Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 1131

Search results for: contaminated soils

1131 Potential of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) for Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals

Authors: Violina R. Angelova, Vanja I. Akova, Stefan V. Krustev, Krasimir I. Ivanov

Abstract:

A field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of safflower plant for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. The experiment was performed on an agricultural fields contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cd in safflower (roots, stems, leaves and seeds), safflower oil and meal were determined. A correlation was found between the quantity of the mobile forms and the uptake of Pb, Zn and Cd by the safflower seeds. Safflower is a plant which is tolerant to heavy metals and can be grown on contaminated soils, and which can be referred to the hyperaccumulators of cadmium and the accumulators of lead and zinc, and can be successfully used in the phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. The processing of seeds to oil and using the obtained oil for nutritional purposes will greatly reduce the cost of phytoremediation. The possibility of further industrial processing will make safflower economically interesting crops for farmers of phytoremediation technology.

Keywords: heavy metals, phytoremediation, polluted soils, safflower

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1130 Growing Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides L.) on Contaminated Soils with Heavy Metals in Bulgaria

Authors: Violina Angelova, Huu Q. Lee

Abstract:

A field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides L.) for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. The experiment was performed on agricultural fields contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The experimental plots were situated at different distances (0.5, 3.5, and 15 km) from the source of pollution. The concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd in vetiver (roots and leaves) were determined. Correlations between the content of the heavy metal mobile forms extracted with DTPA and their content in the roots and leaves of the Vetiver have been established. The Vetiver is tolerant to heavy metals and can be grown on soils contaminated with heavy metals. Plants are characterized by low ability to absorb and accumulate Pb, Cd, and Zn and have no signs of toxicity (chlorosis and necrosis) at 36.8 mg/kg Cd, 1158.8 mg/kg Pb and 1526.2 mg/kg Zn in the soil. Vetiver plants can be classified as Pb, Cd and Zn excluder, therefore, this plant has the suitable potential for the phytostabilization of heavy metal contaminated soils. Acknowledgements: The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the Bulgarian National Science Fund (Project DFNI 04/9).

Keywords: contaminated soils, heavy metals, phytoremediation, vetiver

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1129 Degradation of Endosulfan in Different Soils by Indigenous and Adapted Microorganisms

Authors: A. Özyer, N. G. Turan, Y. Ardalı

Abstract:

The environmental fate of organic contaminants in soils is influenced significantly by the pH, texture of soil, water content and also presence of organic matter. In this study, biodegradation of endosulfan isomers was studied in two different soils (Soil A and Soil B) that have contrasting properties in terms of their texture, pH, organic content, etc. Two Nocardia sp., which were isolated from soil, were used for degradation of endosulfan. Soils were contaminated with commercial endosulfan. Six sets were maintained from two different soils, contaminated with different endosulfan concentrations for degradation experiments. Inoculated and uninoculated mineral media with Nocardia isolates were added to the soils and mixed. Soils were incubated at a certain temperature (30 °C) during ten weeks. Residue endosulfan and its metabolites’ concentrations were determined weekly during the incubation period. The changes of the soil microorganisms were investigated weekly.

Keywords: endosulfan, biodegradation, Nocardia sp. soil, organochlorine pesticide

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1128 Electrokinetic Remediation of Nickel Contaminated Clayey Soils

Authors: Waddah S. Abdullah, Saleh M. Al-Sarem

Abstract:

Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soils has undoubtedly proven to be one of the most efficient techniques used to clean up soils contaminated with polar contaminants (such as heavy metals) and nonpolar organic contaminants. It can efficiently be used to clean up low permeability mud, wastewater, electroplating wastes, sludge, and marine dredging. EK processes have proved to be superior to other conventional methods, such as the pump and treat, and soil washing, since these methods are ineffective in such cases. This paper describes the use of electrokinetic remediation to clean up soils contaminated with nickel. Open cells, as well as advanced cylindrical cells, were used to perform electrokinetic experiments. Azraq green clay (low permeability soil, taken from the east part of Jordan) was used for the experiments. The clayey soil was spiked with 500 ppm of nickel. The EK experiments were conducted under direct current of 80 mA and 50 mA. Chelating agents (NaEDTA), disodium ethylene diamine-tetra-ascetic acid was used to enhance the electroremediation processes. The effect of carbonates presence in soils was, also, investigated by use of sodium carbonate. pH changes in the anode and the cathode compartments were controlled by using buffer solutions. The results showed that the average removal efficiency was 64%, for the Nickel spiked saturated clayey soil.Experiment results have shown that carbonates retarded the remediation process of nickel contaminated soils. Na-EDTA effectively enhanced the decontamination process, with removal efficiency increased from 64% without using the NaEDTA to over 90% after using Na-EDTA.

Keywords: buffer solution, contaminated soils, EDTA enhancement, electrokinetic processes, Nickel contaminated soil, soil remediation

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1127 Potential of Salvia sclarea L. for Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals

Authors: Violina R. Angelova, Radka V. Ivanova, Givko M. Todorov, Krasimir I. Ivanov

Abstract:

A field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Salvia sclarea L. for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. The experiment was performed on an agricultural fields contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The content of heavy metals in different parts of Salvia sclarea L. (roots, stems, leaves and inflorescences) was determined by ICP. The essential oil of the Salvia sclarea L. was obtained by steam distillation in laboratory conditions and was analyzed for heavy metals and its chemical composition was determined. Salvia sclarea L. is a plant which is tolerant to heavy metals and can be grown on contaminated soils. Based on the obtained results and using the most common criteria, Salvia sclarea L. can be classified as Pb hyperaccumulator and Cd and Zn accumulators, therefore, this plant has suitable potential for the phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. Favorable is also the fact that heavy metals do not influence the development of the Salvia sclarea L., as well as on the quality and quantity of the essential oil. For clary sage oil obtained from the processing of clary sage grown on highly contaminated soils, its key odour-determining ingredients meet the quality requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia and BS ISO 7609 regarding Bulgarian clary sage oil and/or have values that are close to the limits of these standards. The possibility of further industrial processing will make Salvia sclarea L. an economically interesting crop for farmers of phytoextraction technology.

Keywords: clary sage, heavy metals, phytoremediation, polluted soils

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1126 Remediation of Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil with Vivianite Nanoparticles

Authors: Shinen B., Bavor J., Dorjkhand B., Suvd B., Maitsetseg B.

Abstract:

A number of remediation techniques are available for the treatment of soils and sediments contaminated by heavy metals. However, some of these techniques are expensive and environmentally disruptive. Nanomaterials are used in the environment as environmental catalysts to convert toxic substances from water, soil, and sediment into environmentally benign compounds. This study was carried out to scrutinize the feasibility of vivianite nanoparticles for remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals. Column experiments were performed in the laboratory to examine nanoparticle sequestration of metal in soil amended with vivianite nanoparticle suspension. The effect of environmental parameters such as temperature, pH and redox potential on metal leachability and bioavailability of soil amended with nanoparticle suspension was examined and compared with non-amended soils. The vivianite was effective in reducing the leachability of metals in soils. It is suggested that vivianite nanoparticles could be applied for the remediation of contaminated sites polluted by heavy metals due to mining activities, particularly in Mongolia, where mining industries have been developing rapidly in the last decade.

Keywords: bioavailability, heavy metals, nanoparticles, remediation

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
1125 Electroremediation of Saturated and Unsaturated Nickel-Contaminated Soils

Authors: Waddah Abdullah, Saleh Al-Sarem

Abstract:

Electrokinetic remediation was undoubtedly proven to be one of the most efficient techniques used to clean up soils contaminated with polar charged contaminants (such as heavy metals) and non-polar organic contaminants. It can be efficiently used to clean up low permeability mud, wastewater, electroplating wastes, sludge, and marine dredging. This study presented and discussed the results of electrokinetic remediation processes to clean up soils contaminated with nickel. Two types of electrokinetics cells were used: an open cell and an advanced cylindrical cell. Two types of soils were used for this investigation; the Azraq green clay which has very low permeability taken from the eastern part of Jordan (city of Azraq) and a sandy soil having, relatively, very high permeability. The clayey soil was spiked with 500 ppm of nickel, and the sandy soil was spiked with 1500 ppm of nickel. Fully saturated and partially saturated clayey soils were used for the clean-up process. Clayey soils were tested under a direct current of 80 mA and 50 mA to study the effect of the electrical current on the remediation process. Chelating agent (Na-EDTA), disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetatic acid, was used in both types of soils to enhance the electroremediation process. The effect of carbonates presence in the contaminated soils, also, was investigated by use of sodium carbonate and calcium carbonate. pH changes in the anode and the cathode compartments were controlled by use of buffer solutions. The results of the investigation showed that for the fully saturated clayey soil spiked with nickel had an average removal efficiency of 64%, and the average removal efficiency was 46% for the unsaturated clayey soil. For the sandy soil, the average removal efficiency of Nickel was 90%. Test results showed that presence of carbonates in the remediated soils retarded the clean-up process of nickel-contaminated soils (removal efficiency was reduced from 90% to 60%). EDTA enhanced decontamination of nickel contaminated clayey and sandy soils with carbonates was studied. The average removal efficiency increased from 60% (prior to using EDTA) to more than 90% after using EDTA.

Keywords: buffer solution, EDTA, electroremediation, nickel removal efficiency

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1124 An Evaluation of Edible Plants for Remediation of Contaminated Soil- Can Edible Plants Be Used to Remove Heavy Metals on Soil?

Authors: Celia Marilia Martins, Sonia I. V. Guilundo, Iris M. Victorino, Antonio O. Quilambo

Abstract:

In Mozambique rapid industrialization (mining, aluminium and cement activities) and urbanization processes has led to the incorporation of heavy metals on soil, thus degrading not only the quality of the environment, but also affecting plants, animals and human healthy. Several methods have been used to remediate contaminated soils, but most of them are costly and difficult to get optimum results. Currently, phytoremediation is an effective and affordable technological solution used to extract or remove inactive metals from contaminated soil. Phytoremediation is the use of plants to clean up a contamination from soils, sediments, and water. This technology is environmental friendly and potentially cost effective. The present investigation summarised the potential of edible vegetable to grow under the high level of heavy metals such as lead and zinc. The plants used in these studies include Tomatoes, lettuce and Soya beans. The studies have shown that edible plants can be grown under the high level of heavy metals on the soil. Further investigations are identifying mechanisms used by plants to ensure a safe and sustainable use for remediation of contaminated soils by heavy metals.

Keywords: contaminated soil, edible plants, heavy metals, phytoremediation

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1123 Electrokinetic Remediation of Uranium Contaminated Soil by Ion Exchange Membranes

Authors: Z. H. Shi, T. J. Dou, H. Zhang, H. X. Huang, N. Zeng

Abstract:

The contamination of significant quantities of soils and sediments with uranium and other actinide elements as a result of nuclear activity poses many environmental risks. The electrokinetic process is one of the most promising remediation techniques for sludge, sediment, and saturated or unsaturated soils contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. However, secondary waste is a major concern for soil contaminated with nuclides. To minimize the generation of secondary wastes, this study used the anion and cation exchange membranes to improve the performance of the experimental apparatus. Remediation experiments of uranium-contaminated soil were performed with different agents. The results show that using acetic acid and EDTA as chelating agents clearly enhances the migration ability of the uranium. The ion exchange membranes (IEMs) used in the experiments not only reduce secondary wastes, but also, keep the soil pH stable.

Keywords: electrokinetic remediation, ion exchange membranes, soil, uranium

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
1122 Phytoremediation Potenciality of ‘Polypogon monspeliensis L. in Detoxification of Petroleum-Contaminated Soils

Authors: Mozhgan Farzami Sepehr, Farhad Nourozi

Abstract:

In a greenhouse study, decontamination capacity of the species Polypogon monspoliensis, for detoxification of petroleum-polluted soils caused by sewage and waste materials of Tehran Petroleum Refinery. For this purpose, the amount of total oil and grease before and 45 days after transplanting one-month-old seedlings in the soils of five different treatments in which pollution-free agricultural soil and contaminated soil were mixed together with the weight ratio of respectively 1 to 9 (% 10), 2 to 8 (%20), 3 to 7 (%30) , 4 to 6 (%40), and 5 to 5 (%50) were evaluated and compared with the amounts obtained from control treatment without vegetation, but with the same concentration of pollution. Findings demonstrated that the maximum reduction in the petroleum rate ,as much as 84.85 percent, is related to the treatment 10% containing the plant. Increasing the shoot height in treatments 10% and 20% as well as the root dry and fresh weight in treatments 10% , 20% , and 30% shows that probably activity of more rhizosphere microorganisms of the plant in these treatments has led to the improvement in growth of plant organs comparing to the treatments without pollution.

Keywords: phytoremediation, total oil and grease, rhizosphere, microorganisms, petroleum-contaminated soil

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1121 Assessment of Trace Metal Concentration of Soils Contaminated with Carbide in Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria

Authors: O.M. Agbogidi, I.M. Onochie

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An investigation was carried out on trace metal concentration of soils contaminated with carbide in Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria in 2014 with a view to providing baseline formation on their status relative to the control plants and to the tolerable limits recommended by World standard bodies including WHO and FAO. The metals were analyzed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer which showed an elevated level when compared with the control plots. High level of metals including Fe, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Cr and arsenic were recorded and these values were significantly different (P<0.05) from values obtained from the control plots. These results are indicative of the fact that carbide polluted soil had higher level of trace metals and because these metals are non-biodegradable elements in the ecosystem, a rise to their lethal levels in food chains is envisaged due to the interdependency of plants and animals stemming from soil-water organisms interrelationship.

Keywords: bio-concentration, carbide contaminated soils, heavy metals, trace metals

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1120 Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)

Authors: Violina R. Angelova, Mariana N. Perifanova-Nemska, Galina P. Uzunova, Elitsa N. Kolentsova

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Comparative research has been conducted to allow us to determine the accumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Zn and Cd) in the vegetative and reproductive organs of safflower, and to identify the possibility of its growth on soils contaminated by heavy metals and efficacy for phytoremediation. The experiment was performed on an agricultural field contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works (MFMW) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The experimental plots were situated at different distances (0.1, 0.5, 2.0, and 15 km) from the source of pollution. The contents of heavy metals in plant materials (roots, stems, leaves, seeds) were determined. The quality of safflower oils (heavy metals and fatty acid composition) was also determined. The quantitative measurements were carried out with inductively-coupled plasma (ICP). Safflower is a plant that is tolerant to heavy metals and can be referred to the hyperaccumulators of lead and cadmium and the accumulators of zinc. The plant can be successfully used in the phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. The processing of safflower seeds into oil and the use of the obtained oil will greatly reduce the cost of phytoremediation.

Keywords: heavy metals, accumulation, safflower, polluted soils, phytoremediation

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
1119 Investigation on the Changes in the Chemical Composition and Ecological State of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals

Authors: Metodi Mladenov

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Heavy metals contamination of soils is a big problem mainly as a result of industrial production. From this point of view, this is of interests the processes for decontamination of soils for crop of production with low content of heavy metals and suitable for consumption from the animals and the peoples. In the current article, there are presented data for established changes in chemical composition and ecological state on soils contaminated from non-ferrous metallurgy manufacturing, for seven years time period. There was done investigation on alteration of pH, conductivity and contain of the next elements: As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Co, Mn and Al. Also, there was done visual observations under the processes of recovery of root-inhabitable soil layer and reforestation. Obtained data show friendly changes for the investigated indicators pH and conductivity and decreasing of content of some form analyzed elements. Visual observations show augmentation of plant cover areas and change in species structure with increase of number of shrubby and wood specimens.

Keywords: conductivity, contamination of soils, chemical composition, inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectrometry, heavy metals, visual observation

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1118 Acetic Acid Assisted Phytoextraction of Chromium (Cr) by Energy Crop (Arundo donax L.) in Cr Contaminated Soils

Authors: Muhammad Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Tauqeer, Hamza Rafaqat, Muhammad Naveed, Muhammad Awais Irshad

Abstract:

Soil pollution with chromium (Cr) has become one of the most important concerns due to its toxicity for humans. To date, various remediation approaches have been employed for the remediation and management of Cr contaminated soils. Phytoextraction is an eco-friendly and emerging remediation approach which has gained attention due to several advantages over conventional remediation approach. The use of energy crops for phytoremediation is an emerging trend worldwide. These energy crops have high tolerance against various environmental stresses, the potential to grow in diverse ecosystems and high biomass production make them a suitable candidate for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. The removal efficiency of plants in phytoextraction depends upon several soil and plant factors including solubility, bioavailability and metal speciation in soils. A pot scale experiment was conducted to evaluate the phytoextraction potential of Arundo donax L. with the application of acetic acid (A.A) in Cr contaminated soils. Plants were grown in pots filled with 5 kg soils for 90 days. After 30 days plants acclimatization in pot conditions, plants were treated with various levels of Cr (2.5 mM, 5 mM, 7.5 mM, 10 mM) and A.A (Cr 2.5 mM + A.A 2.5 mM, Cr 5 mM + A.A 2.5 mM, Cr 7.5 mM + A.A 2.5 mM, Cr 10 mM + A.A 2.5 mM). The application of A.A significantly increased metal uptake and in roots and shoots of A. donax. This increase was observed at Cr 7.5 mM + A.A 2.5 mM but at high concentrations, visual symptoms of Cr toxicity were observed on leaves. Similarly, A.A applications also affect the activities of key enzymes including catalase (CAT), superoxidase dismutase (SOD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in leaves of A. donax. Based on results it is concluded that the applications of A.A acid for phytoextraction is an alternative approach for the management of Cr affected soils and synthetic chelators should be replaced with organic acids.

Keywords: acetic acid, A. donax, chromium, energy crop, phytoextraction

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1117 Plants as Alternative Covers at Contaminated Sites

Authors: M. Grifoni, G. Petruzzelli, M. Barbafieri, I. Rosellini, B. Pezzarossa, F. Pedron

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Evapotranspiration (ET) covers are an alternative cover system that utilizes water balance approach to maximize the ET process to reduce the contaminants leaching through the soil profile. Microcosm tests allow to identify in a short time the most suitable plant species to be used as alternative covers, their survival capacity, and simultaneously the transpiration and evaporation rate of the cover in a specific contaminated soil. This work shows the soil characterization and ET results of microcosm tests carried out on two contaminated soils by using Triticum durum and Helianthus annuus species. The data indicated that transpiration was higher than evaporation, supporting the use of plants as alternative cover at this contaminated site.

Keywords: contaminated sites, evapotranspiration cover, evapotranspiration, microcosm experiments

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
1116 Phytoremediation Potential of Hibiscus Cannabinus L. Grown on Different Soil Cadmium Concentration

Authors: Sarra Arbaoui, Taoufik Bettaieb

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Contaminated soils and problems related to them have increasingly become a matter of concern. The most common the contaminants generated by industrial urban emissions and agricultural practices are trace metals). Remediation of trace metals which pollute soils can be carried out using physico-chemical processes. Nevertheless, these techniques damage the soil’s biological activity and require expensive equipment. Phytoremediation is a relatively low-cost technology based on the use of selected plants to remove, degrades or contains pollutants. The potential of kenaf for phytoremediation on Cd-contaminated soil was investigated. kenaf plants have been grown in pots containing different concentrations of cadmium. The observations made were for biomass production and cadmium content in different organs determinate by atomic emission spectrometry. Cadmium transfer from a contaminated soil to plants and into plant tissues are discussed in terms of the Bioconcentration Factor (BCF) and the Transfer Factor (TF). Results showed that Cd was found in kenaf plants at different levels. Tolerance and accumulation potential and biomass productivity indicated that kenaf could be used in phytoremediation.

Keywords: kenaf, cadmium, phytoremediation, contaminated soil

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1115 Potential of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) for Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals

Authors: Violina R. Angelova, Mariana N. Perifanova-Nemska, Galina P. Uzunova, Krasimir I. Ivanov, Huu Q. Lee

Abstract:

A field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. The experiment was performed on an agricultural field contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Field experiments with a randomized, complete block design with five treatments (control, compost amendments added at 20 and 40 t/daa, and vemicompost amendments added at 20 and 40 t/daa) were carried out. The accumulation of heavy metals in the sunflower plant and the quality of the sunflower oil (heavy metals and fatty acid composition) were determined. The tested organic amendments significantly influenced the uptake of Pb, Zn and Cd by the sunflower plant. The incorporation of 40 t/decare of compost and 20 t/decare of vermicompost to the soil led to an increase in the ability of the sunflower to take up and accumulate Cd, Pb and Zn. Sunflower can be subjected to the accumulators of Pb, Zn and Cd and can be successfully used for phytoremediation of contaminated soils with heavy metals. The 40 t/daa compost treatment led to a decrease in heavy metal content in sunflower oil to below the regulated limits. Oil content and fatty acids composition were affected by compost and vermicompost amendment treatments. Adding compost and vermicompost increased the oil content in the seeds. Adding organic amendments increased the content of stearic, palmitoleic and oleic acids, and reduced the content of palmitic and gadoleic acids in sunflower oil. The possibility of further industrial processing of seeds to oil and use of the obtained oil will make sunflowers economically interesting crops for farmers of phytoremediation technology.

Keywords: heavy metals, phytoremediation, polluted soils, sunflower

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1114 Prediction of Metals Available to Maize Seedlings in Crude Oil Contaminated Soil

Authors: Stella O. Olubodun, George E. Eriyamremu

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The study assessed the effect of crude oil applied at rates, 0, 2, 5, and 10% on the fractional chemical forms and availability of some metals in soils from Usen, Edo State, with no known crude oil contamination and soil from a crude oil spill site in Ubeji, Delta State, Nigeria. Three methods were used to determine the bioavailability of metals in the soils: maize (Zea mays) plant, EDTA and BCR sequential extraction. The sequential extract acid soluble fraction of the BCR extraction (most labile fraction of the soils, normally associated with bioavailability) were compared with total metal concentration in maize seedlings as a means to compare the chemical and biological measures of bioavailability. Total Fe was higher in comparison to other metals for the crude oil contaminated soils. The metal concentrations were below the limits of 4.7% Fe, 190mg/kg Cu and 720mg/kg Zn intervention values and 36mg/kg Cu and 140mg/kg Zn target values for soils provided by the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) guidelines. The concentration of the metals in maize seedlings increased with increasing rates of crude oil contamination. Comparison of the metal concentrations in maize seedlings with EDTA extractable concentrations showed that EDTA extracted more metals than maize plant.

Keywords: availability, crude oil contamination, EDTA, maize, metals

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1113 In situ Stabilization of Arsenic in Soils with Birnessite and Goethite

Authors: Saeed Bagherifam, Trevor Brown, Chris Fellows, Ravi Naidu

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Over the last century, rapid urbanization, industrial emissions, and mining activities have resulted in widespread contamination of the environment by heavy metal(loid)s. Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid belonging to group 15 of the periodic table, which occurs naturally at low concentrations in soils and the earth’s crust, although concentrations can be significantly elevated in natural systems as a result of dispersion from anthropogenic sources, e.g., mining activities. Bioavailability is the fraction of a contaminant in soils that is available for uptake by plants, food chains, and humans and therefore presents the greatest risk to terrestrial ecosystems. Numerous attempts have been made to establish in situ and ex-situ technologies of remedial action for remediation of arsenic-contaminated soils. In situ stabilization techniques are based on deactivation or chemical immobilization of metalloid(s) in soil by means of soil amendments, which consequently reduce the bioavailability (for biota) and bioaccessibility (for humans) of metalloids due to the formation of low-solubility products or precipitates. This study investigated the effectiveness of two different types of synthetic manganese and iron oxides (birnessite and goethite) for stabilization of As in a soil spiked with 1000 mg kg⁻¹ of As and treated with 10% dosages of soil amendments. Birnessite was made using HCl and KMnO₄, and goethite was synthesized by the dropwise addition of KOH into Fe(NO₃) solution. The resulting contaminated soils were subjected to a series of chemical extraction studies including sequential extraction (BCR method), single-step extraction with distilled (DI) water, 2M HNO₃ and simplified bioaccessibility extraction tests (SBET) for estimation of bioaccessible fractions of As in two different soil fractions ( < 250 µm and < 2 mm). Concentrations of As in samples were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results showed that soil with birnessite reduced bioaccessibility of As by up to 92% in both soil fractions. Furthermore, the results of single-step extractions revealed that the application of both birnessite and Goethite reduced DI water and HNO₃ extractable amounts of arsenic by 75, 75, 91, and 57%, respectively. Moreover, the results of the sequential extraction studies showed that both birnessite and goethite dramatically reduced the exchangeable fraction of As in soils. However, the amounts of recalcitrant fractions were higher in birnessite, and Goethite amended soils. The results revealed that the application of both birnessite and goethite significantly reduced bioavailability and the exchangeable fraction of As in contaminated soils, and therefore birnessite and Goethite amendments might be considered as promising adsorbents for stabilization and remediation of As contaminated soils.

Keywords: arsenic, bioavailability, in situ stabilisation, metalloid(s) contaminated soils

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1112 Bioremediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCBS) Contaminated Soils: A Case Study from Rietvlei Farm at Borehole No. 11, Limpopo Province, South Africa

Authors: D. Sengani, N. Potgieter, P. E. L. Mojapelo

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Three bacteria species which comprise of Gram negative and Gram positive microorganisms were isolated and identified on the basis of morpho-cultural study, catalase tests, oxidase tests and biochemical characteristics were found belonging to different genera including Burkholderia cepacia, Pasteurella pneumotropica and Enterococcus faecalis. The main objective of this study was to isolate and identify PCB degrading bacteria from PCB contaminated soils and test them for their degradation ability of PCBs in natural habitat conditions. The results indicated an overall decrease of PCB concentration level with the gradient average ranging from 1.5 to 1.8 respectively. Enterococcus faecalis removed as much as 32% of PCBs in the contaminated soil samples. Whereas Pasteurella pneumotropica could remove 24% of PCBs, Burkholderia cepacia 21% of PCBs and the mixed culture removed 23%. Data showed that the three bacterial strains could tolerate high concentration of PCBs. The results provided the evidence that naturally occurring bacteria in soil contaminated with PCBs have the potential to degrade PCBs. Statistical analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between bacteria growth and treatment with a coefficient of (r) =0.1459 and p value < 0.001.

Keywords: bacteria, bioaccumulation, biodegradation, bioremediation, polychlorinated biphenyls

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1111 Assessment of Growth Variation and Phytoextraction Potential of Four Salix Varieties Grown in Zn Contaminated Soil Amended with Lime and Wood Ash

Authors: Mir Md Abdus Salam, Muhammad Mohsin, Pertti Pulkkinen, Paavo Pelkonen, Ari Pappinen

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Soils contaminated with metals, e.g., copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and nickel (Ni) are one of the main global environmental problems. Zn is an important element for plant growth, but excess levels may become a threat to plant survival. Soils polluted with metals may also pose risks and hazards to human health. Afforestation based on short rotation Salix crops may be a good solution for the reduction of metals toxicity levels in the soil and in ecosystem restoration of severely polluted sites. In a greenhouse experiment, plant growth and zinc (Zn) uptake by four Salix cultivars grown in Zn contaminated soils collected from a mining area in Finland were tested to assess their suitability for phytoextraction. The sequential extraction technique and inductively coupled plasma‒mass spectrometry (ICP–MS) were used to determine the extractable metals and evaluate the fraction of metals in the soil that could be potentially available for plant uptake. The cultivars displayed resistance to heavily polluted soils throughout the whole experiment. After uptake, the total mean Zn concentrations ranged from 776 to 1823 mg kg⁻¹. The average uptake percentage of Zn across all cultivars and treatments ranged from 97 to 223%. Lime and wood ash addition showed a significant effect on plant dry biomass growth and metal uptake percentage of Zn in most of the cultivars. The results revealed that Salix cultivars have the potential to accumulate and take up significant amounts of Zn. Ecological restoration of polluted soils could be environmentally favorable in conjunction with economically profitable practices, such as forestry and bioenergy production. As such, the utilization of Salix for phytoextraction and bioenergy purposes is of considerable interest.

Keywords: lime, phytoextraction, Salix, wood ash, zinc

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1110 Biodegradation Effects onto Source Identification of Diesel Fuel Contaminated Soils

Authors: Colin S. Chen, Chien-Jung Tien, Hsin-Jan Huang

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For weathering studies, the change of chemical constituents by biodegradation effect in diesel-contaminated soils are important factors to be considered, especially when there is a prolonged period of weathering processes. The objective was to evaluate biodegradation effects onto hydrocarbon fingerprinting and distribution patterns of diesel fuels, fuel source screening and differentiation, source-specific marker compounds, and diagnostic ratios of diesel fuel constituents by laboratory and field studies. Biodegradation processes of diesel contaminated soils were evaluated by experiments lasting for 15 and 12 months, respectively. The degradation of diesel fuel in top soils was affected by organic carbon content and biomass of microorganisms in soils. Higher depletion of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), n-alkanes, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their alkyl homologues was observed in soils containing higher organic carbon content and biomass. Decreased ratio of selected isoprenoids (i.e., pristane (Pr) and phytane (Ph)) including n-C17/pristane and n-C18/phytane was observed. The ratio of pristane/phytane was remained consistent for a longer period of time. At the end of the experimental period, a decrease of pristane/phytane was observed. Biomarker compounds of bicyclic sesquiterpanes (BS) were less susceptible to the effects of biodegradation. The ratios of characteristic factors such as C15 sesquiterpane/ 8β(H)-drimane (BS3/BS5), C15 sesquiterpane/ 8β(H)-drimane (BS4/BS5), 8β(H)-drimane/8β(H)-homodrimane (BS5/BS10), and C15 sesquiterpane/8β(H)-homodrimane (BS3/BS10) could be adopted for source identification of diesel fuels in top soil. However, for biodegradation processes lasted for six months but shorter than nine months, only BS3/BS5 and BS3/BS10 could be distinguished in two diesel fuels. In subsoil experiments (contaminated soil located 50 cm below), the ratios of characteristic factors including BS3/BS5, BS4/BS5, and BS5/BS10 were valid for source identification of two diesel fuels for nine month biodegradation. At the early stage of contamination, biomass of soil decreased significantly. However, 6 and 7 dominant species were found in soils in top soil experiments, respectively. With less oxygen and nutrients in subsoil, less biomass of microorganisms was observed in subsoils. Only 2 and 4 diesel-degrading species of microorganisms were identified in two soils, respectively. Parameters of double ratio such as fluorene/C1-fluorene: C2-phenanthrene/C3-phenanthrene (C0F/C1F:C2P/C3P) in both top and subsoil, C2-naphthalene/C2-phenanthrene: C1-phenanthrene/C3-phenanthrene (C2N/C2P:C1P/C3P), and C1-phenanthrene/C1-fluorene: C3-naphthalene/C3-phenanthrene (C1P/C1F:C3N/C3P) in subsoil could serve as forensic indicators in diesel contaminated sites. BS3/BS10:BS4/BS5 could be used in 6 to 9 months of biodegradation processes. Results of principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that source identification of diesel fuels in top soil could only be perofrmed for weathering process less than 6 months. For subsoil, identification can be conducted for weathering process less than 9 months. Ratio of isoprenoids (pristane and phytane) and PAHs might be affected by biodegradation in spilled sites. The ratios of bicyclic sesquiterpanes could serve as forensic indicators in diesel-contaminated soils. Finally, source identification was attemped for samples collected from different fuel contaminated sites by using the unique pattern of sesquiterpanes. It was anticipated that the information generated from this study would be adopted by decision makers to evaluate the liability of cleanup in diesel contaminated sites.

Keywords: biodegradation, diagnostic ratio, diesel fuel, environmental forensics

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1109 The Effect of Soil Contamination on Chemical Composition and Quality of Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Fruits

Authors: Violina R. Angelova, Sava G. Tabakov, Aleksander B. Peltekov, Krasimir I. Ivanov

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A field study was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition and quality of the Aronia fruits, as well as the possibilities of Aronia cultivation on soils contaminated with heavy metals. The experiment was performed on an agricultural field contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works (NFMW) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The study included four varieties of Aronia; Aron variety, Hugin variety, Viking variety and Nero variety. The Aronia was cultivated according to the conventional technology on areas at a different distance from the source of pollution NFMW- Plovdiv (1 km, 3.5 km, and 15 km). The concentrations of macroelements, microelements, and heavy metals in Aronia fruits were determined. The dry matter content, ash, sugars, proteins, and fats were also determined. Aronia is a crop that is tolerant to heavy metals and can successfully be grown on soils contaminated with heavy metals. The increased content of heavy metals in the soil leads to less absorption of the nutrients (Ca, Mg and P) in the fruit of the Aronia. Soil pollution with heavy metals does not affect the quality of the Aronia fruit varieties.

Keywords: aronia, chemical composition, fruits, quality

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1108 Study of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Biodegradation by Bacterial Isolated from Contaminated Soils

Authors: Z. Abdessemed, N. Messaâdia, M. Houhamdi

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The PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) represent a persistent source of pollution for oil field soils. Their degradation, essentially dominated by the aerobic bacterial and fungal flora, exhibits certain aspects for remediation of these soils microbial oxygenases have, as their substrates, a large range of PAH. The variety and the performance of these enzymes allow the initiation of the biodegradation of any PAH through many different metabolic pathways. These pathways are very important for the recycling of the PAH in the biosphere, where substances supposed indigestible by living organisms are rapidly transformed into simples compounds, directly assimilated by the intermediate metabolism of other microorganisms.

Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, microbial oxygenases, biodegradation, metabolic pathways

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1107 Chemical Amelioration of Expansive Soils

Authors: B. R. Phanikumar, Sana Suri

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Expansive soils swell when they absorb water and shrink when water evaporates from them. Hence, lightly loaded civil engineering structures found in these soils are subjected to severe distress. Therefore, there is a need to ameliorate or improve these swelling soils through some innovative methods. This paper discusses chemical stabilisation of expansive soils, a technique in which chemical reagents such as lime and calcium chloride are added to expansive soils to reduce the volumetric changes occurring in expansive soils and also to improve their engineering behaviour.

Keywords: expansive soils, swelling, shrinkage, amelioration, lime, calcium chloride

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1106 Effect of Edta in the Phytoextraction of Copper by Terminalia catappa (Talisay) Linnaeus

Authors: Ian Marc G. Cabugsa, Zarine M. Hermita

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Phytoextraction capability of T. catappa in contaminated soils was done in the improvised greenhouse. The plant samples were planted to the soil which contained different concentrations of copper. Chelating agent EDTA was added to observe the uptake and translocation of copper in the plant samples. Results showed a significant increase of copper accumulation with the addition of EDTA at 250 and 1250 mgˑkg-1 concentration of copper in the contaminated soils (p<0.05). While translocation of copper was observed in all treatments, translocation of copper is not significantly enhanced by the addition of EDTA (p>0.05). Uptake and translocation were not directly affected the presence of EDTA. Furthermore, this study suggests that the T. catappa is not a hyperaccumulator of copper, and there is no relationship observed between the length of the plant and the copper uptake in all treatments.

Keywords: chelating agent EDTA, hyperaccumulator, phytoextraction, phytoremediation, terminalia catappa

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1105 Assessment of Soil Contamination on the Content of Macro and Microelements and the Quality of Grass Pea Seeds (Lathyrus sativus L.)

Authors: Violina R. Angelova

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Comparative research has been conducted to allow us to determine the content of macro and microelements in the vegetative and reproductive organs of grass pea and the quality of grass pea seeds, as well as to identify the possibility of grass pea growth on soils contaminated by heavy metals. The experiment was conducted on an agricultural field subjected to contamination from the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works (MFMW) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The experimental plots were situated at different distances of 0.5 km and 8 km, respectively, from the source of pollution. On reaching commercial ripeness the grass pea plants were gathered. The composition of the macro and microelements in plant materials (roots, stems, leaves, seeds), and the dry matter content, sugars, proteins, fats and ash contained in the grass pea seeds were determined. Translocation factors (TF) and bioaccumulation factor (BCF) were also determined. The quantitative measurements were carried out through inductively-coupled plasma (ICP). The grass pea plant can successfully be grown on soils contaminated by heavy metals. Soil pollution with heavy metals does not affect the quality of the grass pea seeds. The seeds of the grass pea contain significant amounts of nutrients (K, P, Cu, Fe Mn, Zn) and protein (23.18-29.54%). The distribution of heavy metals in the organs of the grass pea has a selective character, which reduces in the following order: leaves > roots > stems > seeds. BCF and TF values were greater than one suggesting efficient accumulation in the above ground parts of grass pea plant. Grass pea is a plant that is tolerant to heavy metals and can be referred to the accumulator plants. The results provide valuable information about the chemical and nutritional composition of the seeds of the grass pea grown on contaminated soils in Bulgaria. The high content of macro and microelements and the low concentrations of toxic elements in the grass pea grown in contaminated soil make it possible to use the seeds of the grass pea as animal feed.

Keywords: Lathyrus sativus L, macroelements, microelements, quality

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1104 Removal of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons from Contaminated Soils by Electrochemical Method

Authors: D. M. Cocârță, I. A. Istrate, C. Streche, D. M. Dumitru

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Soil contamination phenomena are a wide world issue that has received the important attention in the last decades. The main pollutants that have affected soils are especially those resulted from the oil extraction, transport and processing. This paper presents results obtained in the framework of a research project focused on the management of contaminated sites with petroleum products/ REMPET. One of the specific objectives of the REMPET project was to assess the electrochemical treatment (improved with polarity change respect to the typical approach) as a treatment option for the remediation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) from contaminated soils. Petroleum hydrocarbon compounds attach to soil components and are difficult to remove and degrade. Electrochemical treatment is a physicochemical treatment that has gained acceptance as an alternative method, for the remediation of organic contaminated soils comparing with the traditional methods as bioremediation and chemical oxidation. This type of treatment need short time and have high removal efficiency, being usually applied in heterogeneous soils with low permeability. During the experimental tests, the following parameters were monitored: pH, redox potential, humidity, current intensity, energy consumption. The electrochemical method was applied in an experimental setup with the next dimensions: 450 mm x 150 mm x 150 mm (L x l x h). The setup length was devised in three electrochemical cells that were connected at two power supplies. The power supplies configuration was provided in such manner that each cell has a cathode and an anode without overlapping. The initial value of TPH concentration in soil was of 1420.28 mg/kgdw. The remediation method has been applied for only 21 days, when it was already noticed an average removal efficiency of 31 %, with better results in the anode area respect to the cathode one (33% respect to 27%). The energy consumption registered after the development of the experiment was 10.6 kWh for exterior power supply and 16.1 kWh for the interior one. Taking into account that at national level, the most used methods for soil remediation are bioremediation (which needs too much time to be implemented and depends on many factors) and thermal desorption (which involves high costs in order to be implemented), the study of electrochemical treatment will give an alternative to these two methods (and their limitations).

Keywords: electrochemical remediation, pollution, total petroleum hydrocarbons, soil contamination

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1103 Bioremediation Influence on Shear Strength of Contaminated Soils

Authors: Tawar Mahmoodzadeh

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Today soil contamination is an unavoidable issue; Irrespective of environmental impact, which happens during the soil contaminating and remediating process, the influence of this phenomenon on soil has not been searched thoroughly. In this study, unconfined compression and compaction tests were done on samples, contaminated and treated soil after 50 days of bio-treatment. The results show that rising in the amount of oil, cause decreased optimum water content and maximum dry density and increased strength. However, almost 65% of this contamination terminated by using a Bioremer as a bioremediation agent.

Keywords: oil contamination soil, shear strength, compaction, bioremediation

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1102 Potential of Ozonation and Phytoremediation to Reduce Hydrocarbon Levels Remaining after the Pilot Scale Microbial Based Bioremediation (Land-Farming) of a Heavily Polluted Soil

Authors: Hakima Althalb

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Petroleum contamination of sandy soils is a severe environmental problem in Libya, but relatively little work has been carried out to optimize the bioremediation of such heavily contaminated soil, particularly at a pilot scale. The purpose of this research was to determine the potential for the microbial-based bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil obtained from an oil refinery in Libya and to assess the potential of both ozonation and phytoremediation (both applied after initial bioremediation) to reduce residual hydrocarbon levels. Plots containing 500 kg soil (triplicates) (contaminated soil diluted with clean soil 50% volume) were set up, (designated as Land Treatment Units; LTUs) containing five different nutrient levels and mixtures (Urea + NPK (nitrogen; phosphor; potassium) mixtures) to obtain C:N:P ratios 100:10:1, and monitored for 90 days. Hydrocarbon levels, microbial numbers, and toxicity (EC50 using luminescent microbial based tests) were assessed. Hydrocarbon levels in non-diluted and diluted soil ranged from 20 733-22 366 mg/kg and from 16 000-17 000 mg/kg respectively. Although all the land treatment units revealed a significant hydrocarbon reduction over time, the highest reduction in hydrocarbon levels obtained was around 60%. For example, 63% hydrocarbon removal was observed using a mixture of urea and NPK with a C:N:P ratio of 100:10:1). Soil toxicity (as assessed using luminescence based toxicity assays) reduced in line with the reduction in total petroleum hydrocarbons observed. However, as relatively high residual TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbon) levels (ranging from 6033-14166mg/kg) were still present after initial bioremediation two ‘post-treatments’ (phytoremediation and ozonation) were attempted to remove residual hydrocarbons remaining. Five locally grown (agriculturally important) plant species were tested. The germination of all plants examined was strongly inhibited (80-100%) and seedlings failed to grow well in the contaminated soil, indicating that the previously bioremediated soils were still toxic to the plants. Subsequent ozonation followed by another bioremediation of soil was more successful than phytoremediation. But even the most promising successful treatment in this study (ozonation for 6 hours at 25ppm followed by bioremediation) still only removed approximately 31% of the residual hydrocarbons. Overall, this work showed that the bioremediation of such highly contaminated soils is difficult and that a combination of treatments would be required to achieve successful remediation. Even after initial dilution and bioremediation the soils remained toxic to plant growth and were therefore not suitable for phytoremediation.

Keywords: bioremediation, petroleum hydrocarbons, ozone, phytoremediation

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