Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 333

Search results for: granular pile

333 Analysis of Reinforced Granular Pile in Soft Soil

Authors: G. Nitesh

Abstract:

Stone column or granular pile is a proven technique to mitigate settlement in soft soil. Granular pile increases both rate of consolidation and stiffness of the ground. In this paper, a method to analyze further reduction in settlement of granular column reinforced with lime pile is presented treating the system as a unit cell and considering one-dimensional compression approach. The core of the granular pile is stiffened with a steel rod or lime column. Influence of a wide range of parameters such as area ratio of granular pile-soft soil, area ratio of lime pile-granular pile, modular ratio of granular pile and modular ratio of lime pile with respect to granular pile on settlement reduction factor, etc. are obtained and presented.

Keywords: lime pile, granular pile, soft soil, settlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
332 Load-Settlement Behaviour of Geogrid-Reinforced Sand Bed over Granular Piles

Authors: Sateesh Kumar Pisini, Swetha Priya Darshini Thammadi, Sanjay Kumar Shukla

Abstract:

Granular piles are a popular ground improvement technique in soft cohesive soils as well as for loose non-cohesive soils. The present experimental study has been carried out on granular piles in loose (Relative density = 30%) and medium dense (Relative density = 60%) sands with geogrid reinforcement within the sand bed over the granular piles. A group of five piles were installed in the sand at different spacing, s = 2d, 3d and 4d, d being the diameter of the pile. The length (L = 0.4 m) and diameter (d = 50 mm) of the piles were kept constant for all the series of experiments. The load-settlement behavior of reinforced sand bed and granular piles system was studied by applying the load on a square footing. The results show that the effect of reinforcement increases the load bearing capacity of the piles. It is also found that an increase in spacing between piles decreases the settlement for both loose and medium dense soil.

Keywords: granular pile, load-carrying capacity, settlement, geogrid reinforcement, sand

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
331 Experimental Study on Weak Cohesion Less Soil Using Granular Piles with Geogrid Reinforcement

Authors: Sateesh Kumar Pisini, Swetha Priya Pisini

Abstract:

Granular piles are becoming popular as a technique of deep ground improvement not only in soft cohesive soils but also in loose cohesionless deposits. The present experimental study has been carried out on granular piles in sand (loose sand and medium dense sand i.e. relative density at 15% and 30%) with geogrid reinforcement. In this experimental study, a group of five piles installed in sand (at different spacing i.e s = 2d, 3d and 4d) the length and diameter of the pile (L = 0.4 m and d= 50 mm) kept as same for all series of experiments. Geogrid reinforcement is provided on granular piles with a limited number of laboratory tests. It has been conducted in laboratory to study the behavior of a granular pile with reinforced geogrid layers supporting a square footing at different s/d ratios. The influence of geogrid layers providing on granular piles investigated through model tests. In this paper the experimental study carried out results in significant increase in load carrying capacity and decrease in settlement reduction of the weak cohesionless soil. Also, the behavior of load carrying capacity and settlement with changing the s/d ratio has been carried out through a parametric study.

Keywords: granular piles, cohesionless soil, geogrid reinforcement, load carrying capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
330 The Pile Group Efficiency for Different Embedment Lengths in Dry Sand

Authors: Mohamed M. Shahin

Abstract:

This study investigated the design of the pile foundation to support heavy structures-especially bridges for highways-in the Sahara, which contains many dunes of medium dense sand in different levels, where the foundation is supposed to be piles. The base resistance of smooth model pile groups in sand under static loading is investigated experimentally in a pile soil test apparatus. Improvement were made to the sand around the piles in order to increase the shaft resistance of the single pile and the pile groups, and also base resistance especially for the central pile in pile groups. The study outlines the behaviour of a single-pile, 4-, 5-, and 9- pile groups arranged in a doubly symmetric [square] layout with different embedment lengths and pile spacing in loose dry sand [normal] and dense dry sand [compacted] around the piles. This study evaluate the variation of the magnitude and the proportion of end bearing capacity of individual piles in different pile groups. Also to investigate the magnitude of the efficiency coefficient in the case of different pile groups.

Keywords: pile group, base resistance, efficiency coefficient, pile spacing, pile-soil interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
329 Behavior of a Vertical Pile under the Effect of an Inclined Load

Authors: Fathi Mohamed Abdrabbo, Khaled Elsayed Gaaver, Musab Musa Eldooma

Abstract:

This paper presents an attempt made to investigate the behavior of a single vertical steel hollow pile embedded in sand subjected to compressive inclined load at various inclination angles α through FEM package MIDAS GTS/NX 2019. The effect of the inclination angle and slenderness ratio on the performance of the pile was investigated. Inclined load caring capacity and pile stiffness, as well as lateral deformation profiles along with the pile, were presented. The global, vertical, and horizontal load displacements, as well as the deformation profiles along with the pile and the pile stiffness, are significantly affected by α. Whereas P-Y curves of the pile are independent of α., also the slenderness ratios are markedly affecting the behavior of the pile. In addition, there was a noticeable effect of the horizontal component on the vertical behavior of the pile, whereas there was no influence of the presence of vertical load on the horizontal behavior of the pile.

Keywords: deep foundations, piles, inclined load, pile deformations

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
328 Behavior of A Vertical Pile Under the Effect of an Inclined Load in Loose Sand

Authors: Fathi Mohamed Abdrabbo, Khaled Esayed Gaaver, Musab Musa Eldooma

Abstract:

This paper presents an attempt made to investigate the behavior of a single vertical steel hollow pile embedded in sand subjected to compressive inclined load at various inclination angles α through FEM package MIDAS GTS/NX 2019. The effect of the inclination angle and slenderness ratio on the performance of the pile was investigated. Inclined load caring capacity and pile stiffness, as well as lateral deformation profiles along with the pile, were presented. The global, vertical, and horizontal load displacements of pile head, as well as the deformation profiles along the pile and the pile stiffness, are significantly affected by α. It was observed that the P-Y curves of the pile-soil system are independent of α. Also, the slenderness ratios are markedly affecting the behavior of the pile. In addition, there was a noticeable effect of the horizontal load component of the applied load on the vertical behavior of the pile, whereas there was no influence of the presence of vertical load on the horizontal behavior of the pile.

Keywords: deep foundation, piles, inclined load, pile deformations

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
327 Studying on Pile Seismic Operation with Numerical Method by Using FLAC 3D Software

Authors: Hossein Motaghedi, Kaveh Arkani, Siavash Salamatpoor

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Usually the piles are important tools for safety and economical design of high and heavy structures. For this aim the response of single pile under dynamic load is so effective. Also, the agents which have influence on single pile response are properties of pile geometrical, soil and subjected loads. In this study the finite difference numerical method and by using FLAC 3D software is used for evaluation of single pile behavior under peak ground acceleration (PGA) of El Centro earthquake record in California (1940). The results of this models compared by experimental results of other researchers and it will be seen that the results of this models are approximately coincide by experimental data's. For example the maximum moment and displacement in top of the pile is corresponding to the other experimental results of pervious researchers. Furthermore, in this paper is tried to evaluate the effective properties between soil and pile. The results is shown that by increasing the pile diagonal, the pile top displacement will be decreased. As well as, by increasing the length of pile, the top displacement will be increased. Also, by increasing the stiffness ratio of pile to soil, the produced moment in pile body will be increased and the taller piles have more interaction by soils and have high inertia. So, these results can help directly to optimization design of pile dimensions.

Keywords: pile seismic response, interaction between soil and pile, numerical analysis, FLAC 3D

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
326 Effect of Capillary Forces on Wet Granular Avalanches

Authors: Ahmed Jarray, Vanessa Magnanimo, Stefan Luding

Abstract:

Granular avalanches are ubiquitous in nature and occur in numerous industrial processes associated with particulate systems. When a small amount of liquid is added to a pile of particles, pendular bridges form and the particles are attracted by capillary forces, creating complex structure and flow behavior. We have performed an extensive series of experiments to investigate the effect of capillary force and particle size on wet granular avalanches, and we established a methodology that ensures the control of the granular flow in a rotating drum. The velocity of the free surface and the angle of repose of the particles in the rotating drum are determined using particle tracking method. The capillary force between the particles is significantly reduced by making the glass beads hydrophobic via chemical silanization. We show that the strength of the capillary forces between two adjacent particles can be deliberately manipulated through surface modification of the glass beads, thus, under the right conditions; we demonstrate that the avalanche dynamics can be controlled. The results show that the avalanche amplitude decreases when increasing the capillary force. We also find that liquid-induced cohesion increases the width of the gliding layer and the dynamic angle of repose, however, it decreases the velocity of the free surface.

Keywords: avalanche dynamics, capillary force, granular material, granular flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
325 3 Dimensions Finite Element Analysis of Tunnel-Pile Interaction Scenarios Using Abaqus Software

Authors: Haitham J. M. Odeh

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This paper introduced an analysis of the effect of tunneling near pile foundations. Accomplished by three-dimensional finite element modeling. The numerical simulation is conducted using Abaqus finite element software. By examining different Tunnel-pile scenarios. The paper presents the tunnel induced pile responses, Such as pile settlement, pile internal forces, and the comments made on changing the vertical and transversal location of the tunnel related to the piles, the study contains two pile-supported structure cases, single and a group of piles. A comprehensive comparison between real case study results and numerical simulation is presented. The results of the analysis reveal the critical and safe location of tunnel construction and the positive effect of a group of piles existing instead of single piles. Also, demonstrates the changes in pile responses by changing the tunnel location.

Keywords: pile responses, single pile, group of piles, pile-tunnel interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 20
324 Cantilever Secant Pile Constructed in Sand: Capping Beam-Piles Bending Moments Interaction

Authors: Khaled R. Khater

Abstract:

this paper is an extension to previously published two papers; all share the first part of their titles. The papers theme is soil-structure interaction in the ground of soil retaining structures. The secant pile wall is the concern, while the focus is its capping beam. The earlier papers suggested a technique to structurally analyze capping beam. It has been proved that; pile rigidity shares the capping beam rigidity to resist the wall deformations. The current paper explains how the beam-pile integration re-distributes the pile’s bending moment for the benefits of wall deformations. It is concluded that re-distribution of pile bending moment is completely different than the calculated by plain strain analysis, values, and distributions. The pile diameter, beam rigidity, pile spacing, and the 3D-analysis-effect individually or all together affect the pile bending moment. The Plaxis-2D and STAAD-Pro 3D are the used software’s. Throughout this study, three sand densities, various pile and beam rigidities, and three excavation depths, i.e., 3.0-m, 4.0-m and 5.0-m have been considered.

Keywords: bending moment, capping beam, numerical analysis, secant pile, sandy soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
323 Numerical Analysis of Jet Grouting Strengthened Pile under Lateral Loading

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayed, Naeem Gholampoor

Abstract:

Jet grouting strengthened pile (JPP) is one of composite piles used in soft ground improvement. It may improve the vertical and lateral bearing capacity effectively and it has been practically used in a considerable scale. In order to make a further research on load transfer mechanism of single JPP with and without cap under lateral loads, JPP is analyzed by means of FEM analysis. It is resulted that the JPP pile could improve lateral bearing capacity by compared with bored concrete pile which is higher for shorter pile and the biggest bending moment of JPP pile is located in the depth of around 48% of embedded length of the pile. Meanwhile, increase of JPP pile length causes to increase of peak mobilized bending moment. Also, by cap addition, JPP piles will have a much higher lateral bearing capacity and increasing in cohesion of soil layer resulted to increase of lateral bearing capacity of JPP pile. In addition, the numerical results basically coincide with the experimental results presented by other researchers.

Keywords: bending moment, FEM analysis, JPP pile, lateral bearing capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
322 Evaluation of Cast-in-Situ Pile Condition Using Pile Integrity Test

Authors: Mohammad I. Hossain, Omar F. Hamim

Abstract:

This paper presents a case study on a pile integrity test for assessing the integrity of piles as well as a physical dimension (e.g., cross-sectional area, length), continuity, and consistency of the pile materials. The recent boom in the socio-economic condition of Bangladesh has given rise to the building of high-rise commercial and residential infrastructures. The advantage of the pile integrity test lies in the fact that it is possible to get an approximate indication regarding the quality of the sub-structure before commencing the construction of the super-structure. This paper aims at providing a classification of cast-in-situ piles based on characteristic reflectograms obtained using the Sonic Integrity Testing program for the sub-soil condition of Narayanganj, Bangladesh. The piles have been classified as 'Pile Type-1', 'Pile Type-2', 'Pile Type-3', 'Pile type-4', 'Pile Type-5' or 'Pile Type-6' from the visual observations of reflections from the generated stress waves by striking the pile head with a handheld hammer. With respect to construction quality and integrity, piles have been further classified into three distinct categories, i.e., satisfactory, may be satisfactory, and unsatisfactory.

Keywords: cast-in-situ piles, characteristic reflectograms, pile integrity test, sonic integrity testing program

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
321 Investigating the Efficiency of Granular Sludge for Recovery of Phosphate from Wastewater

Authors: Sara Salehi, Ka Yu Cheng, Anna Heitz, Maneesha Ginige

Abstract:

This study investigated the efficiency of granular sludge for phosphorous (P) recovery from wastewater. A laboratory scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated under alternating aerobic/anaerobic conditions to enrich a P accumulating granular biomass. This study showed that an overall 45-fold increase in P concentration could be achieved by reducing the volume of the P capturing liquor by 5-fold in the anaerobic P release phase. Moreover, different fractions of the granular biomass have different individual contributions towards generating a concentrated stream of P.

Keywords: granular sludge, PAOs, P recovery, SBR

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
320 Effects of Axial Loads and Soil Density on Pile Group Subjected to Triangular Soil Movement

Authors: Ihsan Al-Abboodi, Tahsin Toma-Sabbagh

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Laboratory tests have been carried out to investigate the response of 2x2 pile group subjected to triangular soil movement. The pile group was instrumented with displacement and tilting devices at the pile cap and strain gauges on two piles of the group. In this paper, results from four model tests were presented to study the effects of axial loads and soil density on the lateral behavior of piles. The responses in terms of bending moment, shear force, soil pressure, deflection, and rotation of piles were compared. Test results indicate that increasing the soil strength could increase the measured moment, shear, soil pressure, and pile deformations. Most importantly, adding loads to the pile cap induces additional moment to the head of front-pile row unlike the back-pile row which was influenced insignificantly.

Keywords: pile group, passive piles, lateral soil movement, soil density, axial loads

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
319 Influence of P-Y Curves on Buckling Capacity of Pile Foundation

Authors: Praveen Huded, Suresh Dash

Abstract:

Pile foundations are one of the most preferred deep foundation system for high rise or heavily loaded structures. In many instances, the failure of the pile founded structures in liquefiable soils had been observed even in many recent earthquakes. Recent centrifuge and shake table experiments on two layered soil system have credibly shown that failure of pile foundation can occur because of buckling, as the pile behaves as an unsupported slender structural element once the surrounding soil liquefies. However the buckling capacity depends on largely on the depth of soil liquefied and its residual strength. Hence it is essential to check the pile against the possible buckling failure. Beam on non-linear Winkler Foundation is one of the efficient method to model the pile-soil behavior in liquefiable soil. The pile-soil interaction is modelled through p-y springs, different author have proposed different types of p-y curves for the liquefiable soil. In the present paper the influence two such p-y curves on the buckling capacity of pile foundation is studied considering initial geometric and non-linear behavior of pile foundation. The proposed method is validated against experimental results. Significant difference in the buckling capacity is observed for the two p-y curves used in the analysis. A parametric study is conducted to understand the influence of pile diameter, pile flexural rigidity, different initial geometric imperfections, and different soil relative densities on buckling capacity of pile foundation.

Keywords: Pile foundation , Liquefaction, Buckling load, non-linear py curve, Opensees

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
318 A Comparison between Russian and Western Approach for Deep Foundation Design

Authors: Saeed Delara, Kendra MacKay

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Varying methodologies are considered for pile design for both Russian and Western approaches. Although both approaches rely on toe and side frictional resistances, different calculation methods are proposed to estimate pile capacity. The Western approach relies on compactness (internal friction angle) of soil for cohesionless soils and undrained shear strength for cohesive soils. The Russian approach relies on grain size for cohesionless soils and liquidity index for cohesive soils. Though most recommended methods in the Western approaches are relatively simple methods to predict pile settlement, the Russian approach provides a detailed method to estimate single pile and pile group settlement. Details to calculate pile axial capacity and settlement using the Russian and Western approaches are discussed and compared against field test results.

Keywords: pile capacity, pile settlement, Russian approach, western approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
317 Effect of Runup over a Vertical Pile Supported Caisson Breakwater and Quarter Circle Pile Supported Caisson Breakwater

Authors: T. J. Jemi Jeya, V. Sriram

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Pile Supported Caisson breakwater is an ecofriendly breakwater very useful in coastal zone protection. The model is developed by considering the advantages of both caisson breakwater and pile supported breakwater, where the top portion is a vertical or quarter circle caisson and the bottom portion consists of a pile supported breakwater defined as Vertical Pile Supported Breakwater (VPSCB) and Quarter-circle Pile Supported Breakwater (QPSCB). The study mainly focuses on comparison of run up over VPSCB and QPSCB under oblique waves. The experiments are carried out in a shallow wave basin under different water depths (d = 0.5 m & 0.55 m) and under different oblique regular waves (00, 150, 300). The run up over the surface is measured by placing two run up probes over the surface at 0.3 m on both sides from the centre of the model. The results show that the non-dimensional shoreward run up shows slight decrease with respect to increase in angle of wave attack.

Keywords: Caisson breakwater, pile supported breakwater, quarter circle breakwater, vertical breakwater

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
316 The Effects of Time and Cyclic Loading to the Axial Capacity for Offshore Pile in Shallow Gas

Authors: Christian H. Girsang, M. Razi B. Mansoor, Noorizal N. Huang

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An offshore platform was installed in 1977 at about 260km offshore West Malaysia at the water depth of 73.6m. Twelve (12) piles were installed with four (4) are skirt piles. The piles have 1.219m outside diameter and wall thickness of 31mm and were driven to 109m below seabed. Deterministic analyses of the pile capacity under axial loading were conducted using the current API (American Petroleum Institute) method and the four (4) CPT-based methods: the ICP (Imperial College Pile)-method, the NGI (Norwegian Geotechnical Institute)-Method, the UWA (University of Western Australia)-method and the Fugro-method. A statistical analysis of the model uncertainty associated with each pile capacity method was performed. There were two (2) piles analysed: Pile 1 and piles other than Pile 1, where Pile 1 is the pile that was most affected by shallow gas problems. Using the mean estimate of soil properties, the five (5) methods used for deterministic estimation of axial pile capacity in compression predict an axial capacity from 28 to 42MN for Pile 1 and 32 to 49MN for piles other than Pile 1. These values refer to the static capacity shortly after pile installation. They do not include the effects of cyclic loading during the design storm or time after installation on the axial pile capacity. On average, the axial pile capacity is expected to have increased by about 40% because of ageing since the installation of the platform in 1977. On the other hand, the cyclic loading effects during the design storm may reduce the axial capacity of the piles by around 25%. The study concluded that all piles have sufficient safety factor when the pile aging and cyclic loading effect are considered, as all safety factors are above 2.0 for maximum operating and storm loads.

Keywords: axial capacity, cyclic loading, pile ageing, shallow gas

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
315 Numerical Investigation on the Effects of Deep Excavation on Adjacent Pile Groups Subjected to Inclined Loading

Authors: Ashkan Shafee, Ahmad Fahimifar

Abstract:

There is a growing demand for construction of high-rise buildings and infrastructures in large cities, which sometimes require deep excavations in the vicinity of pile foundations. In this study, a two-dimensional finite element analysis is used to gain insight into the response of pile groups adjacent to deep excavations in sand. The numerical code was verified by available experimental works, and a parametric study was performed on different working load combinations, excavation depth and supporting system. The results show that the simple two-dimensional plane strain model can accurately simulate the excavation induced changes on adjacent pile groups. It was found that further excavation than pile toe level and also inclined loading on adjacent pile group can severely affect the serviceability of the foundation.

Keywords: deep excavation, inclined loading, lateral deformation, pile group

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
314 Numerical Investigation on Load Bearing Capacity of Pervious Concrete Piles as an Alternative to Granular Columns

Authors: Ashkan Shafee, Masoud Ghodrati, Ahmad Fahimifar

Abstract:

Pervious concrete combines considerable permeability with adequate strength, which makes it very beneficial in pavement construction and also in ground improvement projects. In this paper, a single pervious concrete pile subjected to vertical and lateral loading is analysed using a verified three dimensional finite element code. A parametric study was carried out in order to investigate load bearing capacity of a single unreinforced pervious concrete pile in saturated soft soil and also gain insight into the failure mechanism of this rather new soil improvement technique. The results show that concrete damaged plasticity constitutive model can perfectly simulate the highly brittle nature of the pervious concrete material and considering the computed vertical and horizontal load bearing capacities, some suggestions have been made for ground improvement projects.

Keywords: concrete damaged plasticity, ground improvement, load-bearing capacity, pervious concrete pile

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
313 Influence of Free Field Vibrations Due to Vibratory Pile Driving

Authors: Shashank Mukkoti, Mainak Majumder, Srinivasan Venkatraman

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Owing to the land scarcity in the modern-day, most of the construction activities are carried out closed to the existing buildings. Most of the high-rise buildings are constructed on pile foundations to transfer the design loads to a strong stratum below the ground surface. Due to the proximity of the new and existing structures, noise disturbances are prominent during the pile installation. Installation of vibratory piles is most suitable in urban areas. The ground vibrations developed due to the vibratory pile driving may cause many detrimental effects on the surrounding structures based on the proximity of the sources and nature of the structures. In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the severity of ground vibrations induced by vibratory pile driving. For this purpose, a three-dimensional finite element model has been developed in the ABAQUS/ Explicit finite element program. The couple finite/infinite element method has been employed for the capturing of propagating waves due to the pile installation. The geometry of the pile foundations, frequency of the pile driving, length of the pile has been considered for the parametric study. The results show that vibrations generated due to the vibratory pile installation are either very close or more than the thresholds tolerance limits set by different guidelines.

Keywords: FE model, pile driving, free field vibrations, wave propagation

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
312 Numerical Analysis for Soil Compaction and Plastic Points Extension in Pile Drivability

Authors: Omid Tavasoli, Mahmoud Ghazavi

Abstract:

A numerical analysis of drivability of piles in different geometry is presented. In this paper, a three-dimensional finite difference analysis for plastic point extension and soil compaction in the effect of pile driving is analyzed. Four pile configurations such as cylindrical pile, fully tapered pile, T-C pile consists of a top tapered segment and a lower cylindrical segment and C-T pile has a top cylindrical part followed by a tapered part are investigated. All piles which driven up to a total penetration depth of 16 m have the same length with equivalent surface area and approximately with identical material volumes. An idealization for pile-soil system in pile driving is considered for this approach. A linear elastic material is assumed to model the vertical pile behaviors and the soil obeys the elasto-plastic constitutive low and its failure is controlled by the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. A slip which occurred at the pile-soil contact surfaces along the shaft and the toe in pile driving procedures is simulated with interface elements. All initial and boundary conditions are the same in all analyses. Quiet boundaries are used to prevent wave reflection in the lateral and vertical directions for the soil. The results obtained from numerical analyses were compared with available other numerical data and laboratory tests, indicating a satisfactory agreement. It will be shown that with increasing the angle of taper, the permanent piles toe settlement increase and therefore, the extension of plastic points increase. These are interesting phenomena in pile driving and are on the safe side for driven piles.

Keywords: pile driving, finite difference method, non-uniform piles, pile geometry, pile set, plastic points, soil compaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
311 Behaviour of Laterally Loaded Pile Groups in Cohesionless Soil

Authors: V. K. Arora, Suraj Prakash

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Pile foundations are provided to transfer the vertical and horizontal loads of superstructures like high rise buildings, bridges, offshore structures etc. to the deep strata in the soil. These vertical and horizontal loads are due to the loads coming from the superstructure and wind, water thrust, earthquake, and earth pressure, respectively. In a pile foundation, piles are used in groups. Vertical piles in a group of piles are more efficient to take vertical loads as compared to horizontal loads and when the horizontal load per pile exceeds the bearing capacity of the vertical piles in that case batter piles are used with vertical piles because batter piles can take more lateral loads than vertical piles. In this paper, a model study was conducted on three vertical pile group with single positive and negative battered pile subjected to lateral loads. The batter angle for battered piles was ±35◦ with the vertical axis. Piles were spaced at 2.5d (d=diameter of pile) to each other. The soil used for model test was cohesionless soil. Lateral loads were applied in three stages on all the pile groups individually and it was found that under the repeated action of lateral loading, the deflection of the piles increased under the same loading. After comparing the results, it was found that the pile group with positive batter pile fails at 28 kgf and the pile group with negative batter pile fails at 24 kgf so it shows that positive battered piles are stronger than the negative battered piles.

Keywords: vertical piles, positive battered piles, negative battered piles, cohesionless soil, lateral loads, model test

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
310 Analysis of Behaviors of Single and Group Helical Piles in Sands from Experiment Results

Authors: Jongho Park, Junwon Lee, Byeonghyun Choi, Kicheol Lee, Dongwook Kim

Abstract:

The typically-used oil sand plant foundations are driven pile or drilled shaft. With more strict environmental regulations world widely, it became more important to completely remove the foundation during the stage of plant demolition. However, it is difficult to remove driven piles or drilled shafts that are installed at a deeper and stronger depth to gain more bearing pile capacity. The helical pile can be easily removed after its use and recycled; therefore it is suitable for oil sand plant foundation. This study analyzes the behavior of helical piles in sands. Axial pile load tests were carried out the varying spacing of helix plates (helices), rotation speed and weight of axial loading during pile installation. From the experiments, optimal helix plate spacing, rotation speed, axial loading during installation were determined. In addition, the behavior of helical pile groups was examined varying pile spacing. Finally, the behavior of single helical piles and that of group helical piles were compared.

Keywords: oil sand plant, pile load test, helical pile, group helical pile, behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
309 Numerical Investigations on Group Piles’ Lateral Bearing Capacity Considering Interaction of Soil and Structure

Authors: Mahdi Sadeghian, Mahmoud Hassanlourad, Alireza Ardakani, Reza Dinarvand

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In this research, the behavior of monopiles, under lateral loads, was investigated with vertical and oblique piles by Finite Element Method. In engineering practice when soil-pile interaction comes to the picture some simplifications are applied to reduce the design time. As a simplified replacement of soil and pile interaction analysis, pile could be replaced by a column. The height of the column would be equal to the free length of the pile plus a portion of the embedded length of it. One of the important factors studied in this study was that columns with an equivalent length (free length plus a part of buried depth) could be used instead of soil and pile modeling. The results of the analysis show that the more internal friction angle of the soil increases, the more the bearing capacity of the soil is achieved. This additional length is 6 to 11 times of the pile diameter in dense soil although in loose sandy soil this range might increase.

Keywords: Depth of fixity, Lateral bearing capacity, Oblique pile, Pile group, Soil-structure interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
308 Performance of Bored Pile on Alluvial Deposit

Authors: K. Raja Rajan, D. Nagarajan

Abstract:

Bored cast in-situ pile is a popular choice amongst consultant and contractor due to the ability to adjust the pile length suitably in case if any variation found in the actual geological strata. Bangladesh geological strata are dominated by silt content. Design is normally based on field test such as Standard Penetration test N-values. Initially, pile capacity estimated through static formula with co-relation of N-value and angle of internal friction. Initial pile load test was conducted in order to validate the geotechnical parameters assumed in design. Initial pile load test was conducted on 1.5m diameter bored cast in-situ pile. Kentledge method is used to load the pile for 2.5 times of its working load. Initially, safe working load of pile has been estimated as 570T, so test load is fixed to 1425T. Max load applied is 777T for which the settlement reached around 155mm which is more than 10% of diameter of piles. Pile load test results was not satisfactory and compelled to increase the pile length approximately 20% of its total length. Due to unpredictable geotechnical parameters, length of each pile has been increased which is having a major impact on the project cost and as well as in project schedule. Extra bore holes have been planned along with lab test results in order to redefine the assumed geotechnical parameters. This article presents detailed design assumptions of geotechnical parameters in the design stage and the results of pile load test which made to redefine the assumed geotechnical properties.

Keywords: end bearing, pile load test, settlement, shaft friction

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
307 Numerical Static and Seismic Evaluation of Pile Group Settlement: A Case Study

Authors: Seyed Abolhassan Naeini, Hamed Yekehdehghan

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Shallow foundations cannot be used when the bedding soil is soft. A suitable method for constructing foundations on soft soil is to employ pile groups to transfer the load to the bottom layers. The present research used results from tests carried out in northern Iran (Langarud) and the FLAC3D software to model a pile group for investigating the effects of various parameters on pile cap settlement under static and seismic conditions. According to the results, changes in the strength parameters of the soil, groundwater level, and the length of and distance between the piles affect settlement differently.

Keywords: FLACD 3D software, pile group, settlement, soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
306 An Automated Bender Element System Used for S-Wave Velocity Tomography during Model Pile Installation

Authors: Yuxin Wu, Yu-Shing Wang, Zitao Zhang

Abstract:

A high-speed and time-lapse S-wave velocity measurement system has been built up for S-wave tomography in sand. This system is based on bender elements and applied to model pile tests in a tailor-made pressurized chamber to monitor the shear wave velocity distribution during pile installation in sand. Tactile pressure sensors are used parallel together with bender elements to monitor the stress changes during the tests. Strain gages are used to monitor the shaft resistance and toe resistance of pile. Since the shear wave velocity (Vs) is determined by the shear modulus of sand and the shaft resistance of pile is also influenced by the shear modulus of sand around the pile, the purposes of this study are to time-lapse monitor the S-wave velocity distribution change at a certain horizontal section during pile installation and to correlate the S-wave velocity distribution and shaft resistance of pile in sand.

Keywords: bender element, pile, shaft resistance, shear wave velocity, tomography

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
305 Influence of Pile Radius on Inertial Response of Pile Group in Fundamental Frequency of Homogeneous Soil Medium

Authors: Faghihnia Torshizi Mostafa, Saitoh Masato

Abstract:

An efficient method is developed for the response of a group of vertical, cylindrical fixed-head, finite length piles embedded in a homogeneous elastic stratum, subjected to harmonic force atop the pile group cap. Pile to pile interaction is represented through simplified beam-on-dynamic-Winkler-foundation (BDWF) with realistic frequency-dependent springs and dashpots. Pile group effect is considered through interaction factors. New closed-form expressions for interaction factors and curvature ratios atop the pile are extended by considering different boundary conditions at the tip of the piles (fixed, hinged). In order to investigate the fundamental characteristics of inertial bending strains in pile groups, inertial bending strains at the head of each pile are expressed in terms of slenderness ratio. The results of parametric study give valuable insight in understanding the behavior of fixed head pile groups in fundamental natural frequency of soil stratum.

Keywords: Winkler-foundation, fundamental frequency of soil stratum, normalized inertial bending strain, harmonic excitation

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304 Effect of Type of Pile and Its Installation Method on Pile Bearing Capacity by Physical Modelling in Frustum Confining Vessel

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, M. Mortezaee

Abstract:

Various factors such as the method of installation, the pile type, the pile material and the pile shape, can affect the final bearing capacity of a pile executed in the soil; among them, the method of installation is of special importance. The physical modeling is among the best options in the laboratory study of the piles behavior. Therefore, the current paper first presents and reviews the frustum confining vesel (FCV) as a suitable tool for physical modeling of deep foundations. Then, by describing the loading tests of two open-ended and closed-end steel piles, each of which has been performed in two methods, “with displacement" and "without displacement", the effect of end conditions and installation method on the final bearing capacity of the pile is investigated. The soil used in the current paper is silty sand of Firoozkooh. The results of the experiments show that in general the without displacement installation method has a larger bearing capacity in both piles, and in a specific method of installation the closed ended pile shows a slightly higher bearing capacity.

Keywords: physical modeling, frustum confining vessel, pile, bearing capacity, installation method

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