Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 101

Search results for: landslide

101 Exploring the Capabilities of Sentinel-1A and Sentinel-2A Data for Landslide Mapping

Authors: Ismayanti Magfirah, Sartohadi Junun, Samodra Guruh


Landslides are one of the most frequent and devastating natural disasters in Indonesia. Many studies have been conducted regarding this phenomenon. However, there is a lack of attention in the landslide inventory mapping. The natural condition (dense forest area) and the limited human and economic resources are some of the major problems in building landslide inventory in Indonesia. Considering the importance of landslide inventory data in susceptibility, hazard, and risk analysis, it is essential to generate landslide inventory based on available resources. In order to achieve this, the first thing we have to do is identify the landslides' location. The presence of Sentinel-1A and Sentinel-2A data gives new insights into land monitoring investigation. The free access, high spatial resolution, and short revisit time, make the data become one of the most trending open sources data used in landslide mapping. Sentinel-1A and Sentinel-2A data have been used broadly for landslide detection and landuse/landcover mapping. This study aims to generate landslide map by integrating Sentinel-1A and Sentinel-2A data use change detection method. The result will be validated by field investigation to make preliminary landslide inventory in the study area.

Keywords: change detection method, landslide inventory mapping, Sentinel-1A, Sentinel-2A

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100 Application and Verification of Regression Model to Landslide Susceptibility Mapping

Authors: Masood Beheshtirad


Identification of regions having potential for landslide occurrence is one of the basic measures in natural resources management. Different landslide hazard mapping models are proposed based on the environmental condition and goals. In this research landslide hazard map using multiple regression model were provided and applicability of this model is investigated in Baghdasht watershed. Dependent variable is landslide inventory map and independent variables consist of information layers as Geology, slope, aspect, distance from river, distance from road, fault and land use. For doing this, existing landslides have been identified and an inventory map made. The landslide hazard map is based on the multiple regression provided. The level of similarity potential hazard classes and figures of this model were compared with the landslide inventory map in the SPSS environments. Results of research showed that there is a significant correlation between the potential hazard classes and figures with area of the landslides. The multiple regression model is suitable for application in the Baghdasht Watershed.

Keywords: landslide, mapping, multiple model, regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
99 Instability Index Method and Logistic Regression to Assess Landslide Susceptibility in County Route 89, Taiwan

Authors: Y. H. Wu, Ji-Yuan Lin, Yu-Ming Liou


This study aims to set up the landslide susceptibility map of County Route 89 at Ren-Ai Township in Nantou County using the Instability Index Method and Logistic regression. Seven susceptibility factors including Slope Angle, Aspect, Elevation, Distance to fold, Distance to River, Distance to Road and Accumulated Rainfall were obtained by GIS based on the Typhoon Toraji landslide area identified by Industrial Technology Research Institute in 2001. To calculate the landslide percentage of each factor and acquire the weight and grade the grid by means of Instability Index Method. In this study, landslide susceptibility can be classified into four grades: high, medium high, medium low and low, in order to determine the advantages and disadvantages of the two models. The precision of this model is verified by classification error matrix and SRC curve. These results suggest that the logistic regression model is a preferred method than instability index in the assessment of landslide susceptibility. It is suitable for the landslide prediction and precaution in this area in the future.

Keywords: instability index method, logistic regression, landslide susceptibility, SRC curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
98 Geological Structure as the Main Factor in Landslide Deployment in Purworejo District Central Java Province Indonesia

Authors: Hilman Agil Satria, Rezky Naufan Hendrawan


Indonesia is vulnerable to geological hazard because of its location in subduction zone and have tropical climate. Landslide is one of the most happened geological hazard in Indonesia, based on Indonesia Geospasial data, at least 194 landslides recorded in 2013. In fact, research location is placed as the third city that most happened landslide in Indonesia. Landslide caused damage of many houses and wrecked the road. The purpose of this research is to make a landslide zone therefore can be used as one of mitigation consideration. The location is in Bruno, Porworejo district Central Java Province Indonesia at 109.903 – 109.99 and -7.59 – -7.50 with 10 Km x 10 Km wide. Based on geological mapping result, the research location consist of Late Miocene sandstone and claystone, and Pleistocene volcanic breccia and tuff. Those landslide happened in the lithology that close with fault zone. This location has so many geological structures: joints, faults and folds. There are 3 thrust faults, 1 normal faults, 4 strike slip faults and 6 folds. This geological structure movement is interpreted as the main factor that has triggered landslide in this location. This research use field data as well as samples of rock, joint, slicken side and landslide location which is combined with DEM SRTM to analyze geomorphology. As the final result of combined data will be presented as geological map, geological structure map and landslide zone map. From this research we can assume that there is correlation between geological structure and landslide locations.

Keywords: geological structure, landslide, Porworejo, Indonesia

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
97 Establishment of Landslide Warning System Using Surface or Sub-Surface Sensors Data

Authors: Neetu Tyagi, Sumit Sharma


The study illustrates the results of an integrated study done on Tangni landslide located on NH-58 at Chamoli, Uttarakhand. Geological, geo-morphological and geotechnical investigations were carried out to understand the mechanism of landslide and to plan further investigation and monitoring. At any rate, the movements were favored by continuous rainfall water infiltration from the zones where the phyllites/slates and Dolomites outcrop. The site investigations were carried out including the monitoring of landslide movements and of the water level fluctuations due to rainfall give us a better understanding of landslide dynamics that have been causing in time soil instability at Tangni landslide site. The Early Warning System (EWS) installed different types of sensors and all sensors were directly connected to data logger and raw data transfer to the Defence Terrain Research Laboratory (DTRL) server room with the help of File Transfer Protocol (FTP). The slip surfaces were found at depths ranging from 8 to 10 m from Geophysical survey and hence sensors were installed to the depth of 15m at various locations of landslide. Rainfall is the main triggering factor of landslide. In this study, the developed model of unsaturated soil slope stability is carried out. The analysis of sensors data available for one year, indicated the sliding surface of landslide at depth between 6 to 12m with total displacement up to 6cm per year recorded at the body of landslide. The aim of this study is to set the threshold and generate early warning. Local peoples already alert towards landslide, if they have any types of warning system.

Keywords: early warning system, file transfer protocol, geo-morphological, geotechnical, landslide

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
96 Landslide Hazard Zonation and Risk Studies Using Multi-Criteria Decision-Making and Slope Stability Analysis

Authors: Ankit Tyagi, Reet Kamal Tiwari, Naveen James


In India, landslides are the most frequently occurring disaster in the regions of the Himalayas and the Western Ghats. The steep slopes and land use in these areas are quite apprehensive. In the recent past, many landslide hazard zonation (LHZ) works have been carried out in the Himalayas. However, the preparation of LHZ maps considering temporal factors such as seismic ground shaking, seismic amplification at surface level, and rainfall are limited. Hence this study presents a comprehensive use of the multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) method in landslide risk assessment. In this research, we conducted both geospatial and geotechnical analysis to minimize the danger of landslides. Geospatial analysis is performed using high-resolution satellite data to produce landslide causative factors which were given weightage using the MCDM method. The geotechnical analysis includes a slope stability check, which was done to determine the potential landslide slope. The landslide risk map can provide useful information which helps people to understand the risk of living in an area.

Keywords: landslide hazard zonation, PHA, AHP, GIS

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
95 Damage Assessment Based on Full-Polarimetric Decompositions in the 2017 Colombia Landslide

Authors: Hyeongju Jeon, Yonghyun Kim, Yongil Kim


Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an effective tool for damage assessment induced by disasters due to its all-weather and night/day acquisition capability. In this paper, the 2017 Colombia landslide was observed using full-polarimetric ALOS/PALSAR-2 data. Polarimetric decompositions, including the Freeman-Durden decomposition and the Cloude decomposition, are utilized to analyze the scattering mechanisms changes before and after-landslide. These analyses are used to detect the damaged areas induced by the landslide. Experimental results validate the efficiency of the full polarimetric SAR data since the damaged areas can be well discriminated. Thus, we can conclude the proposed method using full polarimetric data has great potential for damage assessment of landslides.

Keywords: Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), polarimetric decomposition, damage assessment, landslide

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94 Identification of Landslide Features Using Back-Propagation Neural Network on LiDAR Digital Elevation Model

Authors: Chia-Hao Chang, Geng-Gui Wang, Jee-Cheng Wu


The prediction of a landslide is a difficult task because it requires a detailed study of past activities using a complete range of investigative methods to determine the changing condition. In this research, first step, LiDAR 1-meter by 1-meter resolution of digital elevation model (DEM) was used to generate six environmental factors of landslide. Then, back-propagation neural networks (BPNN) was adopted to identify scarp, landslide areas and non-landslide areas. The BPNN uses 6 environmental factors in input layer and 1 output layer. Moreover, 6 landslide areas are used as training areas and 4 landslide areas as test areas in the BPNN. The hidden layer is set to be 1 and 2; the hidden layer neurons are set to be 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8; the learning rates are set to be 0.01, 0.1 and 0.5. When using 1 hidden layer with 7 neurons and the learning rate sets to be 0.5, the result of Network training root mean square error is 0.001388. Finally, evaluation of BPNN classification accuracy by the confusion matrix shows that the overall accuracy can reach 94.4%, and the Kappa value is 0.7464.

Keywords: digital elevation model, DEM, environmental factors, back-propagation neural network, BPNN, LiDAR

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93 Affect of Reservoir Fluctuations on an Active Landslide in the Xiangjiaba Reservoir Area, Southwest China

Authors: Javed Iqbal


Filling of Xiangjiaba Reservoir Lake in Southwest China triggered and re-activated numerous landslides due to water fluctuation. In order to understand the relationship between reservoirs and slope instability, a typical reservoir landslide (Dasha landslide) at right bank of Jinsha River was selected as a case study for in-depth investigations. The detailed field investigations were carried out in order to identify the landslide with respect to its surroundings and to find out the slip-surface. Boreholes were drilled in order to find out the subsurface lithology and the depth of failure of Dasha landslide. The in-situ geotechnical tests were performed, and the soil samples from exposed slip surface were retrieved for geotechnical laboratory analysis. Finally, stability analysis was done using 3D strength reduction method under different conditions of reservoir water level fluctuations and rainfall conditions. The in-depth investigations show that the Dasha landslide is a bedding rockslide which was once activated in 1986. The topography of Dasha landslide is relatively flat, while the back scarp and local terrain are relatively steep. The landslide area is about 29 × 104 m², and the maximum thickness of the landslide deposits revealed by drilling is about 40 m with the average thickness being about 20 m, and the volume is thus estimated being about 580 × 10⁴ m³. Bedrock in the landslide area is composed of Suining Formation of Jurassic age. The main rock type is silty mudstone with sandstone, and bedding orientation is 300~310° ∠ 7~22°. The factor of safety (FOS) of Dasha landslide obtained by 3D strength reduction cannot meet the minimum safety requirement under the working condition of reservoir level fluctuation as designed, with effect of rainfall and rapid drawdown.

Keywords: Dasha landslide, Xiangjiaba reservoir, strength reduction method, bedding rockslide

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92 Study of the Mega–Landslide at the Community of Ropoto, Central Greece, and of the Design of Mitigation and Early Warning System Using the Fiber Bragg Grating Technology

Authors: Michael Bellas, George Voulgaridis


This paper refers to the world known mega - landslide induced at the community of Ropoto, belonging to the Municipality of Trikala, in the Central part of Greece. The landslide affected the debris as well as the colluvium mantle of the flysch, and makes up a special case of study in engineering geology and geotechnical engineering not only because of the size of the domain affected by the landslide (approximately 750m long), but also because of the geostructure’s global behavior. Due to the landslide, the whole community’s infrastructure massively collapsed and human lives were put in danger. After the complete simulation of the coupled Seepage - Deformation phenomenon due to the extreme rainfall, and by closely examining the slope’s global behavior, both the mitigation of the landslide, as well as, an advanced surveillance method (Fiber Bragg Grating) using fiber optics were further studied, in order both to retain the geostructure and to monitor its health by creating an early warning system, which would serve as a complete safety net for saving both the community’s infrastructure as well as the lives of its habitats.

Keywords: landslide, remediation measures, the finite element method (FEM), Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensing method

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91 The Threshold Values of Soil Water Index for Landslides on Country Road No.89

Authors: Ji-Yuan Lin, Yu-Ming Liou, Yi-Ting Chen, Chen-Syuan Lin


Soil water index obtained by tank model is now commonly used in soil and sand disaster alarm system in Japan. Comparing with the rainfall trigging index in Taiwan, the tank model is easy to predict the slope water content on large-scale landslide. Therefore, this study aims to estimate the threshold value of large-scale landslide using the soil water index Sixteen typhoons and heavy rainfall events, were selected to establish the, to relationship between landslide event and soil water index. Finally, the proposed threshold values for landslides on country road No.89 are suggested in this study. The study results show that 95% landslide cases occurred in soil water index more than 125mm, and 30% of the more serious slope failure occurred in the soil water index is greater than 250mm. Beside, this study speculates when soil water index more than 250mm and the difference value between second tank and third tank less than -25mm, it leads to large-scale landslide more probably.

Keywords: soil water index, tank model, landslide, threshold values

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
90 Landslide Susceptibility Mapping: A Comparison between Logistic Regression and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline Models in the Municipality of Oudka, Northern of Morocco

Authors: S. Benchelha, H. C. Aoudjehane, M. Hakdaoui, R. El Hamdouni, H. Mansouri, T. Benchelha, M. Layelmam, M. Alaoui


The logistic regression (LR) and multivariate adaptive regression spline (MarSpline) are applied and verified for analysis of landslide susceptibility map in Oudka, Morocco, using geographical information system. From spatial database containing data such as landslide mapping, topography, soil, hydrology and lithology, the eight factors related to landslides such as elevation, slope, aspect, distance to streams, distance to road, distance to faults, lithology map and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were calculated or extracted. Using these factors, landslide susceptibility indexes were calculated by the two mentioned methods. Before the calculation, this database was divided into two parts, the first for the formation of the model and the second for the validation. The results of the landslide susceptibility analysis were verified using success and prediction rates to evaluate the quality of these probabilistic models. The result of this verification was that the MarSpline model is the best model with a success rate (AUC = 0.963) and a prediction rate (AUC = 0.951) higher than the LR model (success rate AUC = 0.918, rate prediction AUC = 0.901).

Keywords: landslide susceptibility mapping, regression logistic, multivariate adaptive regression spline, Oudka, Taounate

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
89 Study of Landslide Behavior with Topographic Monitoring and Numerical Modeling

Authors: ZerarkaHizia, Akchiche Mustapha, Prunier Florent


Landslide of Ain El Hammam (AEH) has been an old slip since 1969; it was reactivated after an intense rainfall period in 2008 where it presents a complex shape and affects broad areas. The schist of AEH is more or less altered; the alteration is facilitated by the fracturing of the rock in its upper part, the presence of flowing water as well as physical and chemical mechanisms of desegregation in joint of altered schist. The factors following these instabilities are mostly related to the geological formation, the hydro-climatic conditions and the topography of the region. The city of AEH is located on the top of a steep slope at 50 km from the city of TiziOuzou (Algeria). AEH’s topographic monitoring of unstable slope allows analyzing the structure and the different deformation mechanism and the gradual change in the geometry, the direction of change of slip. It also allows us to delimit the area affected by the movement. This work aims to study the behavior of AEH landslide with topographic monitoring and to validate the results with numerical modeling of the slip site, when the hydraulic factors are identified as the most important factors for the reactivation of this landslide. With the help of the numerical code PLAXIS 2D and PlaxFlow, the precipitations and the steady state flow are modeled. To identify the mechanism of deformation and to predict the spread of the AEH landslide numerically, we used the equivalent deviatory strain, and these results were visualized by MATLAB software.

Keywords: equivalent deviatory strain, landslide, numerical modeling, topographic monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
88 Effect of Slope Angle on Gougerd Landslide Stability in Northwest of Iran

Authors: Akbar Khodavirdizadeh


Gougerd village landslide with area about 150 hectares is located in southwest of Khoy city in northwest of the Iran. This Landslide was commenced more than 21 years and caused some damages in houses like some fissures on walls and some cracks on ground and foundations. The main mechanism of landslide is rotational with the high different of top and foot is about 230 m. The thickness of slide mass based on geoelectrical investigation is about 16m obtained. The upper layer of slope is silty sand and the lower layer of clayey gravel. In this paper, the stability of landslide are analyzed based in static analysis under different groundwater surface conditions and at slope angle changes with limit eqlibrium method and the simplified Bishop method. The results of the 72 stability analysis showed that the slope stability of Gougerd landslide increased with increasing of the groundwater surface depth of slope crown. And especially when decreased of slope angle, the safety facter more than in previous state is increased. The required of safety factor for stability in groundwater surface depth from slope crown equal 14 m and with decreased of slope angle to 3 degree at decrease of groundwater surface depth from slope crown equal 6.5 m obtained. The safety factor in critical conditions under groundwater surface depth from slope crown equal 3.5 m and at decreased of slope angle to 3 degree equal 0.5 m obtained. At groudwater surface depth from slope crown of 3 m, 7 m and 10 m respectively equal to 0.97, 1.19 and 1.33 obtained. At groudwater surface depth from slope crown of 3 m, 7 m and 10 m with decreased of slope angle to 3 degree, respectively equal to 1.27, 1.54 and 1.72 obtained. According to the results of this study, for 1 m of groundwater level decrease, the safety factor increased by 5%, and for 1 degree of reduction of the slope angle, safety factor increased by 15%. And the effect of slope angle on Gougerd landslide stability was felt more than groundwater effect.

Keywords: Gougerd landslide, stability analysis, slope angle, groundwater, Khoy

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87 Forecasting of the Mobility of Rainfall-Induced Slow-Moving Landslides Using a Two-Block Model

Authors: Antonello Troncone, Luigi Pugliese, Andrea Parise, Enrico Conte


The present study deals with the landslides periodically reactivated by groundwater level fluctuations owing to rainfall. The main type of movement which generally characterizes these landslides consists in sliding with quite small-displacement rates. Another peculiar characteristic of these landslides is that soil deformations are essentially concentrated within a thin shear band located below the body of the landslide, which, consequently, undergoes an approximately rigid sliding. In this context, a simple method is proposed in the present study to forecast the movements of this type of landslides owing to rainfall. To this purpose, the landslide body is schematized by means of a two-block model. Some analytical solutions are derived to relate rainfall measurements with groundwater level oscillations and these latter, in turn, to landslide mobility. The proposed method is attractive for engineering applications since it requires few parameters as input data, many of which can be obtained from conventional geotechnical tests. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the proposed method, the application to a well-documented landslide periodically reactivated by rainfall is shown.

Keywords: rainfall, water level fluctuations, landslide mobility, two-block model

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86 Modeling of Landslide-Generated Tsunamis in Georgia Strait, Southern British Columbia

Authors: Fatemeh Nemati, Lucinda Leonard, Gwyn Lintern, Richard Thomson


In this study, we will use modern numerical modeling approaches to estimate tsunami risks to the southern coast of British Columbia from landslides. Wave generation is to be simulated using the NHWAVE model, which solves the Navier-Stokes equations due to the more complex behavior of flow near the landslide source; far-field wave propagation will be simulated using the simpler model FUNWAVE_TVD with high-order Boussinesq-type wave equations, with a focus on the accurate simulation of wave propagation and regional- or coastal-scale inundation predictions.

Keywords: FUNWAVE-TVD, landslide-generated tsunami, NHWAVE, tsunami risk

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
85 Different Data-Driven Bivariate Statistical Approaches to Landslide Susceptibility Mapping (Uzundere, Erzurum, Turkey)

Authors: Azimollah Aleshzadeh, Enver Vural Yavuz


The main goal of this study is to produce landslide susceptibility maps using different data-driven bivariate statistical approaches; namely, entropy weight method (EWM), evidence belief function (EBF), and information content model (ICM), at Uzundere county, Erzurum province, in the north-eastern part of Turkey. Past landslide occurrences were identified and mapped from an interpretation of high-resolution satellite images, and earlier reports as well as by carrying out field surveys. In total, 42 landslide incidence polygons were mapped using ArcGIS 10.4.1 software and randomly split into a construction dataset 70 % (30 landslide incidences) for building the EWM, EBF, and ICM models and the remaining 30 % (12 landslides incidences) were used for verification purposes. Twelve layers of landslide-predisposing parameters were prepared, including total surface radiation, maximum relief, soil groups, standard curvature, distance to stream/river sites, distance to the road network, surface roughness, land use pattern, engineering geological rock group, topographical elevation, the orientation of slope, and terrain slope gradient. The relationships between the landslide-predisposing parameters and the landslide inventory map were determined using different statistical models (EWM, EBF, and ICM). The model results were validated with landslide incidences, which were not used during the model construction. In addition, receiver operating characteristic curves were applied, and the area under the curve (AUC) was determined for the different susceptibility maps using the success (construction data) and prediction (verification data) rate curves. The results revealed that the AUC for success rates are 0.7055, 0.7221, and 0.7368, while the prediction rates are 0.6811, 0.6997, and 0.7105 for EWM, EBF, and ICM models, respectively. Consequently, landslide susceptibility maps were classified into five susceptibility classes, including very low, low, moderate, high, and very high. Additionally, the portion of construction and verification landslides incidences in high and very high landslide susceptibility classes in each map was determined. The results showed that the EWM, EBF, and ICM models produced satisfactory accuracy. The obtained landslide susceptibility maps may be useful for future natural hazard mitigation studies and planning purposes for environmental protection.

Keywords: entropy weight method, evidence belief function, information content model, landslide susceptibility mapping

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84 Comparing Stability Index MAPping (SINMAP) Landslide Susceptibility Models in the Río La Carbonera, Southeast Flank of Pico de Orizaba Volcano, Mexico

Authors: Gabriel Legorreta Paulin, Marcus I. Bursik, Lilia Arana Salinas, Fernando Aceves Quesada


In volcanic environments, landslides and debris flows occur continually along stream systems of large stratovolcanoes. This is the case on Pico de Orizaba volcano, the highest mountain in Mexico. The volcano has a great potential to impact and damage human settlements and economic activities by landslides. People living along the lower valleys of Pico de Orizaba volcano are in continuous hazard by the coalescence of upstream landslide sediments that increased the destructive power of debris flows. These debris flows not only produce floods, but also cause the loss of lives and property. Although the importance of assessing such process, there is few landslide inventory maps and landslide susceptibility assessment. As a result in México, no landslide susceptibility models assessment has been conducted to evaluate advantage and disadvantage of models. In this study, a comprehensive study of landslide susceptibility models assessment using GIS technology is carried out on the SE flank of Pico de Orizaba volcano. A detailed multi-temporal landslide inventory map in the watershed is used as framework for the quantitative comparison of two landslide susceptibility maps. The maps are created based on 1) the Stability Index MAPping (SINMAP) model by using default geotechnical parameters and 2) by using findings of volcanic soils geotechnical proprieties obtained in the field. SINMAP combines the factor of safety derived from the infinite slope stability model with the theory of a hydrologic model to produce the susceptibility map. It has been claimed that SINMAP analysis is reasonably successful in defining areas that intuitively appear to be susceptible to landsliding in regions with sparse information. The validations of the resulting susceptibility maps are performed by comparing them with the inventory map under LOGISNET system which provides tools to compare by using a histogram and a contingency table. Results of the experiment allow for establishing how the individual models predict the landslide location, advantages, and limitations. The results also show that although the model tends to improve with the use of calibrated field data, the landslide susceptibility map does not perfectly represent existing landslides.

Keywords: GIS, landslide, modeling, LOGISNET, SINMAP

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
83 Artificial Neural Networks and Hidden Markov Model in Landslides Prediction

Authors: C. S. Subhashini, H. L. Premaratne


Landslides are the most recurrent and prominent disaster in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka has been subjected to a number of extreme landslide disasters that resulted in a significant loss of life, material damage, and distress. It is required to explore a solution towards preparedness and mitigation to reduce recurrent losses associated with landslides. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Hidden Markov Model (HMMs) are now widely used in many computer applications spanning multiple domains. This research examines the effectiveness of using Artificial Neural Networks and Hidden Markov Model in landslides predictions and the possibility of applying the modern technology to predict landslides in a prominent geographical area in Sri Lanka. A thorough survey was conducted with the participation of resource persons from several national universities in Sri Lanka to identify and rank the influencing factors for landslides. A landslide database was created using existing topographic; soil, drainage, land cover maps and historical data. The landslide related factors which include external factors (Rainfall and Number of Previous Occurrences) and internal factors (Soil Material, Geology, Land Use, Curvature, Soil Texture, Slope, Aspect, Soil Drainage, and Soil Effective Thickness) are extracted from the landslide database. These factors are used to recognize the possibility to occur landslides by using an ANN and HMM. The model acquires the relationship between the factors of landslide and its hazard index during the training session. These models with landslide related factors as the inputs will be trained to predict three classes namely, ‘landslide occurs’, ‘landslide does not occur’ and ‘landslide likely to occur’. Once trained, the models will be able to predict the most likely class for the prevailing data. Finally compared two models with regards to prediction accuracy, False Acceptance Rates and False Rejection rates and This research indicates that the Artificial Neural Network could be used as a strong decision support system to predict landslides efficiently and effectively than Hidden Markov Model.

Keywords: landslides, influencing factors, neural network model, hidden markov model

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82 2D Numerical Analysis for Determination of the Effect of Bored Piles Constructed against the Landslide near Karabuk University Stadium

Authors: Dogan Cetin, Burak Turk, Mahmut Candan


Landslides cause remarkable damage and loss of human life every year around the world. They may be made more likely by factors such as earthquakes, heavy precipitation, and incorrect construction activities near or on slopes. The stadium of Karabük University is located at the bottom of a very high slope. After construction of the stadium, severe deformations were observed on the social activity area surrounding the stadium. Some inclinometers were placed behind the stadium to detect the possible landslide activity. According to measurements of the inclinometers, irregular soil movements were detected at depths between 20 m and 45 m. Also, significant heaves and settlements were observed behind the stadium walls located at the toe of the slope. The heaves indicate that the stadium walls were under threat of a significant landslide. After inclinometer readings and field observations, the potential failure geometry was estimated. The protection system was designed based on numerous numerical analysis performed by 2-D Plaxis software. After the design was completed, protective geotechnical work was started. Before the geotechnical work began, new inclinometers were installed to monitor earth movement during the work and afterward. The total horizontal length of the possible failure surface is 220 m. Geotechnical work included two-row-pile construction and three-row-pile construction on the slope. The bored piles were 120 cm in diameter for two-row-pile construction, and 150 cm in diameter for three-row-pile construction. Pile length is 31.30 m for two-row-pile construction and 31.40 m for three-row-pile construction. The distance between two-row-pile and three-row-pile construction is 60 m. With these bored piles, the landslide was divided into three parts. In this way, the earth's pressure was reduced. After a number of inclinometer readings, it was seen that deformation continued during the work, but after the work was done, the movement reversed, and total deformation stayed in mm dimension. It can be said that the protection work eliminated the possible landslide.

Keywords: landslide, landslide protection, inclinometer measurement, bored piles

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
81 Failure Analysis of Khaliqabad Landslide along Mangla Reservoir Rim

Authors: Fatima Mehmood, Khalid Farooq


After the Mangla dam raising in 2010, the maximum reservoir impoundment level of 378.5 m SPD (Survey of Pakistan Datum) was achieved in September 2014. The reservoir drawdown was started on September 29, 2014 and a landslide occurred on Mirpur-Kotli Road near Khaliqabad on November 27, 2014. This landslide took place due to the failure of a slope along the reservoir rim. This study was undertaken to investigate the causative factors of Khaliqabad landslide. Site visits were carried out for recording the field observations and collection of the soil samples. The soil was subjected to different laboratory tests for the determination of index and engineering properties. The shear strength tests were performed at various levels of density and degrees of saturation. These soil parameters were used in an integrated SEEP-SLOPE/W analysis to obtain the drop in factor of safety with time and reservoir drawdown. The results showed the factor of safety dropped from 1.28 to 0.85 over a period of 60 days. The ultimate reduction in the shear strength of soil due to saturation with the simultaneous removal of the stabilizing effect of reservoir caused the disturbing forces to increase, and thus failure happened. The findings of this study can serve as a guideline for the modeling of the slopes experiencing rapid drawdown scenario with the consideration of more realistic distribution of soil moisture/ properties across the slope

Keywords: geotechnical investigation, landslide, reservoir drawdown, shear strength, slope stability

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80 Geospatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation to Predict Landslide Hazard Potential in the Catchment of Lake Naivasha, Kenya

Authors: Abdel Rahman Khider Hassan


This paper describes a multi-criteria geospatial model for prediction of landslide hazard zonation (LHZ) for Lake Naivasha catchment (Kenya), based on spatial analysis of integrated datasets of location intrinsic parameters (slope stability factors) and external landslides triggering factors (natural and man-made factors). The intrinsic dataset included: lithology, geometry of slope (slope inclination, aspect, elevation, and curvature) and land use/land cover. The landslides triggering factors included: rainfall as the climatic factor, in addition to the destructive effects reflected by proximity of roads and drainage network to areas that are susceptible to landslides. No published study on landslides has been obtained for this area. Thus, digital datasets of the above spatial parameters were conveniently acquired, stored, manipulated and analyzed in a Geographical Information System (GIS) using a multi-criteria grid overlay technique (in ArcGIS 10.2.2 environment). Deduction of landslide hazard zonation is done by applying weights based on relative contribution of each parameter to the slope instability, and finally, the weighted parameters grids were overlaid together to generate a map of the potential landslide hazard zonation (LHZ) for the lake catchment. From the total surface of 3200 km² of the lake catchment, most of the region (78.7 %; 2518.4 km²) is susceptible to moderate landslide hazards, whilst about 13% (416 km²) is occurring under high hazards. Only 1.0% (32 km²) of the catchment is displaying very high landslide hazards, and the remaining area (7.3 %; 233.6 km²) displays low probability of landslide hazards. This result confirms the importance of steep slope angles, lithology, vegetation land cover and slope orientation (aspect) as the major determining factors of slope failures. The information provided by the produced map of landslide hazard zonation (LHZ) could lay the basis for decision making as well as mitigation and applications in avoiding potential losses caused by landslides in the Lake Naivasha catchment in the Kenya Highlands.

Keywords: decision making, geospatial, landslide, multi-criteria, Naivasha

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79 Climate Change and Landslide Risk Assessment in Thailand

Authors: Shotiros Protong


The incidents of sudden landslides in Thailand during the past decade have occurred frequently and more severely. It is necessary to focus on the principal parameters used for analysis such as land cover land use, rainfall values, characteristic of soil and digital elevation model (DEM). The combination of intense rainfall and severe monsoons is increasing due to global climate change. Landslide occurrences rapidly increase during intense rainfall especially in the rainy season in Thailand which usually starts around mid-May and ends in the middle of October. The rain-triggered landslide hazard analysis is the focus of this research. The combination of geotechnical and hydrological data are used to determine permeability, conductivity, bedding orientation, overburden and presence of loose blocks. The regional landslide hazard mapping is developed using the Slope Stability Index SINMAP model supported on Arc GIS software version 10.1. Geological and land use data are used to define the probability of landslide occurrences in terms of geotechnical data. The geological data can indicate the shear strength and the angle of friction values for soils above given rock types, which leads to the general applicability of the approach for landslide hazard analysis. To address the research objectives, the methods are described in this study: setup and calibration of the SINMAP model, sensitivity of the SINMAP model, geotechnical laboratory, landslide assessment at present calibration and landslide assessment under future climate simulation scenario A2 and B2. In terms of hydrological data, the millimetres/twenty-four hours of average rainfall data are used to assess the rain triggered landslide hazard analysis in slope stability mapping. During 1954-2012 period, is used for the baseline of rainfall data at the present calibration. The climate change in Thailand, the future of climate scenarios are simulated by spatial and temporal scales. The precipitation impact is need to predict for the climate future, Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) version 4.2, is used to assess the simulation scenario of future change between latitude 16o 26’ and 18o 37’ north and between longitude 98o 52’ and 103o 05’ east by SDSM software. The research allows the mapping of risk parameters for landslide dynamics, and indicates the spatial and time trends of landslide occurrences. Thus, regional landslide hazard mapping under present-day climatic conditions from 1954 to 2012 and simulations of climate change based on GCM scenarios A2 and B2 from 2013 to 2099 related to the threshold rainfall values for the selected the study area in Uttaradit province in the northern part of Thailand. Finally, the landslide hazard mapping will be compared and shown by areas (km2 ) in both the present and the future under climate simulation scenarios A2 and B2 in Uttaradit province.

Keywords: landslide hazard, GIS, slope stability index (SINMAP), landslides, Thailand

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78 Precipitation Intensity: Duration Based Threshold Analysis for Initiation of Landslides in Upper Alaknanda Valley

Authors: Soumiya Bhattacharjee, P. K. Champati Ray, Shovan L. Chattoraj, Mrinmoy Dhara


The entire Himalayan range is globally renowned for rainfall-induced landslides. The prime focus of the study is to determine rainfall based threshold for initiation of landslides that can be used as an important component of an early warning system for alerting stake holders. This research deals with temporal dimension of slope failures due to extreme rainfall events along the National Highway-58 from Karanprayag to Badrinath in the Garhwal Himalaya, India. Post processed 3-hourly rainfall intensity data and its corresponding duration from daily rainfall data available from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) were used as the prime source of rainfall data. Landslide event records from Border Road Organization (BRO) and some ancillary landslide inventory data for 2013 and 2014 have been used to determine Intensity Duration (ID) based rainfall threshold. The derived governing threshold equation, I= 4.738D-0.025, has been considered for prediction of landslides of the study region. This equation was validated with an accuracy of 70% landslides during August and September 2014. The derived equation was considered for further prediction of landslides of the study region. From the obtained results and validation, it can be inferred that this equation can be used for initiation of landslides in the study area to work as a part of an early warning system. Results can significantly improve with ground based rainfall estimates and better database on landslide records. Thus, the study has demonstrated a very low cost method to get first-hand information on possibility of impending landslide in any region, thereby providing alert and better preparedness for landslide disaster mitigation.

Keywords: landslide, intensity-duration, rainfall threshold, TRMM, slope, inventory, early warning system

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77 Landslide Vulnerability Assessment in Context with Indian Himalayan

Authors: Neha Gupta


Landslide vulnerability is considered as the crucial parameter for the assessment of landslide risk. The term vulnerability defined as the damage or degree of elements at risk of different dimensions, i.e., physical, social, economic, and environmental dimensions. Himalaya region is very prone to multi-hazard such as floods, forest fires, earthquakes, and landslides. With the increases in fatalities rates, loss of infrastructure, and economy due to landslide in the Himalaya region, leads to the assessment of vulnerability. In this study, a methodology to measure the combination of vulnerability dimension, i.e., social vulnerability, physical vulnerability, and environmental vulnerability in one framework. A combined result of these vulnerabilities has rarely been carried out. But no such approach was applied in the Indian Scenario. The methodology was applied in an area of east Sikkim Himalaya, India. The physical vulnerability comprises of building footprint layer extracted from remote sensing data and Google Earth imaginary. The social vulnerability was assessed by using population density based on land use. The land use map was derived from a high-resolution satellite image, and for environment vulnerability assessment NDVI, forest, agriculture land, distance from the river were assessed from remote sensing and DEM. The classes of social vulnerability, physical vulnerability, and environment vulnerability were normalized at the scale of 0 (no loss) to 1 (loss) to get the homogenous dataset. Then the Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) was used to assign individual weights to each dimension and then integrate it into one frame. The final vulnerability was further classified into four classes from very low to very high.

Keywords: landslide, multi-criteria analysis, MCA, physical vulnerability, social vulnerability

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76 Spatially Distributed Rainfall Prediction Based on Automated Kriging for Landslide Early Warning Systems

Authors: Ekrem Canli, Thomas Glade


The precise prediction of rainfall in space and time is a key element to most landslide early warning systems. Unfortunately, the spatial variability of rainfall in many early warning applications is often disregarded. A common simplification is to use uniformly distributed rainfall to characterize aerial rainfall intensity. With spatially differentiated rainfall information, real-time comparison with rainfall thresholds or the implementation in process-based approaches might form the basis for improved landslide warnings. This study suggests an automated workflow from the hourly, web-based collection of rain gauge data to the generation of spatially differentiated rainfall predictions based on kriging. Because the application of kriging is usually a labor intensive task, a simplified and consequently automated variogram modeling procedure was applied to up-to-date rainfall data. The entire workflow was carried out purely with open source technology. Validation results, albeit promising, pointed out the challenges that are involved in pure distance based, automated geostatistical interpolation techniques for ever-changing environmental phenomena over short temporal and spatial extent.

Keywords: kriging, landslide early warning system, spatial rainfall prediction, variogram modelling, web scraping

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75 Development and Control of Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation: The Case of Colzate-Vertova Landslide, Bergamo, Northern Italy

Authors: Paola Comella, Vincenzo Francani, Paola Gattinoni


This paper presents the Colzate-Vertova landslide, a Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DSGSD) located in the Seriana Valley, Northern Italy. The paper aims at describing the development as well as evaluating the factors that influence the evolution of the landslide. After defining the conceptual model of the landslide, numerical simulations were developed using a finite element numerical model, first with a two-dimensional domain, and later with a three-dimensional one. The results of the 2-D model showed a displacement field typical of a sackung, as a consequence of the erosion along the Seriana Valley. The analysis also showed that the groundwater flow could locally affect the slope stability, bringing about a reduction in the safety factor, but without reaching failure conditions. The sensitivity analysis carried out on the strength parameters pointed out that slope failures could be reached only for relevant reduction of the geotechnical characteristics. Such a result does not fit the real conditions observed on site, where a number of small failures often develop all along the hillslope. The 3-D model gave a more comprehensive analysis of the evolution of the DSGSD, also considering the border effects. The results showed that the convex profile of the slope favors the development of displacements along the lateral valley, with a relevant reduction in the safety factor, justifying the existing landslides.

Keywords: deep seated gravitational slope deformation, Italy, landslide, numerical modeling

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74 Geotechnical Characterization of Residual Soil for Deterministic Landslide Assessment

Authors: Vera Karla S. Caingles, Glen A. Lorenzo


Soil, as the main material of landslides, plays a vital role in landslide assessment. An efficient and accurate method of doing an assessment is significantly important to prevent damage of properties and loss of lives. The study has two phases: to establish an empirical correlation of the residual soil thickness with the slope angle and to investigate the geotechnical characteristics of residual soil. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) in Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to establish the slope map and to program sampling points for field investigation. Physical and index property tests were undertaken on the 20 soil samples obtained from the area with Pliocene-Pleistocene geology and different slope angle in Kibawe, Bukidnon. The regression analysis result shows that the best fitting model that can describe the soil thickness-slope angle relationship is an exponential function. The physical property results revealed that soils contain a high percentage of clay and silts ranges from 41% - 99.52%. Based on the index properties test results, the soil exhibits a high degree of plasticity and expansion but not collapsible. It is deemed that this compendium will serve as primary data for slope stability analysis and deterministic landslide assessment.

Keywords: collapsibility, correlation, expansiveness, landslide, plasticity

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73 Analysis and Prediction of the Behavior of the Landslide at Ain El Hammam, Algeria Based on the Second Order Work Criterion

Authors: Zerarka Hizia, Akchiche Mustapha, Prunier Florent


The landslide of Ain El Hammam (AEH) is characterized by a complex geology and a high hydrogeology hazard. AEH's perpetual reactivation compels us to look closely at its triggers and to better understand the mechanisms of its evolution in mass and in depth. This study builds a numerical model to simulate the influencing factors such as precipitation, non-saturation, and pore pressure fluctuations, using Plaxis software. For a finer analysis of instabilities, we use Hill's criterion, based on the sign of the second order work, which is the most appropriate material stability criterion for non-associated elastoplastic materials. The results of this type of calculation allow us, in theory, to predict the shape and position of the slip surface(s) which are liable to ground movements of the slope, before reaching the rupture given by the plastic limit of Mohr Coulomb. To validate the numerical model, an analysis of inclinometer measures is performed to confirm the direction of movement and kinematic of the sliding mechanism of AEH’s slope.

Keywords: landslide, second order work, precipitation, inclinometers

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72 Vulnerability and Risk Assessment, and Preparedness to Natural Disasters of Schools in Southern Leyte, Philippines

Authors: Lorifel Hinay


Natural disasters have increased in frequency and severity in the Philippines over the years resulting to detrimental impacts in school properties and lives of learners. The topography of the Province of Southern Leyte is a hotspot for inevitable natural disaster-causing hazards that could affect schools, cripple the educational system and cause environmental, cultural and social detrimental impacts making Disaster Risk Reduction and Management (DRRM) an indispensable platform to keep learners safe, secure and resilient. This study determined the schools’ vulnerability and risk assessment to earthquake, landslide, flood, storm surge and tsunami hazards, and its relationship to status in disaster preparedness. Descriptive-correlational research design was used where the respondents were School DRRM Coordinators/School Administrators and Municipal DRRM Officers. It was found that schools’ vulnerability and risk were high in landslide, medium in earthquake, and low in flood, storm surge and tsunami. Though schools were moderately prepared in disasters across all hazards, they were less accomplished in group organization and property security. Less planning preparation and less implementation of DRRM measures were observed in schools highly at risk of earthquake and landslide. Also, schools vulnerable to landslide and flood have very high property security. Topography and location greatly contributed to schools’ vulnerability to hazards, thus, a school-based disaster preparedness plan is hoped to help ensure that hazard-exposed schools can build a culture of safety, disaster resiliency and education continuity.

Keywords: disaster risk reduction and management, earthquake, flood, landslide, storm surge, tsunami

Procedia PDF Downloads 50