Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 38

Search results for: swell

38 Experimental Study on Use of Crumb Rubber to Mitigate Expansive Soil Pressures on Basement Walls

Authors: Kwestan Salimi, Jenna Jacoby, Michelle Basham, Amy Cerato

Abstract:

The extreme annual weather patterns of the central United States have increased the need for underground shelters for protection from destructive tornadic activity. However, very few residential homes have basements due to the added construction expense and the prevalence of expansive soils covering the central portion of the United States. These expansive soils shrink and swell, increasing earth pressure on basement walls. To mitigate the effect of expansive soils on basement walls, this study performed bench-scale tests using a common natural expansive soil mitigated with a backfill layer of crumb rubber. The results revealed that at 80% soil compaction, a 1:6 backfill height to total height ratio produced a 66% reduction in swell pressure. However, this percent reduction decreased to 27% for 90% soil compaction. It was also found that there is a strong linear correlation between compaction percentage and reduction in swell pressure when using the same backfill height to total height ratio. Using this correlation and extrapolating to 95% compaction, the percent reduction in swell pressure was approximately 12%.

Keywords: expansive soils, swell/shrink, swell pressure, stabilization, crumb rubber

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
37 Detection of Voltage Sag and Voltage Swell in Power Quality Using Wavelet Transforms

Authors: Nor Asrina Binti Ramlee

Abstract:

Voltage sag, voltage swell, high-frequency noise and voltage transients are kinds of disturbances in power quality. They are also known as power quality events. Equipment used in the industry nowadays has become more sensitive to these events with the increasing complexity of equipment. This leads to the importance of distributing clean power quality to the consumer. To provide better service, the best analysis on power quality is very vital. Thus, this paper presents the events detection focusing on voltage sag and swell. The method is developed by applying time domain signal analysis using wavelet transform approach in MATLAB. Four types of mother wavelet namely Haar, Dmey, Daubechies, and Symlet are used to detect the events. This project analyzed real interrupted signal obtained from 22 kV transmission line in Skudai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia. The signals will be decomposed through the wavelet mothers. The best mother is the one that is capable to detect the time location of the event accurately.

Keywords: power quality, voltage sag, voltage swell, wavelet transform

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36 The Effect of Treated Waste-Water on Compaction and Compression of Fine Soil

Authors: M. Attom, F. Abed, M. Elemam, M. Nazal, N. ElMessalami

Abstract:

—The main objective of this paper is to study the effect of treated waste-water (TWW) on the compaction and compressibility properties of fine soil. Two types of fine soils (clayey soils) were selected for this study and classified as CH soil and Cl type of soil. Compaction and compressibility properties such as optimum water content, maximum dry unit weight, consolidation index and swell index, maximum past pressure and volume change were evaluated using both tap and treated waste water. It was found that the use of treated waste water affects all of these properties. The maximum dry unit weight increased for both soils and the optimum water content decreased as much as 13.6% for highly plastic soil. The significant effect was observed in swell index and swelling pressure of the soils. The swell indexed decreased by as much as 42% and 33% for highly plastic and low plastic soils, respectively, when TWW is used. Additionally, the swelling pressure decreased by as much as 16% for both soil types. The result of this research pointed out that the use of treated waste water has a positive effect on compaction and compression properties of clay soil and promise for potential use of this water in engineering applications. Keywords—Consolidation, proctor compaction, swell index, treated waste-water, volume change.

Keywords: consolidation, proctor compaction, swell index, treated waste-water, volume change

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
35 Extrudate Swell under the Effect of Radial Flow and Intrinsic Factors to the Polymer Upstream of the Die

Authors: Hela Krir, Abdelhak Ayadi, Chedly Bradaii

Abstract:

The influence of both intrinsic factors, elastic energy and memory effect, and radial flow on the appearance and the evolution of the extrudate swelling are investigated in the present work. The experiments have been performed with linear polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via a capillary rheometer in which a convergent radial flow was created upstream the contraction. The correspondence between the effects of radial flow, entry elastic stored energy and memory effect is discussed. In particular, as the influence of the considered radial flow, extrudate photographs showed that when the gap ratio is reduced, the extrudate swell is lessened than what it is when radial flow geometry is not installed. Moreover, with a narrower gap, the polymer stores less energy during its passage through the die which implies a lower extrudate swelling at the outlet of the die. Results previously mentioned may be related both to shear and elongational components of radial flow.

Keywords: elastic energy, extrudate swell, memory effect, radial flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
34 Surprising Behaviour of Kaolinitic Soils under Alkaline Environment

Authors: P. Hari Prasad Reddy, Shimna Paulose, V. Sai Kumar, C. H. Rama Vara Prasad

Abstract:

Soil environment gets contaminated due to rapid industrialisation, agricultural-chemical application and improper disposal of waste generated by the society. Unexpected volume changes can occur in soil in the presence of certain contaminants usually after the long duration of interaction. Alkali is one of the major soil contaminant that has a considerable effect on behaviour of soils and capable of inducing swelling potential in soil. Chemical heaving of clayey soils occurs when they are wetted by aqueous solutions of alkalis. Mineralogical composition of the soil is one of the main factors influencing soil- alkali interaction. In the present work, studies are carried out to understand the swell potential of soils due to soil-alkali interaction with different concentrations of NaOH solution. Locally available soil, namely, red earth containing kaolinite which is of non-swelling nature is selected for the study. In addition to this, two commercially available clayey soils, namely ball clay and china clay containing mainly of kaolinite are selected to understand the effect of alkali interaction in various kaolinitic soils. Non-swelling red earth shows maximum swell at lower concentrations of alkali solution (0.1N) and a slightly decreasing trend of swelling with further increase in concentration (1N, 4N, and 8N). Marginal decrease in swell potential with increase in concentration indicates that the increased concentration of alkali solution exists as free solution in case of red earth. China clay and ball clay both falling under kaolinite group of clay minerals, show swelling with alkaline solution. At lower concentrations of alkali solution both the soils shows similar swell behaviour, but at higher concentration of alkali solution ball clay shows high swell potential compared to china clay which may be due to lack of well ordered crystallinity in ball clay compared to china clay. The variations in the results obtained were corroborated by carrying XRD and SEM studies.

Keywords: alkali, kaolinite, swell potential, XRD, SEM

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33 An Object-Oriented Modelica Model of the Water Level Swell during Depressurization of the Reactor Pressure Vessel of the Boiling Water Reactor

Authors: Rafal Bryk, Holger Schmidt, Thomas Mull, Ingo Ganzmann, Oliver Herbst

Abstract:

Prediction of the two-phase water mixture level during fast depressurization of the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) resulting from an accident scenario is an important issue from the view point of the reactor safety. Since the level swell may influence the behavior of some passive safety systems, it has been recognized that an assumption which at the beginning may be considered as a conservative one, not necessary leads to a conservative result. This paper discusses outcomes obtained during simulations of the water dynamics and heat transfer during sudden depressurization of a vessel filled up to a certain level with liquid water under saturation conditions and with the rest of the vessel occupied by saturated steam. In case of the pressure decrease e.g. due to the main steam line break, the liquid water evaporates abruptly, being a reason thereby, of strong transients in the vessel. These transients and the sudden emergence of void in the region occupied at the beginning by liquid, cause elevation of the two-phase mixture. In this work, several models calculating the water collapse and swell levels are presented and validated against experimental data. Each of the models uses different approach to calculate void fraction. The object-oriented models were developed with the Modelica modelling language and the OpenModelica environment. The models represent the RPV of the Integral Test Facility Karlstein (INKA) – a dedicated test rig for simulation of KERENA – a new Boiling Water Reactor design of Framatome. The models are based on dynamic mass and energy equations. They are divided into several dynamic volumes in each of which, the fluid may be single-phase liquid, steam or a two-phase mixture. The heat transfer between the wall of the vessel and the fluid is taken into account. Additional heat flow rate may be applied to the first volume of the vessel in order to simulate the decay heat of the reactor core in a similar manner as it is simulated at INKA. The comparison of the simulations results against the reference data shows a good agreement.

Keywords: boiling water reactor, level swell, Modelica, RPV depressurization, thermal-hydraulics

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32 PWM Based Control of Dstatcom for Voltage Sag, Swell Mitigation in Distribution Systems

Authors: A. Assif

Abstract:

This paper presents the modeling of a prototype distribution static compensator (D-STATCOM) for voltage sag and swell mitigation in an unbalanced distribution system. Here the concept that an inverter can be used as generalized impedance converter to realize either inductive or capacitive reactance has been used to mitigate power quality issues of distribution networks. The D-STATCOM is here supposed to replace the widely used StaticVar Compensator (SVC). The scheme is based on the Voltage Source Converter (VSC) principle. In this model PWM based control scheme has been implemented to control the electronic valves of VSC. Phase shift control Algorithm method is used for converter control. The D-STATCOM injects a current into the system to mitigate the voltage sags. In this paper the modeling of D¬STATCOM has been designed using MATLAB SIMULINIC. Accordingly, simulations are first carried out to illustrate the use of D-STATCOM in mitigating voltage sag in a distribution system. Simulation results prove that the D-STATCOM is capable of mitigating voltage sag as well as improving power quality of a system.

Keywords: D-STATCOM, voltage sag, voltage source converter (VSC), phase shift control

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
31 Improvement of Oran Sebkha Soil by Dredged Sediments from Chorfa Dam in Algeria

Authors: Z. Aloui-Labiod, H. Trouzine, M. S. Ghembaza

Abstract:

Geotechnical properties of dredged sediment from Chorfa dam in Algeria and their mixtures (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%)with bentonite were investigated through with bentonite were investigated through a series of laboratory experimental tests in order to investigate possibilities of their usage as a barrier against the spread out of the Sebkha of Oran in the northwest of Algeria. Grain size and Atterberg limits tests, chemical and mineral analyses, and compaction, vertical swelling, and horizontal and vertical permeability tests were performed on the soils and their mixtures using tap water and the salty Sebkha water. The results indicate that the bentonite specimens remolded and inundated with Sebkha salty water have less swell potential than those prepared with tap water. The addition of bentonite to Chorfa sediment increases the density, limit liquid, specific surface, and swell potential of the mixtures. Compaction tests show a decrease in the optimum moisture and an increase in maximum dry densities as the bentonite content increases. The horizontal and vertical permeabilities decrease relatively with the addition of bentonite.

Keywords: dredged sediment, bentonite, salty water, barrier

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
30 Laboratory Investigation of Expansive Soil Stabilized with Calcium Chloride

Authors: Magdi M. E. Zumrawi, Khalid A. Eltayeb

Abstract:

Chemical stabilization is a technique commonly used to improve the expansive soil properties. In this regard, an attempt has been made to evaluate the influence of Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) stabilizer on the engineering properties of expansive soil. A series of laboratory experiments including consistency limits, free swell, compaction, and shear strength tests were performed to investigate the effect of CaCl2 additive with various percentages 0%, 2%, 5%, 10% and 15% for improving expansive soil. The results obtained shows that the increase in the percentage of CaCl2 decreased the liquid limit and plasticity index leading to significant reduction in the free swell index. This, in turn, increased the maximum dry density and decreased the optimum moisture content which results in greater strength. The unconfined compressive strength of soil stabilized with 5% CaCl2 increased approximately by 50% as compared to virgin soil. It can be concluded that CaCl2 had shown promising influence on the strength and swelling properties of expansive soil, thereby giving an advantage in improving problematic expansive soil.

Keywords: calcium chloride, chemical stabilization, expansive soil, improving

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
29 Effects of Peakedness of Bimodal Waves on Overtopping of Sloping Seawalls

Authors: Stephen Orimoloye, Jose Horrillo-Caraballo, Harshinie Karunarathna, Dominic E. Reeve

Abstract:

Prediction of wave overtopping is an essential component of coastal seawall designing and management. Not only that excessive overtopping is reported for impermeable seawalls under bimodal waves, but overtopping is also showing a high sensitivity to the peakedness of the random wave propagation patterns. In the present study, we present a comprehensive analysis of the effects of peakedness of bimodal wave patterns of the overtopping of sloping seawalls. An energy-conserved bimodal spectrum with four different spectra peak periods and swell percentages was applied to estimate wave overtopping in both numerical and experimental flumes. Results of incident surface elevations and bimodal spectra were accurately captured across the flume domain using sets of well-positioned resistant-type wave gauges. Peakedness characteristics of the wave patterns were extracted to derive a relationship between the non-dimensional overtopping and the peakedness across the wave groups in the wave series. The full paper will briefly describe the development of the spectrum and present a comprehensive results analysis leading to the derivation of the relationship between dimensionless overtopping and peakedness of bimodal waves.

Keywords: wave overtopping, peakedness, bimodal waves, swell percentages

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28 Using Power Flow Analysis for Understanding UPQC’s Behaviors

Authors: O. Abdelkhalek, A. Naimi, M. Rami, M. N. Tandjaoui, A. Kechich

Abstract:

This paper deals with the active and reactive power flow analysis inside the unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) during several cases. The UPQC is a combination of shunt and series active power filter (APF). It is one of the best solutions towards the mitigation of voltage sags and swells problems on distribution network. This analysis can provide the helpful information to well understanding the interaction between the series filter, the shunt filter, the DC bus link and electrical network. The mathematical analysis is based on active and reactive power flow through the shunt and series active power filter. Wherein series APF can absorb or deliver the active power to mitigate a swell or sage voltage where in the both cases it absorbs a small reactive power quantity whereas the shunt active power absorbs or releases the active power for stabilizing the storage capacitor’s voltage as well as the power factor correction. The voltage sag and voltage swell are usually interpreted through the DC bus voltage curves. These two phenomena are introduced in this paper with a new interpretation based on the active and reactive power flow analysis inside the UPQC. For simplifying this study, a linear load is supposed in this digital simulation. The simulation results are carried out to confirm the analysis done.

Keywords: UPQC, Power flow analysis, shunt filter, series filter.

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27 Role of Matric Suction in Mechanics behind Swelling Characteristics of Expansive Soils

Authors: Saloni Pandya, Nikhil Sharma, Ajanta Sachan

Abstract:

Expansive soils in the unsaturated state are part of vadose zone and encountered in several arid and semi-arid parts of the world. Influence of high temperature, low precipitation and alternate cycles of wetting and drying are responsible for the chemical weathering of rocks, which results in the formation of expansive soils. Shrinkage-swelling (expansive) soils cover a substantial portion of area in India. Damages caused by expansive soils to various geotechnical structures are alarming. Matric suction develops in unsaturated soil due to capillarity and surface tension phenomena. Matric suction influences the geometric arrangement of soil skeleton, which induces the volume change behaviour of expansive soil. In the present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the role of matric suction in the mechanism behind swelling characteristics of expansive soil. Four different soils have been collected from different parts of India for the current research. Soil sample S1, S2, S3 and S4 were collected from Nagpur, Bharuch, Bharuch-Dahej highway and Ahmedabad respectively. DFSI (Differential Free Swell Index) of these soils samples; S1, S2, S3, and S4; were determined to be 134%, 104%, 70% and 30% respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis of samples exhibited that percentage of Montmorillonite mineral present in the soils reduced with the decrease in DFSI. A series of constant volume swell pressure tests and in-contact filter paper tests were performed to evaluate swelling pressure and matric suction of all four soils at 30% saturation and 1.46 g/cc dry density. Results indicated that soils possessing higher DFSI exhibited higher matric suction as compared to lower DFSI expansive soils. Significant influence of matric suction on swelling pressure of expansive soils was observed with varying DFSI values. Higher matric suction of soil might govern the water uptake in the interlayer spaces of Montmorillonite mineral present in expansive soil leading to crystalline swelling.

Keywords: differential free swell index, expansive soils, matric suction, swelling pressure

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26 A Study on the Stabilization of the Swell Behavior of Basic Oxygen Furnace Slag by Using Geopolymer Technology

Authors: K. Y. Lin, W. H. Lee, T. W. Cheng, S. W. Huang

Abstract:

Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) Slag is a by-product of iron making. It has great engineering properties, such as, high hardness and density, high compressive strength, low abrasion ratio, and can replace natural aggregate for building materials. However, the main problem for BOF slag is expansion, due to it contains free lime or free magnesium. The purpose of this study was to stabilize the BOF slag by using geopolymeric technology, hoping can prevent BOF slag expansion. Geopolymer processes contain a large amount of free silicon. These free silicon can react with free-lime or free magnesium oxide in BOF slag, and thus to form stable compound, therefore inhibit the expansion of the BOF slag. In this study for the successful preparation of geopolymer mortar with BOF slag, and their main properties are analyzed with regard to their use as building materials. Autoclave is used to study the volume stability of these geopolymer mortar. Finally, the compressive strength of geopolymer mortar with BOF slag can be reached 33MPa in 28 days. After autoclave testing, the volume expansion does not exceed 0.2%. Even after the autoclave test, the compressive strength can increase to 35MPa. According to the research results can be proved that using geopolymer technology for stabilizing BOF slag is very effective.

Keywords: BOF slag, autoclave test, geopolymer, swell behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
25 Fabricating Method for Complex 3D Microfluidic Channel Using Soluble Wax Mold

Authors: Kyunghun Kang, Sangwoo Oh, Yongha Hwang

Abstract:

PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane)-based microfluidic device has been recently applied to area of biomedical research, tissue engineering, and diagnostics because PDMS is low cost, nontoxic, optically transparent, gas-permeable, and especially biocompatible. Generally, PDMS microfluidic devices are fabricated by conventional soft lithography. Microfabrication requires expensive cleanroom facilities and a lot of time; however, only two-dimensional or simple three-dimensional structures can be fabricated. In this study, we introduce fabricating method for complex three-dimensional microfluidic channels using soluble wax mold. Using the 3D printing technique, we firstly fabricated three-dimensional mold which consists of soluble wax material. The PDMS pre-polymer is cast around, followed by PDMS casting and curing. The three-dimensional casting mold was removed from PDMS by chemically dissolved with methanol and acetone. In this work, two preliminary experiments were carried out. Firstly, the solubility of several waxes was tested using various solvents, such as acetone, methanol, hexane, and IPA. We found the combination between wax and solvent which dissolves the wax. Next, side effects of the solvent were investigated during the curing process of PDMS pre-polymer. While some solvents let PDMS drastically swell, methanol and acetone let PDMS swell only 2% and 6%, respectively. Thus, methanol and acetone can be used to dissolve wax in PDMS without any serious impact. Based on the preliminary tests, three-dimensional PDMS microfluidic channels was fabricated using the mold which was printed out using 3D printer. With the proposed fabricating technique, PDMS-based microfluidic devices have advantages of fast prototyping, low cost, optically transparence, as well as having complex three-dimensional geometry. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by Supported by a Korea University Grant and Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF).

Keywords: microfluidic channel, polydimethylsiloxane, 3D printing, casting

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24 Synthesis, Characterization and Applications of Novel Hydrogels Based On Chitosan Derivatives

Authors: Mahmoud H. Aboul-Ela, Riham R. Mohamed, Magdy W. Sabaa

Abstract:

Synthesis of cross-linked hydrogels composed of trimethyl chitosan (TMC) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in different weight ratios in presence of glutaraldehyde as cross-linking agent. Characterization of the prepared hydrogels was done using FTIR, XRD, SEM and TGA. The prepared hydrogels were investigated as adsorbent materials for some transition metal ions from their aqueous solutions. Moreover, the swell ability of the prepared hydrogels was also investigated in both acidic and alkaline pHs, as well as in simulated body fluid (SBF).

Keywords: trimethyl chitosan, hydrogels, metal uptake, superabsorbent materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
23 Chemical Amelioration of Expansive Soils

Authors: B. R. Phanikumar, Sana Suri

Abstract:

Expansive soils swell when they absorb water and shrink when water evaporates from them. Hence, lightly loaded civil engineering structures found in these soils are subjected to severe distress. Therefore, there is a need to ameliorate or improve these swelling soils through some innovative methods. This paper discusses chemical stabilisation of expansive soils, a technique in which chemical reagents such as lime and calcium chloride are added to expansive soils to reduce the volumetric changes occurring in expansive soils and also to improve their engineering behaviour.

Keywords: expansive soils, swelling, shrinkage, amelioration, lime, calcium chloride

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
22 Numerical Modeling of Storm Swells in Harbor by Boussinesq Equations Model

Authors: Mustapha Kamel Mihoubi, Hocine Dahmani

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The purpose of work is to study the phenomenon of agitation of storm waves at basin caused by different directions of waves relative to the current provision thrown numerical model based on the equation in shallow water using Boussinesq model MIKE 21 BW. According to the diminishing effect of penetration of a wave optimal solution will be available to be reproduced in reduced model. Another alternative arrangement throws will be proposed to reduce the agitation and the effects of the swell reflection caused by the penetration of waves in the harbor.

Keywords: agitation, Boussinesq equations, combination, harbor

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
21 Poly(Acrylamide-Co-Itaconic Acid) Nanocomposite Hydrogels and Its Use in the Removal of Lead in Aqueous Solution

Authors: Majid Farsadrouh Rashti, Alireza Mohammadinejad, Amir Shafiee Kisomi

Abstract:

Lead (Pb²⁺), a cation, is a prime constituent of the majority of the industrial effluents such as mining, smelting and coal combustion, Pb-based painting and Pb containing pipes in water supply systems, paper and pulp refineries, printing, paints and pigments, explosive manufacturing, storage batteries, alloy and steel industries. The maximum permissible limit of lead in the water used for drinking and domesticating purpose is 0.01 mg/L as advised by Bureau of Indian Standards, BIS. This becomes the acceptable 'safe' level of lead(II) ions in water beyond which, the water becomes unfit for human use and consumption, and is potential enough to lead health problems and epidemics leading to kidney failure, neuronal disorders, and reproductive infertility. Superabsorbent hydrogels are loosely crosslinked hydrophilic polymers that in contact with aqueous solution can easily water and swell to several times to their initial volume without dissolving in aqueous medium. Superabsorbents are kind of hydrogels capable to swell and absorb a large amount of water in their three-dimensional networks. While the shapes of hydrogels do not change extensively during swelling, because of tremendously swelling capacity of superabsorbent, their shape will broadly change.Because of their superb response to changing environmental conditions including temperature pH, and solvent composition, superabsorbents have been attracting in numerous industrial applications. For instance, water retention property and subsequently. Natural-based superabsorbent hydrogels have attracted much attention in medical pharmaceutical, baby diapers, agriculture, and horticulture because of their non-toxicity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Novel superabsorbent hydrogel nanocomposites were prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylamide and itaconic acid in the presence of nanoclay (laponite), using methylene bisacrylamide (MBA) and potassium persulfate, former as a crosslinking agent and the second as an initiator. The superabsorbent hydrogel nanocomposites structure was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, SEM and TGA Spectroscopy adsorption of metal ions on poly (AAm-co-IA). The equilibrium swelling values of copolymer was determined by gravimetric method. During the adsorption of metal ions on polymer, residual metal ion concentration in the solution and the solution pH were measured. The effects of the clay content of the hydrogel on its metal ions uptake behavior were studied. The NC hydrogels may be considered as a good candidate for environmental applications to retain more water and to remove heavy metals.

Keywords: adsorption, hydrogel, nanocomposite, super adsorbent

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20 Clay Develop Plasticity With Water

Authors: Boualla Nabila

Abstract:

The problems created by the water in Civil Engineering are sometimes neglected or often badly posed when they are not completely ignored, and yet they are fundamental as regards both the conditions of execution of the worksites and the stability. Several damages were caused by the infiltration of water in the soils, in particular in clay regions which can swell under the effect of an increase in their water content as in the case of the Oued Tlelat clay which is made up of yellow-colored marly clays and red-colored El Maleh area. This study was carried out on soil from a site, located near the city of Oran and the city of Ain Tmouchent (northern Algeria) where we encounter many problems of cracking of buildings and bottom uplift of excavations. The study consists first of all in determining the mechanical and physical characteristics of the clay, namely the parameters of sheer, simple compression, and that of the odometer. Then the study focused on a comparison of the influence of water type on the mechanical and physical properties of swelling clay soil.

Keywords: clay, water, liquidity limit, plastic limit

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19 Utilization of Fly Ash Amended Sewage Sludge as Sustainable Building Material

Authors: Kaling Taki, Rohit Gahlot, Manish Kumar

Abstract:

Disposal of Sewage Sludge (SS) is a big issue especially in developing nation like India, where there is no control in the dynamicity of SS produced. The present research work demonstrates the potential application of SS amended with varying percentage (0-100%) of Fly Ash (FA) for brick manufacturing as an alternative of SS management. SS samples were collected from Jaspur sewage treatment plant (Ahmedabad, India) and subjected to different preconditioning treatments: (i) atmospheric drying (ii) pulverization (iii) heat treatment in oven (110°C, moisture removal) and muffle furnace (440°C, organic content removal). Geotechnical parameters of the SS were obtained as liquid limit (52%), plastic limit (24%), shrinkage limit (10%), plasticity index (28%), differential free swell index (DFSI, 47%), silt (68%), clay (27%), organic content (5%), optimum moisture content (OMC, 20%), maximum dry density (MDD, 1.55gm/cc), specific gravity (2.66), swell pressure (57kPa) and unconfined compressive strength (UCS, 207kPa). For FA liquid limit, plastic limit and specific gravity was 44%, 0% and 2.2 respectively. Initially, for brick casting pulverized SS sample was heat treated in a muffle furnace around 440℃ (5 hours) for removal of organic matter. Later, mixing of SS, FA and water by weight ratio was done at OMC. 7*7*7 cm3 sample mold was used for casting bricks at MDD. Brick samples were then first dried in room temperature for 24 hours, then in oven at 100℃ (24 hours) and finally firing in muffle furnace for 1000℃ (10 hours). The fired brick samples were then cured for 3 days according to Indian Standards (IS) common burnt clay building bricks- specification (5th revision). The Compressive strength of brick samples (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 ,60, 70, 80, 90, 100%) of FA were 0.45, 0.76, 1.89, 1.83, 4.02, 3.74, 3.42, 3.19, 2.87, 0.78 and 4.95MPa when evaluated through compressive testing machine (CTM) for a stress rate of 14MPa/min. The highest strength was obtained at 40% FA mixture i.e. 4.02MPa which is much higher than the pure SS brick sample. According to IS 1077: 1992 this combination gives strength more than 3.5 MPa and can be utilized as common building bricks. The loss in weight after firing was much higher than the oven treatment, this might be due to degradation temperature higher than 100℃. The thermal conductivity of the fired brick was obtained as 0.44Wm-1K-1, indicating better insulation properties than other reported studies. TCLP (Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure) test of Cr, Cu, Co, Fe and Ni in raw SS was found as 69, 70, 21, 39502 and 47 mg/kg. The study positively concludes that SS and FA at optimum ratio can be utilized as common building bricks such as partitioning wall and other small strength requirement works. The uniqueness of the work is it emphasizes on utilization of FA for stabilizing SS as construction material as a replacement of natural clay as reported in existing studies.

Keywords: Compressive strength, Curing, Fly Ash, Sewage Sludge.

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18 Energy Recovery from Swell with a Height Inferior to 1.5 m

Authors: A. Errasti, F. Doffagne, O. Foucrier, S. Kao, A. Meigne, H. Pellae, T. Rouland

Abstract:

Renewable energy recovery is an important domain of research in past few years in view of protection of our ecosystem. Several industrial companies are setting up widespread recovery systems to exploit wave energy. Most of them have a large size, are implanted near the shores and exploit current flows. However, as oceans represent 70% of Earth surface, a huge space is still unexploited to produce energy. Present analysis focuses on surface small scale wave energy recovery. The principle is exactly the opposite of wheel damper for a car on a road. Instead of maintaining the car body as non-oscillatory as possible by adapted control, a system is designed so that its oscillation amplitude under wave action will be maximized with respect to a boat carrying it in view of differential potential energy recuperation. From parametric analysis of system equations, interesting domains have been selected and expected energy output has been evaluated.

Keywords: small scale wave, potential energy, optimized energy recovery, auto-adaptive system

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
17 Numerical Modeling of Waves and Currents by Using a Hydro-Sedimentary Model

Authors: Mustapha Kamel Mihoubi, Hocine Dahmani

Abstract:

Over recent years much progress has been achieved in the fields of numerical modeling shoreline processes: waves, currents, waves and current. However, there are still some problems in the existing models to link the on the first, the hydrodynamics of waves and currents and secondly, the sediment transport processes and due to the variability in time, space and interaction and the simultaneous action of wave-current near the shore. This paper is the establishment of a numerical modeling to forecast the sediment transport from development scenarios of harbor structure. It is established on the basis of a numerical simulation of a water-sediment model via a 2D model using a set of codes calculation MIKE 21-DHI software. This is to examine the effect of the sediment transport drivers following the dominant incident wave in the direction to pass input harbor work under different variants planning studies to find the technical and economic limitations to the sediment transport and protection of the harbor structure optimum solution.

Keywords: swell, current, radiation, stress, mesh, mike21, sediment

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16 Strategy and Coarctation of the Aorta Repair

Authors: Shirin Jalili, Ramin Ghasemi Shayan

Abstract:

Coarctation of the aorta (CoA) may be a common (CHD), which is the seventh most common sort of CHD. Still, this is often likely a think little off since the determination may be deferred, indeed within the pediatric populace. The choice for surgical repair incorporates resection of the contracted section with end-to-end or end-to-side anastomosis, subclavian fold aortoplasty, resection, and join the intervention, or prosthetic fix aortoplasty. Drastically expanded end-to-end repair or switched subclavian fold aortoplasty can be utilized when the coarctation expands to the distal arch. Swell angioplasty can be a palliative choice sometime recently the conclusive redress. Its objective is to stabilize high-risk patients that cannot be submitted to quick surgical intercession, such as untimely newborns. For disconnected and discrete coarctations, it can, as a rule, be drawn nearer and repaired by means of cleared out thoracotomy, extraction of the infected aorta (coarctectomy), and remaking, ordinarily by amplified end-to-end anastomosis. In this article, we need to supply a diagram of current proposals and strategies utilized to picture coarctations of the aorta.

Keywords: coarctation of the aorta, congenital heart disease, strategies, surgical repair

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15 Sliding Mode Control and Its Application in Custom Power Device: A Comprehensive Overview

Authors: Pankaj Negi

Abstract:

Nowadays the demand for receiving the high quality electrical energy is being increasing as consumer wants not only reliable but also quality power. Custom power instruments are of the most well-known compensators of power quality in distributed network. This paper present a comprehensive review of compensating custom power devices mainly DSTATCOM (distribution static compensator),DVR (dynamic voltage restorer), and UPQC (unified power quality compensator) and also deals with sliding mode control and its applications to custom power devices. The sliding mode control strategy provides robustness to custom power device and enhances the dynamic response for compensating voltage sag, swell, voltage flicker, and voltage harmonics. The aim of this paper is to provide a broad perspective on the status of compensating devices in electric power distribution system and sliding mode control strategies to researchers and application engineers who are dealing with power quality and stability issues.

Keywords: active power filters(APF), custom power device(CPD), DSTATCOM, DVR, UPQC, sliding mode control (SMC), power quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
14 Behavioural-Orientation and Continuity of Informality in Ghana

Authors: Yvonne Ayerki Lamptey

Abstract:

The expanding informal sector in developing countries and in Ghana in particular from the 1980s has now been aggravated by the growing population and downsizing in both the public and private sectors, with displaced workers finding alternative livelihoods in the informal sector. Youth and graduate unemployment also swell the numbers and further promote the continuity of the sector. Formal workers and institutions facilitate the growth and complicate demarcations between informality within the formal and informal sectors. In spite of its growth and increasing importance, the informal economy does not feature in policy debates and has often been neglected by the Ghana government. The phenomenon has evolved with modernity into myriad unimaginable forms. Indeed, actors within the sector often clash with the interventions provided by policy makers - because neither the operatives nor the activities they perform can be clearly defined. This study uses in-depth interviews to explore the behavioural nature of the informal workers in Ghana to understand how the operatives describe and perceive the sector, and to identify the factors that influence their drive to stay within the sector. This paper concludes that the operatives clearly distinguish between the formal and informal sectors and identify the characteristics and conditions that constitute the informal sector. Other workers are trapped between formality and informality. The findings also enumerate the push and pull factors contributing to the growth of the sector.

Keywords: informal employment, informal sector, informal work, informality

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
13 Stabilization of Expansive Soils with Polypropylene Fiber

Authors: Ali Sinan Soğancı

Abstract:

Expansive soils are often encountered in many parts of the world, especially in arid and semi-arid fields. Such kind of soils, generally including active clay minerals in low water content, enlarge in volume by absorbing the water through the surface and cause a great harm to the light structures such as channel coating, roads and airports. The expansive soils were encountered on the path of Apa-Hotamış conveyance channel belonging to the State Hydraulic Works in the region of Konya. In the research done in this area, it is predicted that the soil has a swollen nature and the soil should be filled with proper granular equipment by digging the ground to 50-60 cm. In this study, for purpose of helping the other research to be done in the same area, it is thought that instead of replacing swollen soil with the granular soil, by stabilizing it with polypropylene fiber and using it its original place decreases effect of swelling percent, in this way the cost will be decreased. Therefore, a laboratory tests were conducted to study the effects of polypropylene fiber on swelling characteristics of expansive soil. Test results indicated that inclusion of fiber reduced swell percent of expansive soil. As the fiber content increased, the unconfined compressive strength was increased. Finally, it can be say that stabilization of expansive soils with polypropylene fiber is an effective method.

Keywords: expansive soils, polypropylene fiber, stabilization, swelling percent

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
12 The Effect of Polypropylene Fiber in the Stabilization of Expansive Soils

Authors: Ali Sinan Soğancı

Abstract:

Expansive soils are often encountered in many parts of the world, especially in arid and semi-arid fields. Such kind of soils, generally including active clay minerals in low water content, enlarge in volume by absorbing the water through the surface and cause a great harm to the light structures such as channel coating, roads and airports. The expansive soils were encountered on the path of Apa-Hotamış conveyance channel belonging to the State Hydraulic Works in the region of Konya. In the research done in this area, it is predicted that the soil has a swollen nature and the soil should be filled with proper granular equipment by digging the ground to 50-60 cm. In this study, for purpose of helping the other research to be done in the same area, it is thought that instead of replacing swollen soil with the granular soil, by stabilizing it with polypropylene fiber and using it its original place decreases effect of swelling percent, in this way the cost will be decreased. Therefore, a laboratory tests were conducted to study the effects of polypropylene fiber on swelling characteristics of expansive soil. Test results indicated that inclusion of fiber reduced swell percent of expansive soil. As the fiber content increased, the unconfined compressive strength was increased. Finally, it can be say that stabilization of expansive soils with polypropylene fiber is an effective method.

Keywords: expansive soils, polypropylene fiber, stabilization, swelling percent

Procedia PDF Downloads 425
11 Swelling Hydrogels on the Base Nitron Fiber Wastes for Water Keeping in Sandy Soils

Authors: Alim Asamatdinov

Abstract:

Superabsorbent polymer hydrogels can swell to absorb huge volumes of water or aqueous solutions. This property has led to many practical applications of these new materials, particularly in agriculture for improving the water retention of soils and the water supply of plants. This article reviews the methods of polymeric hydrogels, measurements and treatments of their properties, as well as their effects on soil and on plant growth. The thermodynamic approach used to describe the swelling behaviour of polymer networks proves to be quite helpful in modelling the hydrogel efficiency of water-absorbing additives. The paper presents the results of a study of the physical and chemical properties of hydrogels based on of the production of "Nitron" (Polyacrylonitrile) wastes fibre and salts of the 3-rd transition metals and formalin. The developed hydrogels HG-Al, HG-Cr and HG-formalin have been tested for water holding the capacity of sand. Such a conclusion was also confirmed by data from the method of determining the wilting point by vegetative thumbnails. In the entering process using a dose of 0.1% of the swelling polymeric hydrogel in sand with a culture of barley the difference between the wilting point in comparison with the control was negligible. This indicates that the moisture which was contained in the hydrogel is involved in moisture availability for plant growth, to the same extent as that in the capillaries.

Keywords: hydrogel, chemical, polymer, sandy, colloid

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
10 Modeling and Analysis of DFIG Based Wind Power System Using Instantaneous Power Components

Authors: Jaimala Ghambir, Tilak Thakur, Puneet Chawla

Abstract:

As per the statistical data, the Doubly-fed Induction Generator (DFIG) based wind turbine with variable speed and variable pitch control is the most common wind turbine in the growing wind market. This machine is usually used on the grid connected wind energy conversion system to satisfy grid code requirements such as grid stability, fault ride through (FRT), power quality improvement, grid synchronization and power control etc. Though the requirements are not fulfilled directly by the machine, the control strategy is used in both the stator as well as rotor side along with power electronic converters to fulfil the requirements stated above. To satisfy the grid code requirements of wind turbine, usually grid side converter is playing a major role. So in order to improve the operation capacity of wind turbine under critical situation, the intensive study of both machine side converter control and grid side converter control is necessary In this paper DFIG is modeled using power components as variables and the performance of the DFIG system is analysed under grid voltage fluctuations. The voltage fluctuations are made by lowering and raising the voltage values in the utility grid intentionally for the purpose of simulation keeping in view of different grid disturbances.

Keywords: DFIG, dynamic modeling, DPC, sag, swell, voltage fluctuations, FRT

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
9 The Studies of the Sorption Capabilities of the Porous Microspheres with Lignin

Authors: M. Goliszek, M. Sobiesiak, O. Sevastyanova, B. Podkoscielna

Abstract:

Lignin is one of three main constituents of biomass together with cellulose and hemicellulose. It is a complex biopolymer, which contains a large number of functional groups, including aliphatic and aromatic hydroxyl groups, carbohylic groups and methoxy groups in its structure, that is why it shows potential capacities for process of sorption. Lignin is a highly cross-linked polymer with a three-dimentional structure which can provide large surface area and pore volumes. It can also posses better dispersion, diffusion and mass transfer behavior in a field of the removal of, e.g., heavy-metal-ions or aromatic pollutions. In this work emulsion-suspension copolymerization method, to synthesize the porous microspheres of divinylbenzene (DVB), styrene (St) and lignin was used. There are also microspheres without the addition of lignin for comparison. Before the copolymerization, modification lignin with methacryloyl chloride, to improve its reactivity with other monomers was done. The physico-chemical properties of the obtained microspheres, e.g., pore structures (adsorption-desorption measurements), thermal properties (DSC), tendencies to swell and the actual shapes were also studied. Due to well-developed porous structure and the presence of functional groups our materials may have great potential in sorption processes. To estimate the sorption capabilities of the microspheres towards phenol and its chlorinated derivatives the off-line SPE (solid-phase extraction) method is going to be applied. This method has various advantages, including low-cost, easy to use and enables the rapid measurements for a large number of chemicals. The efficiency of the materials in removing phenols from aqueous solution and in desorption processes will be evaluated.

Keywords: microspheres, lignin, sorption, solid-phase extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 98