Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 493

Search results for: stone columns

493 Circular Raft Footings Strengthened by Stone Columns under Static Loads

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, B. Mohammadi-Haji

Abstract:

Stone columns have been widely employed to improve the load-settlement characteristics of soft soils. The results of two small scale displacement control loading tests on stone columns were used in order to validate numerical finite element simulations. Additionally, a series of numerical calculations of static loading have been performed on strengthened raft footing to investigate the effects of using stone columns on bearing capacity of footings. The bearing capacity of single and group of stone columns under static loading compares with unimproved ground.

Keywords: circular raft footing, numerical analysis, validation, vertically encased stone column

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
492 Shear Reinforcement of Stone Columns During Soil Liquefaction

Authors: Zeineb Ben Salem, Wissem Frikha, Mounir Bouassida

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of stone columns as a liquefaction countermeasure focusing on shear reinforcementbenefit. In fact, stone columns which have high shear modulus relative to the surrounding soils potentially can carry higher shear stress levels. Thus, stone columns provide shear reinforcement and decrease the Cyclic Shear Stress Ratio CSR to which the treated soils would be subjected during an earthquake. In order to quantify the level of shear stress reduction in reinforced soil, several approaches have been developed. Nevertheless, the available approaches do not take into account the improvement of the soil parameters, mainly the shear modulusdue to stone columns installation. Indeed, in situ control tests carried out before and after the installation of stone columns based upon the results of collected data derived from 24 case histories have given evidence of the improvement of the existing soil properties.In this paper, the assessment of shear reinforcement of stone columns that accounts such improvement of the soil parameters due to stone column installation is investigated. Comparative results indicate that considering the improvement effects considerably affect the assessment of shear reinforcement for liquefaction analysis of reinforced soil by stone columns.

Keywords: stone column, liquefaction, shear reinforcement, CSR, soil improvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
491 Laboratory Model Tests on Encased Group Columns

Authors: Kausar Ali

Abstract:

There are several ground treatment techniques which may meet the twin objectives of increasing the bearing capacity with simultaneous reduction of settlements, but the use of stone columns is one of the most suited techniques for flexible structures such as embankments, oil storage tanks etc. that can tolerate some settlement and used worldwide. However, when the stone columns in very soft soils are loaded; stone columns undergo excessive settlement due to low lateral confinement provided by the soft soil, leading to the failure of the structure. The poor performance of stone columns under these conditions can be improved by encasing the columns with a suitable geosynthetic. In this study, the effect of reinforcement on bearing capacity of composite soil has been investigated by conducting laboratory model tests on floating and end bearing long stone columns with l/d ratio of 12. The columns were reinforced by providing geosynthetic encasement over varying column length (upper 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% column length). In this study, a group of columns has been used instead of single column, because in the field, columns used for the purpose always remain in groups. The tests indicate that the encasement over the full column length gives higher failure stress as compared to the encasement over the partial column length for both floating and end bearing long columns. The performance of end-bearing columns was found much better than the floating columns.

Keywords: geosynthetic, ground improvement, soft clay, stone column

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
490 Evaluation of Stone Column Behavior Strengthened Circular Raft Footing under Static Load

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, B. Mohammadi-Haji

Abstract:

Stone columns have been widely employing to improve the load-settlement characteristics of soft soils. The results of two small scale displacement control loading tests on stone columns were used in order to validate numerical finite element simulations. Additionally, a series of numerical calculations of static loading have been performed on strengthened raft footing to investigate the effects of using stone columns on bearing capacity of footings. The bearing capacity of single and group of stone columns under static loading compares with unimproved ground.

Keywords: circular raft footing, numerical analysis, validation, vertically encased stone column

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
489 Settlement of Group of Stone Columns

Authors: Adel Hanna, Tahar Ayadat, Mohammad Etezad, Cyrille Cros

Abstract:

A number of theoretical methods have been developed over the years to calculate the amount settlement of the soil reinforced with group of stone columns. The results deduced from these methods sometimes show large disagreement with the experimental observations. The reason of this divergence might be due to the fact that many of the previous methods assumed the deform shape of the columns which is different with the actual case. A new method to calculate settlement of the ground reinforced with group of stone columns is presented in this paper which overcomes the restrictions made by previous theories. This method is based on results deduced from numerical modeling. Results obtained from the model are validated.

Keywords: stone columns, group, soft soil, settlement, prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
488 Stiffness and Modulus of Subgrade Reaction of the Soft Soil Improved by Stone Columns

Authors: Sudheer Kumar J., Sudhanshu Sharma

Abstract:

Stone columns are extensively used as constructive and environmentally sustainable improvement methods for improving stiffness, modulus of subgrade reaction, and maximum lateral displacement in the multilayer soil system. The advantage of using stone columns in improving the single-layer soft soil as a ground reinforcement element for supporting various structures up to shallow depth is well researched, but the understanding of strengthening the multiplayer soil system for a deeper level requires further studies. In this paper, a series of cases have been conducted to study the behaviour of ordinary stone columns (OSC), geosynthetic encased stone columns (GESC) over various objectives for strengthening multilayer soil system up to deep level. A finite element analyses were carried out using the software package PLAXIS to study further correlate the results. The study aims to find the stiffness of composite soil, modulus of subgrade reaction, which is generally required for designing of various foundations, and also discusses the maximum horizontal displacement location, which is the major failure criteria seen after the installation of stone columns.

Keywords: stone columns, geotextile, finite element method, stiffness, modulus of subgrade reaction, maximum lateral displacement point

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
487 Circular Raft Footings Strengthened by Stone Columns under Dynamic Harmonic Loads

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, A. Mahigir

Abstract:

Stone column technique has been successfully employed to improve the load-settlement characteristics of foundations. A series of finite element numerical analyses of harmonic dynamic loading have been conducted on strengthened raft footing to study the effects of single and group stone columns on settlement of circular footings. The settlement of circular raft footing that improved by single and group of stone columns are studied under harmonic dynamic loading. This loading is caused by heavy machinery foundations. A detailed numerical investigation on behavior of single column and group of stone columns is carried out by varying parameters like weight of machinery, loading frequency and period. The result implies that presence of single and group of stone columns enhanced dynamic behavior of the footing so that the maximum and residual settlement of footing significantly decreased. 

Keywords: finite element analysis, harmonic loading, settlement, stone column

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
486 Load Carrying Capacity of Soils Reinforced with Encased Stone Columns

Authors: S. Chandrakaran, G. Govind

Abstract:

Stone columns are effectively used to improve bearing strength of soils and also for many geotechnical applications. In soft soils when stone columns are loaded they undergo large settlements due to insufficient lateral confinement. Use of geosynthetics encasement has proved to be a solution for this problem. In this paper, results of a laboratory experimental study carried out with model stone columns with and without encasement. Sand was used for making test beds, and grain size of soil varies from 0.075mm to 4.75mm. Woven geotextiles produced by Gareware ropes India with mass per unit area of 240gm/M2 and having tensile strength of 52KN/m is used for the present investigation. Tests were performed with large scale direct shear box and also using scaled laboratory plate load tests. Stone column of 50mm and 75mm is used for the present investigation. Diameter of stone column, size of stones used for making stone columns is varied in making stone column in the present study. Two types of stone were used namely small and bigger in size. Results indicate that there is an increase in angle of internal friction and also an increase in the shear strength of soil when stone columns are encased. With stone columns with 50mm dia, an average increase of 7% in shear strength and 4.6 % in angle of internal friction was achieved. When large stones were used increase in the shear strength was 12.2%, and angle of internal friction was increased to 5.4%. When the stone column diameter has increased to 75mm increase in shear strength and angle of internal friction was increased with smaller size of stones to 7.9 and 7.5%, and with large size stones, it was 7.7 and 5.48% respectively. Similar results are obtained in plate load tests, also.

Keywords: stone columns, encasement, shear strength, plate load test

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
485 3D Numerical Analysis of Stone Columns Reinforced with Horizontal and Vertical Geosynthetic Materials

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, A. Khalili

Abstract:

Improvement and reinforcement of soils with poor strength and engineering properties for constructing low height structures or structures such as liquid storage tanks, bridge columns, and heavy structures have necessitated applying particular techniques. Stone columns are among the well-known methods applied in such soils. This method provides an economically justified way for improving engineering properties of soft clay and loose sandy soils. Stone column implementation in these soils increases their bearing capacity and reduces the settlement of foundation build on them. In the present study, the finite difference based FLAC3D software was used to investigate the performance and effect of soil reinforcement through stone columns without lining and those with geosynthetic lining with different levels of stiffness in horizontal and vertical modes in clayey soils. The results showed that soil improvement using stone columns with lining in vertical and horizontal modes results in improvement of bearing capacity and foundation settlement.

Keywords: bearing capacity, FLAC3D, geosynthetic, settlement, stone column

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
484 The Behavior of Ordinary and Encased Stone Columns in Soft Clay Soil of Egypt: A Finite Element Study

Authors: Mahmoud F. Awad-Allah, Mohammed Rabeih, Eman Abdel Baseer

Abstract:

Soft to very soft soil deposits are widely speared in some areas of Egypt such as East Port Said, Damietta, Kafr El-Sheik, Alexandria, etc. The construction projects in these areas have faced the challenge of the presence of extended deep layers of soft and very soft clays which reach to depths of 40 to 60 m from the ground level. Stone columns are commonly used to support structures overlying soft ground soils and surcharged by embankment type loading. Therefore, this paper introduces a wide comparison numerical study between the ordinary stone columns (OSC) versus the geosynthetic encased stone columns (ESC) installed in soft clay soil deposit using finite element method (FEM). Parametric study of an embankment on soft soils reinforced with stone columns is performed using commercial computer program based on the finite element technique (PLAXIS 2D). The investigation will present the influence of the following parameters: diameter of stone columns, stiffness of geosynthetic encasement, embedded depth of stone column from ground level, and the length encasement of the stone column on the consolidation time, vertical settlement, and lateral displacement of soft clay soil formations.

Keywords: finite element method, geosynthetic, lateral displacement, settlement, soft clay

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
483 Behavior of the Foundation of Bridge Reinforced by Rigid and Flexible Inclusions

Authors: T. Karech A. Noui, T. Bouzid

Abstract:

This article presents a comparative study by numerical analysis of the behavior of reinforcements of clayey soils by flexible columns (stone columns) and rigid columns (piles). The numerical simulation was carried out in 3D for an assembly of foundation, columns and a pile of a bridge. Particular attention has been paid to take into account the installation of the columns. Indeed, in practice, due to the compaction of the column, the soil around it sustains a lateral expansion and the horizontal stresses are increased. This lateral expansion of the column can be simulated numerically. This work represents a comparative study of the interaction between the soil on one side, and the two types of reinforcement on the other side, and their influence on the behavior of the soil and of the pile of a bridge.

Keywords: piles, stone columns, interaction, foundation, settlement, consolidation

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
482 The Behavior of Dam Foundation Reinforced by Stone Columns: Case Study of Kissir Dam-Jijel

Authors: Toufik Karech, Abderahmen Benseghir, Tayeb Bouzid

Abstract:

This work presents a 2D numerical simulation of an earth dam to assess the behavior of its foundation after a treatment by stone columns. This treatment aims to improve the bearing capacity, to increase the mechanical properties of the soil, to accelerate the consolidation, to reduce the settlements and to eliminate the liquefaction phenomenon in case of seismic excitation. For the evaluation of the pore pressures, the position of the phreatic line and the flow network was defined, and a seepage analysis was performed with the software MIDAS Soil Works. The consolidation calculation is performed through a simulation of the actual construction stages of the dam. These analyzes were performed using the Mohr-Coulomb soil model and the results are compared with the actual measurements of settlement gauges implanted in the dam. An analysis of the bearing capacity was conducted to show the role of stone columns in improving the bearing capacity of the foundation.

Keywords: earth dam, dam foundation, numerical simulation, stone columns, seepage analysis, consolidation, bearing capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
481 Prediction of Excess Pore Pressure Variation of Reinforced Silty Sand by Stone Columns During Liquefaction

Authors: Zeineb Ben Salem, Wissem Frikha, Mounir Bouassida

Abstract:

Liquefaction has been responsible for tremendous amounts of damage in historical earthquakes around the world. The installation of stone columns is widely adopted to prevent liquefaction. Stone columns provide a drainage path, and due to their high permeability, allow for the quick dissipation of earthquake generated excess pore water pressure. Several excess pore pressure generation models in silty sand have been developed and calibrated based on the results of shaking table and centrifuge tests focusing on the effect of silt content on liquefaction resistance. In this paper, the generation and dissipation of excess pore pressure variation of reinforced silty sand by stone columns during liquefaction are analyzedwith different silt content based on test results. In addition, the installation effect of stone columns is investigated. This effect is described by a decrease in horizontal permeability within a disturbed zone around the column. Obtained results show that reduced soil permeability and a larger disturbed zone around the stone column increases the generation of excess pore pressure during the cyclic loading and decreases the dissipation rate after cyclic loading. On the other hand, beneficial effects of silt content were observed in the form of a decrease in excess pore water pressure.

Keywords: stone column, liquefaction, excess pore pressure, silt content, disturbed zone, reduced permeability

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
480 Numerical Analysis of Geosynthetic-Encased Stone Columns under Laterally Loads

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, M. Hossein Zade

Abstract:

Out of all methods for ground improvement, stone column became more popular these days due to its simple construction and economic consideration. Installation of stone column especially in loose fine graded soil causes increasing in load bearing capacity and settlement reduction. Encased granular stone columns (EGCs) are commonly subjected to vertical load. However, they may also be subjected to significant amount of shear loading. In this study, three-dimensional finite element (FE) analyses were conducted to estimate the shear load capacity of EGCs in sandy soil. Two types of different cases, stone column and geosynthetic encased stone column were studied at different normal pressures varying from 15 kPa to 75 kPa. Also, the effect of diameter in two cases was considered. A close agreement between the experimental and numerical curves of shear stress - horizontal displacement trend line is observed. The obtained result showed that, by increasing the normal pressure and diameter of stone column, higher shear strength is mobilized by soil; however, in the case of encased stone column, increasing the diameter had more dominated effect in mobilized shear strength.

Keywords: encased stone column, laterally load, ordinary stone column, validation

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
479 Reliability Based Performance Evaluation of Stone Column Improved Soft Ground

Authors: A. GuhaRay, C. V. S. P. Kiranmayi, S. Rudraraju

Abstract:

The present study considers the effect of variation of different geotechnical random variables in the design of stone column-foundation systems for assessing the bearing capacity and consolidation settlement of highly compressible soil. The soil and stone column properties, spacing, diameter and arrangement of stone columns are considered as the random variables. Probability of failure (Pf) is computed for a target degree of consolidation and a target safe load by Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS). The study shows that the variation in coefficient of radial consolidation (cr) and cohesion of soil (cs) are two most important factors influencing Pf. If the coefficient of variation (COV) of cr exceeds 20%, Pf exceeds 0.001, which is unsafe following the guidelines of US Army Corps of Engineers. The bearing capacity also exceeds its safe value for COV of cs > 30%. It is also observed that as the spacing between the stone column increases, the probability of reaching a target degree of consolidation decreases. Accordingly, design guidelines, considering both consolidation and bearing capacity of improved ground, are proposed for different spacing and diameter of stone columns and geotechnical random variables.

Keywords: bearing capacity, consolidation, geotechnical random variables, probability of failure, stone columns

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
478 Comparison of Improvement with Bored Piling and Stone Column in a Selected Area in Kocaeli

Authors: Utkan Mutman, Omer Ayhan

Abstract:

In highway work in a field that is selected in Kocaeli/TURKEY district to the ground improvement and piling is done. In this study, the degree of improvement was observed on the ground after the columns made of stone and bored piles in the field and compared. In this context, improving the ground before and after analysis and solution analysis made with values obtained by the finite element method, which was made Plaxis program. On the improved ground, in order to control of manufactured bored piles, continuity of bored piles and pile load tests were carried out. In addition, the test of load capacity specified in the project is made of stone columns. Test results of the soil improvement were observed to be successful, the results obtained in the field and the results obtained from Plaxis program were compared.

Keywords: bored piling, stone columns, plaxis, soil improvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
477 Three Dimensional Model of Full Scale Plate Load Test on Stone Column in Sabkha Deposit: Case Study from Jubail Industrial City - Saudi Arabia

Authors: Hassan. A. Abas, Saad A. Aiban

Abstract:

Soil improvement by means of stone column method is used to improve sabkha soils in order to limit total and differential settlement and to achieve the required bearing capacity. Full-scale plate test was performed on site to confirm the achievement of required bearing capacity at the specified settlement. Despite the fact that this technique is widely used to improve sabkha soils, there are no studies focusing on the behavior of stone columns in such problematic soils. Sabkha soils are known for its high compressibility, low strength and water sensitivity due to loss of salt cementation upon flooding during installation of stone columns. Numerical modeling of plate load test assist to understand complicated behavior of sabkha – stone column interaction. This paper presents a three-dimensional Finite element model, using PLAXIS 3D software, to simulate vertical plate load tests on a stone column installed in sabkha. The predicted settlement values are in reasonable agreement with the field measure values and the field load - settlement curve can be predicted with good accuracy.

Keywords: soil improvement, stone column, sabkha, PLAXIS 3D

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
476 Performance Analysis of Encased Sand Columns in Different Clayey Soils Using 3D Numerical Method

Authors: Enayatallah Najari, Ali Noorzad, Mehdi Siavoshnia

Abstract:

One of the most decent and low-cost options in soft clayey soil improvement is using stone columns to reduce the settlement and increase the bearing capacity which is used for different ways to do this in various projects with diverse conditions. In the current study, it is tried to evaluate this improvement method in 4 different weak soils with diverse properties like specific gravity, permeability coefficient, over consolidation ratio (OCR), poison’s ratio, internal friction angle and bulk modulus by using ABAQUS 3D finite element software. Increment and decrement impacts of each mentioned factor on settlement and lateral displacement of weak soil beds are analyzed. In analyzed models, the properties related to sand columns and geosynthetic cover are assumed to be constant with their optimum values, and just soft clayey soil parameters are considered to be variable. It’s also demonstrated that OCR value can play a determinant role in soil resistance.

Keywords: stone columns, geosynthetic, finite element, 3D analysis, soft soils

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
475 Comparative Study of Stone Column with and without Encasement Using Waste Aggregate

Authors: V. K. Stalin, V. Paneerselvam, M. Bharath, M. Kirithika

Abstract:

In developing countries like India due to the rapid urbanization, large amount of waste materials are produced every year. These waste materials can be utilized in the improvement of problematic soils. Stone column is one of the best methods to improve soft clay deposits. In this study, load tests were conducted to ensure the suitability of waste as column materials. The variable parameters studied are material, number of column and encasement. The materials used for the study are stone aggregate, copper slag, construction waste, for one, two and three number of columns with geotextile and geogrid encasement. It was found that the performance of waste as column material are comparable to that of conventional stone column with and without encasement. Hence, it is concluded that the copper slag and construction waste may be used as a column material in place of conventional stone aggregate to improve the soft clay advantage being utilization of waste.

Keywords: stone column, geocomposite, construction waste, copper slag

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
474 The Role of Vibro-Stone Column for Enhancing the Soft Soil Properties

Authors: Mohsen Ramezan Shirazi, Orod Zarrin, Komeil Valipourian

Abstract:

This study investigated the behavior of improved soft soils through the vibro replacement technique by considering their settlements and consolidation rates and the applicability of this technique in various types of soils and settlement and bearing capacity calculations.

Keywords: bearing capacity, expansive clay, stone columns, vibro techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 488
473 Ground Improvement Using Deep Vibro Techniques at Madhepura E-Loco Project

Authors: A. Sekhar, N. Ramakrishna Raju

Abstract:

This paper is a result of ground improvement using deep vibro techniques with combination of sand and stone columns performed on a highly liquefaction susceptible site (70 to 80% sand strata and balance silt) with low bearing capacities due to high settlements located (earth quake zone V as per IS code) at Madhepura, Bihar state in northern part of India. Initially, it was envisaged with bored cast in-situ/precast piles, stone/sand columns. However, after detail analysis to address both liquefaction and improve bearing capacities simultaneously, it was analyzed the deep vibro techniques with combination of sand and stone columns is excellent solution for given site condition which may be first time in India. First after detail soil investigation, pre eCPT test was conducted to evaluate the potential depth of liquefaction to densify silty sandy soils to improve factor of safety against liquefaction. Then trail test were being carried out at site by deep vibro compaction technique with sand and stone columns combination with different spacings of columns in triangular shape with different timings during each lift of vibro up to ground level. Different spacings and timing was done to obtain the most effective spacing and timing with vibro compaction technique to achieve maximum densification of saturated loose silty sandy soils uniformly for complete treated area. Then again, post eCPT test and plate load tests were conducted at all trail locations of different spacings and timing of sand and stone columns to evaluate the best results for obtaining the required factor of safety against liquefaction and the desired bearing capacities with reduced settlements for construction of industrial structures. After reviewing these results, it was noticed that the ground layers are densified more than the expected with improved factor of safety against liquefaction and achieved good bearing capacities for a given settlements as per IS codal provisions. It was also worked out for cost-effectiveness of lightly loaded single storied structures by using deep vibro technique with sand column avoiding stone. The results were observed satisfactory for resting the lightly loaded foundations. In this technique, the most important is to mitigating liquefaction with improved bearing capacities and reduced settlements to acceptable limits as per IS: 1904-1986 simultaneously up to a depth of 19M. To our best knowledge it was executed first time in India.

Keywords: ground improvement, deep vibro techniques, liquefaction, bearing capacity, settlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
472 Study the Behavior of Different Composite Short Columns (DST) with Prismatic Sections under Bending Load

Authors: V. Sadeghi Balkanlou, M. Reza Bagerzadeh Karimi, A. Hasanbakloo, B. Bagheri Azar

Abstract:

In this paper, the behavior of different types of DST columns has been studied under bending load. Briefly, composite columns consist of an internal carbon steel tube and an external stainless steel wall that the between the walls are filled with concrete. Composite columns are expected to combine the advantages of all three materials and have the advantage of high flexural stiffness of CFDST columns. In this research, ABAQUS software is used for finite element analysis then the results of ultimate strength of the composite sections are illustrated.

Keywords: DST, stainless steel, carbon steel, ABAQUS, straigh columns, tapered columns

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
471 Comparison Study between Deep Mixed Columns and Encased Sand Column for Soft Clay Soil in Egypt

Authors: Walid El Kamash

Abstract:

Sand columns (or granular piles) can be employed as soil strengthening for flexible constructions such as road embankments, oil storage tanks in addition to multistory structures. The challenge of embedding the sand columns in soft soil is that the surrounding soft soil cannot avail the enough confinement stress in order to keep the form of the sand column. Therefore, the sand columns which were installed in such soil will lose their ability to perform needed load-bearing capacity. The encasement, besides increasing the strength and stiffness of the sand column, prevents the lateral squeezing of sands when the column is installed even in extremely soft soils, thus enabling quicker and more economical installation. This paper investigates the improvement in load capacity of the sand column by encasement through a comprehensive parametric study using the 3-D finite difference analysis for the soft clay of soil in Egypt. Moreover, the study was extended to include a comparison study between encased sand column and Deep Mixed columns (DM). The study showed that confining the sand by geosynthetic resulted in an increment of shear strength. That result paid the attention to use encased sand stone rather than deep mixed columns due to relative high permeability of the first material.

Keywords: encased sand column, Deep mixed column, numerical analysis, improving soft soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
470 Analytical Model for Columns in Existing Reinforced Concrete Buildings

Authors: Chang Seok Lee, Sang Whan Han, Girbo Ko, Debbie Kim

Abstract:

Existing reinforced concrete structures are designed and built without considering seismic loads. The columns in such buildings generally exhibit widely spaced transverse reinforcements without using seismic hooks. Due to the insufficient reinforcement details in columns, brittle shear failure is expected in columns that may cause pre-mature building collapse mechanism during earthquakes. In order to retrofit those columns, the accurate seismic behavior of the columns needs to be predicted with proper analytical models. In this study, an analytical model is proposed for accurately simulating the cyclic behavior of shear critical columns. The parameters for pinching and cyclic deterioration in strength and stiffness are calibrated using test data of column specimens failed by shear.

Keywords: analytical model, cyclic deterioration, existing reinforced concrete columns, shear failure

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
469 Cleaner Technology for Stone Crushers

Authors: S. M. Ahuja

Abstract:

There are about 12000 stone crusher units in India and are located in clusters around urban areas to the stone quarries. These crushers create lot of fugitive dust emissions and noise pollution which is a major health hazard for the people working in the crushers and also living in its vicinity. Ambient air monitoring was carried out near various stone crushers and it has been observed that fugitive emission varied from 300 to 8000 mg/Nm3. A number of stone crushers were thoroughly studied and their existing pollution control devices were examined. Limitations in the existing technology were also studied. A technology consisting of minimal effective spray nozzles to reduce the emissions at source followed by a containment cum control system having modular cyclones as air pollution control device has been conceived. Besides preliminary energy audit has also been carried out in some of the stone crushers which indicates substantial potential for energy saving.

Keywords: stone crushers, spray nozzles, energy audit

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
468 Effect of Saturation and Deformation Rate on Split Tensile Strength for Various Sedimentary Rocks

Authors: D. K. Soni

Abstract:

A study of engineering properties of stones, i.e. compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, density, hardness were carried out to explore the possibility of optimum utilization of stone. The laboratory test results on equally dimensioned discs of the stone show a considerable variation in computed split tensile strength with varied rates of deformation. Hence, the effect of strain rate on the tensile strength of a sand stone and lime stone under wet and dry conditions has been studied experimentally using the split tensile strength test technique. It has been observed that the tensile strength of these stone is very much dependent on the rate of deformation particularly in a dry state. On saturation the value of split tensile strength reduced considerably depending upon the structure of rock and amount of water absorption.

Keywords: sedimentary rocks, split tensile test, deformation rate, saturation rate, sand stone, lime stone

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
467 Effect of Fire Exposure on the Ultimate Strength of Loaded Columns

Authors: Hatem Hamdy Ghieth

Abstract:

In the recent time many fires happened in many skeleton buildings. The fire may be continues for a long time. This fire may cause a collapse of the building. This collapse may be happened due to the time of exposure to fire as well as the rate of the loading to the carrying elements. In this research a laboratory study for reinforced concrete columns under effect of fire with temperature reaches (650 ْ C) on the behavior of columns which loaded with axial load and with exposing to fire temperature only from all sides of columns. the main parameters of this study are level of load applying to the column, and the temperature applied to the fire, this temperatures was 500oC and 650oc. Nine concrete columns with dimensions 20x20x100 cms were casted one of these columns was tested to determine the ultimate load while the least were fired according to the experimental schedule.

Keywords: columns, fire duration, concrete strength, level of loading

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
466 Overall Stability of Welded Q460GJ Steel Box Columns: Experimental Study and Numerical Simulations

Authors: Zhou Xiong, Kang Shao Bo, Yang Bo

Abstract:

To date, high-performance structural steel has been widely used for columns in construction practices due to its significant advantages over conventional steel. However, the same design approach with conventional steel columns is still adopted in the design of high-performance steel columns. As a result, its superior properties cannot be fully considered in design. This paper conducts a test and finite element analysis on the overall stability behaviour of welded Q460GJ steel box columns. In the test, four steel columns with different slenderness and width-to-thickness ratio were compressed under an axial compression testing machine. And finite element models were established in which material nonlinearity and residual stress distributions of test columns were included. Then, comparisons were made between test results and finite element result, it showed that finite element analysis results are agree well with the test result. It means that the test and finite element model are reliable. Then, we compared the test result with the design value calculated by current code, the result showed that Q460GJ steel box columns have the higher overall buckling capacity than the design value. It is necessary to update the design curves for Q460GJ steel columns so that the overall stability capacity of Q460GJ box columns can be designed appropriately.

Keywords: axial compression, box columns, global buckling, numerical simulations, Q460GJ steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
465 A Numerical Study on the Seismic Performance of Built-Up Battened Columns

Authors: Sophia C. Alih, Mohammadreza Vafaei, Farnoud Rahimi Mansour, Nur Hajarul Falahi Abdul Halim

Abstract:

Built-up columns have been widely employed by practice engineers in the design and construction of buildings and bridges. However, failures have been observed in this type of columns in previous seismic events. This study analyses the performance of built-up columns with different configurations of battens when it is subjected to seismic loads. Four columns with different size of battens were simulated and subjected to three different intensities of axial load along with a lateral cyclic load. Results indicate that the size of battens influences significantly the seismic behavior of columns. Lower shear capacity of battens results in higher ultimate strength and ductility for built-up columns. It is observed that intensity of axial load has a significant effect on the ultimate strength of columns, but it is less influential on the yield strength. For a given drift value, the stress level in the centroid of smaller size battens is significantly more than that of larger size battens signifying damage concentration in battens rather than chords. It is concluded that design of battens for shear demand lower than code specified values only slightly reduces initial stiffness of columns; however, it improves seismic performance of battened columns.

Keywords: battened column, built-up column, cyclic behavior, seismic design, steel column

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
464 Strengthening RC Columns Using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites Modified with Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Mohammad R. Irshidat, Mohammed H. Al-Saleh, Mahmoud Al-Shoubaki

Abstract:

This paper investigates the viability of using carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites modified with carbon nano tubes to strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) columns. Six RC columns was designed and constructed according to ASCE standards. The columns were wrapped using carbon fiber sheets impregnated with either neat epoxy or CNTs modified epoxy. These columns were then tested under concentric axial loading. Test results show that; compared to the unwrapped specimens; wrapping concrete columns with carbon fiber sheet embedded in CNTs modified epoxy resulted in an increase in its axial load resistance, maximum displacement, and toughness values by 24%, 109% and 232%, respectively. These results reveal that adding CNTs into epoxy resin enhanced the confinement effect, specifically, increased the axial load resistance, maximum displacement, and toughness values by 11%, 6%, and 19%, respectively compared with columns strengthening with carbon fiber sheet embedded in neat epoxy.

Keywords: CNT, epoxy, carbon fiber, RC columns

Procedia PDF Downloads 275