Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8365

Search results for: shear properties

8365 Comparative Study on Different Type of Shear Connectors in Composite Slabs

Authors: S. Subrmanian, A. Siva, R. Raghul


In modern construction industry, usage of cold form composite slab has its scope widely due to its light weight, high structural properties and economic factor. To enhance the structural integrity, mechanical interlocking or frictional interlocking was introduced. The role of mechanical interlocking or frictional interlocking is to increase the longitudinal shear between the profiled sheet and concrete. This paper deals with the experimental evaluation of three types of mechanical interlocking devices namely normal stud shear connector, J-Type shear connector, U-Type shear connector. An attempt was made to evolve the shear connector which can be suitable for the composite slab as an interlocking device. Totally six number of composite slabs have been experimented with three types of shear connectors and comparison study is made. The outcome was compared with numerical model was created by ABAQUS software and analyzed for comparative purpose. The result was U-Type shear connector provided better performance and resistance.

Keywords: composite slabs, shear connector, end slip, longitudinal shear

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
8364 Transient Response of Rheological Properties of a CI-Water Based Magnetorheological Fluid under Different Operating Modes

Authors: Chandra Shekhar Maurya, Chiranjit Sarkar


The transient response of rheological properties of a carbonyl iron (CI)-water-based magnetorheological fluid (MRF) was studied under shear rate, shear stress, and shear strain working mode subjected to step-change in an applied magnetic field. MR fluid is a kind of smart material whose rheological properties change under an applied magnetic field. We prepared an MR fluid comprising of CI 65 weight %, water 35 weight %, and OPTIGEL WX used as an additive by changing the weight %. It was found that the MR effect of the CI/water suspension was enhanced by using an additive. A transient shear stress response was observed by switched on and switched off of the magnetic field to see the stability, relaxation behavior, and resulting change in rheological properties. When the magnetic field is on, a sudden increase in the shear stress was observed due to the fast motion of magnetic structures that describe the transition from the liquidlike state to the solid-like state due to an increase in dipole-dipole interaction of magnetic particles. Simultaneously, the complete reverse transition occurs due to instantaneous breakage of the chain structure once the magnetic field is switched off.

Keywords: magnetorheological fluid, rheological properties, shears stress, shears strain, viscosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
8363 Shear Reinforcement of Stone Columns During Soil Liquefaction

Authors: Zeineb Ben Salem, Wissem Frikha, Mounir Bouassida


The aim of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of stone columns as a liquefaction countermeasure focusing on shear reinforcementbenefit. In fact, stone columns which have high shear modulus relative to the surrounding soils potentially can carry higher shear stress levels. Thus, stone columns provide shear reinforcement and decrease the Cyclic Shear Stress Ratio CSR to which the treated soils would be subjected during an earthquake. In order to quantify the level of shear stress reduction in reinforced soil, several approaches have been developed. Nevertheless, the available approaches do not take into account the improvement of the soil parameters, mainly the shear modulusdue to stone columns installation. Indeed, in situ control tests carried out before and after the installation of stone columns based upon the results of collected data derived from 24 case histories have given evidence of the improvement of the existing soil properties.In this paper, the assessment of shear reinforcement of stone columns that accounts such improvement of the soil parameters due to stone column installation is investigated. Comparative results indicate that considering the improvement effects considerably affect the assessment of shear reinforcement for liquefaction analysis of reinforced soil by stone columns.

Keywords: stone column, liquefaction, shear reinforcement, CSR, soil improvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
8362 Improving the Compaction Properties and Shear Resistance of Sand Reinforced with COVID-19 Waste Mask Fibers

Authors: Samah Said, Muhsin Elie Rahhal


Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, disposable plastic-based face masks were excessively used worldwide. Therefore, the production and consumption rates of these masks were significantly brought up, which led to severe environmental problems. The main purpose of this research is to test the possibility of reinforcing soil deposits with mask fibers to reuse pandemic-generated waste materials. When testing the compaction properties, the sand was reinforced with a fiber content that increased from 0% to 0.5%, with successive small increments of 0.1%. The optimum content of 0.1% remarkably increased the maximum dry density of the soil and dropped its optimum moisture content. Add to that, it was noticed that 15 mm and rectangular chips were, respectively, the optimum fiber length and shape to maximize the improvement of the sand compaction properties. Regarding the shear strength, fiber contents of 0.1%, 0.25%, and 0.5% were adopted. The direct shear tests have shown that the highest enhancement was observed for the optimum fiber content of 0.25%. Similarly to compaction tests, 15 mm and rectangular chips were respectively the optimum fiber length and shape to extremely enhance the shear resistance of the tested sand.

Keywords: COVID-19, mask fibers, compaction properties, soil reinforcement, shear resistance

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8361 Calculating Shear Strength Parameter from Simple Shear Apparatus

Authors: G. Nitesh


The shear strength of soils is a crucial parameter instability analysis. Therefore, it is important to determine reliable values for the accuracy of stability analysis. Direct shear tests are mostly performed to determine the shear strength of cohesionless soils. The major limitation of the direct shear test is that the failure takes place through the pre-defined failure plane but the failure is not along pre-defined plane and is along the weakest plane in actual shearing mechanism that goes on in the field. This leads to overestimating the strength parameter; hence, a new apparatus called simple shear is developed and used in this study to determine the shear strength parameter that simulates the field conditions.

Keywords: direct shear, simple shear, angle of shear resistance, cohesionless soils

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
8360 Simplified Equations for Rigidity and Lateral Deflection for Reinforced Concrete Cantilever Shear Walls

Authors: Anas M. Fares


Reinforced concrete shear walls are the most frequently used forms of lateral resisting structural elements. These walls may take many forms due to their functions and locations in the building. In Palestine, the most lateral resisting forces construction forms is the cantilever shear walls system. It is thus of prime importance to study the rigidity of these walls. The virtual work theorem is used to derive the total lateral deflection of cantilever shear walls due to flexural and shear deformation. The case of neglecting the shear deformation in the walls is also studied, and it is found that the wall height to length aspect ratio (H/B) plays a major role in calculating the lateral deflection and the rigidity of such walls. When the H/B is more than or equal to 3.7, the shear deformation may be neglected from the calculation of the lateral deflection. Moreover, the walls with the same material properties, same lateral load value, and same aspect ratio, shall have the same of both the lateral deflection and the rigidity. Finally, an equation to calculate the total rigidity and total deflection of such walls is derived by using the virtual work theorem for a cantilever beam.

Keywords: cantilever shear walls, flexural deformation, lateral deflection, lateral loads, reinforced concrete shear walls, rigidity, shear deformation, virtual work theorem

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
8359 Shear Behavior of Ultra High Strength Concrete Beams

Authors: Ghada Diaa, Enas A. Khattab


Ultra High Strength Concrete (UHSC) is a new advanced concrete that is being transferred from laboratory researches to practicable applications. In addition to its excellent durability properties, UHSC has high compressive and tensile strengths, and high modulus of elasticity. Despite of this low degree of hydration, ultra high strength values can be achieved by controlling the mixture proportions. In this research, an experimental program was carried out to investigate the shear behavior of ultra high strength concrete beams. A total of nine beams were tested to determine the effect of different parameters on the shear behavior of UHSC beams. The parameters include concrete strength, steel fiber volume, shear span to depth ratio, and web reinforcement ratio. The results demonstrated that nominal shear stress at cracking load and at ultimate load increased with the increase of concrete strength or the decrease in shear span-depth ratio. Using steel fibers or shear reinforcement increases the ultimate shear strength and makes the shear behavior more ductile. In this study, a simplified analytical model to calculate the shear strength of UHSC beams is introduced. Shear strength estimated according to the proposed method in this research is in good agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: ultra high strength, shear strength, diagonal, cracking, steel fibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 541
8358 Immediate and Long-Term Effect of the Sawdust Usage on Shear Strength of the Clayey Silt Soil

Authors: Dogan Cetin, Omar Hamdi Jasim


Using some additives is very common method to improve the soil properties such as shear strength, bearing capacity; and to reduce the settlement and lateral deformation. Soil reinforcement with natural materials is an attractive method to improve the soil properties because of their low cost. However, the studies conducted by using natural additive are very limited. This paper presents the results of an investigation on the immediate and long-term effects of the sawdust on the shear strength behavior of a clayey silt soil obtained in Arnavutkoy in Istanbul with sawdust. Firstly, compaction tests were conducted to be able to optimum moisture content for every percentage of sawdust. The samples were obtained from compacted soil at optimum moisture content. UU Triaxial Tests were conducted to evaluate the response of randomly distributed sawdust on the strength of low plasticity clayey silt soil. The specimens were tested with 1%, 2% and 3% content of sawdust. It was found that the undrained shear strength of clay soil with 1%, 2% and 3% sawdust were increased respectively 4.65%, 27.9% and 39.5% higher than the soil without additive. At 5%, shear strength of clay soil decreased by 3.8%. After 90 days cure period, the shear strength of the soil with 1%, 2%, 3% and %5 increased respectively 251%, 302%, 260% and 153%. It can be said that the effect of the sawdust usage has a remarkable effect on the undrained shear strength of the soil. Besides the increasing undrained shear strength, it was also found that the sawdust decreases the liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index by 5.5%, 2.9 and 10.9% respectively.

Keywords: compaction test, sawdust, shear strength, UU Triaxial Test

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
8357 Effect of Density on the Shear Modulus and Damping Ratio of Saturated Sand in Small Strain

Authors: M. Kakavand, S. A. Naeini


Dynamic properties of soil in small strains, especially for geotechnical engineers, are important for describing the behavior of soil and estimation of the earth structure deformations and structures, especially significant structures. This paper presents the effect of density on the shear modulus and damping ratio of saturated clean sand at various isotropic confining pressures. For this purpose, the specimens were compared with two different relative densities, loose Dr = 30% and dense Dr = 70%. Dynamic parameters were attained from a series of consolidated undrained fixed – free type torsional resonant column tests in small strain. Sand No. 161 is selected for this paper. The experiments show that by increasing sand density and confining pressure, the shear modulus increases and the damping ratio decreases.

Keywords: dynamic properties, shear modulus, damping ratio, clean sand, density, confining pressure, resonant column/torsional simple shear, TSS

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
8356 A Comparative Study on Behavior Among Different Types of Shear Connectors using Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Mohd Tahseen Islam Talukder, Sheikh Adnan Enam, Latifa Akter Lithi, Soebur Rahman


Composite structures have made significant advances in construction applications during the last few decades. Composite structures are composed of structural steel shapes and reinforced concrete combined with shear connectors, which benefit each material's unique properties. Significant research has been conducted on different types of connectors’ behavior and shear capacity. Moreover, the AISC 360-16 “Specification for Steel Structural Buildings” consists of a formula for channel shear connectors' shear capacity. This research compares the behavior of C type and L type shear connectors using Finite Element Analysis. Experimental results from published literature are used to validate the finite element models. The 3-D Finite Element Model (FEM) was built using ABAQUS 2017 to investigate non-linear capabilities and the ultimate load-carrying potential of the connectors using push-out tests. The changes in connector dimensions were analyzed using this non-linear model in parametric investigations. The parametric study shows that by increasing the length of the shear connector by 10 mm, its shear strength increases by 21%. Shear capacity increased by 13% as the height was increased by 10 mm. The thickness of the specimen was raised by 1 mm, resulting in a 2% increase in shear capacity. However, the shear capacity of channel connectors was reduced by 21% due to an increase of thickness by 2 mm.

Keywords: finite element method, channel shear connector, angle shear connector, ABAQUS, composite structure, shear connector, parametric study, ultimate shear capacity, push-out test

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
8355 Dynamic Properties of Recycled Concrete Aggregate from Resonant Column Tests

Authors: Wojciech Sas, Emil Soból, Katarzyna Gabryś, Andrzej Głuchowski, Alojzy Szymański


Depleting of natural resources is forcing the man to look for alternative construction materials. One of them is recycled concrete aggregates (RCA). RCA from the demolition of buildings and crushed to proper gradation can be a very good replacement for natural unbound granular aggregates, gravels or sands. Physical and the mechanical properties of RCA are well known in the field of basic civil engineering applications, but to proper roads and railways design dynamic characteristic is need as well. To know maximum shear modulus (GMAX) and the minimum damping ratio (DMIN) of the RCA dynamic loads in resonant column apparatus need to be performed. The paper will contain literature revive about alternative construction materials and dynamic laboratory research technique. The article will focus on dynamic properties of RCA, but early studies conducted by the authors on physical and mechanical properties of this material also will be presented. The authors will show maximum shear modulus and minimum damping ratio. Shear modulus and damping ratio degradation curves will be shown as well. From exhibited results conclusion will be drawn at the end of the article.

Keywords: recycled concrete aggregate, shear modulus, damping ratio, resonant column

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
8354 Particle Size Effect on Shear Strength of Granular Materials in Direct Shear Test

Authors: R. Alias, A. Kasa, M. R. Taha


The effect of particle size on shear strength of granular materials are investigated using direct shear tests. Small direct shear test (60 mm by 60 mm by 24 mm deep) were conducted for particles passing the sieves with opening size of 2.36 mm. Meanwhile, particles passing the standard 20 mm sieves were tested using large direct shear test (300 mm by 300 mm by 200 mm deep). The large direct shear tests and the small direct shear tests carried out using the same shearing rate of 0.09 mm/min and similar normal stresses of 100, 200, and 300 kPa. The results show that the peak and residual shear strength decreases as particle size increases.

Keywords: particle size, shear strength, granular material, direct shear test

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
8353 Shear Buckling of a Large Pultruded Composite I-Section under Asymmetric Loading

Authors: Jin Y. Park, Jeong Wan Lee


An experimental and analytical research on shear buckling of a comparably large polymer composite I-section is presented. It is known that shear buckling load of a large span composite beam is difficult to determine experimentally. In order to sensitively detect shear buckling of the tested I-section, twenty strain rosettes and eight displacement sensors were applied and attached on the web and flange surfaces. The tested specimen was a pultruded composite beam made of vinylester resin, E-glass, carbon fibers and micro-fillers. Various coupon tests were performed before the shear buckling test to obtain fundamental material properties of the I-section. An asymmetric four-point bending loading scheme was utilized for the shear test. The loading scheme resulted a high shear and almost zeros moment condition at the center of the web panel. The shear buckling load was successfully determined after analyzing the obtained test data from strain rosettes and displacement sensors. An analytical approach was also performed to verify the experimental results and to support the discussed experimental program.

Keywords: strain sensor, displacement sensor, shear buckling, polymer composite I-section, asymmetric loading

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
8352 Effect of Silt Presence on Shear Strength Parameters of Unsaturated Sandy Soils

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, E. Khavaninzadeh, M. Ghorbani Tochaee


Direct shear test is widely used in soil mechanics experiment to determine the shear strength parameters of granular soils. For analysis of soil stability problems such as bearing capacity, slope stability and lateral pressure on soil retaining structures, the shear strength parameters must be known well. In the present study, shear strength parameters are determined in silty-sand mixtures. Direct shear tests are performed on 161 Firoozkooh sand with different silt content at a relative density of 70% in three vertical stress of 100, 150, and 200 kPa. Wet tamping method is used for soil sample preparation, and the results include diagrams of shear stress versus shear deformation and sample height changes against shear deformation. Accordingly, in different silt percent, the shear strength parameters of the soil such as internal friction angle and dilation angle are calculated and compared. According to the results, when the sample contains up to 10% silt, peak shear strength and internal friction angle have an upward trend. However, if the sample contains 10% to 50% of silt a downward trend is seen in peak shear strength and internal friction angle.

Keywords: shear strength parameters, direct shear test, silty sand, shear stress, shear deformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
8351 Laser Micro-Welding of an Isomorphous System with Different Geometries: An Investigation on the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of the Joint

Authors: Mahdi Amne Elahi, Marcus Koch, Peter Plapper


Due to the demand of miniaturizing in automotive industry, the application of laser welding is quite promising. The current study focused on laser micro-welding of CuSn6 bronze and nickel wire for a miniature electromechanical hybrid component. Due to the advantages of laser welding, the welding can be tailored specifically for the requirements of the part. Scanning electron and optical microscopy were implemented to study the microstructure and tensile-shear test was selected to represent the mechanical properties. Different welding sides, beam oscillations, and speeds have been investigated to optimize the tensile-shear load and microstructure. The results show that the mechanical properties and microstructure of the joint is highly under the influence of the mentioned parameters. Due to the lack of intermetallic compounds, the soundness of the joint is achievable by manipulating the geometry of the weld seam and minimize weld defects.

Keywords: bronze, laser micro-welding, microstructure, nickel, tensile shear test

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
8350 A Hybrid Model Tree and Logistic Regression Model for Prediction of Soil Shear Strength in Clay

Authors: Ehsan Mehryaar, Seyed Armin Motahari Tabari


Without a doubt, soil shear strength is the most important property of the soil. The majority of fatal and catastrophic geological accidents are related to shear strength failure of the soil. Therefore, its prediction is a matter of high importance. However, acquiring the shear strength is usually a cumbersome task that might need complicated laboratory testing. Therefore, prediction of it based on common and easy to get soil properties can simplify the projects substantially. In this paper, A hybrid model based on the classification and regression tree algorithm and logistic regression is proposed where each leaf of the tree is an independent regression model. A database of 189 points for clay soil, including Moisture content, liquid limit, plastic limit, clay content, and shear strength, is collected. The performance of the developed model compared to the existing models and equations using root mean squared error and coefficient of correlation.

Keywords: model tree, CART, logistic regression, soil shear strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
8349 Effect of Different Types of Nano/Micro Fillers on the Interfacial Shear Properties of Polyamide 6 with De-Sized Carbon Fiber

Authors: Mohamed H. Gabr, Kiyoshi Uzawa


The current study aims to investigate the effect of fillers with different geometries and sizes on the interfacial shear properties of PA6 composites with de-sized carbon fiber. The fillers which have been investigated are namely; nano-layer silicates (nanoclay), sub-micro aluminum titanium (ALTi) particles, and multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT). By means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), epoxide group which defined as a sizing agent, has been removed. Sizing removal can reduce the acid parameter of carbon fibers surface promoting bonding strength at the fiber/matrix interface which is a desirable property for the carbon fiber composites. Microdroplet test showed that the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) has been enhanced with the addition of 10wt% ALTi by about 23% comparing with neat PA6. However, with including other types of fillers into PA6, the results did not show enhancement of IFSS.

Keywords: sub-micro particles, nano-composites, interfacial shear strength, polyamide 6

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
8348 Investigation of Shear Thickening Fluid Isolator with Vibration Isolation Performance

Authors: M. C. Yu, Z. L. Niu, L. G. Zhang, W. W. Cui, Y. L. Zhang


According to the theory of the vibration isolation for linear systems, linear damping can reduce the transmissibility at the resonant frequency, but inescapably increase the transmissibility of the isolation frequency region. To resolve this problem, nonlinear vibration isolation technology has recently received increasing attentions. Shear thickening fluid (STF) is a special colloidal material. When STF is subject to high shear rate, it rheological property changes from a flowable behavior into a rigid behavior, i.e., it presents shear thickening effect. STF isolator is a vibration isolator using STF as working material. Because of shear thickening effect, STF isolator is a variable-damped isolator. It exhibits small damping under high vibration frequency and strong damping at resonance frequency due to shearing rate increasing. So its special inherent character is very favorable for vibration isolation, especially for restraining resonance. In this paper, firstly, STF was prepared by dispersing nano-particles of silica into polyethylene glycol 200 fluid, followed by rheological properties test. After that, an STF isolator was designed. The vibration isolation system supported by STF isolator was modeled, and the numerical simulation was conducted to study the vibration isolation properties of STF. And finally, the effect factors on vibrations isolation performance was also researched quantitatively. The research suggests that owing to its variable damping, STF vibration isolator can effetely restrain resonance without bringing unfavorable effect at high frequency, which meets the need of ideal damping properties and resolves the problem of traditional isolators.

Keywords: shear thickening fluid, variable-damped isolator, vibration isolation, restrain resonance

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
8347 Effect of Compaction and Degree of Saturation on the Unconsolidated Undrained Shear Strength of Sandy Clay

Authors: Fatima Mehmood, Khalid Farooq, Rabeea Bakhtawer


For geotechnical engineers, one of the most important properties of soil to consider in various stability analyses is its shear strength which is governed by a number of factors. The objective of this research is to ascertain the effect of compaction and degree of saturation on the shear strength of fine-grained soil. For this purpose, three different dry densities such as in-situ, maximum standard proctor, and maximum modified proctor, were determined for the sandy clay soil. The soil samples were then prepared to keep dry density constant and varying degrees of saturation. These samples were tested for (UU) unconsolidated undrained shear strength in triaxial compression tests. The decrease in shear strength was observed with the decrease in density and increase in the saturation. The values of the angle of internal friction followed the same trend. However, the change in cohesion with the increase in saturation showed a different behavior, analogous to the compaction curve.

Keywords: compaction, degree of saturation, dry density, geotechnical investigation, laboratory testing, shear strength

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8346 An Atomic Finite Element Model for Mechanical Properties of Graphene Sheets

Authors: Win-Jin Chang, Haw-Long Lee, Yu-Ching Yang


In this study, we use the atomic-scale finite element method to investigate the mechanical behavior of the armchair- and zigzag-structured nanoporous graphene sheets with the clamped-free-free-free boundary condition under tension and shear loadings. The effect of porosity on Young’s modulus and shear modulus of nanoporous graphene sheets is obvious. For the armchair- and zigzag-structured nanoporous graphene sheets, Young’s modulus and shear modulus decreases with increasing porosity. Young’s modulus and shear modulus of zigzag graphene are larger than that of armchair one for the same porosity. The results are useful for application in the design of nanoporous graphene sheets.

Keywords: graphene, nanoporous, Young's modulus, shear modulus

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8345 Investigation of the Effect of Fine-Grained and Its Plastic Properties on Liquefaction Resistance of Sand

Authors: S. A. Naeini, M. Mortezaee


The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of fine grain content in soil and its plastic properties on soil liquefaction potential. For this purpose, the conditions for considering the fine grains effect and percentage of plastic fine on the liquefaction resistance of saturated sand presented by researchers has been investigated. Then, some comprehensive results of all the issues raised by some researchers are stated. From these investigations it was observed that by increasing the percentage of cohesive fine grains in the sandy soil (up to 20%), the maximum shear strength decreases and by adding more fine- grained percentage, the maximum shear strength of the resulting soil increases but never reaches the amount of clean sand.

Keywords: fine-grained, liquefaction, plasticity, shear strength, sand

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
8344 Determination of Dynamic Soil Properties Using Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) Techniques in Earth-Filled Dam

Authors: Noppadon Sintuboon, Benjamas Sawatdipong, Anchalee Kongsuk


This study was conducted to investigate the engineering parameters: compressional wave: Vp, shear wave: Vs, and density: ρ related to the dynamically geotechnical properties of soils compaction in the core of earth-filled dam located in northern part of Thailand by using multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) techniques. The Vp, Vs, and ρ from MASW were 1,624 - 1,649 m/s, 301-323 m/s, and 1,829 kg/m3, respectively. Those parameters were calculated to Poison’s ratio: ν (0.48), shear modulus: G (1.66 x 108 - 1.92 x 108 kg/m2), Vp/Vs ratio (5.10 – 5.39) and Standard Penetration Test (SPT) showing the dynamic characteristics of soil deformation and stress resulting from dynamic loads. The results of this study will be useful in primary evaluating the current condition and foundation of the dam and can be compared to the data from the laboratory in the future.

Keywords: earth-filled dam, MASW, dynamic elastic constant, shear wave

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8343 The Mechanical Properties of a Small-Size Seismic Isolation Rubber Bearing for Bridges

Authors: Yi F. Wu, Ai Q. Li, Hao Wang


Taking a novel type of bridge bearings with the diameter being 100mm as an example, the theoretical analysis, the experimental research as well as the numerical simulation of the bearing were conducted. Since the normal compression-shear machines cannot be applied to the small-size bearing, an improved device to test the properties of the bearing was proposed and fabricated. Besides, the simulation of the bearing was conducted on the basis of the explicit finite element software ANSYS/LS-DYNA, and some parameters of the bearing are modified in the finite element model to effectively reduce the computation cost. Results show that all the research methods are capable of revealing the fundamental properties of the small-size bearings, and a combined use of these methods can better catch both the integral properties and the inner detailed mechanical behaviors of the bearing.

Keywords: ANSYS/LS-DYNA, compression shear, contact analysis, explicit algorithm, small-size

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
8342 Diagonal Crack Width of RC Members with High Strength Materials

Authors: J. Y. Lee, H. S. Lim, S. H. Yoon


This paper presents an analysis of the diagonal crack widths of RC members with various types of materials by simulating a compatibility-aided truss model. The analytical results indicated that the diagonal crack width was influenced by not only the shear reinforcement ratio but also the yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete. The yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete decreased the diagonal shear crack width of RC members for the same shear force because of the change of shear failure modes. However, regarding the maximum shear crack width at shear failure, the shear crack width of the beam with high strength materials was greater than that of the beam with normal strength materials.

Keywords: diagonal crack width, high strength stirrups, high strength concrete, RC members, shear behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
8341 An Experimental Study of the Influence of Particle Breakage on the Interface Friction Angle and Shear Strength of Carbonate Sands

Authors: Ruben Dario Tovar-Valencia, Eshan Ganju, Fei Han, Monica Prezzi, Rodrigo Salgado


Particle breakage occurs even in strong silica sand particles. There is compelling evidence that suggests that particle breakage causes changes in several properties such as permeability, peak strength, dilatancy and critical state friction angle. Current pile design methods that are based on soil properties do not account for particle breakage that occurs during driving or jacking of displacement piles. This may lead to significant overestimation of pile capacity in sands dominated by particles susceptible to breakage, such as carbonate sands. The objective of this paper is to study the influence of shear displacement on particle breakage and friction angle of carbonate sands, and to furthermore quantify the change in friction angle observed with different levels of particle breakage. To study the phenomenon of particle breakage, multiple ring shear tests have been performed at different levels of vertical confinement on a thoroughly characterized carbonate sand to find i) the shear displacement necessary to reach stable friction angles and ii) the effect of particle breakage on the mobilized friction angle of the tested sand. The findings of this study can potentially be used to update the current pile design methods by developing a friction angle which is a function of shear displacement and breakage characteristics of the sand instead of being a constant value.

Keywords: breakage, carbonate sand, friction angle, pile design, ring shear test

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
8340 Experimental and Numerical Analysis on Enhancing Mechanical Properties of CFRP Adhesive Joints Using Hybrid Nanofillers

Authors: Qiong Rao, Xiongqi Peng


In this work, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphene nanoplates (GNPs) were dispersed into epoxy adhesive to investigate their synergy effects on the shear properties, mode I and mode II fracture toughness of unidirectional composite bonded joints. Testing results showed that the incorporation of MWCNTs and GNPs significantly improved the shear strength, the mode I and mode II fracture toughness by 36.6%, 45% and 286%, respectively. In addition, the fracture surfaces of the bonding area as well as the toughening mechanism of nanofillers were analyzed. Finally, a nonlinear cohesive/friction coupled model for delamination analysis of adhesive layer under shear and normal compression loadings was proposed and implemented in ABAQUS/Explicit via user subroutine VUMAT.

Keywords: nanofillers, adhesive joints, fracture toughness, cohesive zone model

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8339 Vibration Damping Properties of Electrorheological Materials Based on Chitosan/Perlite Composite

Authors: M. Cabuk, M. Yavuz, T. A. Yesil, H. I. Unal


Electrorheological (ER) fluids are a class of smart materials exhibiting reversible changes in their rheological and mechanical properties under an applied electric field (E). ER fluids generally are composed of polarisable solid particles dispersed in non-conducting oil. ER fluids are fluids which exhibit. The resistance to motion of the ER fluid can be controlled by adjusting the applied E, due to their fast and reversible changes in their rheological properties presence of E. In this study, a series of chitosan/expanded perlite (CS/EP) composites with different chitosan mass fractions (10%, 20%, and 50%) was used. Characterizations of the composites were carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) techniques. Antisedimentation stability and dielectric properties of the composites were also determined. The effects of volume fraction, electric field strength, shear rate, shear stress, and temperature onto ER properties of the CS/EP composite particles dispersed in silicone oil (SO) were investigated in detail. Vibration damping behavior of the CS/EP composites were determined as a function of frequence, storage (Gʹ) and loss (Gʹ ʹ) moduli. It was observed that ER response of the CS/EP/SO ER fluids increased with increasing electric field strength and exhibited the typical shear thinning non-Newtonian viscoelastic behaviors with increasing shear rate. The maximum yield stress was obtained with 1250 Pa under E = 3 kV/mm. Further, the CS/EP/SO ER fluids were observed to sensitive to vibration control by showing reversible viscosity enhancements (Gʹ > Gʹ ʹ). Acknowledgements: The authors thank the TÜBİTAK (214Z199) for the financial support of this work.

Keywords: chitosan, electrorheology, perlite, vibration control

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8338 Mesoscopic Defects of Forming and Induced Properties on the Impact of a Composite Glass/Polyester

Authors: Bachir Kacimi, Fatiha Teklal, Arezki Djebbar


Forming processes induce residual deformations on the reinforcement and sometimes lead to mesoscopic defects, which are more recurrent than macroscopic defects during the manufacture of complex structural parts. This study deals with the influence of the fabric shear and buckles defects, which appear during draping processes of composite, on the impact behavior of a glass fiber reinforced polymer. To achieve this aim, we produced several specimens with different amplitude of deformations (shear) and defects on the fabric using a specific bench. The specimens were manufactured using the contact molding and tested with several impact energies. The results and measurements made on tested specimens were compared to those of the healthy material. The results showed that the buckle defects have a negative effect on elastic parameters and revealed a larger damage with significant out-of-plane mode relatively to the healthy composite material. This effect is the consequence of a local fiber impoverishment and a disorganization of the fibrous network, with a reorientation of the fibers following the out-of-plane buckling of the yarns, in the area where the defects are located. For the material with calibrated shear of the reinforcement, the increased local fiber rate due to the shear deformations and the contribution to stiffness of the transverse yarns led to an increase in mechanical properties.

Keywords: Defects, Forming, Impact, Induced properties, Textiles

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8337 Design of Reinforced Concrete (RC) Walls Considering Shear Amplification by Nonlinear Dynamic Behavior

Authors: Sunghyun Kim, Hong-Gun Park


In the performance-based design (PBD), by using the nonlinear dynamic analysis (NDA), the actual performance of the structure is evaluated. Unlike frame structures, in the wall structures, base shear force which is resulted from the NDA, is greatly amplified than that from the elastic analysis. This shear amplifying effect causes repeated designs which make designer difficult to apply the PBD. Therefore, in this paper, factors which affect shear amplification were studied. For the 20-story wall model, the NDA was performed. From the analysis results, the base shear amplification factor was proposed.

Keywords: performance based design, shear amplification factor, nonlinear dynamic analysis, RC shear wall

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8336 Shear Strength of Unsaturated Clayey Soils Using Laboratory Vane Shear Test

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayed, Seyed Abdolhassan Naeini, Peyman Nouri, Hamed Yekehdehghan


The shear strength of soils is a significant parameter in the design of clay structures, depots, clay gables, and freeways. Most research has addressed the shear strength of saturated soils. However, soils can become partially saturated with changes in weather, changes in groundwater levels, and the absorption of water by plant roots. Hence, it is necessary to study the strength behavior of partially saturated soils. The shear vane test is an experiment that determines the undrained shear strength of clay soils. This test may be performed in the laboratory or at the site. The present research investigates the effect of liquidity index (LI), plasticity index (PI), and saturation degree of the soil on its undrained shear strength obtained from the shear vane test. According to the results, an increase in the LI and a decrease in the PL of the soil decrease its undrained shear strength. Furthermore, studies show that a rise in the degree of saturation decreases the shear strength obtained from the shear vane test.

Keywords: liquidity index, plasticity index, shear strength, unsaturated soil

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