Several combinations of pipeline shapes viz., spiral, coil, zigzag wound through the radiator has been attempted and accordingly shape has been optimized using heat transfer analyses. The initial condition is declared based on the water flow rate and temperature. Through the parametric analytical studies we have conjectured that water flow rate, temperature difference between incoming water and radiator skin temperature, pipe material, radiator material, geometry of the water pipe viz., length, diameter, and wall thickness are having bearing on the lucrative design of a waste heat recovery system for air conditioners. Results generated through the numerical studies have been validated using an in-house waste heat recovery system for air conditioners.

Keywords: air conditioner design, energy conversion system, radiator design for energy recovery systems, waste heat recovery system

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18 Feasibility Study of Air Conditioners Operated by Solar Energy in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Eman Simbawa, Budur Alasmri, Hanan Munahir, Hanin Munahir

Abstract:

Solar energy has become currently the subject of attention around the world and is undergoing many researches and studies. Using solar energy, which is a renewable energy, is aligned with the Saudi Vision 2030. People are more aware of it and are starting to use it more for environmental and economical reasons. A questionnaire was conducted in this paper to measure the awareness of people in Saudi Arabia regarding solar energy and their attitude towards it. Then, two kinds of air conditioners (one powered by electricity only and one powered by solar panels and electricity) are compared in terms of their cost over a period of 20 years. This will help the users to decide which kind of device to use depending on its cost. The result shows that as the electricity tariffs in Saudi Arabia increases, depending on the sector, the solar air conditioner is cheaper. In fact, if the tariff in the future increases to reach 50 Halalah/kWh, the solar air conditioner is more economical. This will influence users to buy more solar powered devices, and it will decrease the consumption of electricity. Therefore, the dependence on oil will decrease.

Keywords: Airconditioner, solar energy, photovoltaic cells, present value

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17 A Refrigerated Condition for the Storage of Glucose Test Strips at Health Promoting Hospitals: An Implication for Hospitals with Limited Air Conditioners

Authors: Wanutchaya Duanginta, Napaporn Apiratmateekul, Tippawan Sangkaew, Sunaree Wekinhirun, Kunchit Kongros, Wanvisa Treebuphachatsakul

Abstract:

Thailand has a tropical climate with an average outdoor ambient air temperature of over 30°C, which can exceed manufacturer recommendations for the storage of glucose test strips. This study monitored temperature and humidity at actual sites of five sub-district health promoting hospitals (HPH) in Phitsanulok Province for the storage of glucose test strips in refrigerated conditions. Five calibrated data loggers were placed at the actual sites for glucose test strip storage at five HPHs for 8 weeks between April and June. For the stress test, two lot numbers of glucose test strips, each with two glucose meters, were kept in a plastic box with desiccants and placed in a refrigerator with the temperature calibrated to 4°C and at room temperature (RT). Temperature and humidity in the refrigerator and at RT were measured every hour for 30 days. The mean temperature for storing test strips at the five HPHs ranged from 29°C to 33°C, and three of the five HPHs (60%) had a mean temperature above 30°C. The refrigerator temperatures were 3.8 ± 2.0°C (2.0°C to 6.5°C), and relative humidity was 51 ± 2% (42 to 54%). The maximum of blood glucose testing by glucose meters when the test strips were stored in a refrigerator were not significantly different (p > 0.05) from unstressed test strips for both glucose meters using amperometry-GDH-PQQ and amperometry-GDH-FAD principles. Opening the test strip vial daily resulted in higher variation than when refrigerated after a single-use. However, the variations were still within an acceptable range. This study concludes that glucose tested strips can be stored in plastic boxes in a refrigerator if it is well-controlled for temperature and humidity. Storage of glucose-tested strips in the refrigerator during hot and humid weather may be useful for HPHs with limited air conditioners.

Keywords: environmental stressed test, thermal stressed test, quality control, point-of-care testing

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16 Environmental Protection by Optimum Utilization of Car Air Conditioners

Authors: Sanchita Abrol, Kunal Rana, Ankit Dhir, S. K. Gupta

Abstract:

According to N.R.E.L.’s findings, 700 crore gallons of petrol is used annually to run the air conditioners of passenger vehicles (nearly 6% of total fuel consumption in the USA). Beyond fuel use, the Environmental Protection Agency reported that refrigerant leaks from auto air conditioning units add an additional 5 crore metric tons of carbon emissions to the atmosphere each year. The objective of our project is to deal with this vital issue by carefully modifying the interiors of a car thereby increasing its mileage and the efficiency of its engine. This would consequently result in a decrease in tail emission and generated pollution along with improved car performance. An automatic mechanism, deployed between the front and the rear seats, consisting of transparent thermal insulating sheet/curtain, would roll down as per the requirement of the driver in order to optimize the volume for effective air conditioning, when travelling alone or with a person. The reduction in effective volume will yield favourable results. Even on a mild sunny day, the temperature inside a parked car can quickly spike to life-threatening levels. For a stationary parked car, insulation would be provided beneath its metal body so as to reduce the rate of heat transfer and increase the transmissivity. As a result, the car would not require a large amount of air conditioning for maintaining lower temperature, which would provide us similar benefits. Authors established the feasibility studies, system engineering and primarily theoretical and experimental results confirming the idea and motivation to fabricate and test the actual product.

Keywords: automation, car, cooling insulating curtains, heat optimization, insulation, reduction in tail emission, mileage

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15 Evaporative Air Coolers Optimization for Energy Consumption Reduction and Energy Efficiency Ratio Increment

Authors: Leila Torkaman, Nasser Ghassembaglou

Abstract:

Significant quota of Municipal Electrical Energy consumption is related to Decentralized Air Conditioning which is mostly provided by evaporative coolers. So the aim is to optimize design of air conditioners to increase their efficiencies. To achieve this goal, results of practical standardized tests for 40 evaporative coolers in different types collected and simultaneously results for same coolers based on one of EER (Energy Efficiency Ratio) modeling styles are figured out. By comparing experimental results of different coolers standardized tests with modeling results, preciseness of used model is assessed and after comparing gained preciseness with international standards based on EER for cooling capacity, aeration and also electrical energy consumption, energy label from A (most effective) to G (less effective) is classified. finally needed methods to optimize energy consumption and cooler's classification are provided.

Keywords: cooler, EER, energy label, optimization

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14 A Numerical Study on the Flow in a Pipe with Perforated Plates

Authors: Myeong Hee Jeong, Man Young Kim

Abstract:

The use of perforated plate and tubes is common in applications such as vehicle exhaust silencers, attenuators in air moving ducts and duct linings in jet engines. Also, perforated plate flow conditioners designed to improve flow distribution upstream of an orifice plate flow meter typically have 50–60% free area but these generally employ a non-uniform distribution of holes of several sizes to encourage the formation of a fully developed pipe flow velocity distribution. In this study, therefore, numerical investigations on the flow characteristics with the various perforated plates have been performed and then compared to the case without a perforated plate. Three different models are adopted such as a flat perforated plate, a convex perforated plate in the direction of the inlet, and a convex perforated plate in the direction of the outlet. Simulation results show that the pressure drop with and without perforated plates are similar each other. However, it can be found that that the different shaped perforated plates influence the velocity contour, flow uniformity index, and location of the fully developed fluid flow. These results can be used as a practical guide to the best design of pipe with the perforated plate.

Keywords: perforated plate, flow uniformity, pipe turbulent flow, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics)

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13 Demand Response from Residential Air Conditioning Load Using a Programmable Communication Thermostat

Authors: Saurabh Chanana, Monika Arora

Abstract:

Demand response is getting increased attention these days due to the increase in electricity demand and introduction of renewable resources in the existing power grid. Traditionally demand response programs involve large industrial consumers but with technological advancement, demand response is being implemented for small residential and commercial consumers also. In this paper, demand response program aims to reduce the peak demand as well as overall energy consumption of the residential customers. Air conditioners are the major reason of peak load in residential sector in summer, so a dynamic model of air conditioning load with thermostat action has been considered for applying demand response programs. A programmable communicating thermostat (PCT) is a device that uses real time pricing (RTP) signals to control the thermostat setting. A new model incorporating PCT in air conditioning load has been proposed in this paper. Results show that introduction of PCT in air conditioner is useful in reducing the electricity payments of customers as well as reducing the peak demand.

Keywords: demand response, home energy management, programmable communicating thermostat, thermostatically controlled appliances

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12 Challenges and Opportunities in Modelling Energy Behavior of Household in Malaysia

Authors: Zuhaina Zakaria, Noraliza Hamzah, Siti Halijjah Shariff, Noor Aizah Abdul Karim

Abstract:

The residential sector in Malaysia has become the single largest energy sector accounting for 21% of the entire energy usage of the country. In the past 10 years, a number of energy efficiency initiatives in the residential sector had been undertaken by the government including. However, there is no clear evidence that the total residential energy consumption has been reduced substantially via these strategies. Household electrical appliances such as air conditioners, refrigerators, lighting and televisions are used depending on the consumers’ activities. The behavior of household occupants played an important role in energy consumption and influenced the operation of the physical devices. Therefore, in order to ensure success in energy efficiency program, it requires not only the technological aspect but also the consumers’ behaviors component. This paper focuses on the challenges and opportunities in modelling residential consumer behavior in Malaysia. A field survey to residential consumers was carried out and responses from the survey were analyzed to determine the consumers’ level of knowledge and awareness on energy efficiency. The analyses will be used in determining a right framework to explain household energy use intentions and behavior. These findings will be beneficial to power utility company and energy regulator in addressing energy efficiency related issues.

Keywords: consumer behavior theories, energy efficiency, household occupants, residential consumer

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11 Modelling Home Appliances for Energy Management System: Comparison of Simulation Results with Measurements

Authors: Aulon Shabani, Denis Panxhi, Orion Zavalani

Abstract:

This paper presents the modelling and development of a simulator for residential electrical appliances. The simulator is developed on MATLAB providing the possibility to analyze and simulate energy consumption of frequently used home appliances in Albania. Modelling of devices considers the impact of different factors, mentioning occupant behavior and climacteric conditions. Most devices are modeled as an electric circuit, and the electric energy consumption is estimated by the solutions of the guiding differential equations. The provided models refer to devices like a dishwasher, oven, water heater, air conditioners, light bulbs, television, refrigerator water, and pump. The proposed model allows us to simulate beforehand the energetic behavior of the largest consumption home devices to estimate peak consumption and improving its reduction. Simulated home prototype results are compared to real measurement of a considered typical home. Obtained results from simulator framework compared to monitored typical household using EmonTxV3 show the effectiveness of the proposed simulation. This conclusion will help for future simulation of a large group of typical household for a better understanding of peak consumption.

Keywords: electrical appliances, energy management, modelling, peak estimation, simulation, smart home

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10 Investigation on Corrosion Behavior of Copper Brazed Joints

Authors: A. M. Aminazad, A. M. Hadian, F. Ghasimakbari

Abstract:

DHP (Deoxidized High Phosphorus )copper is widely used in various heat transfer units such as, air conditioners refrigerators, evaporators and condensers. Copper sheets and tubes (ISODHP) were brazed with four different brazing alloys. Corrosion resistances of the joints were examined by polarization and salt spray tests. The selected fillers consisted of three silver-based brazing alloys (hard solder); AWS-BCu5 BAg8, DINLAg30, and a copper-based filler AWS BCuP2. All the joints were brazed utilizing four different brazing processes including furnace brazing under argon, vacuum, air atmosphere and torch brazing. All of the fillers were used with and without flux. The microstructure of the brazed sheets was examined using both optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Hardness and leak tests were carried out on all the brazed tubes. In all three silver brazing alloys selective and galvanic corrosion were observed in filler metals, but in copper phosphor alloys the copper adjacent to the joints were noticeably corroded by pitting method. Microstructure of damaged area showed selective attack of copper lamellae as well. Interfacial attack was observed along boundaries as well as copper attack within the filler metal itself. It was found that the samples brazed with BAg5 filler metal using vacuum furnace show a higher resistance to corrosion. They also have a good ductility in the brazed zone.

Keywords: copper, brazing, corrosion, filler metal

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9 Solving the Overheating on the Top Floor of Energy Efficient Houses: The Envelope Improvement

Authors: Sormeh Sharifi, Wasim Saman, Alemu Alemu, David Whaley

Abstract:

Although various energy rating schemes and compulsory building codes are using around the world, there are increasing reports on overheating in energy efficient dwellings. Given that the cooling demand of buildings is rising globally because of the climate change, it is more likely that the overheating issue will be observed more. This paper studied the summer indoor temperature in eight air-conditioned multi-level houses in Adelaide which have complied with the Australian Nationwide Houses Energy Rating Scheme (NatHERS) minimum energy performance of 7.5 stars. Through monitored temperature, this study explores that overheating is experienced on 75.5% of top floors during cooling periods while the air-conditioners were running. This paper found that the energy efficiency regulations have significantly improved thermal comfort in low floors, but not on top floors, and the energy-efficient house is not necessarily adapted with the air temperature fluctuations particularly on top floors. Based on the results, this study suggests that the envelope of top floors for multi-level houses in South Australian context need new criteria to make the top floor more heat resistance in order to: preventing the overheating, reducing the summer pick electricity demand and providing thermal comfort. Some methods are used to improve the envelope of the eight case studies. The results demonstrate that improving roofs was the most effective part of the top floors envelope in terms of reducing the overheating.

Keywords: building code, climate change, energy-efficient building, energy rating, overheating, thermal comfort

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8 Analysis of a Multiejector Cooling System in a Truck at Different Loads

Authors: Leonardo E. Pacheco, Carlos A. Díaz

Abstract:

An alternative way of addressing the difficult to recover the useless heat is through an ejector refrigeration cycle for vehicles applications. A group of thermo-compressor supply the mechanical compressor function at conventional refrigeration compression system. The thermo-compressor group recovers the thermal energy from waste streams (exhaust gases product in internal combustion motors, gases burned in wellhead among others) to eliminate the power consumption of the mechanical compressor. These types of alternative cooling system (air-conditioners) present a kind of advantages in both the increase in energy efficiency and the improvement of the COP of the system being studied from their its mechanical simplicity (decrease of moving parts). An ejector refrigeration cycle represents a significant step forward in the optimization of the efficient use of energy in the process of air conditioning and an alternative to reduce the environmental impacts. On one side, with the energy recycling decreases the temperature of the gases thrown into the atmosphere, which contributes to the principal beneficiaries of the average temperature of the planet. In parallel, mitigating the environmental impact caused by the production and handling of conventional cooling fluids commonly available in the market, causing the destruction of the ozone layer. This work had studied the operation of the multiejector cooling system for a truck with a 420 HP engine at different rotation speed. The operation condition limits and the COP of multi-ejector cooling systems applied in a truck are analyzed for a variable rpm range from to 800–1800 rpm.

Keywords: ejector system, exhaust gas, multiejector cooling system, recovery energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
7 Retrofitting Residential Buildings for Energy Efficiency: An Experimental Investigation

Authors: Naseer M. A.

Abstract:

Buildings are major consumers of energy in both their construction and operation. They account for 40% of World’s energy use. It is estimated that 40-60% of this goes for conditioning the indoor environment. In India, like many other countries, the residential buildings have a major share (more than 50%) in the building sector. Of these, single-family units take a mammoth share. The single-family dwelling units in the urban and fringe areas are built in two stories to minimize the building foot print on small land parcels. And quite often, the bedrooms are located in the first floors. The modern buildings are provided with reinforced concrete (RC) roofs that absorb heat throughout the day and radiate the heat into the interiors during the night. The rooms that are occupied in the night, like bedrooms, are having their indoors uncomfortable. This has resulted in the use of active systems like air-conditioners and air coolers, thereby increasing the energy use. An investigation conducted by monitoring the thermal comfort condition in the residential building with RC roofs have proved that the indoors are really uncomfortable in the night hours. A sustainable solution to improve the thermal performance of the RC roofs was developed by an experimental study by continuously monitoring the thermal comfort parameters during summer (the period that is most uncomfortable in temperate climate). The study conducted in the southern peninsular India, prove that retrofitting of existing residential building can give a sustainable solution in abating the ever increasing energy demand especially when it is a fact that these residential buildings that are built for a normal life span of 40 years would continue to consume the energy for the rest of its useful life.

Keywords: energy efficiency, thermal comfort, retrofitting, residential buildings

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6 Study on Optimization of Air Infiltration at Entrance of a Commercial Complex in Zhejiang Province

Authors: Yujie Zhao, Jiantao Weng

Abstract:

In the past decade, with the rapid development of China's economy, the purchasing power and physical demand of residents have been improved, which results in the vast emergence of public buildings like large shopping malls. However, the architects usually focus on the internal functions and streamlines of these buildings, ignoring the impact of the environment on the subjective feelings of building users. Only in Zhejiang province, the infiltration of cold air in winter frequently occurs at the entrance of sizeable commercial complex buildings that have been in operation, which will affect the environmental comfort of the building lobby and internal public spaces. At present, to reduce these adverse effects, it is usually adopted to add active equipment, such as setting air curtains to block air exchange or adding heating air conditioners. From the perspective of energy consumption, the infiltration of cold air into the entrance will increase the heat consumption of indoor heating equipment, which will indirectly cause considerable economic losses during the whole winter heating stage. Therefore, it is of considerable significance to explore the suitable entrance forms for improving the environmental comfort of commercial buildings and saving energy. In this paper, a commercial complex with apparent cold air infiltration problem in Hangzhou is selected as the research object to establish a model. The environmental parameters of the building entrance, including temperature, wind speed, and infiltration air volume, are obtained by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation, from which the heat consumption caused by the natural air infiltration in the winter and its potential economic loss is estimated as the objective metric. This study finally obtains the optimization direction of the building entrance form of the commercial complex by comparing the simulation results of other local commercial complex projects with different entrance forms. The conclusions will guide the entrance design of the same type of commercial complex in this area.

Keywords: air infiltration, commercial complex, heat consumption, CFD simulation

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5 Effective Wind-Induced Natural Ventilation in a Residential Apartment Typology

Authors: Tanvi P. Medshinge, Prasad Vaidya, Monisha E. Royan

Abstract:

In India, cooling loads in residential sector is a major contributor to its total energy consumption. Due to the increasing cooling need, the market penetration of air-conditioners is further expected to rise. Natural Ventilation (NV), however, possesses great potential to save significant energy consumption especially for residential buildings in moderate climates. As multifamily residential apartment buildings are designed by repetitive use of prototype designs, deriving individual NV based design prototype solutions for a combination of different wind incidence angles and orientations would provide significant opportunity to address the rise in cooling loads by residential sector. This paper presents the results of NV performance of a selected prototype apartment design with a cluster of four units in Pune, India, and an attempt to improve the NV performance through design modifications. The water table apparatus, a physical modelling tool, is used to study the flow patterns and simulate wind-induced NV performance. Quantification of NV performance is done by post processing images captured from video recordings in terms of percentage of area with good and poor access to ventilation. NV performance of the existing design for eight wind incidence angles showed that of the cluster of four units, the windward units showed good access to ventilation for all rooms, and the leeward units had lower access to ventilation with the bedrooms in the leeward units having the least access. The results showed improved performance in all the units for all wind incidence angles to more than 80% good access to ventilation. Some units showed an additional improvement to more than 90% good access to ventilation. This process of design and performance evaluation improved some individual units from 0% to 100% for good access to ventilation. The results demonstrate the ease of use and the power of the water table apparatus for performance-based design to simulate wind induced NV.  

Keywords: fluid dynamics, prototype design, natural ventilation, simulations, water table apparatus, wind incidence angles

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
4 Comfort Sensor Using Fuzzy Logic and Arduino

Authors: Samuel John, S. Sharanya

Abstract:

Automation has become an important part of our life. It has been used to control home entertainment systems, changing the ambience of rooms for different events etc. One of the main parameters to control in a smart home is the atmospheric comfort. Atmospheric comfort mainly includes temperature and relative humidity. In homes, the desired temperature of different rooms varies from 20 °C to 25 °C and relative humidity is around 50%. However, it varies widely. Hence, automated measurement of these parameters to ensure comfort assumes significance. To achieve this, a fuzzy logic controller using Arduino was developed using MATLAB. Arduino is an open source hardware consisting of a 24 pin ATMEGA chip (atmega328), 14 digital input /output pins and an inbuilt ADC. It runs on 5v and 3.3v power supported by a board voltage regulator. Some of the digital pins in Aruduino provide PWM (pulse width modulation) signals, which can be used in different applications. The Arduino platform provides an integrated development environment, which includes support for c, c++ and java programming languages. In the present work, soft sensor was introduced in this system that can indirectly measure temperature and humidity and can be used for processing several measurements these to ensure comfort. The Sugeno method (output variables are functions or singleton/constant, more suitable for implementing on microcontrollers) was used in the soft sensor in MATLAB and then interfaced to the Arduino, which is again interfaced to the temperature and humidity sensor DHT11. The temperature-humidity sensor DHT11 acts as the sensing element in this system. Further, a capacitive humidity sensor and a thermistor were also used to support the measurement of temperature and relative humidity of the surrounding to provide a digital signal on the data pin. The comfort sensor developed was able to measure temperature and relative humidity correctly. The comfort percentage was calculated and accordingly the temperature in the room was controlled. This system was placed in different rooms of the house to ensure that it modifies the comfort values depending on temperature and relative humidity of the environment. Compared to the existing comfort control sensors, this system was found to provide an accurate comfort percentage. Depending on the comfort percentage, the air conditioners and the coolers in the room were controlled. The main highlight of the project is its cost efficiency.

Keywords: arduino, DHT11, soft sensor, sugeno

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3 Potential Applications of Biosurfactants from Corn Steep Liquor in Cosmetic

Authors: J. M. Cruz, X. Vecıno, L. Rodrıguez-López, J. M. Dominguez, A. B. Moldes

Abstract:

The cosmetic and personal care industry are the fields where biosurfactants could have more possibilities of success because in this kind of products the replacement of synthetic detergents by natural surfactants will provide an additional added value to the product, at the same time that the harmful effects produced by some synthetic surfactants could be avoided or reduced. Therefore, nowadays, consumers are disposed to pay and additional cost if they obtain more natural products. In this work we provide data about the potential of biosurfactants in the cosmetic and personal care industry. Biosurfactants from corn steep liquor, that is a fermented and condensed stream, have showed good surface-active properties, reducing substantially the surface tension of water. The bacteria that usually growth in corn steep liquor comprises Lactobacillus species, generally recognize as safe. The biosurfactant extracted from CSL consists of a lipopeptide, composed by fatty acids, which can reduce the surface tension of water in more than 30 units. It is a yellow and viscous liquid with a density of 1.053 mg/mL and pH=4. By these properties, they could be introduced in the formulation of cosmetic creams, hair conditioners or shampoos. Moreover this biosurfactant extracted from corn steep liquor, have showed a potent antimicrobial effect on different strains of Streptococcus. Some species of Streptococcus are commonly found weakly living in the human respiratory and genitourinary systems, producing several diseases in humans, including skin diseases. For instance, Streptococcus pyogenes produces many toxins and enzymes that help to stabilize skin infections; probably biosurfactants from corn steep liquor can inhibit the mechanisms of the S. pyogenes enzymes. S. pyogenes is an important cause of pharyngitis, impetigo, cellulitis and necrotizing fasciitis. In this work it was observed that 50 mg/L of biosurfactant extract obtained from corn steep liquor is able to inhibit more than 50% the growth of S. pyogenes. Thus, cosmetic and personal care products, formulated with biosurfactants from corn steep liquor, could have prebiotic properties. The natural biosurfactant presented in this work and obtained from corn milling industry streams, have showed a high potential to provide an interesting and sustainable alternative to those, antibacterial and surfactant ingredients used in cosmetic and personal care manufacture, obtained by chemical synthesis, which can cause irritation, and often only show short time effects.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, biosurfactants, cosmetic, personal care

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
2 Unusual Weld Failures of Rotary Compressor during Hydraulic Tests: Analysis revealed Boron Induced Cracking in Fusion Zone

Authors: Kaushal Kishore, Vaibhav Jain, Hrishikesh Jugade, Saurabh Hadas, Manashi Adhikary, Goutam Mukhopadhyay, Sandip Bhattacharyya

Abstract:

Rotary air compressors in air conditioners are used to suck excessive volume of air from the atmosphere in a small space to provide drive to the components attached to them. Hydraulic test is one of the most important methods to decide the suitability of these components for usage. In the present application, projection welding is used to join the hot rolled steel sheets after forming for manufacturing of air compressors. These sheets belong to two different high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel grades. It was observed that one batch of compressors made of a particular grade was cracking from the weld, whereas those made of another grade were passing the hydraulic tests. Cracking was repeatedly observed from the weld location. A detailed comparative study of the compressors which failed and successfully passed pressure tests has been presented. Location of crack initiation was identified to be the interface of fusion zone/heat affected zone. Shear dimples were observed on the fracture surface confirming the ductile mode of failure. Hardness profile across the weld revealed a sharp rise in hardness in the fusion zone. This was attributed to the presence of untempered martensitic lath in the fusion zone. A sharp metallurgical notch existed at the heat affected zone/fusion zone interface due to transition in microstructure from acicular ferrite and bainite in HAZ to untempered martensite in the fusion zone. In contrast, welds which did not fail during the pressure tests showed a smooth hardness profile with no abnormal rise in hardness in the fusion zone. The bainitic microstructure was observed in the fusion zone of successful welds. This difference in microstructural constituents in the fusion zone was attributed to the presence of a small amount of boron (0.002 wt. %) in the sheets which were cracking. Trace amount of boron is known to substantially increase the hardenability of HSLA steel, and cooling rate during resolidification in the fusion zone is sufficient to form martensite. Post-weld heat treatment was recommended to transform untempered martensite to tempered martensite with lower hardness.

Keywords: compressor, cracking, martensite, weld, boron, hardenability, high strength low alloy steel

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1 Motivational Profiles of the Entrepreneurial Career in Spanish Businessmen

Authors: Magdalena Suárez-Ortega, M. Fe. Sánchez-García

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the analysis of the motivations that lead people to undertake and consolidate their business. It is addressed from the framework of planned behavior theory, which recognizes the importance of the social environment and cultural values, both in the decision to undertake business and in business consolidation. Similarly, it is also based on theories of career development, which emphasize the importance of career management competencies and their connections to other vital aspects of people, including their roles within their families and other personal activities. This connects directly with the impact of entrepreneurship on the career and the professional-personal project of each individual. This study is part of the project titled Career Design and Talent Management (Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness of Spain, State Plan 2013-2016 Excellence Ref. EDU2013-45704-P). The aim of the study is to identify and describe entrepreneurial competencies and motivational profiles in a sample of 248 Spanish entrepreneurs, considering the consolidated profile and the profile in transition (n = 248).In order to obtain the information, the Questionnaire of Motivation and conditioners of the entrepreneurial career (MCEC) has been applied. This consists of 67 items and includes four scales (E1-Conflicts in conciliation, E2-Satisfaction in the career path, E3-Motivations to undertake, E4-Guidance Needs). Cluster analysis (mixed method, combining k-means clustering with a hierarchical method) was carried out, characterizing the groups profiles according to the categorical variables (chi square, p = 0.05), and the quantitative variables (ANOVA). The results have allowed us to characterize three motivational profiles relevant to the motivation, the degree of conciliation between personal and professional life, and the degree of conflict in conciliation, levels of career satisfaction and orientation needs (in the entrepreneurial project and life-career). The first profile is formed by extrinsically motivated entrepreneurs, professionally satisfied and without conflict of vital roles. The second profile acts with intrinsic motivation and also associated with family models, and although it shows satisfaction with their professional career, it finds a high conflict in their family and professional life. The third is composed of entrepreneurs with high extrinsic motivation, professional dissatisfaction and at the same time, feel the conflict in their professional life by the effect of personal roles. Ultimately, the analysis has allowed us to line the kinds of entrepreneurs to different levels of motivation, satisfaction, needs and articulation in professional and personal life, showing characterizations associated with the use of time for leisure, and the care of the family. Associations related to gender, age, activity sector, environment (rural, urban, virtual), and the use of time for domestic tasks are not identified. The model obtained and its implications for the design of training actions and orientation to entrepreneurs is also discussed.

Keywords: motivation, entrepreneurial career, guidance needs, life-work balance, job satisfaction, assessment

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