Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 40

Search results for: Jeddah

40 Jeddah’s Hydraulic Protection Systems and the Management of Flood: An Assessment

Authors: Faouzi Ameur, Atef Belhaj Ali

Abstract:

Located in the South-west of Saudi Arabia, Jeddah is more than a harbor. It is a big city of the Red Sea and the second town of Saudi Arabia, after Riyadh the capital. Jeddah profits from several economic assets due especially to its transit position towards the high sacred places of Islam like Mecca and Medina. During summer, this metropolis is transformed into a political capital and a tourist resort for foreigners and Saudis alike. The city of Jeddah was affected by serious sudden floods; two great ones took place in 2009, and in 2011. The human and material tools were considerable, since these events caused the death to hundreds of people, damaged thousands of buildings built on basins slopes, which, however had the authorizations necessary. To cope with these natural disasters, several urban hydraulic measures were undertaken like building dams and canals to collect surface waters. These urban measures aimed at the protection of inhabitants and belongings against the risks of floods as well as the interception and the drainage of streams. Although these protection measures are important, expensive, and effective, they are no longer enough or effective to cope with the evolution of the natural disasters that the city of Jeddah is constantly exposed to. These protective hydraulic measures did not make it possible to reach risk zero situations. They transferred the damages towards other zones. This paper purports to study the protection network systems in Jeddah and to understand their various impacts during floods on the city and on its inhabitants.

Keywords: Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, urbanization, hydraulic protection

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39 Tide Contribution in the Flood Event of Jeddah City: Mathematical Modelling and Different Field Measurements of the Groundwater Rise

Authors: Aïssa Rezzoug

Abstract:

This paper is aimed to bring new elements that demonstrate the tide caused the groundwater to rise in the shoreline band, on which the urban areas occurs, especially in the western coastal cities of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia like Jeddah. The reason for the last events of Jeddah inundation was the groundwater rise in the city coupled at the same time to a strong precipitation event. This paper will illustrate the tide participation in increasing the groundwater level significantly. It shows that the reason for internal groundwater recharge within the urban area is not only the excess of the water supply coming from surrounding areas, due to the human activity, with lack of sufficient and efficient sewage system, but also due to tide effect. The research study follows a quantitative method to assess groundwater level rise risks through many in-situ measurements and mathematical modelling. The proposed approach highlights groundwater level, in the urban areas of the city on the shoreline band, reaching the high tide level without considering any input from precipitation. Despite the small tide in the Red Sea compared to other oceanic coasts, the groundwater level is considerably enhanced by the tide from the seaside and by the freshwater table from the landside of the city. In these conditions, the groundwater level becomes high in the city and prevents the soil to evacuate quickly enough the surface flow caused by the storm event, as it was observed in the last historical flood catastrophe of Jeddah in 2009.

Keywords: flood, groundwater rise, Jeddah, tide

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38 Physicochemical Studies and Screening of Aflatoxins and Pesticide Residues in Some 'Honey Pastes' Marketed in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Rashad Al-Hindi

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The study aimed at investigating and screening of some contaminants in some honey-based products. Sixty-nine 'honey paste' samples marketed in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were subjected to physicochemical studies and screening of aflatoxins and pesticide residues. The physicochemical parameters studied were mainly: moisture content, total sugars, total ash, total nitrogen, fibres, total acidity as citric acid and pH. These parameters were investigated using standard methods of analysis. Mycotoxins (aflatoxins) and pesticide residues were by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) according to official methods. Results revealed that mean values of the examined criteria were: 15.44±0.36%; 74±4.30%; 0.40±0.062%; 0.22±0.05%; 6.93±1.30%; 2.53±0.161 mmol/kg; 4.10±0.158, respectively. Overall results proved that all tested honey pastes samples were free from mycotoxins (aflatoxins) and pesticide residues. Therefore, we conclude that 'honey pastes' marketed in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia were safe for human consumption.

Keywords: aflatoxins, honey mixtures, pesticide residues, physicochemical

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
37 Enzymatic Biomonitoring of Aquatic Pollution at Jeddah Southern Red Sea Shore

Authors: Saleh Mohamed, Mohamed El-Shal, Taha Kumosani, Ahmad Mal, Youssri Ahmed, Yasser Almulaiky

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The marine environment of the Jeddah southern red sea shore is subjected to increasing anthropogenic activities as sewage sludge draining and desalting processes. The objective of this study is to compare the quantitative responses of enzymatic biomarkers in fish from polluted area with the responses of organism from reference area. Enzymatic biomarkers as neurotoxic, antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes were evaluated in the brain and liver from Variola louti as a sentinel species sampled from both polluted and reference sites in the Jeddah southern red sea shore during four months January, April, July and October in 2014 and 2015. In brain of V. louti, the activity of acetylcholinestease (AChE) collected from reference area significantly increased 8.8 and 10.5 folds than that from polluted area in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) from liver of V. louti in polluted area significantly increased 1.4, 1.27 and 3, 4.5 and 4.37, 2 and 5, 4.5 folds than that from reference area in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The levels of examined enzymes are approximately similar in the four seasons detected in 2014 and 2015 indicating that the similar components of sewage were draining in red sea. In conclusion, these findings suggest the important of enzymatic biomarkers in monitoring the pollution in Jeddah red sea shore.

Keywords: Variola louti, enzymatic biomarkers, pollution, Red sea

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
36 Disaster Preparedness and Management in Saudi Arabia: An Empirical Investigation

Authors: Shougi Suliman Abosuliman, Arun Kumar, Firoz Alam

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Disaster preparedness is a key success factor for any effective disaster management practices. This paper evaluates the disaster preparedness and management in Saudi Arabia using an empirical investigation approach. It presents the results of the survey conducted by interviewing representatives of the Saudi decision-makers and administrators responsible for disaster control in Jeddah before, during and after flooding in 2009 and 2010. First, demographics of the respondents are presented, followed by quantitative analysis of their views and experiences regarding the Kingdom’s readiness before and after each flood. This is shown as a series of dependent and independent variables. Following this is a list of respondents’ priorities for disaster preparation in the Kingdom.

Keywords: disaster response policy, crisis management, effective service delivery, Jeddah

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35 Biodegradation of Cellulosic Materials by Marine Fungi Isolated from South Corniche of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Fuad Ameen, Mohamed Moslem, Sarfaraz Hadi

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Twenty-eight fungal isolates belonging to 12 genera were derived from debris, sediment and water samples collected from Avicennia marina stands 25km south of Jeddah city on the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. Eight of these isolates were found to be able to grow in association cellulosic waste materials under in vitro conditions in the absence of any carbon source. Isolates were further tested for their potential to degrade paper and clothes wastes by co-cultivation under aeration on a rotary shaker. These fungi accumulated significantly higher biomass, produced ligninolytic and cellulase enzymes, and liberated larger volumes of CO2. These observations indicated that the selected isolates were able to break down and consume the waste materials.

Keywords: biodegradation, enzyme activity, waste materials, mangrove

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34 Rainfall Analysis in the Contest of Climate Change for Jeddah Area, Western Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ali M. Subyani

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The increase in the greenhouse gas emission has had a severe impact on global climate change and is bound to affect the weather patterns worldwide. This climate change impacts are among the future significant effects on any society. Rainfall levels are drastically increasing with flash floods in some places and long periods of droughts in others, especially in arid regions. These extreme events are causes of interactions concerning environmental, socio-economic and cultural life and their implementation. This paper presents the detailed features of dry and wet spell durations and rainfall intensity series available (1971-2012) on daily basis for the Jeddah area, Western, Saudi Arabia. It also presents significant articles for combating the climate change impacts on this area. Results show trend changes in dry and wet spell durations and rainfall amount on daily, monthly and annual time series. Three rain seasons were proposed in this investigation: high rain, low rain, and dry seasons. It shows that the overall average dry spell durations is about 80 continuous days while the average wet spell durations is 1.39 days with an average rainfall intensity of 8.2 mm/day. Annual and seasonal autorun analyses confirm that the rainy seasons are tending to have more intense rainfall while the seasons are becoming drier. This study would help decision makers in future for water resources management and flood risk analysis.

Keywords: climate change, daily rainfall, dry and wet spill, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
33 The Use Support Vector Machine and Back Propagation Neural Network for Prediction of Daily Tidal Levels Along The Jeddah Coast, Saudi Arabia

Authors: E. A. Mlybari, M. S. Elbisy, A. H. Alshahri, O. M. Albarakati

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Sea level rise threatens to increase the impact of future storms and hurricanes on coastal communities. Accurate sea level change prediction and supplement is an important task in determining constructions and human activities in coastal and oceanic areas. In this study, support vector machines (SVM) is proposed to predict daily tidal levels along the Jeddah Coast, Saudi Arabia. The optimal parameter values of kernel function are determined using a genetic algorithm. The SVM results are compared with the field data and with back propagation (BP). Among the models, the SVM is superior to BPNN and has better generalization performance.

Keywords: tides, prediction, support vector machines, genetic algorithm, back-propagation neural network, risk, hazards

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32 Using Passive Cooling Strategies to Reduce Thermal Cooling Load for Coastal High-Rise Buildings of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ahmad Zamzam

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With the development of the economy in recent years, Saudi Arabia has been maintaining high economic growth. Therefore, its energy consumption has increased dramatically. This economic growth reflected on the expansion of high-rise tower's construction. Jeddah coastal strip (cornice) has many high-rise buildings planned to start next few years. These projects required a massive amount of electricity that was not planned to be supplied by the old infrastructure. This research studies the effect of the building envelope on its thermal performance. It follows a parametric simulation methodology using Ecotect software to analyze the effect of the building envelope design on its cooling energy load for an office high-rise building in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, which includes building geometrical form, massing treatments, orientation and glazing type effect. The research describes an integrated passive design approach to reduce the cooling requirement for high-rise building through an improved building envelope design. The research used Ecotect to make four simulation studies; the first simulation compares the thermal performance of five high-rise buildings, presenting the basic shape of the plan. All the buildings have the same plan area and same floor height. The goal of this simulation is to find out the best shape for the thermal performance. The second simulation studies the effect of orientation on the thermal performance by rotating the same building model to find out the best and the worst angle for the building thermal performance. The third simulation studies the effect of the massing treatment on the total cooling load. It compared five models with different massing treatment, but with the same total built up area. The last simulation studied the effect of the glazing type by comparing the total cooling load of the same building using five different glass type and also studies the feasibility of using these glass types by studying the glass cost effect. The results indicate that using the circle shape as building plan could reduce the thermal cooling load by 40%. Also, using shading devices could reduce the cooling loads by 5%. The study states that using any of the massing grooving, recess or any treatment that could increase the outer exposed surface is not preferred and will decrease the building thermal performance. Also, the result shows that the best direction for glazing and openings from thermal performance viewpoint in Jeddah is the North direction while the worst direction is the East one. The best direction angle for openings - regarding the thermal performance in Jeddah- is 15 deg West and the worst is 250 deg West (110 deg East). Regarding the glass type effect, comparing to the double glass with air fill type as a reference case, the double glass with Air-Low-E will save 14% from the required amount of the thermal cooling load annually. Argon fill and triple glass will save 16% and 17% from the total thermal cooling load respectively, but for the glass cost purpose, using the Argon fill and triple glass is not feasible.

Keywords: passive cooling, reduce thermal load, Jeddah, building shape, energy

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31 Prey Selection of the Corallivorous Gastropod Drupella cornus in Jeddah Coast, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Gaafar Omer BaOmer, Abdulmohsin A. Al-Sofyani, Hassan A. Ramadan

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Drupella is found on coral reefs throughout the tropical and subtropical shallow waters of the Indo-Pacific region. Drupella is muricid gastropod, obligate corallivorous and their population outbreak can cause significant coral mortality. Belt transect surveys were conducted at two sites (Bohairat and Baydah) in Jeddah coast, Saudi Arabia to assess prey preferences for D. cornus with respect to prey availability through resource selection ratios. Results revealed that there are different levels of prey preferences at the different age stages and at the different sites. Acropora species with a caespitose, corymbose and digitate growth forms were preferred prey for recruits and juveniles of Drupella cornus, whereas Acropora variolosa was avoided by D. cornus because of its arborescent colony growth form. Pocillopora, Stylophora, and Millipora were occupied by Drupella cornus less than expected, whereas massive corals genus Porites were avoided. High densities of D. cornus were observed on two fragments of Pocillopora damicornis which may because of the absence of coral guard crabs genus Trapezia. Mean densities of D. cornus per colony for each species showed significant differentiation between the two study sites. Low availability of Acropora colonies in Bayadah patch reef caused high mean density of D. cornus per colony to compare to that in Bohairat, whereas higher mean density of D. cornus per colony of Pocillopora in Bohairat than that in Bayadah may because of most of occupied Pocillopora colonies by D. cornus were physical broken by anchoring compare to those colonies in Bayadah. The results indicated that prey preferences seem to depend on both coral genus and colony shape, while mean densities of D. cornus depend on availability and status of coral colonies.

Keywords: prey availability, resource selection, Drupella cornus, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
30 Clinical Profile, Evaluation, Management and Visual Outcome of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension in a Neuro-Ophthalmology Clinic in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Rahaf Mandura

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Background: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a disorder with elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) more than 250 mm H₂O, without evidence of meningeal inflammation, space-occupying lesion, or venous thrombosis. The aim of this research is to study the clinical profile, evaluation, management, and visual outcome in a hospital-based population of IIH cases in Jeddah. Methodology: This is a retrospective observational study that included the medical records of all patients referred to neuro-ophthalmology service for evaluation of papilledema. The medical records have been reviewed from October 2018 to February 2020 at Jeddah Eye Hospital (JEH), Saudi Arabia. A total of fifty-one patients presented with papilledema in the studied period. Forty-seven patients met our inclusion criteria and were included in the study. Results: Most of the patients were females (43, 91.5%) with a mean age of presentation of 30.83±11.40 years. The most common presenting symptom was headache (40 patients, 85.1%), followed by transient visual obscuration (20 patients, 42.6%), and reduced visual acuity (15 patients, 31.9%). All 47 patients were started on medical treatment with oral acetazolamide with four patients (8.5%) shifted to topiramate because of the lack of response or intolerance to acetazolamide while four patients (8.5%) underwent lumbar-peritoneal shunt because of inadequate control of the disease despite the treatment with medical therapy. For both eyes, the change in visual acuity across all assessment points was statistically significant. Nevertheless, there were no significant changes in the visual field findings among all of the compared assessment points. Conclusion: The present study has shown that IIH-related papilledema is common in young female patients with headaches, transient visual obscurations and reduced visual acuity. Those are the commonest symptoms in our IIH population. Medical treatment of IIH is significantly efficacious and should be considered in order to enhance the prognosis of IIH-related complications. Therefore, the visual status should be frequently monitored for these patients.

Keywords: idiopathic intracranial hypertension, intracranial hypertension, papilledema, headache

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
29 Effect of High Dose of Vitamin C in Reduction Serum Uric Acid: a Comparative Study between Hyperuricemic and Gouty Patients in Jeddah

Authors: Firas S. Azzeh

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Background: Vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin that is necessary for normal growth and development. Hyperuricemia is commonly detected in subjects with abnormal purine metabolism. Prolonged hyperuricemia is an important risk factor for damaged joint and often associated with gout. Objectives: To compare the effect of high dose of vitamin C supplements on uric acid treatment between hyperuricemic and gouty patients in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, as well as finding out the effect of vitamin C on serum creatinine level and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Subjects and Methods: This comparative study started on April 2013 and lasted tells March 2014. A convenience sample of 30 adults was recruited in this study from Doctor Abdulrahman Taha Bakhsh Hospital in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Eligible persons were assigned into two study groups; hyperuricemic (n=15) and gouty (n=15) groups. Subjects have been accepted for participating in the study after completing the consent form. Each participant consumed 500 mg/day vitamin C chew able tablets. All participants have been followed-up for 2 months. Twelve hours fasting blood samples have been collected 3 times from each participant during the study period; at the beginning before and retested after each month of the study period. Uric acid, serum creatinine and GFR were measured. Results: For gouty group, uric acid increased insignificantly after 2 months by about +0.3 mg/dl. On the other hand, hyperuricemic group showed decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in uric acid after 2 months of study period by about -0.78 mg/dl. Serum creatinine level insignificantly decreased for all participants during the study period, which leaded to insignificant increase in GFR for all participants. Conclusion: Supplementation with 500 mg/day vitamin C for 2 months significantly reduced serum uric acid for hyperuricemic patients and insignificantly increased serum uric acid for gouty patients. The ineffectiveness of vitamin C supplements on patients with established gout could be related to a number of potential reasons.

Keywords: vitamin c, Hyperuricemia, gout, creatinine, GFR

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28 Genotoxicity of 4-Nonylphenol (4NP) on Oreochromus spilurs Fish

Authors: M. M. Alsharif

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4-Nonylphenol Compound is widely used as an element of detergents, paints, insecticides and many others products. It is known that the existence of this compound may lead to the emission of estrogenic responses in mammals, birds and fish. It is described as pollutant since it causes disorder of endocrine glands. In previous studies, it was proven that this compound exists in water and in the materials precipitated in Red Sea coast in Jeddah near the drains of processed drainage water and near the drainage site of the residuals of paper factories. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the cytogenetic aberrations caused by 4-nonylphenol through exposing Talapia Fishes to aquatic solution of the compound with 0, 15, 30 microgram/liter for one month. Samples of gills and liver were collected for micronuclei, nuclear abnormalities and measuring DNA and RNA amount in the treated fish. The results pointed out that there is a significant increase in the numbers of micronuclei in the fish exposed to the former concentrations as compared to the control group. Exposing fishes to 4-nonylphenol resulted in an increased amount of both DNA and RNA, compared to the control group. There is a positive correlation between the amount of the compound (i.e. dosage dependent effect) and the inspiring for cytogenetic effect on Talapia fishes in Jeddah. Therefore, micronucleus test, DNA and RNA contents can be considered as an index of cumulative exposure, which appear to be a sensitive model to evaluate genotoxic effects of 4-Nonylphenol compound on fish.

Keywords: genotoxic, 4-nonylphenol, micronuclei, fish, DNA, RNA

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27 The Prevalence of Soil Transmitted Helminths among Newly Arrived Expatriate Labors in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mohammad Al-Refai, Majed Wakid

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Introduction: Soil-transmitted diseases (STD) are caused by intestinal worms that are transmitted via various routes into the human body resulting in various clinical manifestations. The intestinal worms causing these infections are known as soil transmitted helminths (STH), including Hook worms, Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides), Trichuris trichiura (T. trichiura), and Strongyloides sterocoralis (S. sterocoralis). Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of STH among newly arrived expatriate labors in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia, using three different techniques (direct smears, sedimentation concentration, and real-time PCR). Methods: A total of 188 stool specimens were collected and investigated at the parasitology laboratory in the Special Infectious Agents Unit at King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Microscopic examination of wet mount preparations using normal saline and Lugols Iodine was carried out, followed by the formal ether sedimentation method. In addition, real-time PCR was used as a molecular tool to detect several STH and hookworm speciation. Results: Out of 188 stool specimens analyzed, in addition to STH parasite, several other types were detected. 9 samples (4.79%) were positive for Entamoeba coli, 7 samples (3.72%) for T. trichiura, 6 samples (3.19%) for Necator americanus, 4 samples (2.13%) for S. sterocoralis, 4 samples (2.13%) for A. lumbricoides, 4 samples (2.13%) for E. histolytica, 3 samples (1.60%) for Blastocystis hominis, 2 samples (1.06%) for Ancylostoma duodenale, 2 samples (1.06%) for Giardia lamblia, 1 sample (0.53%) for Iodamoeba buetschlii, 1 sample (0.53%) for Hymenolepis nana, 1 sample (0.53%) for Endolimax nana, and 1 sample (0.53%) for Heterophyes heterophyes. Out of the 35 infected cases, 26 revealed single infection, 8 with double infections, and only one triple infection of different STH species and other intestinal parasites. Higher rates of STH infections were detected among housemaids (11 cases) followed by drivers (7 cases) when compared to other occupations. According to educational level, illiterate participants represent the majority of infected workers (12 cases). The majority of workers' positive cases were from the Philippines. In comparison between laboratory techniques, out of the 188 samples screened for STH, real-time PCR was able to detect the DNA in (19/188) samples followed by Ritchie sedimentation technique (18/188), and direct wet smear (7/188). Conclusion: STH infections are a major public health issue to healthcare systems around the world. Communities must be educated on hygiene practices and the severity of such parasites to human health. As far as drivers and housemaids come to close contact with families, including children and elderlies. This may put family members at risk of developing serious side effects related to STH, especially as the majority of workers were illiterate, lacking the basic hygiene knowledge and practices. We recommend the official authority in Jeddah and around the kingdom of Saudi Arabia to revise the standard screening tests for newly arrived workers and enforce regular follow-up inspections to minimize the chances of the spread of STH from expatriate workers to the public.

Keywords: expatriate labors, Jeddah, prevalence, soil transmitted helminths

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26 The Impact of Language Anxiety on EFL Learners' Proficiency: Case Study of University of Jeddah

Authors: Saleh Mohammad Alqahtani

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Foreign language Anxiety has been found to be a key issue in learning English as foreign language in the classroom. This study investigated the impact of foreign language anxiety on Saudi EFL learners' proficiency in the classroom. A total of 197 respondents had participated in the study, comprising of 96 male and 101 female, who enrolled in preparatory year, first year, second year, and fourth year of English language department at the University of Jeddah. Two instruments were used to answer the study questions. The Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) was used to identify the levels of foreign language (FL) anxiety for Saudi learners. Moreover, an International English Language Testing System (IELTS) test was used as an objective measure of the learners’ English language proficiency. The data were analyzed using descriptive analyses, t-test, one-way ANOVA, correlation, and regression analysis. The findings revealed that Saudi EFL learners' experience a level of anxiety in the classroom, and there is a significant differences between the course levels in their level of language anxiety. Moreover, it is also found that female students are less anxious in learning English as a foreign language than male students. The results show that foreign language anxiety and English proficiency are negatively related to each other. Furthermore, the study revealed that there were significant differences between Saudi learners in language use anxiety, while there were no significant differences in language class anxiety. The study suggested that teachers should employ a diversity of designed techniques to encourage the environment of the classroom in order to control learners’ FLA, which in turns will improve their EFL proficiency.

Keywords: foreign language anxiety, FLA, language use anxiety, language class anxiety, gender, L2 proficiency

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25 Brand Preferences in Saudi Arabia: Explorative Study in Jeddah

Authors: Badr Alharbi

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There is significant debate on the evolution of retail marketing as an economy matures. In penetrating new markets, global brands are efficient in establishing a presence and replacing less effective competitors by engaging in superior advertising, pricing and sometimes quality. However, national brands adapt over time and may either partner with global brands in distribution and services or directly compete more efficiently in the new, open market. This explorative study investigates brand preferences in Saudi Arabia. As a conservative society, which is nevertheless highly commercialised, Saudi Arabia markets could be fragmenting with consumer preferences and rejections based on country of origin, globalisation, or perhaps regionalisation. To investigate this, an online survey was distributed to Saudis in Jeddah to gather data on their preferences for travel, technology, clothes and accessories, eating out, vehicles, and influential brands. The results from 710 valid responses were that there are distinct regional and national brand preferences among the young Saudi men who contributed to the survey. Apart from a preference for Saudi food providers, airline preferences were the United Emirates, holiday preferences were Europe, study and work preferences were the United States, hotel preferences were United States-based, car preferences were Japanese, and clothing preferences were United States-based. The results were broadly in line with international research findings; however, the study participants varied from Arab research findings by describing themselves as innovative in their purchase selections, rarely loyal (exception of Apple products) and continually seeking new brand experiences. This survey contributes to an understanding of evolving Saudi consumer preferences.

Keywords: Saudi marketing, globalisation, country of origin, brand preferences

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24 Performance and Voyage Analysis of Marine Gas Turbine Engine, Installed to Power and Propel an Ocean-Going Cruise Ship from Lagos to Jeddah

Authors: Mathias U. Bonet, Pericles Pilidis, Georgios Doulgeris

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An aero-derivative marine Gas Turbine engine model is simulated to be installed as the main propulsion prime mover to power a cruise ship which is designed and routed to transport intending Muslim pilgrims for the annual hajj pilgrimage from Nigeria to the Islamic port city of Jeddah in Saudi Arabia. A performance assessment of the Gas Turbine engine has been conducted by examining the effect of varying aerodynamic and hydrodynamic conditions encountered at various geographical locations along the scheduled transit route during the voyage. The investigation focuses on the overall behavior of the Gas Turbine engine employed to power and propel the ship as it operates under ideal and adverse conditions to be encountered during calm and rough weather according to the different seasons of the year under which the voyage may be undertaken. The variation of engine performance under varying operating conditions has been considered as a very important economic issue by determining the time the speed by which the journey is completed as well as the quantity of fuel required for undertaking the voyage. The assessment also focuses on the increased resistance caused by the fouling of the submerged portion of the ship hull surface with its resultant effect on the power output of the engine as well as the overall performance of the propulsion system. Daily ambient temperature levels were obtained by accessing data from the UK Meteorological Office while the varying degree of turbulence along the transit route and according to the Beaufort scale were also obtained as major input variables of the investigation. By assuming the ship to be navigating the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea during winter, spring and summer seasons, the performance modeling and simulation was accomplished through the use of an integrated Gas Turbine performance simulation code known as ‘Turbomach’ along with a Matlab generated code named ‘Poseidon’, all of which have been developed at the Power and Propulsion Department of Cranfield University. As a case study, the results of the various assumptions have further revealed that the marine Gas Turbine is a reliable and available alternative to the conventional marine propulsion prime movers that have dominated the maritime industry before now. The techno-economic and environmental assessment of this type of propulsion prime mover has enabled the determination of the effect of changes in weather and sea conditions on the ship speed as well as trip time and the quantity of fuel required to be burned throughout the voyage.

Keywords: ambient temperature, hull fouling, marine gas turbine, performance, propulsion, voyage

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23 Bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Padina boryana Alga Collected from a Contaminated Site at the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Huda Qari, I. A. Hassan

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The brown alga Padina boryanawas was used for bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) accumulation at the seashore of Jeddah city. PAHs were determined in the coastal water and algal tissues by GC-MS. Acenaphthene (Ace) and dibenzo (a,h) anthracene (dB(a,h)An) were the main PAHs in seawater (50.02 and 46.18) and algal tissues (64.67 and 72.45), respectively. The ratios of low molecular weight/high molecular weight hydrocarbons (1.76 – 1.44), fluoranthene/pyrene (1.57 – 1.52) and phenanthrene/anthracene (0.86 – 0.67) in seawater and algal tissues, respectively, indicated the origin of the PAHs to be mainly petrogenic. This study has demonstrated the utility of using Padina boryanawas as a biomonitor of PAH contamination and bioavailability in the coastal waters.

Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Padina boryanawas, bioaccumulation, waste water

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22 Observing Vocabulary Teaching Strategies in English Classrooms in Saudi Schools

Authors: Mohammed Hassan Alshaikhi

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Teaching vocabulary is a fundamental step in helping students to develop a good grasp of language. Exploring new strategies is an essential part of improving the teaching of vocabulary. The study aimed to explore the teaching vocabulary strategies in Saudi primary classrooms (aged 11 and 12 years old) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The study was based on qualitative data collected from a large-scale case study, which utilised observations at eight male state and private primary schools during the academic year 2016-2017. The observations were transcribed, coded and entered into Nvivo software to be organised and analysed. Varying teaching vocabulary strategies were explored, and then they were circulated to many English teachers to be used in their classes.

Keywords: case study, English language, Saudi teachers, teaching vocabulary strategies

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
21 Urban Conservation Methodology for Heritage Areas Case Study "Qabel Street, Old Jeddah"

Authors: Hossam Elborombaly, Nader Y. Azab

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The Middle East region is rich with its architecture and urban settings. This makes it viable for exploring and applying different strategies that deal with conservation. Current context characterized by pollution, socioeconomic issues, behavioral problems, etc. affects architectural and urban heritage –literally- in all Middle Eastern countries. Although there have been numerous strategies in place to preserve and/ or rehabilitate heritage, all has been designed and implemented following political more than technical or methodical processes. This only resulted in more deterioration of the targeted areas. This paper explores different approaches in some selected Arab countries and relies on comparative analysis with some successful European experiences. The aim is to establish some solid basis for dealing with heritage areas; an approach that respects heritage and traditions without compromising sustainability or socioeconomic opportunities.

Keywords: conservation, heritage, identity, urban conservation methodology,

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20 Biochemical Evaluation of Air Conditioning West Water in Jeddah City: Concept of Sustainable Water Resources

Authors: D. Alromi, A. Alansari, S. Alghamdi, E. Jambi

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As the need for water is increasing globally, and the available water resources are barely meeting the current quality of life and economy. Air conditioning (AC) condensate water could be explored as an alternative water source, which could be considered within the global calculations of the water supply. The objective of this study is to better understand the potential for recovery of condensate water from air conditioning systems. The results generated so far showed that the AC produces a high quantity of water, and data analysis revealed that the amount of water is positively and significantly correlated with the humidity (P <= 0.05). In the meantime, the amount of heavy metals has been measuring using ICP-OES. The results, in terms of quantity, clearly show that the AC can be used as an alternative source of water, especially in the regions characterized by high humidity. The results also showed that the amount of produced water depends on the type of AC.

Keywords: air conditioning systems, water quantity, water resources, wastewater

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19 Urban Conservation Methodology for Heritage Areas: A Case Study in Qabel Street, Old Jeddah

Authors: Hossam Hassan Elborombaly, Nader Y. Azab

Abstract:

The Middle East region is rich with its architecture and urban settings. This makes it viable for exploring and applying different strategies that deal with conservation. Current context characterized by pollution, socioeconomic issues, behavioral problems, etc. affects architectural and urban heritage –literally- in all Middle Eastern countries. Although there have been numerous strategies in place to preserve and/ or rehabilitate heritage, all has been designed and implemented following political more than technical or methodical processes. This only resulted in more deterioration of the targeted areas. This paper explores different approaches in some selected Arab countries and relies on comparative analysis with some successful European experiences. The aim is to establish some solid basis for dealing with heritage areas; an approach that respects heritage and traditions without compromising sustainability or socioeconomic opportunities.

Keywords: rehabilitation, socioeconomic, urban conservation, urban strategy

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18 The Impact of Using Microlearning to Enhance Students' Programming Skills and Learning Motivation

Authors: Ali Alqarni

Abstract:

This study aims to explore the impact of microlearning on the development of the programming skills as well as on the motivation for learning of first-year high schoolers in Jeddah. The sample consists of 78 students, distributed as 40 students in the control group, and 38 students in the treatment group. The quasi-experimental method, which is a type of quantitative method, was used in this study. In addition to the technological tools used to create and deliver the digital content, the study utilized two tools to collect the data: first, an observation card containing a list of programming skills, and second, a tool to measure the student's motivation for learning. The findings indicate that microlearning positively impacts programming skills and learning motivation for students. The study, then, recommends implementing and expanding the use of microlearning in educational contexts both in the general education level and the higher education level.

Keywords: educational technology, teaching strategies, online learning, microlearning

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17 Assessing the Physiological, Psychological Stressors and Coping Strategies among Hemodialysis Patients in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: A. Seham A. Elgamal, Reham H. Saleh

Abstract:

Chronic kidney disease became a global health problem worldwide. Therefore, in order to maintain a patient’s life and improve the survival rate, hemodialysis is essential to replace the function of their kidneys. However, those patients may complain about multiple physical and psychological stressors due to the nature of the disease and the need for frequent hemodialysis sessions. So, those patients use various strategies to cope with the stressors related to their disease and the treatment procedures. Cross-sectional, descriptive study was carried out to achieve the aim of the study. A convenient sample including all adult patients was recruited for this study. Hemodialysis Stressors Scale (HSS) and Jalowiec Coping Scale (JCS) were used to investigate the stressors and coping strategies of 89 hemodialysis patients, at a governmental hospital (King Khalid Hospital-Jeddah). Results of the study revealed that 50.7% experienced physiological stressors and 38% experienced psychosocial stressors. Also, optimistic, fatalistic, and supportive coping strategies were the most common coping strategies used by the patients with mean scores (2.88 + 0.75, 2.87 + 0.75, and 1.82 + 0.71), respectively. In conclusion, being familiar with the types of stressors and the effective coping strategies of hemodialysis patients and their families are important in order to enhance their adaptation with chronic kidney diseases.

Keywords: copying strategies, hemodialysis, physiological stressors, psychological stressors

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16 An iTunes U App for Development of Metacognition Skills Delivered in the Enrichment Program Offered to Gifted Students at the Secondary Level

Authors: Maha Awad M. Almuttairi

Abstract:

This research aimed to measure the impact of the use of a mobile learning (iTunes U) app for the development of metacognition skills delivered in the enrichment program offered to gifted students at the secondary level in Jeddah. The author targeted a group of students on an experimental scale to evaluate the achievement. The research sample consisted of a group of 38 gifted female students. The scale of evaluation of the metacognition skills used to measure the performance of students in the enrichment program was as follows: Satisfaction scale for the assessment of the technique used and the final product form after completion of the program. Appropriate statistical treatment used includes Paired Samples T-Test Cronbach’s alpha formula and eta squared formula. It was concluded in the results the difference of α≤ 0.05, which means the performance of students in the skills of metacognition in favor of using iTunes U. In light of the conclusion of the experiment, a number of recommendations and suggestions were present; the most important benefit of mobile learning applications is to provide enrichment programs for gifted students in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, as well as conducting further research on mobile learning and gifted student teaching.

Keywords: enrichment program, gifted students, metacognition skills, mobile learning

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15 Risk of Type 2 Diabetes among Female College Students in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Noor A. Hakim

Abstract:

Several studies in the developed countries investigated the prevalence of diabetes and obesity among individuals from different socioeconomic levels and suggested lower rates among the higher socioeconomic groups. However, studies evaluating diabetes risk and prevalence of obesity among the population of middle- to high-income status in developing countries are limited. The aim of this study is to evaluate the risk of developing type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the weight status of female students in private universities in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia. This is a cross-sectional study of 121 female students aged ≤ 25 years old was conducted; participants were recruited from two private universities. Diabetes risk was evaluated using the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score. Anthropometric measurements were assessed, and body-mass-index (BMI) was calculated. Diabetes risk scores indicated that 35.5% of the female students had a slightly elevated risk, and 10.8% had a moderate to high risk to develop T2DM. One-third of the females (29.7%) were overweight or obese. The majority of the normal weight and underweight groups were classified to have a low risk of diabetes, 22.2% of the overweight participants were classified to have moderate to high risk, and over half of the obese participants (55.5%) were classified to be at the moderate to high-risk category. Conclusions: Given that diabetes risk is alarming among the population in Saudi Arabia, healthcare providers should utilize a simple screening tool to identify high-risk individuals and initiate diabetes preventive strategies to prevent, or delay, the onset of T2DM and improve the quality of life.

Keywords: risk of type 2 diabetes, weight status, college students, socioeconomic status

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14 Urban Regeneration of Unplanned Settlements in Al-Ruwais

Authors: Rama Ajineh

Abstract:

Neighborhoods are defined as local zones within settlements and cities recognized by individuals who live there, with their identities and given boundaries. Neighborhoods mainly structure individual’s lives, the small box which various social groups interact with each other, develop and become one strong entity. Also, it is a platform for more activities, providing many of the social services to enhance the connections between the people, giving a sense of community. However, some of these neighborhoods were unplanned and caused many social, economical and architectural problems to its residents in the first place, and to the city. A great example of such case is in Saudi Arabia, Jeddah, Al-Ruwais neighborhood, where the authority is planning to regenerate the area and make it a landmark for the city. Urban Regeneration of Unplanned Settlements is a process to make people live and work, now and in the future, and meet the various needs of the current and coming inhabitants, with a high-quality life for all. Through research, it was discovered that Urban regeneration plans on Al-Ruwais were planned regardless to the collective agreement of the inhabitants, giving themselves the absolute right to demolish and reconstruct the desired locations with a low compensation. Consequently, a deep research will be done on integrating the residents with the process, by showcasing examples of successful Urban Regenerations of Unplanned settlements in different cities. The research aims to understand the sustainable, and well-planned regeneration strategies used to enhance people’s living without harming them, and give sustainable urban solutions. Moreover, the research explores the definition of Sustainable Communities. The used methods in this paper are secondary research on site analysis and the relationship between the human and the neighborhood. The conclusion reveals the most successful fashion of Urban regeneration of Unplanned settlements and applies it to Al-Ruwais neighborhood considering the human factor as a primary element.

Keywords: architecture, human integration, original residents, site analysis, sustainable communities, urban sustainable solutions, urban regeneration

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13 Evaluation of Pragmatic Information in an English Textbook: Focus on Requests

Authors: Israa A. Qari

Abstract:

Learning to request in a foreign language is a key ability within pragmatics language teaching. This paper examines how requests are taught in English Unlimited Book 3 (Cambridge University Press), an EFL textbook series employed by King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia to teach advanced foundation year students English. The focus of analysis is the evaluation of the request linguistic strategies present in the textbook, frequency of the use of these strategies, and the contextual information provided on the use of these linguistic forms. The researcher collected all the linguistic forms which consisted of the request speech act and divided them into levels employing the CCSARP request coding manual. Findings demonstrated that simple and commonly employed request strategies are introduced. Looking closely at the exercises throughout the chapters, it was noticeable that the book exclusively employed the most direct form of requesting (the imperative) when giving learners instructions: e.g. listen, write, ask, answer, read, look, complete, choose, talk, think, etc. The book also made use of some other request strategies such as ‘hedged performatives’ and ‘query preparatory’. However, it was also found that many strategies were not dealt with in the book, specifically strategies with combined functions (e.g. possibility, ability). On a sociopragmatic level, a strong focus was found to exist on standard situations in which relations between the requester and requestee are clear. In general, contextual information was communicated implicitly only. The textbook did not seem to differentiate between formal and informal request contexts (register) which might consequently impel students to overgeneralize. The paper closes with some recommendations for textbook and curriculum designers. Findings are also contrasted with previous results from similar body of research on EFL requests.

Keywords: EFL, requests, saudi, speech acts, textbook evaluation

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12 Neurological Complication of Bariatric Surgery: A Cross-sectional Study from Saudi Arabia

Authors: H. A. Algahtani, A. S. Khan, O. Alzahrani, N. Hussein, M. A. Khan, Loudhi Y. I. Soliman

Abstract:

Objective: To report on the Saudi experience (developing country) of neurological complications from bariatric surgery. The literature on the subject is reviewed. Method: This is a cross sectional study done in King Abdul Aziz Medical City Jeddah, WR, where we reviewed all charts of the patients who underwent bariatric surgery between January 1st, 2009 to December 31st , 2014. Personal and clinical data including age, sex, BMI, comorbidities, type of procedure, duration of stay in hospital, complications and postoperative follow up were collected. In addition follow up visit and remote complication if present were collected. All patients with neurological complications were reviewed in details including their clinical examination, laboratory and imaging results, treatment and prognosis. This report is essentially descriptive with no statistical analysis performed. Results: Fifteen cases were collected in this study (3%). Axonal polyneuropathy was the most frequent neurological complica¬tion, but cases of Wernicke syndrome, vitamin B12 deficiency, Guillain-Barre syndrome and cupper deficiency were also identified. Fourteen patients (93.3%) had full recovery from the neurological signs and symptoms but unfortunately one patient died. Conclusion: Bariatric surgery, a procedure that is continuously increasing in popularity, is not free of potential neurological complications. A clear education, guidelines and follow-up program should be planned and practiced. Facts should be clearly presented to the individual undergoing this type of surgery. Although a clear cause-effect relation cannot be established for the present cases, the cumulative literature on the subject makes it important to warn the patient of the potential risks of this procedure.

Keywords: bariatric surgery, neurological complications, neuropathy, Wenicke syndrome

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11 Efficiency Validation of Hybrid Cooling Application in Hot and Humid Climate Houses of KSA

Authors: Jamil Hijazi, Stirling Howieson

Abstract:

Reducing energy consumption and CO2 emissions are probably the greatest challenge now facing mankind. From considerations surrounding global warming and CO2 production, it has to be recognized that oil is a finite resource and the KSA like many other oil-rich countries will have to start to consider a horizon where hydro-carbons are not the dominant energy resource. The employment of hybrid ground-cooling pipes in combination with the black body solar collection and radiant night cooling systems may have the potential to displace a significant proportion of oil currently used to run conventional air conditioning plant. This paper presents an investigation into the viability of such hybrid systems with the specific aim of reducing cooling load and carbon emissions while providing all year-round thermal comfort in a typical Saudi Arabian urban housing block. Soil temperatures were measured in the city of Jeddah. A parametric study then was carried out by computational simulation software (DesignBuilder) that utilized the field measurements and predicted the cooling energy consumption of both a base case and an ideal scenario (typical block retro-fitted with insulation, solar shading, ground pipes integrated with hypocaust floor slabs/stack ventilation and radiant cooling pipes embed in floor). Initial simulation results suggest that careful ‘ecological design’ combined with hybrid radiant and ground pipe cooling techniques can displace air conditioning systems, producing significant cost and carbon savings (both capital and running) without appreciable deprivation of amenity.

Keywords: cooling load, energy efficiency, ground pipe cooling, hybrid cooling strategy, hydronic radiant systems, low carbon emission, passive designs, thermal comfort

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