Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11056

Search results for: standard penetration test

11056 The Evaluation of Soil Liquefaction Potential Using Shear Wave Velocity

Authors: M. Nghizaderokni, A. Janalizadechobbasty, M. Azizi, M. Naghizaderokni

Abstract:

The liquefaction resistance of soils can be evaluated using laboratory tests such as cyclic simple shear, cyclic triaxial, cyclic tensional shear, and field methods such as Standard Penetration Test (SPT), Cone Penetration Test (CPT), and Shear Wave Velocity (Vs). This paper outlines a great correlation between shear wave velocity and standard penetration resistance of granular soils was obtained. Using Seeds standard penetration test (SPT) based soil liquefaction charts, new charts of soil liquefaction evaluation based on shear wave velocity data were developed for various magnitude earthquakes.

Keywords: soil, liquefaction, shear wave velocity, standard penetration resistance

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11055 Use of Statistical Correlations for the Estimation of Shear Wave Velocity from Standard Penetration Test-N-Values: Case Study of Algiers Area

Authors: Soumia Merat, Lynda Djerbal, Ramdane Bahar, Mohammed Amin Benbouras

Abstract:

Along with shear wave, many soil parameters are associated with the standard penetration test (SPT) as a dynamic in situ experiment. Both SPT-N data and geophysical data do not often exist in the same area. Statistical analysis of correlation between these parameters is an alternate method to estimate Vₛ conveniently and without additional investigations or data acquisition. Shear wave velocity is a basic engineering tool required to define dynamic properties of soils. In many instances, engineers opt for empirical correlations between shear wave velocity (Vₛ) and reliable static field test data like standard penetration test (SPT) N value, CPT (Cone Penetration Test) values, etc., to estimate shear wave velocity or dynamic soil parameters. The relation between Vs and SPT- N values of Algiers area is predicted using the collected data, and it is also compared with the previously suggested formulas of Vₛ determination by measuring Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of each model. Algiers area is situated in high seismic zone (Zone III [RPA 2003: réglement parasismique algerien]), therefore the study is important for this region. The principal aim of this paper is to compare the field measurements of Down-hole test and the empirical models to show which one of these proposed formulas are applicable to predict and deduce shear wave velocity values.

Keywords: empirical models, RMSE, shear wave velocity, standard penetration test

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
11054 Correction Factor to Enhance the Non-Standard Hammer Effect Used in Standard Penetration Test

Authors: Khaled R. Khater

Abstract:

The weight of the SPT hammer is standard (0.623kN). The locally manufacturer drilling rigs use hammers, sometimes deviating off the standard weight. This affects the field measured blow counts (Nf) consequentially, affecting most of correlations previously obtained, as they were obtained based on standard hammer weight. The literature presents energy corrections factor (η2) to be applied to the SPT total input energy. This research investigates the effect of the hammer weight variation, as a single parameter, on the field measured blow counts (Nf). The outcome is a correction factor (ηk), equation, and correction chart. They are recommended to adjust back the measured misleading (Nf) to the standard one as if the standard hammer is used. This correction is very important to be done in such cases where a non-standard hammer is being used because the bore logs in any geotechnical report should contain true and representative values (Nf), let alone the long records of correlations, already in hand. The study here-in is achieved by using laboratory physical model to simulate the SPT dripping hammer mechanism. It is designed to allow different hammer weights to be used. Also, it is manufactured to avoid and eliminate the energy loss sources. This produces a transmitted efficiency up to 100%.

Keywords: correction factors, hammer weight, physical model, standard penetration test

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
11053 Reliability of Using Standard Penetration Test (SPT) in Evaluation of Soil Properties

Authors: Hossein Alimohammadi, Mohsen Amirmojahedi, Mehrdad Rowhani

Abstract:

Soil properties are used by geotechnical engineers to evaluate and analyze site conditions for designing purposes. Although basic soil classification tests are easy to perform and provide useful information to determine the properties of soils, it may take time to get the result and add some costs to the projects. Standard Penetration Test (SPT) provides an opportunity to evaluate soil parameters without performing laboratory tests. In addition to its simplicity and cheapness, the results become available immediately. This research provides a guideline on the application of the SPT test method, reliability of adapting the SPT test results in evaluating soil physical and mechanical properties such as Atterberg limits, shear strength, and compressive strength compressibility parameters. A total of 70 boreholes were investigated in this study by taking soil samples between depths of 1.2 to 15.25 meters. The project site was located in Morrow County, Ohio. A regression-based formula was proposed based on Tobit regression with a stepwise variable selection analysis conducted between SPT and other typical soil properties obtained from soil tests. The results of the research illustrated that the shear strength and physical properties of the soil affect the SPT number. The proposed correlation can help engineers to use SPT test results in their design with higher accuracy.

Keywords: standard penetration test, soil properties, soil classification, regression method

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
11052 Relationship between Blow Count Number (N) and Shear Wave Velocity (Vs30) from the Specified Embankment Material: A Case Study on Three Selected Earthen Dams

Authors: Tanapon Suklim, Prachaya Intaphrom, Noppadol Poomvises, Anchalee Kongsuk

Abstract:

The relationship between shear wave velocity (Vs30) and blow count Number from Standard Penetration Tests (NSPT) was investigated on specified embankment dam to find the solution which can be used to estimate the value of N. Shear wave velocity, Vs30 and blow count number, NSPT were performed at three specified dam sites. At each site, Vs30 measurement was recorded by using seismic survey of MASW technique and NSPT were measured by field Standard Penetration Test. Regression analysis was used to derive statistical relation. The relation is giving a final solution to applicable calculated N-value with other earthen dam. Dam engineer can use the statistical relation to convert field Vs30 to estimated N-value instead of absolute N-value from field Standard Penetration Test. It can be noted that the formulae can be applied only in the earthen dam of specified material.

Keywords: blow count number, earthen dam, embankment, shear wave velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
11051 Lubricating Grease from Waste Cooking Oil and Waste Motor Sludge

Authors: Aseem Rajvanshi, Pankaj Kumar Pandey

Abstract:

Increase in population has increased the demand of energy to fulfill all its needs. This will result in burden on fossil fuels especially crude oil. Waste oil due to its disposal problem creates environmental degradation. In this context, this paper studies utilization of waste cooking oil and waste motor sludge for making lubricating grease. Experimental studies have been performed by variation in time and concentration of mixture of waste cooking oil and waste motor sludge. The samples were analyzed using penetration test (ASTM D-217), dropping point (ASTM D-566), work penetration (ASTM D-217) and copper strip test (ASTM D-408). Among 6 samples, sample 6 gives the best results with a good drop point and a fine penetration value. The dropping point and penetration test values were found to be 205 °C and 315, respectively. The penetration value falls under the category of NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) consistency number 1.

Keywords: crude oil, copper strip corrosion test, dropping point, penetration test

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
11050 Evaluation of Iranian Standard for Assessment of Liquefaction Potential of Cohesionless Soils Based on SPT

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayad, Azam Kouhpeyma

Abstract:

In-situ testing is preferred to evaluate the liquefaction potential in cohesionless soils due to high disturbance during sampling. Although new in-situ methods with high accuracy have been developed, standard penetration test, the simplest and the oldest in-situ test, is still used due to the profusion of the recorded data. This paper reviews the Iranian standard of evaluating liquefaction potential in soils (codes 525) and compares the liquefaction assessment methods based on SPT results on cohesionless soil in this standard with the international standards. To this, methods for assessing liquefaction potential which are presented by Cetin et al. (2004), Boulanger and Idriss (2014) are compared with what is presented in standard 525. It is found that although the procedure used in Iranian standard of evaluating the potential of liquefaction has not been updated according to the new findings, it is a conservative procedure.

Keywords: cohesionless soil, liquefaction, SPT, standard 525

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
11049 A New Correlation Between SPT-N and SSPT-N values for Various Soil Types in Peninsular Malaysia

Authors: Abdull Halim

Abstract:

The Standard Penetration Test (SPT-N) is the most common in situ test for soil investigations. The Shearing Seismic Standard Penetration Test (SSPT-N), on the other hand, is a new method using shearing wave with propagation exponent equation between the shearing wave, Vs., and hardness, N values without any need for borehole data. Due to the fast and accurate results that can be obtained, the SSPT has found many applications such as in the field rectification buried pipe line, the acid tank settlement and foundation design analyses, and the quality control assessment. Many geotechnical regimes and properties have attempted to correlate both the SSPT and the SPT-N values. Various foundation design methods have been developed based on the outcomes of these tests. Hence, it is pertinent to correlate these tests so that either one of the test can be used in the absence of the other, especially for preliminary evaluation and design purposes. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the SSPT-N and SPT-N values for different types of cohesive soil in Peninsular Malaysia. Data were collected from four different sites, and the correlations were established between the hardness N values, principal stress-strain Mohr circle curve, cohesion, friction angle and vertical effective stress. A positive exponent relationship was found between the shearing wave, sVs., and the hardness N values of the soil. In general, the SSPT-N value was slightly lower than the SPT-N value due to the upper limit boundary of the soil layer.

Keywords: InsituSoil determination; shearing wave; hardness; correlation, SSPT-N, SPT-N

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
11048 The Dynamic Cone Penetration Test: A Review of Its Correlations and Applications

Authors: Abdulrahman M. Hamid

Abstract:

Dynamic Cone Penetration Test (DCPT) is widely used for field quality assessment of soils. Its application to predict the engineering properties of soil is globally promoted by the fact that it is difficult to obtain undisturbed soil samples, especially when loose or submerged sandy soil is encountered. Detailed discussion will be presented on the current development of DCPT correlations with resilient modulus, relative density, California Bearing Ratio (CBR), unconfined compressive strength and shear strength that have been developed for different materials in both the laboratory and field, as well as on the usage of DCPT in quality control of compaction of earth fills and performance evaluation of pavement layers. In addition, the relationship of the DCPT with other instruments such as falling weight deflectometer, nuclear gauge, soil stiffens gauge, and plate load test will be reported. Lastely, the application of DCPT in Saudi Arabia in recent years will be addressed in this manuscript.

Keywords: dynamic cone penetration test, falling weight deflectometer, nuclear gauge, soil stiffens gauge, plate load test, automated dynamic cone penetration

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
11047 The Damage Assessment of Industrial Buildings Located on Clayey Soils Using in-Situ Tests

Authors: Ismail Akkaya, Mucip Tapan, Ali Ozvan

Abstract:

Some of the industrially prefabricated buildings located on clayey soils were damaged due to soil conditions. The reasons of these damages are generally due to different settlement capacity, the different plasticity of soils and the level of ground water. The aim of this study is to determine the source of these building damages by conducting in situ tests. Therefore, pressuremeter test, which is one of the borehole loading test conducted to determine the properties of soils under the foundations and Standart Penetration Test (SPT). The results of these two field tests were then used to accurately obtain the consistency and firmness of soils. Pressuremeter Deformation Module (EM) and Net Limiting Pressure (PL) of soils were calculated after the pressuremeter tests. These values were then compared with the SPT (N30) and SPT (N60) results. An empirical equation was developed to obtain EM and PL values of such soils from SPT test results. These values were then used to calculate soil bearing capacity as well as the soil settlement. Finally, the relationship between the foundation settlement and the damage of these buildings were checked. It was found that calculated settlement values were almost the same as measured settlement values.

Keywords: damaged building, pressuremeter, standard penetration test, low and high plasticity clay

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
11046 Effectiveness of Crystallization Coating Materials on Chloride Ions Ingress in Concrete

Authors: Mona Elsalamawy, Ashraf Ragab Mohamed, Abdellatif Elsayed Abosen

Abstract:

This paper aims to evaluate the effectiveness of different crystalline coating materials concerning of chloride ions penetration. The concrete ages at the coating installation and its moisture conditions were addressed; where, these two factors may play a dominant role for the effectiveness of the used materials. Rapid chloride ions penetration test (RCPT) was conducted at different ages and moisture conditions according to the relevant standard. In addition, the contaminated area and the penetration depth of the chloride ions were investigated immediately after the RCPT test using chemical identifier, 0.1 M silver nitrate AgNO3 solution. Results have shown that, the very low chloride ions penetrability, for the studied crystallization materials, were investigated only with the old age concrete (G1). The significant reduction in chloride ions’ penetrability was illustrated after 7 days of installing the crystalline coating layers. Using imageJ is more reliable to describe the contaminated area of chloride ions, where the distribution of aggregate and heterogeneous of cement mortar was considered in the images analysis.

Keywords: chloride permeability, contaminated area, crystalline waterproofing materials, RCPT, XRD

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
11045 Artificial Intelligence in Penetration Testing of a Connected and Autonomous Vehicle Network

Authors: Phillip Cyril Garrad

Abstract:

The recent popularity of connected and autonomous vehicles (CAV) corresponds with an increase in the risk of cyber-attacks. These cyber-attacks have been instigated by both researchers or white-coat hackers and cyber-criminals. As Connected Vehicles move towards full autonomy, the impact of these cyber-attacks also grows. The current research details challenges faced in cybersecurity testing of CAV, including access and cost of the representative test setup. Other challenges faced are lack of experts in the field. Possible solutions to how these challenges can be overcome are reviewed and discussed. From these findings, a software simulated CAV network is established as a cost-effective representative testbed. Penetration tests are then performed on this simulation, demonstrating a cyber-attack in CAV. Studies have shown Artificial Intelligence (AI) to improve runtime, increase efficiency and comprehensively cover all the typical test aspects in penetration testing in other industries. There is an attempt to introduce similar AI models to the software simulation. The expectation from this implementation is to see similar improvements in runtime and efficiency for the CAV model. If proven to be an effective means of penetration test for CAV, this methodology may be used on a full CAV test network.

Keywords: cybersecurity, connected vehicles, software simulation, artificial intelligence, penetration testing

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11044 Soil Liquefaction Hazard Evaluation for Infrastructure in the New Bejaia Quai, Algeria

Authors: Mohamed Khiatine, Amal Medjnoun, Ramdane Bahar

Abstract:

The North Algeria is a highly seismic zone, as evidenced by the historical seismicity. During the past two decades, it has experienced several moderate to strong earthquakes. Therefore, the geotechnical engineering problems that involve dynamic loading of soils and soil-structure interaction system requires, in the presence of saturated loose sand formations, liquefaction studies. Bejaia city, located in North-East of Algiers, Algeria, is a part of the alluvial plain which covers an area of approximately 750 hectares. According to the Algerian seismic code, it is classified as moderate seismicity zone. This area had not experienced in the past urban development because of the different hazards identified by hydraulic and geotechnical studies conducted in the region. The low bearing capacity of the soil, its high compressibility and the risk of liquefaction and flooding are among these risks and are a constraint on urbanization. In this area, several cases of structures founded on shallow foundations have suffered damages. Hence, the soils need treatment to reduce the risk. Many field and laboratory investigations, core drilling, pressuremeter test, standard penetration test (SPT), cone penetrometer test (CPT) and geophysical down hole test, were performed in different locations of the area. The major part of the area consists of silty fine sand , sometimes heterogeneous, has not yet reached a sufficient degree of consolidation. The ground water depth changes between 1.5 and 4 m. These investigations show that the liquefaction phenomenon is one of the critical problems for geotechnical engineers and one of the obstacles found in design phase of projects. This paper presents an analysis to evaluate the liquefaction potential, using the empirical methods based on Standard Penetration Test (SPT), Cone Penetration Test (CPT) and shear wave velocity and numerical analysis. These liquefaction assessment procedures indicate that liquefaction can occur to considerable depths in silty sand of harbor zone of Bejaia.

Keywords: earthquake, modeling, liquefaction potential, laboratory investigations

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
11043 A New Correlation between SPT and CPT for Various Soils

Authors: Fauzi Jarushi, Sinan Mohsin AlKaabi

Abstract:

The Standard Penetration Test (SPT) is the most common insitu test for soil investigations. On the other hand, the Cone Penetration Test (CPT) is considered one of the best investigation tools. Due to the fast and accurate results that can be obtained it complaints the SPT in many applications like field explorations, design parameters, and quality control assessments. Many soil index and engineering properties have been correlated to both of SPT and CPT. Various foundation design methods were developed based on the outcome of these tests. Therefore it is vital to correlate these tests to each other so that either one of the tests can be used in the absence of the other, especially for preliminary evaluation and design purposes. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the SPT and CPT for different types of soil in Florida. Data for this research were collected from number of projects sponsored by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT), six sites served as the subject of SPT-CPT correlations. The correlations were established between the cone resistance (qc) and the SPT blows (i.e., N) for various soils. A positive linear relationship was found between fs and N for various soils. In general, qc versus N showed higher correlation coefficients than fs versus N. qc/N ratios were developed for different soil types and compared to literature values, the results of this research revealed higher ratios than literature values.

Keywords: in situ tests, correlation, SPT, CPT

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11042 Integrated Geotechnical and Geophysical Investigation of a Proposed Construction Site at Mowe, Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: Kayode Festus Oyedele, Sunday Oladele, Adaora Chibundu Nduka

Abstract:

The subsurface of a proposed site for building development in Mowe, Nigeria, using Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and Cone Penetrometer Test (CPT) supplemented with Horizontal Electrical Profiling (HEP) was investigated with the aim of evaluating the suitability of the strata for foundation materials. Four SPT and CPT were implemented using 10 tonnes hammer. HEP utilizing Wenner array were performed with inter-electrode spacing of 10 – 60 m along four traverses coincident with each of the SPT and CPT. The HEP data were processed using DIPRO software and textural filtering of the resulting resistivity sections was implemented to enable delineation of hidden layers. Sandy lateritic clay, silty lateritic clay, clay, clayey sand and sand horizons were delineated. The SPT “N” value defined very soft to soft sandy lateritic (<4), stiff silty lateritic clay (7 – 12), very stiff silty clay (12 - 15), clayey sand (15- 20) and sand (27 – 37). Sandy lateritic clay (5-40 kg/cm2) and silty lateritic clay (25 - 65 kg/cm2) were defined from the CPT response. Sandy lateritic clay (220-750 Ωm), clay (< 50 Ωm) and sand (415-5359 Ωm) were delineated from the resistivity sections with two thin layers of silty lateritic clay and clayey sand defined in the texturally filtered resistivity sections. This study concluded that the presence of incompetent thick clayey materials (18 m) beneath the study area makes it unsuitable for shallow foundation. Deep foundation involving piling through the clayey layers to the competent sand at 20 m depth was recommended.

Keywords: cone penetrometer, foundation, lithologic texture, resistivity section, standard penetration test

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
11041 Probabilistic Models to Evaluate Seismic Liquefaction In Gravelly Soil Using Dynamic Penetration Test and Shear Wave Velocity

Authors: Nima Pirhadi, Shao Yong Bo, Xusheng Wan, Jianguo Lu, Jilei Hu

Abstract:

Although gravels and gravelly soils are assumed to be non-liquefiable because of high conductivity and small modulus; however, the occurrence of this phenomenon in some historical earthquakes, especially recently earthquakes during 2008 Wenchuan, Mw= 7.9, 2014 Cephalonia, Greece, Mw= 6.1 and 2016, Kaikoura, New Zealand, Mw = 7.8, has been promoted the essential consideration to evaluate risk assessment and hazard analysis of seismic gravelly soil liquefaction. Due to the limitation in sampling and laboratory testing of this type of soil, in situ tests and site exploration of case histories are the most accepted procedures. Of all in situ tests, dynamic penetration test (DPT), Which is well known as the Chinese dynamic penetration test, and shear wave velocity (Vs) test, have been demonstrated high performance to evaluate seismic gravelly soil liquefaction. However, the lack of a sufficient number of case histories provides an essential limitation for developing new models. This study at first investigates recent earthquakes that caused liquefaction in gravelly soils to collect new data. Then, it adds these data to the available literature’s dataset to extend them and finally develops new models to assess seismic gravelly soil liquefaction. To validate the presented models, their results are compared to extra available models. The results show the reasonable performance of the proposed models and the critical effect of gravel content (GC)% on the assessment.

Keywords: liquefaction, gravel, dynamic penetration test, shear wave velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
11040 The Use of Piezocone Penetration Test Data for the Assessment of Iron Ore Tailings Liquefaction Susceptibility

Authors: Breno M. Castilho

Abstract:

The Iron Ore Quadrangle, located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil is responsible for most of the country’s iron ore production. As a result, some of the biggest tailings dams in the country are located in this area. In recent years, several major failure events have happened in Tailings Storage Facilities (TSF) located in the Iron Ore Quadrangle. Some of these failures were found to be caused by liquefaction flowslides. This paper presents Piezocone Penetration Test (CPTu) data that was used, by applying Olson and Peterson methods, for the liquefaction susceptibility assessment of the iron ore tailings that are typically found in most TSF in the area. Piezocone data was also used to determine the steady-state strength of the tailings so as to allow for comparison with its drained strength. Results have shown great susceptibility for liquefaction to occur in the studied tailings and, more importantly, a large reduction in its strength. These results are key to understanding the failures that took place over the last few years.

Keywords: Piezocone Penetration Test CPTu, iron ore tailings, mining, liquefaction susceptibility assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
11039 Penetration Analysis for Composites Applicable to Military Vehicle Armors, Aircraft Engines and Nuclear Power Plant Structures

Authors: Dong Wook Lee

Abstract:

This paper describes a method for analyzing penetration for composite material using an explicit nonlinear Finite Element Analysis (FEA). This method may be used in the early stage of design for the protection of military vehicles, aircraft engines and nuclear power plant structures made of composite materials. This paper deals with simple ballistic penetration tests for composite materials and the FEA modeling method and results. The FEA was performed to interpret the ballistic field test phenomenon regarding the damage propagation in the structure subjected to local foreign object impact.

Keywords: computer aided engineering, finite element analysis, impact analysis, penetration analysis, composite material

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
11038 A Study of Environmental Test Sequences for Electrical Units

Authors: Jung Ho Yang, Yong Soo Kim

Abstract:

Electrical units are operated by electrical and electronic components. An environmental test sequence is useful for testing electrical units to reduce reliability issues. This study introduces test sequence guidelines based on relevant principles and considerations for electronic testing according to international standard IEC-60068-1 and the United States military standard MIL-STD-810G. Then, test sequences were proposed based on the descriptions for each test. Finally, General Motors (GM) specification GMW3172 was interpreted and compared to IEC-60068-1 and MIL-STD-810G.

Keywords: reliability, environmental test sequence, electrical units, IEC 60068-1, MIL-STD-810G

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
11037 Reliability Analysis of Soil Liquefaction Based on Standard Penetration: A Case Study in Babol City

Authors: Mehran Naghizaderokni, Asscar Janalizadechobbasty

Abstract:

There are more probabilistic and deterministic liquefaction evaluation procedures in order to judge whether liquefaction will occur or not. A review of this approach reveals that there is a need for a comprehensive procedure that accounts for different sources of uncertainty in liquefaction evaluation. In fact, for the same set of input parameters, different methods provide different factors of safety and/or probabilities of liquefaction. To account for the different uncertainties, including both the model and measurement uncertainties, reliability analysis is necessary. This paper has obtained information from Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and some empirical approaches such as: Seed et al, Highway bridge of Japan approach to soil liquefaction, The Overseas Coastal Area Development Institute of Japan (OCDI) and reliability method to studying potential of liquefaction in soil of Babol city in the north of Iran are compared. Evaluation potential of liquefaction in soil of Babol city is an important issue since the soil of some area contains sand, seismic area, increasing level of underground waters and consequently saturation of soil; therefore, one of the most important goals of this paper is to gain suitable recognition of liquefaction potential and find the most appropriate procedure of evaluation liquefaction potential to decrease related damages.

Keywords: reliability analysis, liquefaction, Babol, civil, construction and geological engineering

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11036 Simplified Empirical Method for Predicting Liquefaction Potential and Its Application to Kaohsiung Areas in Taiwan

Authors: Darn H. Hsiao, Zhu-Yun Zheng

Abstract:

Since Taiwan is located between the Eurasian and Filipino plates and earthquakes often thus occur. The coastal plains in western Taiwan are alluvial plains, and the soils of the alluvium are mostly from the Lao-Shan belt in the central mountainous area of ​​southern Taiwan. It could come mostly from sand/shale and slate. The previous investigation found that the soils in the Kaohsiung area of ​​southern Taiwan are mainly composed of slate, shale, quartz, low-plastic clay, silt, silty sand and so on. It can also be found from the past earthquakes that the soil in Kaohsiung is highly susceptible to soil subsidence due to liquefaction. Insufficient bearing capacity of building will cause soil liquefaction disasters. In this study, the boring drilling data from nine districts among the Love River Basin in the city center, and some factors affecting liquefaction include the content of fines (FC), standard penetration test N value (SPT N), the thickness of clay layer near ground-surface, and the thickness of possible liquefied soil were further discussed for liquefaction potential as well as groundwater level. The results show that the liquefaction potential is higher in the areas near the riverside, the backfill area, and the west area of ​​the study area. This paper also uses the old paleo-geological map, soil particle distribution curve, compared with LPI map calculated from the analysis results. After all the parameters finally were studied for five sub zones in the Love River Basin by maximum-minimum method, it is found that both of standard penetration test N value and the thickness of the clay layer will be most influential.

Keywords: liquefaction, western Taiwan, liquefaction potential map, high liquefaction potential areas

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11035 Modification of Four Layer through the Thickness Woven Structure for Improved Impact Resistance

Authors: Muhammad Liaqat, Hafiz Abdul Samad, Syed Talha Ali Hamdani, Yasir Nawab

Abstract:

In the current research, the four layers, orthogonal through the thickness, 2D woven, 3D fabric structure was modified to improve the impact resistance of 3D fabric reinforced composites. This was achieved by imparting the auxeticity into four layers through the thickness woven structure. A comparison was made between the standard and modified four layers through the thickness woven structure in terms of auxeticity, penetration and impact resistance. It was found that the modified structure showed auxeticity in both warp and weft direction. It was also found that the penetration resistance of modified sample was less as compared to the standard structure, but impact resistance was improved up to 6.7% of modified four layers through the thickness woven structure.

Keywords: 2D woven, 3D fabrics, auxetic, impact resistance, orthogonal through the thickness

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11034 Performance of Bored Pile on Alluvial Deposit

Authors: K. Raja Rajan, D. Nagarajan

Abstract:

Bored cast in-situ pile is a popular choice amongst consultant and contractor due to the ability to adjust the pile length suitably in case if any variation found in the actual geological strata. Bangladesh geological strata are dominated by silt content. Design is normally based on field test such as Standard Penetration test N-values. Initially, pile capacity estimated through static formula with co-relation of N-value and angle of internal friction. Initial pile load test was conducted in order to validate the geotechnical parameters assumed in design. Initial pile load test was conducted on 1.5m diameter bored cast in-situ pile. Kentledge method is used to load the pile for 2.5 times of its working load. Initially, safe working load of pile has been estimated as 570T, so test load is fixed to 1425T. Max load applied is 777T for which the settlement reached around 155mm which is more than 10% of diameter of piles. Pile load test results was not satisfactory and compelled to increase the pile length approximately 20% of its total length. Due to unpredictable geotechnical parameters, length of each pile has been increased which is having a major impact on the project cost and as well as in project schedule. Extra bore holes have been planned along with lab test results in order to redefine the assumed geotechnical parameters. This article presents detailed design assumptions of geotechnical parameters in the design stage and the results of pile load test which made to redefine the assumed geotechnical properties.

Keywords: end bearing, pile load test, settlement, shaft friction

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
11033 Development of Standard Thai Appetizer in Rattanakosin Era‘s Standard: Case Study of Thai Steamed Dumpling

Authors: Nunyong Fuengkajornfung, Pattama Hirunyophat, Tidarat Sanphom

Abstract:

The objectives of this research were: To study of the recipe standard of Thai steamed dumpling, to study the ratio of modified starch in Thai steamed dumpling, to study chemical elements analyzing and Escherichia coli in Thai steamed dumpling. The experimental processes were designed in two stages as follows: To study the recipe standard of Thai steamed dumpling and to study the ratio of rice flour: modify starch by three levels 90:10, 73:30, and 50:50. The evaluation test used 9 Points Hedonic Scale method by the sensory evaluation test such as color, smell, taste, texture and overall liking. An experimental by Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The statistics used in data analyses were means, standard deviation, one-way ANOVA and Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test. Regression equation, at a statistically significant level of .05. The results showed that the recipe standard was studied from three recipes by the sensory evaluation test such as color, odor, taste, spicy, texture and total acceptance. The result showed that the recipe standard of second was suitably to development. The ratio of rice flour: modified starch had 3 levels 90:10, 73:30, and 50:50 which the process condition of 50:50 had well scores (like moderately to like very much; used 9 Points Hedonic Scale method for the sensory test). Chemical elements analyzing, it showed that moisture 58.63%, fat 5.45%, protein 4.35%, carbohydrate 30.45%, and Ash 1.12%. The Escherichia coli is not found in lab testing.

Keywords: Thai snack in Rattanakosin era, Thai steamed dumpling, modify starch, recipe standard

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11032 Analyses of Copper Nanoparticles Impregnated Wood and Its Fungal Degradation Performance

Authors: María Graciela Aguayo, Laura Reyes, Claudia Oviedo, José Navarrete, Liset Gómez, Hugo Torres

Abstract:

Most wood species used in construction deteriorate when exposed to environmental conditions that favor wood-degrading organisms’ growth. Therefore, chemical protection by impregnation allows more efficient use of forest resources extending the wood's useful life. A wood protection treatment which has attracted considerable interest of the scientific community during the last decade is wood impregnation with nanocompounds. Radiata pine is the main wood species used in the Chilean construction industry, with total availability of 8 million m³ sawn timber. According to the requirements of the American Wood Protection Association (AWPA) and the Chilean Standards (NCh), radiata pine timber used in construction must be protected due to its low natural durability. In this work, the impregnation with copper nanoparticles (CuNP) was studied in terms of penetration and its protective effect against wood rot fungi. Two concentrations: 1 and 3 g/L of NPCu were applied by impregnation on radiata pine sapwood. Test penetration under AWPA A3-91 standard was carried out, and wood decay tests were performed according to EN 113, with slight modifications. The results of penetration for 1 g/L CuNP showed an irregular total penetration, and the samples impregnated with 3 g/L showed a total penetration with uniform concentration (blue color in all cross-sections). The impregnation wood mass losses due to fungal exposure were significantly reduced, regardless of the concentration of the solution or the fungus. In impregnated wood samples, exposure to G. trabeum resulted in ML values of 2.70% and 1.19% for 1 g/L and 3 g/L CuNP, respectively, and exposure to P. placenta resulted in 4.02% and 0.70%-ML values for 1 g/L and 3 g/L CuNP, respectively. In this study, the penetration analysis confirmed a uniform distribution inside the wood, and both concentrations were effective against the tested fungi, giving mass loss values lower than 5%. Therefore, future research in wood preservatives should focus on new nanomaterials that are more efficient and environmentally friendly. Acknowledgments: CONICYT FONDEF IDeA I+D 2019, grant number ID19I10122.

Keywords: copper nanoparticles, fungal degradation, radiata pine wood, wood preservation

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11031 Numerical Study on the Effect of Spudcan Penetration on the Jacket Platform

Authors: Xiangming Ge, Bing Pan, Wei He, Hao Chen, Yong Zhou, Jiayao Wu, Weijiang Chu

Abstract:

How the extraction and penetration of spudcan affect the performance of the adjacent pile foundation supporting the jacket platform was studied in the program FLAC3D depending on a wind farm project in Bohai sea. The simulations were conducted at the end of the spudcan penetration, which induced a pockmark in the seabed. The effects of the distance between the pile foundation and the pockmark were studied. The displacement at the mudline arose when the pockmark was closer. The bearing capacity of this jacket platform with deep pile foundations has been less influenced by the process of spudcan penetration, which can induce severe stresses on the pile foundation. The induced rotation was also satisfied with the rotation-controlling criteria.

Keywords: offshore foundation, pile-soil interaction, spudcan penetration, FLAC3D

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11030 Using Multiple Intelligences Theory to Develop Thai Language Skill

Authors: Bualak Naksongkaew

Abstract:

The purposes of this study were to compare pre- and post-test achievement of Thai language skills. The samples consisted of 40 tenth grader of Secondary Demonstration School of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University in the first semester of the academic year 2010. The researcher prepared the Thai lesson plans, the pre- and post-achievement test at the end program. Data analyses were carried out using means, standard deviations and descriptive statistics, independent samples t-test analysis for comparison pre- and post-test. The study showed that there were a statistically significant difference at α= 0.05; therefore the use multiple intelligences theory can develop Thai languages skills. The results after using the multiple intelligences theory for Thai lessons had higher level than standard.

Keywords: multiple intelligences theory, Thai language skills, development, pre- and post-test achievement

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
11029 Penetration Depth Study of Linear Siloxanes through Human Skin

Authors: K. Szymkowska, K. Mojsiewicz- Pieńkowska

Abstract:

Siloxanes are a common ingredients in medicinal products used on the skin, as well as cosmetics. It is widely believed that the silicones are not capable of overcoming the skin barrier. The aim of the study was to verify the possibility of penetration and permeation of linear siloxanes through human skin and determine depth penetration limit of these compounds. Based on the results it was found that human skin is not a barrier for linear siloxanes. PDMS 50 cSt was not identified in the dermis suggests that this molecular size of silicones (3780Da) is safe when it is used in the skin formulations.

Keywords: linear siloxanes, methyl siloxanes, skin penetration, skin permeation

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
11028 Liquefaction Assessment of Marine Soil in Western Yemen Region Based on Laboratory and Field Tests

Authors: Monalisha Nayak, T. G. Sitharam

Abstract:

Liquefaction is a major threat for sites consists of or on sandy soil. But this present study concentrates on the behavior of fine soil under cyclic loading. This paper presents the study of liquefaction susceptibility of marine silty clay to clayey silt for an offshore site near western Yemen. The submerged and loose sediment condition of marine soil of an offshore site can favour liquefaction during earthquakes. In this regard, the liquefaction susceptibility of the site was carried out based on both field test results and laboratory test results. From field test results of seismic cone penetration test (SCPT), liquefaction susceptibility was assessed considering normalized cone tip resistance, and normalized friction ratio and results give an idea regarding both cyclic mobility and flow liquefaction. Laboratory cyclic triaxial tests were also conducted on saturated undisturbed and remoulded sample to study the effect of cyclic loading on strength and strain characteristics. Liquefaction susceptibility of the marine soft soil was also carried out based on index properties like grain size distribution, natural moisture content and liquid limit of soil.

Keywords: index properties, liquefaction, marine soil, seismic cone penetration test (SCPT)

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11027 Evaluation of Liquefaction Potential of Fine Grained Soil: Kerman Case Study

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayed, Maedeh Akhavan Tavakkoli

Abstract:

This research aims to investigate and evaluate the liquefaction potential in a project in Kerman city based on different methods for fine-grained soils. Examining the previous damages caused by recent earthquakes, it has been observed that fine-grained soils play an essential role in the level of damage caused by soil liquefaction. But, based on previous investigations related to liquefaction, there is limited attention to evaluating the cyclic resistance ratio for fine-grain soils, especially with the SPT method. Although using a standard penetration test (SPT) to find the liquefaction potential of fine-grain soil is not common, it can be a helpful method based on its rapidness, serviceability, and availability. In the present study, the liquefaction potential has been first determined by the soil’s physical properties obtained from laboratory tests. Then, using the SPT test and its available criterion for evaluating the cyclic resistance ratio and safety factor of liquefaction, the correction of effecting fine-grained soils is made, and then the results are compared. The results show that using the SPT test for liquefaction is more accurate than using laboratory tests in most cases due to the contribution of different physical parameters of soil, which leads to an increase in the ultimate N₁(60,cs).

Keywords: liquefaction, cyclic resistance ratio, SPT test, clay soil, cohesion soils

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