Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 51

Search results for: harbor

51 Numerical Modeling of Storm Swells in Harbor by Boussinesq Equations Model

Authors: Mustapha Kamel Mihoubi, Hocine Dahmani

Abstract:

The purpose of work is to study the phenomenon of agitation of storm waves at basin caused by different directions of waves relative to the current provision thrown numerical model based on the equation in shallow water using Boussinesq model MIKE 21 BW. According to the diminishing effect of penetration of a wave optimal solution will be available to be reproduced in reduced model. Another alternative arrangement throws will be proposed to reduce the agitation and the effects of the swell reflection caused by the penetration of waves in the harbor.

Keywords: agitation, Boussinesq equations, combination, harbor

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
50 Numerical Modeling of Waves and Currents by Using a Hydro-Sedimentary Model

Authors: Mustapha Kamel Mihoubi, Hocine Dahmani

Abstract:

Over recent years much progress has been achieved in the fields of numerical modeling shoreline processes: waves, currents, waves and current. However, there are still some problems in the existing models to link the on the first, the hydrodynamics of waves and currents and secondly, the sediment transport processes and due to the variability in time, space and interaction and the simultaneous action of wave-current near the shore. This paper is the establishment of a numerical modeling to forecast the sediment transport from development scenarios of harbor structure. It is established on the basis of a numerical simulation of a water-sediment model via a 2D model using a set of codes calculation MIKE 21-DHI software. This is to examine the effect of the sediment transport drivers following the dominant incident wave in the direction to pass input harbor work under different variants planning studies to find the technical and economic limitations to the sediment transport and protection of the harbor structure optimum solution.

Keywords: swell, current, radiation, stress, mesh, mike21, sediment

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
49 The Impact of Ship Traffic and Harbor Activities on the Atmospheric Pollution in Two Northern Adriatic Ports: Venice and Rijeka

Authors: Elena Barbaro, Elena Gregoris, Rossano Piazza, Boris Mifka, Tatjana Ivošević, Ivo Orlić, Ana Alebić-Juretić, Andrea Gambaro, Daniele Contini

Abstract:

The aim of the POSEIDON project is to quantify the relative contribution of maritime traffic and harbor activities to atmospheric pollutants concentration in four port-cities of the Adriatic Sea. This study focuses on the harbors of Venice and Rijeka. In order to investigate the main pollution sources, emission inventories were used as input for receptor models: PMF (positive matrix factorization) and PCA (principal components analysis); moreover source identification was also conducted using PAHs diagnostic ratios. The ship traffic impact was quantified: i) on gaseous and particulate PAHs, collected using a new method which consisted in a double simultaneous sampling, in different wind sectors; ii) applying PMF to data of metals, PAHs and ions in PM10; iii) using the vanadium concentration according to the Agrawal methodology.

Keywords: ship traffic, PMF, harbor, POSEIDON

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48 Formulation of Aggregates Based on Dredged Sand and Sediments

Authors: Nor-Edine Abriak, Ilyas Ennahal, Abdeljalil Zri, Mahfoud Benzerzour

Abstract:

Nord Pas de Calais is one of the French regions that records a large volume of dredged sediment in harbors and waterways. To ensure navigation within ports and waterways, harbor and river managers are forced to find solutions to remove sediment that contamination levels exceed levels established by regulations. Therefore, this non- submersible sediment must be managed on land and will be subject to the waste regulation. In this paper, some examples of concrete achievements and experiments of reusing dredged sediment in civil engineering and sector will be illustrated. These achievements are alternative solutions to sediment landfilling and guarantee the reuse of this material in a logic of circular economy and ecological transition. It permits to preserve the natural resources increasingly scarce and resolve issues related to the accumulation of sediments in the harbor basins, rivers, dams, and lakes, etc. Examples of beneficial use of dredged material illustrated in this paper are the result of different projects reusing harbor and waterways sediments in several applications. These projects were funded under the national SEDIMATERIAUX approach. Thus the technical and environmental feasibility of the reuse of dredged sediment is demonstrated and verified; the dredged sediment reusing would meet multiple challenges of sustainable development in relation to environmental, economic, social and societal.

Keywords: circular economy, sediment, SEDIMATERIAUX, waterways

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47 Benthic Foraminiferal Responses to Coastal Pollution for Some Selected Sites along Red Sea, Egypt

Authors: Ramadan M. El-Kahawy, M. A. El-Shafeiy, Mohamed Abd El-Wahab, S. A. Helal, Nabil Aboul-Ela

Abstract:

Due to the economic importance of Safaga Bay, Quseir harbor and Ras Gharib harbor , a multidisciplinary approach was adopted to invistigate 27 surfecial sediment samples from the three sites and 9 samples for each in order to use the benthic foraminifera as bio-indicators for characterization of the environmental variations. Grain size analyses indicate that the bottom facies in the inner part of quseir is muddy while the inner part of Ras Gharib and Safaga is silty sand and those close to the entrance of Safaga bay and Ras Gharib is sandy facies while quseir still also muddy facies. geochemical data show high concentration of heavy-metals mainly in Ras Gharib due to oil leakage from the hydrocarbon oil field and Safaga bay due to the phosphate mining while quseir is medium concentration due to anthropocentric effect.micropaelontological analyses indicate the boundaries of the highest concentration of heavy metals and those of low concentration as well.the dominant benthic foraminifera in these three sites are Ammonia beccarii, Amphistigina and sorites. the study highlights the worsening of environmental conditions and also show that the areas in need of a priority recovery.

Keywords: benthic foraminifera, Ras Gharib, Safaga, Quseir, Red Sea, Egypt

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46 Assessment of Trace Metals Contamination in Surficial and Core Sediments from Ghannouch- Gabes Coastline, Impact of Phosphogypsum Discharge, Southeastern of Tunisia, Mediterranean Sea: Geochemical and Mineralogical Approaches

Authors: Rim Ben Amor, Myriam Abidi, Moncef Gueddari

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The purpose of the present study is to assess the level and the distribution of CaO, SO3, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn incore sediments of Ghannouch-Gabes coast, Gulf of Gabes, Tunisian Mediterranean coast. The XRD analyses indicate that the sediments of Ghannouch-Gabes coast are mainly composed of quartz, calcite, gypsum and fluorine reflecting the impact of the phosphate fertilizer industrial waste. The vertical distribution of surface sediments shows for all the elements analyzed, that the area located between the commercial and the fishing port of Gabes, is the most polluted zone, where the two harbors acted as barriers and limited the dispersion of phosphogypsum discharge. The abundance order of metals was found to be Zn > Cd > Cu >Pb and that the highest levels of heavy metals were found in the uppermost segment of the sediment core compared to lower depth subsurface due to a continuous input of PG release and showed that the area between the two harbor suffered from several types of pollutants compared to reference core C1, collected from non-industrialized area. The level of pollution was evaluated using contamination factor (Cf), pollution load index (PLI) and the geoaccumulation index (Igeo). The obtained results of Igeo allowed us to distinguish that the area between the commercial harbor of Ghannouch and the fishing harbor of Gabes is the most polluted where sediments are strongly contaminated for Pb, Cu and Cd. The pollution load index (PLI) of all sediments collected classified them as "polluted". According to contamination factor (Cf), the sediments can be considered as ‘considerable’ to ‘very high’ contaminated for Pb, ‘very high to moderate’ for Cd, ‘ moderate’ for Zn, between ‘moderate’ and ‘considerable’ for Cu. Statistical analyses show that heavy metals, fluoride, calcium and sulphate are resulting from the same anthropogenic origin. The metallic pollution status of sediments of Ghanouch -Gabes coast is worrying and requires a serious intervention.

Keywords: trace metals, phosphogypsum, core sediments, accumulation factor, contamination factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
45 Extracellular Enzymes from Halophilic Bacteria with Potential in Agricultural Secondary Flow Recovery Products

Authors: Madalin Enache, Simona Neagu, Roxana Cojoc, Ioana Gomoiu, Delia Ionela Dobre, Ancuta Roxana Trifoi

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Various types of halophilic and halotolerant microorganisms able to be cultivated in laboratory on culture media with a wide range of sodium chloride content are isolated from several salted environments. The extracellular enzymes of these microorganisms showed the enzymatic activity in these spectrums of salinity thus being attractive for several biotechnological processes developed at high ionic strength. In present work, a number of amylase, protease, esterase, lipase, cellulase, pectinase, xilanases and innulinase were identified for more than 50th bacterial strains isolated from water samples and sapropelic mud from four saline and hypersaline lakes located in Romanian plain. On the other hand, the cellulase and pectinase activity were also detected in some halotolerant microorganisms isolated from secondary agricultural flow of grapes processing. The preliminary data revealed that from totally tested strains seven harbor proteases activity, eight amylase activity, four for esterase and another four for lipase, three for pectinase and for one strain were identified either cellulase or pectinase activity. There were no identified enzymes able to hydrolase innulin added to culture media. Several strains isolated from sapropelic mud showed multiple extracellular enzymatic activities, namely three strains harbor three activities and another seven harbor two activities. The data revealed that amylase and protease activities were frequently detected if compare with other tested enzymes. In the case of pectinase were investigated, their ability to be used for increasing resveratrol recovery from material resulted after grapes processing. In this way, the resulted material from grapes processing was treated with microbial supernatant for several times (two, four and 24 hours) and the content of resveratrol was detected by High Performance Liquid Chromatography method (HPLC). The preliminary data revealed some positive results of this treatment.

Keywords: halophilic microorganisms, enzymes, pectinase, salinity

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44 Using Human-Digestive Simulator to Harbor Encapsulated Lactobacillus casei 01 along with Pasteurized-Purple-Rice Drinks for Examination of the Health-Promoting Effects

Authors: Srivilai Worametrachanon, Arunee Apichartsrangkoon, Jiranat Techarang, Boonrak Phanchaisri

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A human-digestive simulator consisted of four colon compartments, i.e., stomach, small intestine, proximal colon and distal colon used to harbor L. casei 01 plus either pasteurized ordinary-purple-rice drinks or germinated-purple-rice drinks. Accordingly, three treatment compositions had been set up and the effects of treatments on colon bacterial communities including their by-products were thoroughly examined. L. casei 01 plus purple-rice drinks gave rise to significantly high formation (P ≤ 0.05) of short-chain-fatty acids (SCFA) of which highest acetic acid was found followed by propionic and butyric acids, while the germinated-rice drink showed the greatest impact. Moreover, the effect was more pronounced upon prolonged fermentation. In addition, the influence of treatments on colon microbes was also demonstrated. Accordingly, desirable bacteria including colon Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria were significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) in both colons in comparison with the control and the effect was more prominent after adding purple-rice drink. On the other hand, undesirable Clostridia and coliforms were apparently diminished by the influence of treatment conditions, in which both compartments exhibited similar results.

Keywords: human-digestive simulator, Lactobacillus casei 01, Pasteurized-purple-rice drinks

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43 Analysis of Network Connectivity for Ship-To-Ship Maritime Communication Using IEEE 802.11 on Maritime Environment of Tanjung Perak, Indonesia

Authors: Ahmad Fauzi Makarim, Okkie Puspitorini, Hani'ah Mahmudah, Nur Adi Siswandari, Ari Wijayanti

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As a maritime country, Indonesia needs a solution in maritime connectivity which can assist the maritime communication system which including communication from harbor to the ship or ship to ship. The needs of many application services for maritime communication, whether for safety reasons until voyage service to help the process of voyage activity needs connection with a high bandwith. To support the government efforts in handling that kind of problem, a research is conducted in maritime communication issue by applying the new developed technology in Indonesia, namely IEEE 802.11. In this research, 3 outdoor WiFi devices are used in which have a frequency of 5.8 GHz. Maritime of Tanjung Perak harbor in Surabaya until Karang Jamuang Island are used as the location of the research with defining permission of ship node spreading by Navigation District Class 1. That maritime area formed by state 1 and state 2 areas which are the narrow area with average wave height of 0.7 meter based on the data from BMKG S urabaya. After that, wave height used as one of the parameters which are used in analyzing characteristic of signal propagation at sea surface, so it can be determined on the coverage area of transmitter system. In this research has been used three samples of outdoor wifi, there is the coverage of device A can be determined about 2256 meter, device B 4000 meter, and device C 1174 meter. Then to analyze of network connectivity for the ship to ship is used AODV routing algorithm system based on the value of the power transmit was smallest of all nodes within the transmitter coverage.

Keywords: maritime of Indonesia, maritime communications, outdoor wifi, coverage, AODV

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42 Ecological Planning Method of Reclamation Area Based on Ecological Management of Spartina Alterniflora: A Case Study of Xihu Harbor in Xiangshan County

Authors: Dong Yue, Hua Chen

Abstract:

The study region Xihu Harbor in Xiangshan County, Ningbo City is located in the central coast of Zhejiang Province. Concerning the wave dispating issue, Ningbo government firstly introduced Spartina alterniflora in 1980s. In the 1990s, S. alterniflora spread so rapidly thus a ‘grassland’ in the sea has been created nowadays. It has become the most important invasive plant of China’s coastal tidal flats. Although S. alterniflora had some ecological and economic functions, it has also brought series of hazards. It has ecological hazards on many aspects, including biomass and biodiversity, hydrodynamic force and sedimentation process, nutrient cycling of tidal flat, succession sequence of soil and plants and so on. On engineering, it courses problems of poor drainage and channel blocking. On economy, the hazard mainly reflected in the threat on aquaculture industry. The purpose of this study is to explore an ecological, feasible and economical way to manage Spartina alterniflora and use the land formed by it, taking Xihu Harbor in Xiangshan County as a case. Comparison method, mathematical modeling, qualitative and quantitative analysis are utilized to proceed the study. Main outcomes are as follows. By comparing a series of S. alterniflora managing methods which include the combination of mechanical cutting and hydraulic reclamation, waterlogging, herbicide and biological substitution from three standpoints – ecology, engineering and economy. It is inferred that the combination of mechanical cutting and hydraulic reclamation is among the top rank of S. alternifora managing methods. The combination of mechanical cutting and hydraulic reclamation means using large-scale mechanical equipment like large screw seagoing dredger to excavate the S. alterniflora with root and mud together. Then the mix of mud and grass was blown off nearby coastal tidal zone transported by pipelines, which can cushion the silt of tidal zone to form a land. However, as man-made land by coast, the reclamation area’s ecological sensitivity is quite high and will face high possibility of flood threat. Therefore, the reclamation area has many reasonability requirements, including ones on location, specific scope, water surface rate, direction of main watercourse, site of water-gate, the ratio of ecological land to urban construction land. These requirements all became important basis when the planning was being made. The water system planning, green space system planning, road structure and land use all need to accommodate the ecological requests. Besides, the profits from the formed land is the managing project’s source of funding, so how to utilize land efficiently is another considered point in the planning. It is concluded that by aiming at managing a large area of S. alterniflora, the combination of mechanical cutting and hydraulic reclamation is an ecological, feasible and economical method. The planning of reclamation area should fully respect the natural environment and possible disasters. Then the planning which makes land use efficient, reasonable, ecological will promote the development of the area’s city construction.

Keywords: ecological management, ecological planning method, reclamation area, Spartina alternifora, Xihu harbor

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41 Improve Divers Tracking and Classification in Sonar Images Using Robust Diver Wake Detection Algorithm

Authors: Mohammad Tarek Al Muallim, Ozhan Duzenli, Ceyhun Ilguy

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Harbor protection systems are so important. The need for automatic protection systems has increased over the last years. Diver detection active sonar has great significance. It used to detect underwater threats such as divers and autonomous underwater vehicle. To automatically detect such threats the sonar image is processed by algorithms. These algorithms used to detect, track and classify of underwater objects. In this work, divers tracking and classification algorithm is improved be proposing a robust wake detection method. To detect objects the sonar images is normalized then segmented based on fixed threshold. Next, the centroids of the segments are found and clustered based on distance metric. Then to track the objects linear Kalman filter is applied. To reduce effect of noise and creation of false tracks, the Kalman tracker is fine tuned. The tuning is done based on our active sonar specifications. After the tracks are initialed and updated they are subjected to a filtering stage to eliminate the noisy and unstable tracks. Also to eliminate object with a speed out of the diver speed range such as buoys and fast boats. Afterwards the result tracks are subjected to a classification stage to deiced the type of the object been tracked. Here the classification stage is to deice wither if the tracked object is an open circuit diver or a close circuit diver. At the classification stage, a small area around the object is extracted and a novel wake detection method is applied. The morphological features of the object with his wake is extracted. We used support vector machine to find the best classifier. The sonar training images and the test images are collected by ARMELSAN Defense Technologies Company using the portable diver detection sonar ARAS-2023. After applying the algorithm to the test sonar data, we get fine and stable tracks of the divers. The total classification accuracy achieved with the diver type is 97%.

Keywords: harbor protection, diver detection, active sonar, wake detection, diver classification

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40 Implicit Bias as One Obstacle to Gender Equity

Authors: Kellina Craig-Henderson

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Today, there is increased attention to the role of social perceptions in the selection, hiring, and management of employees and the evaluation and promotion of students. In some contexts, where women or members of certain social groups have been historically underrepresented there is evidence that these perceptions reflect the implicit biases people harbor. Research in the social and psychological sciences reveals that implicit biases against women unfairly disadvantage them in academic and work settings. This presentation will provide an overview of the current state of knowledge on an implicit bias as well as the problems associated with it. How employers, educators and other evaluators can inoculate themselves from the pernicious effects of these biases will be considered.

Keywords: gender equity, implicit bias, social psychology, unconscious bias

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
39 A Fundamental Study for Real-Time Safety Evaluation System of Landing Pier Using FBG Sensor

Authors: Heungsu Lee, Youngseok Kim, Jonghwa Yi, Chul Park

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A landing pier is subjected to safety assessment by visual inspection and design data, but it is difficult to check the damage in real-time. In this study, real - time damage detection and safety evaluation methods were studied. As a result of structural analysis of the arbitrary landing pier structure, the inflection point of deformation and moment occurred at 10%, 50%, and 90% of pile length. The critical value of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor was set according to the safety factor, and the FBG sensor application method for real - time safety evaluation was derived.

Keywords: FBG sensor, harbor structure, maintenance, safety evaluation system

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
38 Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Jordanian Juglans regia L.

Authors: Hamoud Alshammari, Adnan Almezani, Hamdan Alshammari, Faris Alharbi

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In this study we have examined of antimicrobial activity for unripe Juglan Regia phenolic extracts against a wide range of pathogenic microorganisms. Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is a member of Juglandaceae family used as a remedy in folk medicine. Leaves, barks, fruits and husk (peel) reported to harbor distinctive medical effect. In our study, we examined the anti-microbial effect against a set of gram positive and negative bacteria and even we have tested them against eukaryotic candida strains in a concentration gradual manner. Ethyl acetate extract of J. regia had the best antibacterial activity when compared with ciprofloxacin. The Minimum inhibition concentration for S. aureus, P. aerogenosa and S. epidermidis MIC was 0.85 mg/mL.

Keywords: antimicrobial, J. regia, S. aureus, phytochemistry

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
37 Maintenance Dredging at Port of Townsville

Authors: Mohamed Jaditager, Julie Lovisa, Nagaratnam Sivakugan

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The Port of Townsville conducts regular annual maintenance dredging to maintain depths of its harbor basin and approach channels for the navigational safety of the vessels against the natural accumulation of marine sediments. In addition to the regular maintenance dredging, the port undertakes emergency dredging in cases where large quantities of sediments are mobilized and deposited in port waters by cyclone or major flood events. The maintenance dredging material derived from the port may be disposed at sea or on land in accordance with relevant state and commonwealth regulations. For the land disposal, the dredged mud slurry is hydraulically placed into containment ponds and left to undergo sedimentation and self-weight consolidation to form fill material for land reclamation. This paper provides an overview of the maintenance dredging at the Port of Townsville and emphasis on maintenance dredging requirements, sediment quality, bathymetry, dredging methods used, and dredged material disposal options.

Keywords: consolidation, dredged material, maintenance dredging, marine sediments, sedimentation

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36 Biomonitoring of Marine Environment by Using a Bioindicator Donax trunculus (Mollusca, Bivalvia) from the Gulf of Annaba (Algeria): Biomarkers Responses

Authors: Karima Sifi, Noureddine Soltani

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Annaba gulf is the most important touristic and economic area located on the east coast of Algeria. However, these fishery resources are threatened by the pollution due to the progress of economic activity. As part of a biomonitoring program on the quality of waters of the Gulf of Annaba, the specific activity of two biomarkers, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathion S-transferase (GST) has been measured in edible bivalve Donax trunculus. The samples have been collected during the year 2013 in two sites: El Battah, distant from polluted sources, and Sidi Salem, located near the harbor and different industrial waste. The results showed a significant inhibition of AChE activity and a significant increase in the activity of the GST in samples collected from Sidi Salem as compared to El Battah. The inhibition of the AChE and the increase of the GST in Sidi Salem are in relation with the level of exposition of this site to the pollution.

Keywords: Donax trunculus, annaba gulf, acetylcholinesterase, glutathion s-transferase, biomonitoring, pollution

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35 Modelling Suspended Solids Transport in Dammam (Saudi Arabia) Coastal Areas

Authors: Hussam Alrabaiah

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Some new projects (new proposed harbor, recreational projects) are considered in the eastern coasts of Dammam city, Saudi Arabia. Dredging operations would significantly alter coast hydrological and sediment transport processes. It is important that the project areas must keep flushing the fresh sea water in and out with good water quality parameters, which are currently facing increased pressure from urbanization and navigation requirements in conjunction with industrial developments. A suspended solids or sediments are expected to affect the flora and fauna in that area. Governing advection-diffusion equations are considered to understand the consequences of such projects. A numerical modeling study is developed to study the effect of dredging and, in particular, the suspended sediments concentrations (mg/L) changed in the region. The results were obtained using finite element method using an in-house or commercial software. Results show some consistency with data observed in that region. Recommendations based on results could be formulated for decision makers to protect the environment in the long term.

Keywords: finite element, method, suspended solids transport, advection-diffusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
34 CMT4G: Rare Form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease in Slovak Roma Patient

Authors: Dana Gabriková, Martin Mistrík, Jarmila Bernasovská, Iveta Tóthová, Jana Kisková

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The Roma (Gypsies) is a transnational minority with a high degree of consanguineous marriages. Similar to other genetically isolated founder populations, the Roma harbor a number of unique or rare genetic disorders. This paper discusses about a rare form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease – type 4G (CMT4G), also called Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy type Russe, an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutation private to Roma characterized by abnormally increased density of non-myelinated axons. CMT4G was originally found in Bulgarian Roma and in 2009 two putative causative mutations in the HK1 gene were identified. Since then, several cases were reported in Roma families mainly from Bulgaria and Spain. Here we present a Slovak Roma family in which CMT4G was diagnosed on the basis of clinical examination and genetic testing. This case is a further proof of the role of the HK1 gene in pathogenesis of the disease. It confirms that mutation in the HK1 gene is a common cause of autosomal recessive CMT disease in Roma and should be considered as a common part of a diagnostic procedure.

Keywords: gypsies, HK1, HSMN-Russe, rare disease

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33 Use of Chemical Extractions to Estimate the Metals Availability in Bricks Made of Dredged Sediments

Authors: Fabienne Baraud, Lydia Leleyter, Sandra Poree, Melanie Lemoine

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SEDIBRIC (valorization de SEDIments en BRIQues et tuiles) is a French project that aims to replace a part of natural clays with dredged sediments in the preparation of fired bricks in order to propose an alternative solution for the management of harbor dredged sediments. The feasibility of such re-use is explored from a technical, economic, and environmental point of view. The present study focuses on the potential environmental impact of various chemical elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mg, Mn, Pb, Ti, and Zn) that are initially present in the dredged sediments. The total content (after acid digestion) and the environmental availability (estimated by single extractions with various extractants) of these elements are determined in the raw sediments and in the obtained fired bricks. The possible influence of some steps of the manufacturing process (sediment pre-treatment, firing) is also explored. The first results show that the pre-treatment step, which uses tap water to desalinate the raw sediment, does not influence the environmental availability of the studied elements. However, the firing process, performed at 900°C, can affect the amount of some elements detected in the bricks, as well as their environmental availability. We note that for Cr, or Ni, the HCl or EDTA availability was increased in the brick (compared to the availability in the raw sediment). For Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, the HCl and EDTA availability was reduced in the bricks, meaning that these elements were stabilized within the bricks.

Keywords: bricks, chemical extraction, metals, sediment

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32 Alexandria’s Eastern Entrance: Analysis of Qaitbay Waterfront Development

Authors: Riham A. Ragheb

Abstract:

Water is a fundamental attraction in all cultures and among all classes of people, tourists and citizens. It is a favorite location for major tourism initiatives, celebrations and ceremonies. The vitality of any city depends on citizen action to take part in creating the neighborhoods they desire. Waterfront can provide extensive new areas of high quality public open space in parts of the city that are popular venues for social activities and also have the highest land values. Each city must have a character that can be used as a key attraction for the development. The morphology of a waterfront can be identified by both its physical characteristics and the socio-cultural activities that take place in the area. Alexandria has been selected as an area of study because it has a unique character due to its possession of a variety of waterfronts. This paper aims to set some criteria of successful waterfront development and then through these criteria analyzing the development of the Qaitbay waterfront in the eastern harbor in Alexandria, Egypt. Hence, a comprehensive improvement of the waterfront areas is certainly needed to ensure a successful waterfront development radiated the sense of uniformity and coherence. Alexandria can benefit from these criteria to develop its urban waterfront in order to preserve and revitalize its unique waterfront character and achieve mixed uses and tourism development.

Keywords: place making, Qaitbay, responsive environment, sustainable urban design, waterfront development

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
31 Effect of Cuminum Cyminum L. Essential Oil on Staphylococcus Aureus during the Manufacture, Ripening and Storage of White Brined Cheese

Authors: Ali Misaghi, Afshin Akhondzadeh Basti, Ehsan Sadeghi

Abstract:

Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen of major concern for clinical infection and food borne illness. Humans and most domesticated animals harbor S. aureus, and so we may expect staphylococci to be present in food products of animal origin or in those handled directly by humans, unless heat processing is applied to destroy them. Cuminum cyminum L. has been allocated the topic of some recent studies in addition to its well-documented traditional usage for treatment of toothache, dyspepsia, diarrhea, epilepsy and jaundice. The air-dried seed of the plant was completely immersed in water and subjected to hydro distillation for 3 h, using a clevenger-type apparatus. In this study, the effect of Cuminum cyminum L. essential oil (EO) on growth of Staphylococcus aureus in white brined cheese was evaluated. The experiment included different levels of EO (0, 7.5, 15 and 30 mL/ 100 mL milk) to assess their effects on S. aureus count during the manufacture, ripening and storage of Iranian white brined cheese for up to 75 days. The significant (P < 0.05) inhibitory effects of EO (even at its lowest concentration) on this organism were observed. The significant (P < 0.05) inhibitory effect of the EO on S. aureus shown in this study may improve the scope of the EO function in the food industry.

Keywords: cuminum cyminum L. essential oil, staphylococcus aureus, white brined cheese

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30 Campylobacteriosis as a Zoonotic Disease

Authors: A. Jafarzadeh, G. R. Hashemi Tabar

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Campylobacteriosis is caused by Campylobacter organisms. This is most commonly caused by C. jejuni, It is among the most common bacterial infections of humans, often a foodborne illness. It produces an inflammatory, sometimes bloody, diarrhea or dysentery syndrome, mostly including cramps, fever and pain. It is found in cattle, swine, and birds, where it is non-pathogenic. But the illness can also be caused by C. coli (also found in cattle, swine, and birds) C. upsaliensis (found in cats and dogs) and C. lari (present in seabirds in particular). Infection with a Campylobacter species is one of the most common causes of human bacterial gastroenteritis. For instance, an estimated 2 million cases of Campylobacter enteritis occur annually in the U.S., accounting for 5-7% of cases of gastroenteritis. Furthermore, in the United Kingdom during 2000 Campylobacter jejuni was involved in 77.3% in all cases of foodborne illness. 15 out of every 100,000 people are diagnosed with campylobacteriosis every year, and with many cases going unreported, up to 0.5% of the general population may unknowingly harbor Campylobacter in their gut annually. A large animal reservoir is present as well, with up to 100% of poultry, including chickens, turkeys, and waterfowl, having asymptomatic infections in their intestinal tracts. An infected chicken may contain up to 109 bacteria per 25 grams, and due to the installations, the bacteria is rapidly spread to other chicken. This vastly exceeds the infectious dose of 1000-10,000 bacteria for humans. In this article this disease is fully discussed in human and animals.

Keywords: campylobacteriosis, human, animal, zoonosis

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29 Parental Perceptions and Practices toward Childhood Asthma

Authors: Amani K. Abu-Shaheen, Abdullah Nofal, Humariya Heena

Abstract:

Introduction: Parental perceptions and practices are important for improving the asthma outcomes in children; indeed, evidence shows that parents of asthmatic children harbor considerable misperceptions of the disease. Objective: To identify the prevalence of asthma and to investigate the perceptions and practices of parents toward asthma and its management in Saudi children. Methods: A two-stage cross-sectional survey of 2000 parents of children aged 3–15 years from schools located in all five districts of Riyadh province located in central Saudi Arabia, was conducted. Data collection was accomplished using a self-administered questionnaire based on information obtained from the literature. Results: Of 1450 children whose parents participated in the study, 600 had asthma, dyspnea, or chest allergy. The overall number of children with parental reports of ever having been diagnosed with asthma was 478 (32.9%). The majority of parents (321, 53.5%) believed that asthma was a hereditary disease. Of these parents, 361 (60.3%) were concerned about side effects of inhaled steroids, and 192 (32%) about development of dependency on asthma medications. Three hundred sixty seven (61.2%) parents reported that they could treat the asthma attack at home and almost 76% of parents went to pediatric emergency department during asthma attack. Conclusions: In this study, the overall prevalence of children whose parents reported that they were diagnosed with asthma was high (32.9%). Furthermore, parents of children with asthma had misperceptions regarding asthma and exhibited ineffective practices in its management. To improve asthma care and compliance, adequate education should be provided to parents.

Keywords: asthma, management, parents, quality of life

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28 Isolation and Characterization of Endophytic Bacteria Associated with Root-Nodules of Medicago sativa in Al-Ahasa Region

Authors: Ashraf Y. Z. Khalifa, Mohammed A. Almalki

Abstract:

Medicago sativa (Alfalfa) is an important forage crop legume worldwide including Saudia Arabia due to its high nutritive value. Soil bacteria exist in root or root-nodules of Medicago sativa in either symbiotic relationships or in associations. The aim of the present study was to isolate and characterize endophytic bacteria that live in association with non-nodulated roots of Medicago sativa growing in Al-Ahsaa region, Saudia Arabia. Several bacterial strains were isolated from sterilized roots of Medicago sativa. Strains were characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequences, phylogenetic relationships analysis, morphological and biochemical characteristics. The strains utilized 50% (10 out of 20) of the different chemical substrates contained in the API20E strip. In general, many strains had the ability to ferment/oxidise all the carbohydrate tested except for rhamnose and the polyol carbohydrate, inositol. Comparative sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA gene indicated that the strains were closely related to the genus Bacillus. Furthermore, the growth parameters of Vigna sinensis were enhanced upon single-inoculation of the isolated strains, compared to the uninoculated control plants. The results highlighted that the root-nodules of Medicago sativa harbor non-nodulating bacterial strains that could have significant agricultural applications.

Keywords: Medicago sativa, endophytic bacteria, Pisum sativum, Vigna sinensis

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27 Durability of a Cementitious Matrix Based on Treated Sediments

Authors: Mahfoud Benzerzour, Mouhamadou Amar, Amine Safhi, Nor-Edine Abriak

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Significant volumes of sediment are annually dredged in France and all over the world. These materials may, in fact, be used beneficially as supplementary cementitious material. This paper studies the durability of a new cement matrix based on marine dredged sediment of Dunkirk-Harbor (north of France). Several techniques are used to characterize the raw sediment such as physical properties, chemical analyses, and mineralogy. The XRD analysis revealed quartz, calcite, kaolinite as main mineral phases. In order to eliminate organic matter and activate some of those minerals, the sediment is calcined at a temperature of 850°C for 1h. Moreover, four blended mortars were formulated by mixing a portland cement (CEM I 52,5 N) and the calcined sediment as partial cement substitute (0%, 10%, 20% and 30%). Reference mortars, based on the blended cement, were then prepared. This re-use cannot be substantiating and efficient without a durability study. In this purpose, the following tests, mercury porosity, accessible water porosity, chloride permeability, freezing and thawing, external sulfate attack, alkali aggregates reaction, compressive and bending strength tests were conducted on those mortars. The results of most of those tests evidenced the fact that the mortar that contains 10% of the treated sediment is efficient and durable as the reference mortar itself. That would infer that the presence of these calcined sediment improves mortar general behavior.

Keywords: sediment, characterization, calcination, substitution, durability

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26 Jeddah’s Hydraulic Protection Systems and the Management of Flood: An Assessment

Authors: Faouzi Ameur, Atef Belhaj Ali

Abstract:

Located in the South-west of Saudi Arabia, Jeddah is more than a harbor. It is a big city of the Red Sea and the second town of Saudi Arabia, after Riyadh the capital. Jeddah profits from several economic assets due especially to its transit position towards the high sacred places of Islam like Mecca and Medina. During summer, this metropolis is transformed into a political capital and a tourist resort for foreigners and Saudis alike. The city of Jeddah was affected by serious sudden floods; two great ones took place in 2009, and in 2011. The human and material tools were considerable, since these events caused the death to hundreds of people, damaged thousands of buildings built on basins slopes, which, however had the authorizations necessary. To cope with these natural disasters, several urban hydraulic measures were undertaken like building dams and canals to collect surface waters. These urban measures aimed at the protection of inhabitants and belongings against the risks of floods as well as the interception and the drainage of streams. Although these protection measures are important, expensive, and effective, they are no longer enough or effective to cope with the evolution of the natural disasters that the city of Jeddah is constantly exposed to. These protective hydraulic measures did not make it possible to reach risk zero situations. They transferred the damages towards other zones. This paper purports to study the protection network systems in Jeddah and to understand their various impacts during floods on the city and on its inhabitants.

Keywords: Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, urbanization, hydraulic protection

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25 The Way of Life of the Civil Servant Community under the Bureau of the Royal Household: A Case Study of Tha Wasukri, Bangkok

Authors: Vilasinee Jintalikhitdee, Saowapa Phaithayawat

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The research on “The Way of Life of the Civil Servant Community under the Bureau of the Royal Household” aims to study 1) the way of life of the people who live in the civil servant community in Tha Wasukri, and 2) the model of community administration of civil servants under the Bureau of the Royal Household. This research is conducted qualitatively and quantitatively by collecting data from interviews, focus group discussion, participant and non-participant observation along with the data from the questionnaire based on age groups which include elder group, working age group and youth group. The result of the research shows that the origin of this community is related to the history during the Rama V’s reign. It has been a harbor for the king to boat in any royal ceremonies; this custom is still maintained until today. The status or position of person who serves the king in terms of working is often inherited from the bureau of the Royal Household based on his/her consanguinity and, hence, further receives the rights to live in the Tha Wasukri area. Therefore, this community has some special characteristics demonstrating the way of living influenced by the regulation of the Bureau of the Royal Household such as respecting elders and interdependence in which there is internal social organization with the practice of bureaucracy in going in and out the community. The person who has rights to live here must be friendly to everybody so that this community will be a safe place for lives and property. The administration based on the model of Bangkok for local administration was used as an external structure only, but the way of living still follows the practice of the Bureau of the Royal Household.

Keywords: way of life, community, Tha Wasukri, Bureau of the Royal Household

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24 Ecological Studies on Bulinus truncatus Snail the Intermediate Host of Schistosoma haematobium, in White Nile State, Sudan

Authors: Mohammed Hussein Eltoum Salih

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This study was conducted in four villages, namely: Jadeed, Alandraba, Um Gaar, and EL Shetabe in the White Nile State Sudan, to determine the ecological factors; water vegetations, physical and chemical properties of the water in Snails habitat. Bulinus truncatus, which act as an intermediate host for S. haematobium, were collected from water bodies adjacent to study villages where the residents were suspected to swim, and humans get in contact with water for various purposes. Water samples from the stretches were collected and then measured for parameters that are indicative of the quality of water and sustaining the survival of snails and would confirm even further if the contact between humans and water had taken place. The parameters measured included water conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen, calcium, and magnesium content. Also, a single water sample from each contact site was collected for microbiological tests. The result revealed that the B. truncatus showed that these animals were fewer and free of infection and their sites of the collection were dense with different plant species making them suitable to harbor snails. Moreover, the results of microbial tests showed that there was higher bacterial contamination. Also, physical and chemical analysis of water sample of contact sites revealed that there were significant differences (p < 0.05) in water pH, calcium, and magnesium content between sites of study villages, and these were discussed in relation to factors suitable for the intermediate hosts and thus for the transmission of the S. haematobium disease.

Keywords: health, parasitology, Schistosoma, snails

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23 Fungal Diversity and Bioprospecting of Termite-Associated Fungi from Nothern-Western Ghats of India

Authors: Gajanan V. Mane, Rashmi More, Mahesh S. Sonawane, Tushar Lodha, Rohit Sharma

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The diversity of fungi isolated from two different termite species viz., Odontoterms assmuthi and O. abesus was investigated by dilution- plate method, combined with morphological characteristics and sequencing of internal transcribed spacer region. In total, ninety-six fungi were isolated and purified, out of which 69 isolates were obtained from O. assmuthi belonging to 18 genera and 31 species, whereas 27 isolates were obtained from O. abesus belonging to 15 genera and 17 species. The fungal strains were screened for laccase, amylase, cellulase and pectinase enzymes production. Twenty-seven strains were positive for laccase, 59 strains were positive for amylase, 71 strains were positive for cellulase and 72 strains were positive for pectinase enzymes. The antimicrobial activities of the isolated fungi were tested by the dual plate culture method against standard pathogens. Bioactive secondary metabolites were identified by HPLC and LCMS. Four isolates viz., Penicillium goetzii MG 57, Epicoccum sp. MG 39, Penicillium tanzanicum MG 30, Aspergillus polyporicola MG 54, showed positive antimicrobial activity against standard pathogens, Streptococcus pneumonia MCC 2425, Staphylococcus aureus MCC 2408, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MCC 2080, Escherichia coli MCC 2412, Enterococcus faecalis MCC 2409, Klebsiella pneumonia MCC 2451, Micrococcus luteus MCC 2155 and Candida albicans MCC 1151. In conclusion, the study showed that the insect gut harbor fungal diversity, which is futuristic with biotechnological potential and could be a good source of enzymes and antibiotics.

Keywords: termites, fungi, its, enzyme, antimicrobial activity

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22 Revitalization of the Chinese Residential at Lasem, Indonesia

Authors: Nurtati Soewarno, Dian Duhita

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The existence of civilization from the past is recognized by the left objects such as monuments, buildings or even a town. The relics were designed and made well, using the good quality material so it could persist a long period of time. At this moment, those relics are cultural heritage that must be preserved and the authenticity maintained. Indonesia, a country consist of various tribes with many cultural heritages, one of them is the city of Lasem. Lasem city lies in the northern part of Central Java since the Majapahit kingdom era (13th century) poses as a busy harbor city and a trading center. Lasem is one of the residences of Chinese immigrants in Java, seen by the domination of Chinese architectural building styles. The residential was built since the 15th century and the building has the courtyard which is different from other China’s building in another part of Java. This city loses ground since the trade activity experience difficulties during the Japanese colonial era and continues after the Indonesian independence time. Many Chinese people left Lasem city and let the buildings empty not maintained. This paper will present the result of observation to Chinese architectural style buildings in Lasem city which still hold out until this moment. Using typo morphology method, the case study is chosen based on the transformation type. The occurring transformation is parallel with adaptive reuse concept as an effort to revitalize the existence of the buildings. With this concept, it is expected that the buildings could be re functioned and the glory of the foretime Lasem city could be experienced again. Intervention from the local government is expected, issuing regulations, hoping the new building functions won’t ruin the cultural heritage but instead beautifies it.

Keywords: adaptive re-use, brown field area, building transformation, Lasem city

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